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PC28.02.21   orr 

INVENTORY OF PC-DOCS, JANUARY—JUNE 1928

28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 HUNT
28.01.05 KILCOURSE
28.01.08 SATTERFIELD
28.01.08 WADBROOK
28.01.21 SHAW
28.01.22 PEARD
28.01.31 KENYON
28.02.03 PEARD
28.02.04 MCDONALD
28.02.06 YOUNG
28.02.12 WATERMAN
28.02.18 GEYER
28.02.19 CLARK
28.02.19 GRAY
28.02.21 ORR
28.02.22 SHIEBLER
28.02.23 WELLS
28.02.24 SHIEBLER
28.02.24 ROCKEY
28.02.25 BROWN
28.02.26 CLARK
28.02.26 HOLMES
28.02.26 RIDDERHOF
28.02.27 GEYER
28.02.28 HUNTER
28.02.29 CLAUDE
28.02.29 CRONMILLER
28.03.01 O'DAY
28.03.05 MCNULTY
28.03.05 ROCKEY
28.03.11 AIKEN
28.03.15 CHAPPELL
28.03.16 ARTHUR
28.03.18 RIDDERHOF
28.03.22 ROCKEY
28.03.28 HUNTER
28.03.28 GEYER
28.04.05 ATKINSON
28.04.05 HART
28.04.05 ROBERTS
28.04.05 ROCKEY
28.04.08 HOLMES
28.04.09 PUTNAM
28.04.11 PUTNAM
28.04.11 SNEAD
28.04.15 HATFIELD
28.04.16 STOCKS
28.04.17 AIKEN
28.04.18 GALT
28.04.19 ESAU
28.04.19 MARSHALL
28.04.19 SNEAD
28.04.23 GALT
28.04.23 WILLIS
28.04.23 MCQUEEN
28.04.26 PEFLEY
28.04.28 MCQUEEN
28.04.30 ARNETT
28.05.06 HART
28.05.07 MERRITT
28.05.08 AIKEN
28.05.08 CLARK
28.05.09 KILCOURSE
28.05.11 AIKEN
28.05.11 ESAU
28.05.12 KILCOURSE
28.05.12 PEFLEY
28.05.14 HOLMES
28.05.16 CLAUDE
28.05.16 CRAMER
28.05.17 RIDDERHOF
28.05.17 ADAMS
28.05.18 SCHIEBLER
28.05.20 O'DAY
28.05.21 JENKINS
28.05.21 KENYON
28.05.22 CRAMER
28.05.24 CLAUDE
28.05.24 CRAMER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 UNKNOWN
28.05.30 HATFIELD
28.06.01 SCOTT
28.06.04 HOLMES
28.06.04 O'NEIL
28.06.04 SNEDEKER
28.06.06 YOUNG
28.06.15 BROWN
28.06.16 ANDERSON
28.06.19 BERRY
28.06.20 HUMPHREY
28.06.20 ROCKEY
28.06.24 CRAMER

28.02.21.   Orr, Patrol through Northeast Matagalpa

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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Subject: Report of patrol made by 2nd Platoon, 47th Company, 11th Regiment, through area northeast Matagalpa.
Route: The patrol left A. Mort's place at 2.30 P.M. 18/2/28 and arrived at Corinto at 12.30 P.M. 20/2/28 via Cuatro Esquinas Oriental, COYOLAR and LA TRAMPA.

      The patrol left CORINTO at 2:30 p.m. 20 February 1928 and arrived at MATAGALPA at 1:30 p.m. 22 February, 1928 via LA DATANLI, LA SULTANA and LA FUNDADORA. The condition of roads traveled was as follows: CUATRO ESQUINAS to CORINTO, poor, muddy, mountain pack trail; CORINTO to LA SULTANA, good, dry pack trail; LA SULTANA to LA FUNDADORA muddy mountain pack trail; LA FUNDADORA to MATAGALPA, good bull cart road. Trails high in the mountains are apparently muddy the year around.

INFORMATION OF ENEMY:
     Several of the natives questioned along the trail from ORIENTAL to TRAMPA on 19 February 1928 gave the information that Sandino left CORINTO on 15 February 1928 on the LA VIRGEN trail headed north towards CUCHILLAS, and estimated his strength at about four hundred men.
 
