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PC28.02.26   clark

INVENTORY OF PC-DOCS, JANUARY—JUNE 1928

28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 BROWN
28.01.04 HUNT
28.01.05 KILCOURSE
28.01.08 SATTERFIELD
28.01.08 WADBROOK
28.01.21 SHAW
28.01.22 PEARD
28.01.31 KENYON
28.02.03 PEARD
28.02.04 MCDONALD
28.02.06 YOUNG
28.02.12 WATERMAN
28.02.18 GEYER
28.02.19 CLARK
28.02.19 GRAY
28.02.21 ORR
28.02.22 SHIEBLER
28.02.23 WELLS
28.02.24 SHIEBLER
28.02.24 ROCKEY
28.02.25 BROWN
28.02.26 CLARK
28.02.26 HOLMES
28.02.26 RIDDERHOF
28.02.27 GEYER
28.02.28 HUNTER
28.02.29 CLAUDE
28.02.29 CRONMILLER
28.03.01 O'DAY
28.03.05 MCNULTY
28.03.05 ROCKEY
28.03.11 AIKEN
28.03.15 CHAPPELL
28.03.16 ARTHUR
28.03.18 RIDDERHOF
28.03.22 ROCKEY
28.03.28 HUNTER
28.03.28 GEYER
28.04.05 ATKINSON
28.04.05 HART
28.04.05 ROBERTS
28.04.05 ROCKEY
28.04.08 HOLMES
28.04.09 PUTNAM
28.04.11 PUTNAM
28.04.11 SNEAD
28.04.15 HATFIELD
28.04.16 STOCKS
28.04.17 AIKEN
28.04.18 GALT
28.04.19 ESAU
28.04.19 MARSHALL
28.04.19 SNEAD
28.04.23 GALT
28.04.23 WILLIS
28.04.23 MCQUEEN
28.04.26 PEFLEY
28.04.28 MCQUEEN
28.04.30 ARNETT
28.05.06 HART
28.05.07 MERRITT
28.05.08 AIKEN
28.05.08 CLARK
28.05.09 KILCOURSE
28.05.11 AIKEN
28.05.11 ESAU
28.05.12 KILCOURSE
28.05.12 PEFLEY
28.05.14 HOLMES
28.05.16 CLAUDE
28.05.16 CRAMER
28.05.17 RIDDERHOF
28.05.17 ADAMS
28.05.18 SCHIEBLER
28.05.20 O'DAY
28.05.21 JENKINS
28.05.21 KENYON
28.05.22 CRAMER
28.05.24 CLAUDE
28.05.24 CRAMER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 PIPER
28.05.25 UNKNOWN
28.05.30 HATFIELD
28.06.01 SCOTT
28.06.04 HOLMES
28.06.04 O'NEIL
28.06.04 SNEDEKER
28.06.06 YOUNG
28.06.15 BROWN
28.06.16 ANDERSON
28.06.19 BERRY
28.06.20 HUMPHREY
28.06.20 ROCKEY
28.06.24 CRAMER

28.02.26.   Clark, Patrol Report, San Albino.

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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SPECIAL EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, THIRD BATTALION, FIFTH REGIMENT
SAN ALBINO, NICARAGUA     February 26, 1928.

From: First Lieutenant Everett H. Chark, U.S. M.C.
To: The Commanding Officer.
Subject: Patrol Report.
Enclosure 1): Sketch.

    1.   In accordance with your orders I left Jicaro at 2300, February 23, 1928 and proceeded to Las Vueltas, Guanacastillo, Barrial, Las Mesas,and return.

   2.   Entering Las Vueltas at dawn, Feb 24, I found it deserted except for a few women, children, and one invalid. Each gave approximately similar information: that no outlaw forces had passed thru nor occupied the town since early January, that no courriers [couriers] or small parties had passed thru, that the previous inhabitants were in the majority Honduranians and had returned to Honduras, that the nearest organized bandit force is at Barrial under the four LOPEZ brothers [Reyes Lopez], said band consisting of about 25 men, very few rifles, no rifle ammunition, several shotguns, and many machetes, and that this band does not rove from its own immediate neighborhood. No evidence of recent bandit occupation or activity was found in Las Vueltas.

   3.   I entered Guanacastillo at sunset Feb. 24 and found it deserted except for one woman operating a cane mill south of town. She said that no groups had been in town since last December, that the inhabitants had moved to the "mountains" or had joined the Barrial [El Barillal] group, and the [that] the Barrial group still existed.

