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PC28.01.04   brown

INVENTORY OF PC-DOCS, JANUARY—JUNE 1928

28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 HUNT
28.01.05 KILCOURSE
28.01.08 SATTERFIELD
28.01.08 WADBROOK
28.01.21 SHAW
28.01.22 PEARD
28.01.31 KENYON
28.02.03 PEARD
28.02.04 MCDONALD
28.02.06 YOUNG
28.02.12 WATERMAN
28.02.18 GEYER
28.02.19 CLARK
28.02.19 GRAY
28.02.21 ORR
28.02.22 SHIEBLER
28.02.23 WELLS
28.02.24 SHIEBLER
28.02.24 ROCKEY
28.02.25 BROWN
28.02.26 CLARK
28.02.26 HOLMES
28.02.26 RIDDERHOF
28.02.27 GEYER
28.02.28 HUNTER
28.02.29 CLAUDE
28.02.29 CRONMILLER
28.03.01 O'DAY
28.03.05 MCNULTY
28.03.05 ROCKEY
28.03.11 AIKEN
28.03.15 CHAPPELL
28.03.16 ARTHUR
28.03.18 RIDDERHOF
28.03.22 ROCKEY
28.03.28 HUNTER
28.03.28 GEYER
28.04.05 ATKINSON
28.04.05 HART
28.04.05 ROBERTS
28.04.05 ROCKEY
28.04.08 HOLMES
28.04.09 PUTNAM
28.04.11 PUTNAM
28.04.11 SNEAD
28.04.15 HATFIELD
28.04.16 STOCKS
28.04.17 AIKEN
28.04.18 GALT
28.04.19 ESAU
28.04.19 MARSHALL
28.04.19 SNEAD
28.04.23 GALT
28.04.23 WILLIS
28.04.23 MCQUEEN
28.04.26 PEFLEY
28.04.28 MCQUEEN
28.04.30 ARNETT
28.05.06 HART
28.05.07 MERRITT
28.05.08 AIKEN
28.05.08 CLARK
28.05.09 KILCOURSE
28.05.11 AIKEN
28.05.11 ESAU
28.05.12 KILCOURSE
28.05.12 PEFLEY
28.05.14 HOLMES
28.05.16 CLAUDE
28.05.16 CRAMER
28.05.17 RIDDERHOF
28.05.17 ADAMS
28.05.18 SCHIEBLER
28.05.20 O'DAY
28.05.21 JENKINS
28.05.21 KENYON
28.05.22 CRAMER
28.05.24 CLAUDE
28.05.24 CRAMER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 UNKNOWN

28.05.30 RAHISER
28.05.30 LINSERT
28.05.30 HATFIELD
28.06.01 SCOTT
28.06.04 HOLMES
28.06.04 O'NEIL
28.06.04 SNEDEKER
28.06.06 YOUNG
28.06.15 BROWN
28.06.16 ANDERSON
28.06.19 BERRY
28.06.20 HUMPHREY
28.06.20 ROCKEY
28.06.24 CRAMER

28.01.04.   Brown, Battle of Las Cruces

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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T  R  A  N  S  C  R  I  P  T  I  O  N

QUILALI, Nicaragua,      4 January 1928.

From: Non Commissioned Officer in charge of Lt. Richal's column.
To: The Brigade Commander.
Subject: Engagement with bandits.

    1.    At about 1230, January 1, 1928; while marching on Quilali, this expedition encountered bandit forces of Sandino, estimated at 350 to 450 strong, on the Sapotial [Zapotillal] Hill, about six miles NW of QUILALI. The action continued for about one hour, when the enemy was routed.
 
   2.    At the time of the encounter our force was proceeding along the trail in single file up the side of a mountain which was on our right or NW flank. A field which extended for a distance covering nearly the whole column on the right flank. The hill was covered with pinewoods and the field with heavy brush.
 
   3.    Our point had just turned a curve at the bottom of the above mentioned hill when Lieutenant Bruce (GN) observed a movement and started to draw his pistols, when the enemy opened fire with machine guns, rifles, pistols, and dynamite bombs, from points all along the hill and field on our right flank. There were also a small amount of the enemy on our left flank that opened fire on our left flank and rear guard. On the hill the enemy were well entrenched, behind parapets thrown up and behind pine trees. The bandit forces were well disciplined, and when Lt. Bruce was killed were able to rush our point and advance at the command of their leader, forcing our troops to retreat to a point 50 yards behind our Stokes Trench Mortar where they took a position in line with our machine gun which had jammed. There they established a skirmish line and held off the enemy until the machine gun was repaired and gotten into action again. The machine gun with the Stokes mortar, and the 37 MM gun, which fired from a position in the rear of the column gained fire superiority and routed the bandits.
 
