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Los Voluntarios  •  1929  •  pg 1
a failed counterinsurgency experiment of the us marines & la guardia nacional
  TO 31 MARCH 1929 1-24 APRIL 1929 25 APR-JULY 1929 PHOTOS

     This is the first of FOUR MAIN pages housing materials relating to the fascinating case of the Voluntarios, a counterinsurgency experiment that the US Marines undertook from January to June 1929 to augment the native Guardia's limited military capabilities in the fight against Sandino & the EDSN.  (Photo: Liberal & Voluntario General Juan Escamilla in Jinotega, 1929)

      The Voluntarios experiment failed utterly.  How do we interpret that failure?  The documents presented in these pages suggest a number of broader questions, themes, and conclusions.  By my reading, the scheme not only failed but backfired, in multiple ways.  Senior US military leaders (Gen. Feland, Col. Dunlap) created the Voluntarios at a particular moment (early 1929), mainly for political reasons.  The goal was to put Nicaraguans "in the field" and at least appear to be trying to "exterminate bandits" alongside the Marines, in order to legitimate the intervention in the eyes of the populace.  As Col. Dunlap put it in a personal letter to Col. Berkeley (Jan. 29), "If this force never has a [military] contact it is going to exercise a decided influence for good in that the natives will see that Nicaraguan authority is interested in suppressing the bandits."

    Just-inaugurated President Moncada's interests dovetailed with Dunlap & Feland's.  Moncada had election promises to keep.  Appointing his old Liberal generals — Escamilla, Flores, Caldera, and many others — he repaid his political allies, filled a gap in Guardia recruitment, and unleashed the violent persecution of Conservatives as well as the EDSN. 

    Among the elite, the Voluntarios re-inflamed Liberal-Conservative conflicts from the just-ended Civil War.  Among campesinos, the extreme violence inflicted by Voluntario & Marine Corps troops inflamed popular sentiments against the state & toward Sandino, especially in the Western Segovias & the Jinotega highlands, and especially around Yalí.  More broadly, the whole idea behind the Voluntarios ran directly against the grain of the larger, structural shift being engineered by the State Department:  the centralization of violence-making capacities in the institution of the Guardia Nacional.  For all these reasons the whole experiment lasted only five months (January-May 1929, more or less, with some remnants continuing afterward).  A short-term political fix, the scheme quickly backfired, and was ended by new Commanding General Dion Williams.  In the bigger picture, the failure of the Voluntarios mainly speaks to the success of the national state in rapidly monopolizing violence-making capacities in the institution of the Guardia Nacional.  It's an exceptionally illuminating flash-in-the-pan set of ironies & unintended consequences that speaks to broader issues of state formation, popular nationalism, civil war, empire formation, strategies of counterinsurgency, and more.  

      "There should be no place in the scheme for an orphan organization," wrote the perspicacious Marine Corps Captain George F. Stockes on 8 April 1929 in his recommendation that the Voluntarios, with whom he'd worked closely for the past several months, be disbanded.  "The Volunteer force is partisan. . . .The Guardia is non-political.  In a country where people are so violent in their political views, this is of extreme importance. . . . the Guardia Nacional should constitute the armed forces of the Nicaraguan Government."  Stockes perceived, accurately, that the fragmented, decentralized, personalized nature of the violence practiced by the Voluntarios was fundamentally incompatible with the central state's rapid monopolization of the legitimate authority to exercise violence-making capacities across the national territory.  Yet the pressures that led to the creation of the Voluntarios did not go away, leading to a series of related experiments after the official termination of this one in May 1929.  And the Guardia did not remain "non-political" for long.  Indeed, it never was, but the Marines tried hard to make it so.