   4.   I skirmished the heights above Barrial just before dawn Feb. 25 and entered the north of the town at dawn. The better class of houses were unoccupied but were well supplied with food and showed every sign of recent occupation. The two hillside shacks that were inhabited yielded information that a group of about "100" were quartered in town, led by the four LOPEZ brothers, armed with shotguns and machetes but no rifles; that they had been warned the previous morning by mounted courrier from San Juan that marines were near and had consequently taken to the hills southeast of town where they would separate and be industriously engaged in agricultural pursuits should marines surprize them; that all the members of this group of "Civicos" had previously been members of the community and now formed a sort of communist gathering, living in turn in each other's houses and farming each other's land when they could force no non-member to do the work for them; that they had committed no murders or other major disorders recently but were awaiting Sandino's return. One of these Civicos appeared on the horizon as we were going thru town. He wore the red and black hat band but apparently carried no arms. My guide's shout of "Cinta roja" frightened him before he could be captured or shot at. Examination of [ p. 2 ] trails showed the footprints of one man only and effort to locate the main outlaw body, failed.

   5.   At Guali I captured Jose Rafael Marin, a murderer long wanted by the Nicaraguan government, a well-known Sandinisto [sic], and a previous leader of bandit troops. He was armed with an S&W .38 revolver but was scarcely able to move at an ordinary rate of speed, due to a 4 by 6 inch trench mortar or grenade wound a month old and badly infected besides several other minor wounds, all infected. He barely survived the trip to Jicaro, dying the evening of Feb 25th before recovering sufficiently do devulge any information.

   6.   Las Mesas is well inhabited. Occupants have no knowledge of any bandit activities and are occupied with gathering fruit and other produce for the Jicaro market.

   7.   REMARKS. I am convinced: (1) That there is little menace from the Barrial group, (2) Las Vueltas is not a bandit roundevous, (3) Bandit communication from San Juan ends at Barrial. Communication, if any, between San Juan and the Chipote area is infrequent and does not include any supply system to build up a reserve in one area from the other, (4) Neither Montoya, Galeano, nor Sanchez is in the Barrial area.

     There are not two Barrial's as shown on the O'Shea map. The town consists of some 30 houses scattered the length of a two mile area. Much of O'Shea's data was compiled by Mr. Bracken (Jicaro interpreter) whose main interest is to gather as many names as possible with only secondary regard for distance or direction and no regard at all for ground forms.

/s/ E. H. CLARK

127/220/6

Summary & Notes:

   Fascinating report!  From its closing observations about local cartographic imaginations and settlement patterns, to its opening description of the mostly deserted village of deserted Las Vueltas, this report offers a goldmine of information.

   Especially notable is ¶ 4 on Civicos forming "a sort of communist gathering" — a fascinating glimpse into Sandinismo's animating ideology:  the idea really was to remake the world, including the nature of labor relations.  These rebels, led by Reyes López and his brothers, are clearly "awaiting Sandino's return" — integrated into the military & political structure of the EDSN, exercising functional day-to-day autonomy while at the same time pursuing collective EDSN interests in the spheres of production & exchange & lived ideology.
   Four López brothers:  Reyes López led this group till the end of the war; remained locally rooted in the Barillal / San Juan de Telpaneca area.
   Interesting that Clark did not consider the López group a threat; they hadn't committed any outrages, were armed only with shotguns and machetes; he's inclined to leave them alone.
   Conveys a good sense of the physical layout of Barillal, and rural settlement patterns generally:  some 30 houses scattered over a two-mile area.
   Also conveys a good sense of internal class divisions: distinction between the "better class of houses" and "shacks."
   Guanacastillo deserted except for one lone woman operating a cane mill; vivid imagery, gives a sense of how frequently people moved about.
   José Rafael Marín -- brother of EDSN martyr Rufo Marín? (killed in assault on Ocotal,
PC 27.07.28); Clark says he's "a murderer long wanted by the Nicaraguan government" and "a well-known Sandinista."  His infected wounds sound horrible; conveys a sense of the deplorable state of public health.  Did he die of his wounds, or did Marines kill him?  Seems much too coincidental that he would suddenly die of wounds he's had for months.  There's a bigger story here.
   Local markets:  residents of Las Mesas gathering fruit for El Jícaro market.

   Mr. Bracken, interpreter of El Jícaro:  Who is he?  What's his interest in gathering lists of names?  Is this merely his cartographic imagination at work, or is there more to it?

   Sketch (enclosure) has not been found.

P C - D O C S :      P A T R O L   &   C O M B A T    R E P O R T S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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