   4.    Our forces took up a defensive position on the hill captured and awaited re-enforcements from QUILALI, which arrived at 1415, January 2, 1928.
 
   5. (a) Bandit leader unknown.
      (b) No Mounts seen.
      (c) Aerial assistance, none, but two planes appeared about ten minutes after the route of the enemy and strafed the hills and the woods in the vicinity.
 
CASUALTIES:
 
MARINES KILLED: BRUCE, Thomas G. 1st Sgt. (1st Lt GN)
 
MARINES WOUNDED SERIOUSLY: RICHAL, Meron A. 1st Lt.
POMORSKI, Edward L. Pvt.
 
MARINES WOUNDED NOT SERIOUSLY: HOOKS, Lee M. Pvt.
HENRY, Wallace Cpl.
 
GUARDIA NACIONAL: BRUCE, Thomas G. 1st Lt. Killed.

[ p. 2 ]
 
BANDITS:
 
About 20 dead bodies were found near the place of attack.
 
PRISONERS: None.
 
   6.    Pack train was badly shot up and scattered. Animals lost in action: 15. Animals strayed from scene of action 3. Total number of animals brought into Quilali 99.
 
   7.    No loss of ammunition known at present. Both of Lieutenant Bruces pistols were captured by the bandits.
 
   8.    Lieutenant Richal was seriously wounded about twenty minutes after the battle started, Gunnery Sergeant E. G. Brown assumed Command immediately and retained same until the arrival of Lieutenant Hunts relief from Quilali.
 
   9.    Lieutenant Bruce was killed at the beginning of the action his body looted and mutilated by the bandits, but later recaptured by our forces and buried on the spot, Field Burial regulations complied with.
 
          Edward G. Brown
          Gy-Sgt. USMC.,
- - - - - - - - NCO in Charge - - - - - - - - - -
 

Source:   RG127/43A/20 and RG127/113C/12

Source:   RG127/38/30

Traducido al Español  (gracias a Alfonso G. Urroz Aguirre)

T  R  A  D  U  C  I  D  O

QUILALI, Nicaragua,      4 de Enero de 1928.

De: Oficial No-Comisionado a cargo de la columna del Teniente Richal
Al: Comandante de la Brigada.
Tema: Combate con bandidos.

     1.     Aproximadamente a las 1230, del primero de Enero de 1928; mientras marchábamos en Quilali, esta expedición tuvo un encuentro con fuerzas de los bandidos de Sandino, la cual estimamos que era de 350 a 400 hombres, en el cerro Zapotillal, localizado como a seis millas al Noroeste de Quilali. El combate tardo como una hora, hasta que el enemigo fue desalojado.

     2.     Al momento del enfrentamiento nuestras fuerzas se desplazaban sobre un camino en una sola fila al lado de la montaña que se encontraba a nuestra derecha es decir a nuestro flanco Noroeste. El terreno se extendía una gran distancia que casi cubría a toda la columna en el flanco derecho. La montaña estaba cubierta de pinales y el terreno estaba cubierto de densos matorrales.

     3.     Nuestra cabecera acababa de dar vuelta a una curva en la parte baja del cerro antes mencionado cuando el Teniente Bruce (Guardia Nacional) observo un movimiento y empezó a desenfundar sus pistolas, cuando el enemigo abrió fuego con ametralladoras, rifles, pistolas y bombas de dinamita, desde diferentes punto a lo largo del cerro y desde el campo a nuestro flanco derecho. Habia también un pequeno grupo de enemigos en nuestro flanco izquierdo que abrieron fuego hacia nuestro flanco izquierdo y también hacia nuestra retaguardia. En el cerro el enemigo estaba bien atrincherados, detrás de parapetos y detrás de los pinales. Las fuerzas bandidas se portaron bien disciplinadas, y cuando el Tte. Bruce fue asesinado corrieron hacia nuestras posiciones y avanzar bajos las ordenes de su jefe, forzando a nuestras tropas a retirarse a un punto localizado a 50 yardas detrás de nuestra trinchera de morteros Stoke en donde tomamos posiciones en linea con nuestra ametralladora que se nos había enconchado. Desde ahi nosotros establecimos una linea de escaramuzas y mantuvimos al enemigo a raya hasta que pudimos reparar nuestra ametralladora y entro en accion nuevamente. La ametralladora con los morteros Stoke y la ametralladora de 37 milímetros, que disparaban desde posiciones en la parte de atrás de la columna obtuvieron superioridad de fuego y desalojaron a los bandidos.

     4.      Nuestras fuerzas tomaron posiciones defensivas en el cerro capturado y esperaron refuerzos procedentes de QUILALI, que llegaron a las 1415 del 2 de Enero de 1928.