      The first three Voluntario pages house 152 documents in 193 JPEG files, organized chronologically, that relate to the creation, activities & disbandment of the Voluntarios.  Around 60 newspaper accounts, mainly from La Tribuna in Managua, complement the "official" record of the Marines & Guardia.  Page 1 begins in April 1928 with a handful of context-setting documents and takes the story to the end of March 1929.  Page 2 takes us from April 1-24, 1929Page 3 carries the story into May, June & July, with the disbandment of the Voluntarios and the ripple effects of the terror they wrought across rural Jinotega, as seen in the battalion medical officer's 12 July 1929 report on the "refugee" camps outside San Sebastian de Yalí.  The official record amply substantiates press allegations of atrocities committed during this prolonged "Pacification" campaign (e.g., "Escamilla y el Pueblo de Yalí," La Tribuna, July 24).  Marine-Guardia documents in these pages are scans or digital photos of photocopies of the originals, most from Record Group 127 of the US National Archives, with archival locations usually indicated on each document.  The pages of La Tribuna were photographed in the Library of Congress.   Page 4 (located in PHOTO-DOCS > USMC-GN > PAGE 7: VOLUNTARIOS) houses all known photographs of Voluntario jefes & troops (13 in all). 

      Several other pages offer additional materials on the Voluntarios:  

•  Additional Patrol & Combat Reports involving the Voluntarios are housed in PC-DOCS for the first half of 1929.

•  The Bush Trial & Statement of EDSN General Manuel María Girón Ruano, executed in early March 1929 by Hanneken & Escamilla after a kangaroo court convicted him of "banditry," are housed in the TOP 100, PAGE 27.

•  The Joint Operations of Marines & Voluntarios in the Western Segovias & Honduran borderlands are housed in both the PC-DOCS for the first half of 1929, and in the TOP 100, PAGE 33.

      The collection begins about nine months before the formal constitution of the Voluntarios in January 1929.  A handful of representative documents provide context & set the stage for what followed:  property-owners' appeals to the state for protection of their properties — the dissolution of any practical distinction between Sandinista rebels and Segoviano civilians, as perceived by the architects & practitioners of the counterinsurgency campaign — the fiscal incapacities of the national state to pay for the war against Sandino and for a standing army big enough to maintain the level of "order & stability" that the USA deemed necessary — and the Marines' efforts to enlist the services of civilian militias in order to make up for the military deficiencies of the Guardia Nacional.

      Interpretive or explanatory remarks accompany some transcriptions.

      Grateful acknowledgments are extended to my friend Linda M. Kinney for her help with the transcriptions.

April 9, 1928.
"Apprehension of Sandino Agents," Intelligence Memorandum, Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.  
"1. It is desired that a special effort be made to arrest persons who have been actively engaged in helping Sandino and his followers. This to include persons who are reputed to be 'playing both sides'.  ¶  2. When such persons are arrested it is requested that this office be notified with a view to securing their confinement in the National Penitentiary at Managua, with general charges being preferred against them for aiding Sandino in rebellion against his government.  ¶  3. Names of agents will be sent as they are secured. They will be sent to all intelligence officers for further distribution by them.  ¶  4. At this time it is desired that the arrest of the following be secured:  ¶  (a) Hipolito Agasse, who has a store at San Marcos and Telpaneca.  ¶  (b) Guadalupe Rivera, owner of Santa Cruz. Has also lived in Jinotega. His house has been used for some time as a base for forwarding supplies, mail and military stores of all descriptions.  ¶  (c) Gregorio Espinosa, a caretaker of a ranch at the northern exit of the Guale Pass, owned by Señora Pastora Blandon v. de Mairena of Jinotega. (d) Nicolas Jarquin, Juez de Mesta. A very active Sandino agent. Jefe Politico in Jinotega may know more about this person.  ¶  (e) P. Palina A., Guiguili.  ¶  (f) Andres Garcia, Pantasma.  ¶  (g) Bartolo Villagra. Letter originated from Santa Helena. Do not know where this is. Letter was dated March 1, 1928. (h) Salvador Gutierrez. Communicates with Rivera. Believed to be in Jinotega area. (i) Domingo Perez, believed to be from Santa Cruz, Guale or Pantasma.  ¶  (j) Francisco Salgado of Matosano. (k) Jose Morales, believed to be from Las Vegas.  ¶  5. It is requested that Calderon, now confined at Pueblo Nuevo be held until further orders.  ¶  6. Señora Pastora y de Mayrena Blandon [Pastora Blandon v. de Mairena] of Guale should be watched.  ¶  7. When sending reports please include any available evidence.  ¶  8. Commanding officer Eastern Area arresting any agents of Sandino will secure their confinement in the most convenient place in that locality."

