HEADQUARTERS 2ND BRIGADE MARINE
19 February, 1928.
From: 0000 12 February, 1928
To: 2400 18 February, 1928.
MAP: Nicaragua - C. D. Ham,
1. ENEMY NEAREST ELEMENTS:
Sandino and his leaders cover the
northeastern part of the Northern Area.
There are so many reports coming in that
it is difficult to determine the
position of any of his groups. The most
reliable information would seem to place
the main strength in the area MANCOTAL -
LOS CUCHILLOS and PENA BLANCA. Ample
evidence is at hand that the tightening
up process is producing results. The
extension of the intelligence service to
MATAGALPA, the mounting of a great many
men, night operations and air service
reconnaissance all have been a factor in
making Sandino and his principal leader
impotent for another week.
2. ENEMY'S STRENGTH, DISPOSITION
(a) Units in contact:
Officer JICARO reported patrol under
Sargeant Smith had contact with bandits
at 0600 February 12th, between SAN
GREGORIO and MURRA. 5 bandits killed and
continues to be the enemy's chief asset.
He continues to avoid us. It is not
believed he will attack unless he can
ambush us and get away quickly.
Following is a list of reports received
during the week.
(1) A report that Sandino
was in the vicinity of A. AMORT or
CUATROS ESQUINAS the night of the
eleventh was denied by A. AMORT (M-7).
(2) Sandino reported at CORINTO
night of eleventh.
(3) Ensibio Reyes reported at
PIEDRA GRANDE 12th February with about
100 men (M-10).
(4) Teofelo Castro with 25 men
reported near EL PALACIO 12th (M-10).
(5) Reported Sanchez operating
(6) reported between DIONISIO and
MUY MUY night of 12-15 Feb. (M-14).
(7) Ferrara or Diaz reported in
YALI with 100 men 13th Feb. (M-15).
(8) Sandino reported in DAINLI
VALLEY between SAN ANDRES and QUILALI
(9) Sanchez, Estrada and Galeano
at SAN JUAN DE TELPANECA 9th Feb. with
from 75 to 150 men (M-16).
(10) Ferrera and Diaz moved south
from SOMOTO to DUGULI 13th Feb. (M-17).
(11) Sandino reported 13th near LA
PORONA and LA VIRGEN.
Sandino reported 13th near COYOLAR
Sandino reported 13th near PENA BLANCA
(12) Sandino reported spent the
night of 12-15 Feb. at LOS CUCEILLOS
------------------- [p. 2]
(13) Diaz reported with
200 men 14th Feb. as having passed
through MACUELIZA and LA PASA on 12th.
(14) Ferrara at DUGULI, 3 miles
west of CONDEGA (M-21) 14th Feb.
(15) BANDITS reported east of
DARIA 14th (9:00 a.m.) (M-22).
(16) Diaz reported between SANTA
MARIA and HONDURIAN border 12th with 30
(17) Maldenado reported near
SOMOTO 12th. Reported antagonistic to
(18) Maldenado reported going
through SANTA MARIA toward MURRA on
(19) Sandino reported heading for
PUERTO CABEZAS (M-24) 14th Feb.
(20) 100 bandits seen in COLON 10
miles south of CONCORDIA 1:00 a.m. 14th;
also 80 men under Ferrara in same
vicinity headed toward JINOTEGA (M-26).
(21) 15th Feb. 200 bandits
reported between SOMOTO and AYTETLO
(22) Enemy reported at SAN VICENTE
15th Feb., also EPTLE, also SAN LORENZO,
(23) Warning that TRINIDAD was to
be attacked 15th (M-27)
(24) 50 outlaws attached and
looted TRINIDAD 1900-15th Feb. (M-35).
(25) 50 outlaws reported near JUEZ
- CUMPLIDO ROAD moving towards JINOTEGA.
(27) 50 bandits reported as having
left LA FUNDADORA 16th. (M-49).
(28) Group of 120 bandits which
were reported as having looted TRINIDAD
moved towared SAN ISIDRO 16th (M-50).
(Probably Ferrera with half that many
(29) Sandino reported at SANTA
LENA 15th with 60 men.
Sandino reported at TUMA
20 miles NE of CORINTO.
reported with 500 or 600 men at
FUNDADORA 12th. Left for TUMA 12th.
reported as having 300 men with him
(30) Sandino at LOS CUCHILLOS 14th
(31) Bandits left SAN LORENZO for
MONTE GRANDE on 17th (M-58).