     5.     (a) Desconozco el nombre del jefe de los bandidos
            (b) No se observo ningún montaje
            (c) No tuvimos ninguna asistencia aérea, pero dos aviones aparecieron como diez minutos después del desalojo del enemigo e inspeccionaron los cerros y los bosques vecinos.

PERDIDAS:

MARINOS ASESINADOS: BRUCE, Thomas G. Sargento Primero (Teniente Primero GN)

MARINOS SERIAMENTE LESIONADOS: RICHAL, Meron A. Teniente Primero

POMORSKI, Edward L. Soldado Raso

MARINOS LESIONADOS PERO NO SERIAMENTE: HOOKS, Lee M. Soldado Raso

GUARDIA NACIONAL: BRUCE, Thomas G. Teniente Primero Asesinado

[p. 2]

BANDIDOS:

Como 20 cadaveres fueron encontrados cerca del lugar del ataque.

PRISIONEROS: Ninguno

     6.     El tren de carga se desmorono todo. Bestias perdidas en combate: 15. Bestias que escaparon la zona de combate: 3. Numero total de bestias llevadas a Quilali: 99.

     7.     No sabemos de perdida de municiones hasta este momento. Las dos pistolas del Teniente Bruce fueron capturadas por los bandidos.

     8.     El Teniente Richal fue seriamente lesionado unos veinte minutos después del comienzo del combate, el Sargento de Artillería E. G. Brown tomo el mando de la tropa de inmediato y mantuvo esa posición hasta la llegada del relevo del Teniente Hunts procedente de Quilali.

     9.     El Teniente Bruce fue asesinado al principio del combate, su cuerpo fue saqueado y mutilado por los bandidos, pero luego fue recapturado por nuestras fuerzas y enterrado ahi mismo, se cumplió con con todas las regulaciones de entierros en el campo de batalla.

          Edward G. Brown

          Sargento de Artilleria, Infanteria de Marina (USMC) ——————————— Oficial No-Comisionado a Cargo de Operaciones ———————— 

127/43A/20



Ancillary Document:  Sandino's Account of the Battle of Las Cruces, 1 January 1928

Major Encounters near El Chipote at the End of 1927 and on New Year's Day, 1928

     . . . On January 1 news reached this headquarters that Yankees numbering some three hundred were marching by way of the Telpaneca road with orders to take part in the general attack upon El Chipote. I at once ordered Colonesl Estrada and Colindres to move out with their cavalry to cut off the enemy's advance, and to pursue them until they were eliminated. Our people intensified their action with such good luck that, at 1 p.m. on that same day, they took up positions at the place called Las Cruces, the same place where the bandit conquerors were defeated two months before, awaiting them there with determination.
 
     Fifteen minutes later we let the punitive column advance beyond us, bottling them up and forcing them to fight man to man. In three hours of fighting with rifles and grenades, the enemy was decimated and then almost totally destroyed with machetes. This horrified the surviving pirates, forcing them to flee in a shameful manner, leaving ninety-seven dead and sixty wounded on the field of battle, among them two principal officers who were identified by documents taken from them. Also taken from them were their battle plans and the codes used by their aviators. The captured spoils of war were quite considerable: six Lewis machine guns, three Thompson machine guns, two Lewis automatic rifles, forty-six Lewis rifles and sixteen mules loaded with ammunition of various calibers, and a large quantity of provisions. . . .
 
Patria y Libertad.
/s/ A. C. SANDINO [seal]
Fortress of the National Sovereignty of Nicaragua
El Chipote, January 4, 1928

Source:  Robert Edgar Conrad,  Sandino, Testimony of a Nicaraguan Patriot (Princeton, 1990), pp. 151-52.

Summary & Notes:

  Another disastrous engagement for the Special Expedition against Chipote, two days after the Camino Real fight that killed five Marines.
   Upwards of 400 rebels surrounded the Marine-Guardia column, killing one Marine and wounding four before column reinforced by another column and limped back to Quilalí.
   EDSN mutilated and looted body of the dead Marine, Lt. Thomas Bruce, later turning his death into a resonant nationalist icon remembered decades after the fact; in the 1980s, many elderly Sandinistas interviewed by the Instituto de Estudio del Sandinismo recalled Bruce's death and mutilation.

   Sketch map and Sandino's account of the battle (as usual vastly exaggerating the scale of the rebel victory) appended to the report.

   Photo above right:  First Lt. Thomas G. Bruce after the Battle of Ocotal, July 1927, from RG127, US National Archives, College Park MD.

   Sincere thanks to Alfonso G. Urroz Aguirre for translating this report into Spanish.

 

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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