Notes & Comments:  This and the following documents included to illustrate several broader themes that continued under the Voluntarios:   the Marine-Guardia's expanding practice of identifying specific individuals for detention or surveillance, and because one such suspect is Pastora Blandón v. de Mairena, who figures prominently in the documents to follow.

April 12, 1928.
"Jefe Politico, Jinotega," Major K. E. Rockey, Guale.  
"Enclosure: (a) Letter from Capt G. T. Hall.  ¶  1. In connection with the attached letter it has been determined:  ¶  Valonio Gadea (a), father of one Andre Gadeas, has been an active bandit sympathizer for a long time, carried pack mules of food supplies to Yacca Pucca [Yucapuca] when Sandino's forces were there. His son has been in correspondence with Sandino's officers and both Gadeas father and son went in hiding upon our arrival in this area. Son reported to be now with Sandino's army.  ¶  Nicolas Jarquin, Juez de la Mesta, Guale has acted as collecting agent for stores being sent to Sandino. This had been reported several times during March and should have been well known by the Jefe proving conclusively to be true by letters captured, written by Jarquin. Jarquin also in hiding or with bandits.  ¶  Pastora Mairena, Senora Pastora y de Mayrena Blandon, owns finca at Guale. Her overseer active bandit sympathizer, participated in bandit looting. Dynamite bombs found in her house at Guale.  ¶  2. Since the Jefe Politico has been rather prolific in furnishing information it is believed the above facts should be noted. It is also worthy of note that recent reports coming from the Jefe concerning bandits near Santa Fe Ranch (Northeast of San Rafael) were entirely erroneous. /s/ K. E. Rockey"

Notes & Comments:  This document included to illustrate the counterinsurgency practices of the Marines the Marine-Guardia's expanding practice of identifying specific individuals for detention or surveillance, and because one such suspect is Pastora Blandón v. de Mairena, who figures prominently in the documents to follow.

May 21, 1928.
Letter of Complaint, Pastora Blandón viuda de Mairena, Jinotega, to Col. R. R. Wallace, Commanding Chief of the American Forces in Jinotega.  
[English translation only.] "Mr. Colonel R. R. Wallace, Commanding Chief of the American forces residing in this Center section - City -  ¶  I, Pastora Blandon, widow of Mairena, of age, of domestic occupations, and of this domicile, before you and with all consideration, expose: that I am the owner of an agriculture farm, situated at the Pantasma Valley, (Guale) of this jurisdiction, in which ranch I live, and have lived for many years, working and forming all that I possess for my small children.  ¶  In said ranch I had cattle, hogs, chickens, and all that is necessary for field work. Living as I do, in the country, and without a doubt I am exposed to all kinds of contingencies, but I am not to blame for the situation of the moment or what is going on in our country: just the same, I have been a victim to the abuse of the bandit troops commanded by Sandino and after that I have been also a victim of things done by the Marine Corps who have come to guarantee order and peace.  ¶  As I said before, it had been some days before that Sandino's' troops had been at my ranch and they forced me to give them several head of cattle, sacks of coffee and salt and other things that I had for me and my family's personal use, leaving me a receipt for the correspondent claim of every thing taken: Subsequently, on the third of April of 1928, a column of Marines arrived at the same ranch, who were going in a North direction, and after having searched my house, and having found those receipts given by the Sandinistas Chief, I was called a Sandinista and then the destruction of all my property started, furniture, animals and all the fruit of the ranch. I had stored in my house 25 sacks of coffee, in the raw, that would give 10 sacks of coffee in gold; twenty loads of corn a lot of lumber with which I was going to build a house, as the present one is in very bad shape and also I had a man's saddle in full service with all its equipment.  ¶  The lumber was totally destroyed, made fire wood, the corn and coffee was scattered and ruined; my clothes and those of my children were cut into bits; two mules and a big mare, of good quality were taken for the use of the Marines, and I think that at present they are at service here. Three fat cows were butchered also two three year old bulls a calf, four three year old cows, three or four pigs and all the chickens in the coop. In the same way were made into fire wood, tables, desks, beds, chairs, boxes to dry coffee with, pack saddles; to end it the only thing left of my house was its name.  ¶  Making the value of all lost in that way, $660.00. Furthermore in the month of December of last year when Colonel Livingston went by my house, going north, in pursuit of the bandits, he stayed 8 days at my house, having had, all this time 180 mules in my pasture, saying that I would be paid for pasturage which amounts to $150.00, more or less, for the 8 days at the rate of 10 cents per day per mule. . . . [p. 2]  ¶  The second time that the Marines came here, when they destroyed my property, I don't know how many animals they had in my pasture only they stayed 15 days and that in those 15 days they destroyed all what I own, because they said I was a Sandinista, as if a woman, alone and indefensive could have party and political opinions. Furthermore, to my foreman Gregorio Espinosa who was at the ranch when the Marines arrived, and who they tortured because of thinking him a Sandinista they took away from him $40.00 that I had given him to buy some cattle with.  ¶  All that I expose for your knowledge, I do it with the object of having reparation and payment, and furthermore to ask guarantees be given to me because I have necessity of working and I should not be exposed to any new offenses they may cause me. I beg you, to take this exposition before the Supreme Command if you will, so that they give me security and peace in my home, and tell me that if I may wait reparation of the damages caused to my property.  ¶  Jinotega, 21 May, 1928  ¶  Pastora v. de Mairena"