(32) Some bandits at MONTE GRANDE
18th Feb. (M-59).
of the entire list of reports shows that
a great many groups of bandits are in
the area under discussion. However, one
should not lose sight of the fact that a
great many reports are (probably) pure
fabrications sent in as counter
expionage material by Sandino spies.
Also that a great many reports are
grossly exaggerated. The presence of 3
or 4 horsemen in one place will be 100
before next morning, due either to
genuine alarm or outright
procrastination. Notwithstanding we are
glad to get as many reports as possible.
becoming more apparent every day that
Sandino's prestige suffered materially
subsequent to the EL CHIPOTE attack.
While at times he has been reported with
several hundred men, more frequently he
is reported with from 60 to 125 men.
This is certainly significant.
The movement of the main forces
seems to have reached the vicinity of
Ferrera (Honduranian) is the most active
at this time. It is very probable that
he looted TRINIDAD and then moved north.
Ferrera has been very active in
-------------------- [p. 3]
3. ENEMY SUPPLY AND EQUIPMENT:
has been very active, gathering
supplies, money and whatever equipment
Huper's store in TRINIDAD was robbed of
$5000.00 worth of merchandise.
store of Modesto Espinosa in TRINIDAD
was looted of its entire stock.
Charles Potter states that Sandino took
$150.00 out of his safe and $350.00
worth of supplies and equipment. 22
miles and 2 of his best horses were also
taken. Total loss about $2300.00.
BABILONIA PINCA owned by W. R. Grace
Co., and which is NE of FUNDADORA was
robbed of $500.00 worth of merchandise
enemy troops appear to be well mounted
and fairly well armed.
ammunition supply is probably not
is evidence that some arms and
ammunition were sent north from LEON
about two weeks ago.
groups are living off the country and
gather coffee, beans, cattle, mules, and
in fact anything they can get their
hands on, selling what they cannot use.
4. WEATHER AND VISIBILITY:
(a) Good weather was
encountered for the entire period and
was favorable for our operations.
(b) Visibility -
5. ENEMY OPERATIONS:
change. He is operating at night. All
bands reported seem to be well mounted.
Although it is believed they have had
opportunities to attack, they have
avoided us at all times. It is probably
that he will attempt to concentrate
different groups in successive points
and continue operations similar to his
(a) Report of bandits
under Ferrera fortifying DUCULI. Not
General Jose Leon Diaz reported
as not having any machine gun. Report of
one bandit prisoner near SABANA GRANDE
not confirmed. One prisoner at OCOTAL
shot while attempting to escape.
Ernestacio Hernandez and Jefe Jose
Torres [Anastasio Hernández and José
Eulalio Torres] turned over to patrol at
LAS MANOS 18th Feb. and confined OCOTAL.
7. ENEMY KNOWLEDGE OF OUR
(a) There is no doubt but that
Sandino and the generals operating with
him are reliably informed as to our
every movement. Their knowledge is so
complete as to enable them to avoid us
at every turn.
(b) His information is obtained
from spies mostly, and not from any well
(c) We have lost no prisoners.
It is not believed that we have lost any
------------------ [p. 4]
8. ENEMY'S PROBABLE INTENTIONS:
continue gathering supplies and
equipment and recruiting men.
General outlawry will continue.
activities of many small groups will
serve as a ruse to detract attention
from other localities.
bandit group which was rather definitely
located at SAN RAFAEL about the 3rd,
moved east this week to the area LAS
CUCHILLOS - PENA BLANCA.
believed that Sandino will remain in
that area of go still father north or
northeast. He is possibly either on this
line for the purpose of effecting a
withdrawal north to HONDURAS or
northeast to the vicinity of PUERTO
------------------- [p. 5]
HEADQUARTERS 2ND BRIGADE MARINE CORPS
19 February, 1928.
ESTIMATE OF THE POLITICAL,
ECONOMIC, AND CIVIL SITUATION
From: 0000 12 February 1928
To: 2400 18 February 1928
MAP: Nicaragua - C.D. Ham, 1924,
(A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY
(a) Conditions in Northern Area:
The situation in northern part of this
area has changed but little. Evidence of
few small bands operating confirmed by
one contact between SAN GREGORIO and
MURRA. The situation in the southeastern
part of this area continues tense,
particularly in the area SAN ANTONIO,
LOS CUCHILLOS and PENA BLANCA.
(b) Conditions in the Southern
Area: Tense in north and northeastern
part. Presence and repeated messages at
ESTELI and the looting of TRINIDAD kept
the population in that vicinity in an
alarmed state. TRINIDAD at last reports
was almost entirely deserted.