     Simon Cantarero, manager of the Corinto Finca, stated that Sandino with his forces left CORINTO 15 February 1928 and was last seen on the LA VIRGEN trail going north towards CUCHILLAS. He stated Sandino had three hundred men armed with Mexican rifles and one hundred rounds of ammunition per man, and two cargo mules carrying ammunition. I believe this man maybe a Sandinista.
 
     Five miles southeast of CORINTO one Luciano Rosales came to us with the information that sixty or seventy men gather at PASS REAL each night and disperse in the morning. He had not seen them. He further stated that Paulino Lopez living nearby is the propagandist and agent of Sandino. Lopez and his house were investigated by a patrol sent out at daylight 21 February 1928. No information was obtained.
 
     At LA FUNDADORA we were informed that four out of about twenty who went with Sandino from that finca on 8 Feb. 1928 had returned to the finca. At daylight 22 Feb. 1928 two of these men, Anastacio Rugaena [Anastasio Rugama] and Enlovio Carnijs [Eudovio Cornejo] were captured, questioned separately, and finally gave stories coinciding as follows: "They left LA FUNDADORA with Sandino 8 Feb. 1928 with the promise of mules, rifles and an easy life. They deserted Sandino at SANTA ELENA one full days march north of LAS CUCHILLAS on 17 Feb. 1928 because none of the above promises were fulfilled. Sandino's men [ p. 2 ] were saying they were going to the Atlantic coast via the route taken by Moncado [José María Moncada] in coming west from PUERTO CABEZA [Puerto Cabezas] during the revolution. Sandino had with him about four hundred men of whom over half were equipped with rifle and ammunition. The others carried machete. He had one heavy machine gun and one cargo mule loaded with ammunition for that gun. No airplanes were seen at SANTA ELENA." The prisoners were taken to Matagalpa for further questioning.
 
     Mr. Frankel, manager of LA FUNDADORA stated that while there, Sandino had one Thompson sub machine gun and one light browning in his personal guard and that instead of using one of the bedrooms Sandino slept on the proch [porch] stating that he would not trust his men. Mr. Frankel further stated that the Jejes [Jefes] Nasitays, Solgado, Giran, and Lobs [--?--, Salgado, Giron, Lobo] were with Sandino at LA FUNDADORA.
 
     I believe that the mozos in the area through which Sandino passed do not fear him and that his speeches have been partly successful in earning many to fear and even hate marines.
 
AIR COMMUNICATION
 
     No planes were seen on the 19th or 20th but we were informed that planes passed over CORINTO one half hour before we reached there on the 20th. Rain channels in the mountains near TRAMA [La Trampa] would often prevent air observation of those trails. On the 21 Feb. 1928 pannels [panels] were laid in an open space six miles north of LA SULTANA for one hour during which time a plane twice passed to the east of us apparently scouting the trail through the mountains there, and failing to sight our patrol on the lower trail.
 
     RATIONS
 
The patrol started with rations for two days and returned with rations for one day.
 
Coffe [coffee], tortillios [tortillas], beans, cheese and bananas can be obtained in large quantities at the larger haciends [haciendas] throughout this area.

/s/  W. W. ORR
1st LT. USMC

127/220/6

Summary & Notes:

   Again, one of the first patrols in the Matagalpa-Jinotega highlands; Marines just getting a sense of the lay of the land, conditions of trails, etc.; two-day patrol by a squad of perhaps 20 US Marines.
   First Marine-Guardia garrisons in the district at Amort's Plant, Cuatras Esquinas, and Corinto Finca.
   This area soon emerged as one of the rebellion's hotspots, as it remained till the end.
   All the places mentioned here were large coffee plantations, most owned by foreigners.
   Mozos are day laborers, a kind of semi-proletarianized seasonal rural labor force.
   Sandino recruiting on his swing through coffee districts, preaching anti-US sentiment & politicizing mozos, on his way to the mostly US-owned mines in the Pis Pis mining district on the western frontier of the Atlantic Coast region, which his forces sack and destroy in April.  Estimate of 400 rebels.
   On interrogation of captured ex-Sandinistas Anastasio Rugama and Eudovio Cornejo, see
Top 100, PAGE 4.
   Most hacienda owners and managers cooperate fully with Marines-Guardia in this early phase; soon evolves into a more complex triangulation of political affiliations (Marines-Guardia, Sandinistas, and survival:  trying to satisfy both sides to survive). 

   Patrol largely living off the land.

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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