May 30, 1928.
Response to Complaint, Major B. S. Berry, Matagalpa.   "1. The enclosed letter was handed to the undersigned recently by the writer thereof who lives in Jinotega.  (2) I questioned her regarding the period of eight (8) days which she says Captain Livingston spent at her ranch and discovered she meant four (4) actual days there being two periods of twelve hours each in each day, which are used in charging for pasturage.  ¶  3. I am unable to state which patrol went through Guale on April 3. It may have been some of Major Rockey's column."

June 27, 1928.
"Complaint of Pastora V. de Mairena," Northern Area Commander J. A. Rossell, Ocotal.   "9th Endorsement  ¶  Returned with the recommendation that the claim of Pastora v. de Mairena of Jinotega against the Corps by reason of Major Rockey having camped on her property be settled at $87.37, plus the $40 now in Major Rockey's possession provided she, Pastora Mairenas, furnishes convincing proof of her right to this last mentioned sum."

June 27, 1928.
"Claim of Pastora Blandon, widow of Mairena," N. M. Shaw, Jinotega.   "1. Relative to the claim of Pastora Blandon, this woman has called at this office and given the following information:  ¶  (a) That Captain Livingston's column with 180 animals stayed four days at her place, 180 animals 4 days @.20, $144.00.  ¶  (b) That the last column was there on Tuesday of Holy Week and that the damage was done by this patrol (probably Major Rockey's column).  Claims loss of the following:  ¶  1000 lbs coffee @ .14 lb $140.00  ¶  4000 lbs corn $30.00  ¶  lumber used as fire wood $60.00  ¶  4 pack saddles ¶  3 cows  ¶  2 young bulls  ¶  Furniture used as firewood:  ¶  3 tables  ¶  1 bed  ¶  3 canvas beds  ¶  2. More articles are claimed in her statement but in conversation the above was all that was specifically mentioned.  She wants papers to protect her from Marines but was informed the best place for her was Jinotega.  Liberals say the woman is OK, Conservatives say that she is a Sandinista. Espinoza has not been from my information, with Sandino.  Evidence from creditable people in Jinotega is to the effect that the Mandador (Gregorio Espinoza) had money, $30.00 or $40.00, at the time of the raid paid him for the sale of cattle and coffee.  ¶  3. I have been unable to obtain any information that would justify the making of a recommendation as to the justness of this claim."

October 25, 1928.
"Roster of vigilantes organized at San Lucas," E. H. Salzman, San Lucas (near Somoto).