(c) Conditions in the Eastern
Area: This area is quiet. Evidence of
favorable increase in ecnomical
situation is plentiful and will be
remarked about later in this report in
detail. Evidence is not only confined to
the vicinity of BLUEFIELDS but extends
as far north as BRAGMAN'S BLUFF and west
for an equal distance.
(B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL
conventions are beginning their work.
Moncada has been proclaimed as the
Liberal Candidate at several local
meetings and today (19th) he will be
likewise mentioned at LEON. In the
Eastern Area similar actions have been
reported. Meetings reported orderly. The
controlling factors in the political
situation have not and will not change.
More evidence tends to show that their
attitude towards us in reference to the
proposed supervised election has not
changed. The prospects of any
cooperation in the coming elections are
not good. It would be futile to predict
the attitude of local authorities should
a Liberal success ensue. The attitude of
those not engaged (actively) in politics
might be stated as one of tolerance but
not of indifference. Some calls for
Marines to provide protection have been
received. Labor Party activities in
vicinity of LEON have increased
considerably. Actual liasion with other
parties has not been definitely
(C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS:
improvement from day to day except in
small areas infested by bandits
BLUEFIELDS continues to show the
greatest improvement. Evidence of men
being engaged for work from places as
far west as MATEARE has been obtained.
Bragman Bluff Lumber Company has let a
contract for 2000 men
-------------- [p. 6]
to work their banana
plantations. The Cuyamel Company has
commenced operations from the PUNTA
GORDA district. Mahogany contractors
continue to import labor. Standard Fruit
Companies are increasing their
the Northern and Southern Areas the
markets have been stimulated by coffee
shipments. Naturally, bandits have
interfered with the gathering and
shipping of all commodities.
general it might be said that markets
are strong and active. Prices are
conditions are good.
conditions continue to improve in all
sections and it is believed that the
present demand for laborers is almost if
not entirely absorbed.
Industry in the town of TRINIDAD
suffered a set-back due to the bandit
raid there early in the week.
(D) POLICE OPERATIONS:
Efficiency of the police increasing due
probably to our activites; particularly
to our very slight supervision and
inspection of police conditions. Merely
the knowledge that we have a watchful
eye on their activities is sufficient in
most cases to prevent injustice. Of
course with our policy of
non-interference we cannot actively take
situation at MATEARE and LA NOCA is more
Police operations in BLUEFIELDS
continues to show improvement. Crime has
decreased very materially.
course minor difficulties continue to
come up. Particularly those due to
majority of the reports received state
and police operations are routine and
(E) FRICTION BETWEEN MARINES AND
case mentioned as pending in last report
and upon which early information was
promised turned out to be a political
difference between two natives here. The
Marine accused was a member of the
Military Police Force and was merely
trying to stop a fight.
(F) MILITARY OPERATIONS:
(G) MILITARY OPERATIONS AS
AFFECTED BY THE POLITICAL SITUATION:
Additional information has not been
received. However, the evidence is
conclusive that the politicians will
continue their activities and that they
will place as many obstructions in our
way as possible. I am of the opinion
that two of the three political parties
and possibly all three believe that the
present situation would be a desirable
one until after the elections at least.
representative of the New York Graphic
by the name of Harris who
------------------ [p. 7]
was reported as being on his way
to secure an interview with Sandino was
at last reports being detained in
Although Espinosa has been kept
under observation no information of
importance has been obtained.
Miller, a German who has a ranch near
BLUEFIELDS and who has participated in
several revolutions in NICARAGUA, left
his ranch about 4 February and came to
MANAGUA. He was first observed at SAN
CARLOS. Attended the meeting here which
proclaimed Moncada and then went to SAN
UBALDO. He is reported as purchasing
cattle at the latter place.
General Casimiro Gonzalez is
reported as engaging contract workmen
for BRAGMAN'S BLUFF. He is at MATSARE at
Ivanevich Tomalsoff, a reported
anti-Bolshevik, was in RIVAS recently.
He claimed to be going to MEXICO via
CORINTO for the purpose of getting an
air mail plane for use in COSTA RICA.
Francisco Olivarea ("Coyote") was
reported in JINOTEGA recently. The
police have not been able to find out
anything about him except that he has
been busy in the coffee harvesting near
LAS SIERRAS de MANAGUA. He has been seen
in General Moncada's office.
ex-German soldier named Seelback, or
Siehlbach, was seen in company with
General Gomez at the DANHCIA BAR 15th
February. He is working across the lake.
He was originally a Liberal but when
captured by the Conservatives in the
last revolution, turned Conservative. He
is a strong Chamorrista (at present).