"1. Forwarded herewith is the roster of the vigilantes organized in this area: ¶
Jefe Juan Bautista Rivera. ¶
Captain Joaquin Lovo B. - Liberal - San Bernardo. [Joaquín Lovo B.] ¶
Lieut. Abraham Vilchez - Liberal - El Sipian. [Abraham Vílchez] ¶
Sgt. Gonzalo Hernandez - Conservative - La Grama. [Gonzálo Hernández] ¶
Sgt. Maximo Gutierrez - Liberal – Sapotillo. [Máximo Gutiérrez] ¶
1. Gabino Banega - Liberal - El Sipian. [Gabino Vanega] ¶
2. Jose E. Diaz - Liberal - Inali. [José E. Díaz] ¶
3. Policiapo Espinosa - Liberal - Mal Paso. [Policarpo Espinoza] ¶
4. Camilo Perez - Conservative - Guilo. [Camilo Pérez] ¶
5. Augreliano Moreno - Liberal - Cuyas. [Aureliano Moreno] ¶
6. Juan Carazo - Liberal - Las Canales.  ¶
7. Natividad Gutierrez - Conservative - Los Canales. [Natividad Gutiérrez] ¶
8. Santiago Moreno - Conservative - Unile. ¶
9. Antonio Moreno - Conservative - Unile. ¶
10. Abelisario Vasquez - Conservative - Inali. [Abelisardo Vásquez] ¶
11. Tiofilo Banegas - Conservative - Inali. ¶
12. Ysabel Gonzalez - Conservative - Cuyas. [Ysabel González] ¶
13. Justiniano Miranda - Conservative - Cuyas. ¶
14. Felipe Tescano - Conservative - Cuyas. ¶
15. Anastacio Perez - Liberal - Las Canales. [Anastacio Pérez] ¶
16. Sebastian Rivas - Liberal - San Lucas. [Sebastián Rivas] ¶
17. Franimo Moreno - Liberal - San Lucas. [Francisco Moreno] ¶
18. Mancz Omanzor [Umanzor] - Liberal - Matasano. [Moisés Umanzor] ¶
19. Octavio Mendez - Liberal - Las Sabanas. [Octavio Méndez] ¶
20. Bugido Lopez - Liberal - Quebrada Unile. [Bugido López] ¶
21. Jose A. Banega - Liberal - El Sipian. [José A. Vanegas] ¶
22. Secundino Perez - Liberal - Coyolito. [Secundino Pérez] ¶
23. Jeronimo Gutierrez - Liberal - San Lucas. [Jerónimo Gutiérrez] ¶
24. Jose R. Albarado [Alvarado] - Liberal - El Sipian. [José R. Alvarado] ¶
25. Jesus Perez - Liberal - Matasano. [Jesús Pérez] ¶
26. Carlos Dabila [Davila] - Liberal - Santa Isabel. [Carlos Dávila] ¶
27. Julian Sanchez - Liberal - Santa Isabel. [Julián Sánchez] ¶
28. Juan Ramon Perez - Liberal - Matasano. [Juan Ramón Pérez]"

December 4, 1928.
Letter soliciting assistance, Carlos Haslam from his finca in Jinotega, to General Feland, Managua.   "Sir:  ¶  As you told me in April last that when I was in need of something I could address you I am doing it now because now more than ever I need your good help.  ¶  As you may remember I was cooperating at that time with Capt. Hart in the pursuing of the bandits and after Capt. Hart left I worked with Capt. Phipps and now I am completely alone in my farm, and hated by the bandits. Pedro Altamirano, head of a gang, has said that he will murder me because I have been with the Marines.  ¶  This is what makes me request you to send at least ten Marines for two months time at least whilst I gather my coffee. I shall take charge of helping to take food to them. The house in Las Brumas farm where I live is big and I will give them whatever I can in order that they may be well treated. If you like you can send ten Marines and ten rifles more in case the bandits come near here we can find ten men of my full confidence to capture those outlaws.  ¶  Hoping my request will be favorably considered, I am,  ¶  Yours  ¶  CARLOS HASLAm" [English translation only]

January 7, 1929 (1430, 1735).
Telegram from Enrique Gulke, Guale, President of Junta Representing Coffee Planters of Jinotega Department, to General Feland & President Moncada, Managua.  

January 8, 1929 (0822, 1043).
Telegram from COBN [Commanding Officer, Batallion] to COFI [Gen. Feland, Managua?], with handwritten Memo from H. Schmidt (B-3) to Gen. Feland.    "0508 YOUR 0508 0822 PERSON NAMED (PLATA) DECLINES TO OPERATE WITHOUT ADDITIONAL FUNDS FROM THE COFFEE JUNTA LATTER WILL ADVANCE NO FURTHER FUNDS UNLESS ASSURED THAT NATIONAL GOVERNMENT WILL REIMBURSE THEM THEREFORE PATROL MENTIONED IS NOW AT STANDSTILL AT JINOTEGA 1043"  ¶  [Handwritten note:] "Memo for Gen. Feland. I have had 5th Regt. send message to have the Junta go ahead. I had not received the message when I spoke to you and therefore was not accurately informed. I will also get an estimate and if the national government can not pay all, we could pay some. It would be very desirable to have Plata out for a longer while at least. B-3 [Major Hans Schmidt]"

January 9, 1929.
"El General Caldera para el Norte," La Tribuna (Managua).    "Conversamos con el Director General de Comunicaciones general Augusto J. Caldera de quien se dijo que irá abatir a los rebeldes del Norte con un ejército de nativos.  ¶  Sobre el particular el general Caldera nos dijo lo que sigue:  ¶  — El día anterior del viaje del general Moncada a León me dijo que él queria que yo fuera al Norte a batir a los rebeldes; pero como no habia tiempo suficiente para tratar el asunto con detenimieneto, no entramos en detalles sobre el particular. A mi me agrada el cargo de general en jefe se me ha ofrecido, puesto que ello significa que el Mandatario tiene gran confianza en mi, por lo que me muestro muy agradecido. ¶ — Y cuando más o menos será la salida para los campos de batalla?  ¶  — Es posible que en toda esta semana.  ¶  El ejército será reclutado, en esta capital?  ¶  Todavia no lo sé; esos detalles posiblemente he de conocerlos esta tarde porque tendré una conferencia con el señor Presidente de la República sobre este importante asunto."

January 10, 1929.
"El Gral. Caldera no se irá todavía," El Comercio, Managua, p. 1.  
"Sobre las fuerzas expedicionarias que irán a combatir a los bandoleros del Norte al mando del General Augusto J. Caldera, podemos informar que se dirigirán a las Segovias hasta después que el General Caldera se someta a una delicada operación quirúrgica dentro de dos semanas más o menos.  ¶  Fuerzas combinadas  ¶  Las fuerzas del General Caldera serán compuestas del soldados voluntarios y de marinos del ejército de pacificación.  ¶  El primer voluntario  ¶  A su oficina de Comunicaciones, entre varios aspirantes a puestos del rama a su cargo, se presentó antier un joven y le dijo al General Caldera yo no vengo a buscar puesto, General; lo que quiero es que me permita ir con usted a combatir a los bandoleros.  ¶  El joven aludido se llama Antonio Aguilar Jérez y el General Caldera lo felicitó por su determinación.  ¶  Los solicitantes se retiraron cohibidos."

January 12, 1929.
"Más de Mil Hombres Van a Combatir al Gral Sandino - El General José María Zelaya Delegado del Ejecutivo - El General J. Antonio Garcia, Jefe Expedicionario - $45,000 Para Los Preparativos," La Tribuna (Managua). 
"El General Alejandro Plata estuvo en esta capital, habiendo salido ayer para las posiciones que tiene cerca de Jinotega con una columna de 50 hombres, más o menos. ¶  El General Plata estuvo a recoger una suma de dinero para pagar a sus tropas con la que persiguió a un grupo de rebeldes que recorría las cercanías de Jinotega, columna que dicen que jamás le presentó acción, por lo que nunca pudo combatir; pero logró capturar varios espias con correspondencia, quienes sería remitidos a esta capital dentro de pocos días.  ¶  RECONCENTRARON A LA ESPOSA DEL GENERAL ¶  La esposa del general Sandino, doña Blanca Aráuz y los hermanos suyos que se hallan en la región de San Rafael del Norte serán reconcentrados bien a Matagalpa o bien a esta capital, con el objeto de evitar la constante comunicación en que se hallaban con el cabecilla rebelde. Un hermano de la señora Aráuz de Sandino era el telegrafista de San Rafael del Norte hasta hace pocos días; una vez se intento sustitirlo, a fines del año recién pasado y las autoridades se vieron obligadas a volverlo a nombrar porque en San Rafael del Norte no consentían a otro telegrafista que no fuera Arauz.  ¶  EL DELEGADO DEL EJECUTIVO  ¶  Hace poco dijo un diario local que el general José María Zelaya iría a Nueva Segovia como jefe de las tropas que van a combatir a los rebeldes de aquella región; pero el nombramiento que el general Zelaya lleva es el de Delegado del Ejecutivo.  ¶  EL JEFE EXPEDICIONARIO  ¶  Como jefe expedicionario de las tropas que van al norte iría el general J. Antonio García, que aunque poco conocedor de las regiones en que se encuentran las tropas del general Sandino, lleva gente que conoce bien los terrenos en donde tendrá que operar.  Como jefes secundarios el general García lleva entro otros a los siguientes:  Coronel Bernabé Marenco, Mayor Francisco Luis Gabuardi, Coronel Pedro Barbas, mayores Pedro Antonio y Manuel Aguilar, etc.  ¶  El general Plata operará de acuerdo con los jefes de la gente que está para salir a esta capital.  ¶  UNOS 1500 HOMBRES  ¶  Los jefes que van a las Segovias están alistado ya a su gente que será bien escogida con el objeto de evitar complicaciones. Varios artilleros serán escogidos de la Guardia Nacional; pero la mayor parte del ejército estará formado por la gente civil.  ¶  C$ 45.000.00 PARA LA ORGANIZACIÓN  ¶  El gobierno giró ayer contra el superávit la suma de C$45.000.00 con lo que se procederá preparar todo lo necesario para el consumo de las tropas expedicionarias. Los preparativos dieron principió bajo los auspicios de la Guardia Nacional, habiendo sido carga da en contra del pagador de la Guardia la referida suma.  ¶  EN LA SEMANA ENTRANTE  ¶  El viaje de las tropas será a mediados o a fines de la semana entrante; y no sólo hombres de Managua sino que Occidente ingresarán al ejército que se está alistado. ¶  Las tropas que van a salir de esta capital hasta Matagalpa viajarán en automoviles y autocamiones; en Matagalpa seguirán el camino a pie llevando el aprovicionamiento en bestias de las cuales hay un gran cantidad en aquella ciudad esperando solamente la organización y llegada del ejército para emprender la marcha."

January 13, 1929.
"Entrevista con el Doctor Gabriel Rivas," La Tribuna, Managua.   [A polemical discourse on the "implacable y despótico [y] autoritario" moral personality of General Augusto J. Caldera]

January 13, 1929.
"Regulations for the Government of those Special Native Units which may be organized by General Moncada," Northern Area Commander Col. Robert Dunlap, Ocotal, to General Feland, Managua.   "1. It is recommended that a letter of instruction be furnished to the officer in command of any native military unit, exclusive of the Guardia Nacionale, organized to assist in the suppression of banditry, and that this letter include in appropriate form the ideas expressed in the following paragraphs.  ¶  (a) The purpose of the military operations, in which you will be assigned a part, is the suppression of banditry and the restoration of law and order. To the end that these operations may be most effectively directed, the command of all military forces, U.S. Marines, Guardia Nacionale and special troops in the area concerend is invested in the Area Commander, U.S. Marines. Therefore you will report to the Area Commander, U.S. Marines at Ocotal (Leon) and discuss with him the mission of your unit. Therefore your operations will be directed by this officer or his duly authorized representative.  ¶  (b) All of your operations must be conducted with due regard to the laws of humanity and the recognized rules of land warfare. Women must not be harmed or maltreated in any way. Innocent farmers or civilians will not be harmed and their property will not be seized. A just amount will be paid for any service, food or other property furnished by any one. You, or in your absence the one who has command, will be held responsible for the actions of your unit.  ¶  (c) At the same time you will use every effort to destroy bandits and those who have taken up arms in rebellion against the government. Those "Civicos" and others who are secretly aiding the enemy must be hunted down and brought to justice.  ¶  (d) You will remember at all times that the marines and Guardia are your allies and friends, and you must help them in every way possible. You may expect similar assistance from them.  ¶  (e) You must see that the men of your unit receive the pay, clothing and other supplies to which they are entitled, and equally, you must see that they render in return the service which is due your government.  ¶  2. It is further recommended tdhat the bandit infested area be placed under martial law by the President of Nicaragua. This would greatly simplify the problems of the military forces, and materially assist in the elimination of banditry."

January 15, 1929.
"Hoy, Posiblemente se va el Gral. Pasos," La Tribuna, Managua.   "Es posible que hoy por la mañana salga para Ocotal, en aeroplano, el general Carlos Pasos, uno de los jefes que van a operar en las Segovias contra las huestes del general Sandino.  Le acompañará en su viaje el joven José de Jesus Espinosa, ex intérprete de la Guardia Nacional en la Comandancia de Policia de esta ciudad.  ¶  El general Pasos operará en las Segovias de acuerdo con el capitán Dunlap, quien también está para regresar a Ocotal para iniciar el avance de sus tropas por guardias nacionales."

January 18, 1929.
"Los Rebeldes en Jinotega," La Tribuna (Managua).    "Sabemos que a una distancia de dos leguas de Jinotega se encuentra una columna de rebeldes, en las cercanías de lugar llamado Saraguasca.  Las tropas del general Alejandro Plata, que serán las que tendrá bajo su mando el general Simón Cantarero, mantiene a raya a las tropas de los rebeldes.  El último militar estufo en esta capital a recibir órdenes del general Moncada y salió ayer en avion a Jinotega para poner en ejecusión las órdenes a que nos refirimos."

January 20, 1929.
"El enganche," La Tribuna (Managua).    "A cuarenta ascienden los enganchados en esta capital, en el ministerio de la Guerra, para ir a combatir a las Segovias.  ¶  El gobierno ha girado órdenes a todos los jefes departamentales para que dentro del menor tiempo enlisten la mayor cantidad de gente que se pueda."

January 20, 1929.
"No Estamos De Acuerdo Con La Expedición Punitiva a Nueva Segovia," El Cronista (León), reproducido en La Tribuna (Managua).    "El asunto del día es la expedición punitiva a Nueva Segovia, para someter a Sandino para la cual se están enganchando soldados en número ilimitado con cuatro o seis generales que se encargarán de dirigir las operaciones.  ¶  Ante todo el pensamiento de la victoria es el que priva en la expedición. Nuestros soldados conocedores de lo que significa una campaña en plena montaña, del género de penalidades y de las grandes privaciones que se sufren en esos sitios abruptos, pantanosos a veces, cubiertos de selvas impenetrables, van con gusto a esa campaña; otros tienen ante sí la idea de la victoria y allá van con entusiasmo como si fueran a combatir en un tablero de ajedrez y con gentes dispuestas a dejarse vencer.  ¶  Por otra parte, veamos el reverso de las cosas. Supongamos que el Gobierno sale derrotado en la expedición. Cuales serían las consecuencias de una derrota? Hasta dónde puede llegar el desastre del Gobierno del General Moncada?  ¶  Digámoslo de una vez, Esta expedición no debe hacerse a tontas y a tantear locas. Hay que considerar, que bastante es la posición de Sandino, dentro de la República, dentro del país; hay que conocer la extensión que tiene el contagio de la rebeldía, el género de propaganda que los mismos autonomistas han hecho o están haciendo para conocer la resistencia de los obstáculos con que se tropezará.  ¶  Por lo pronto lo mismo Gobierno del General Moncada aún no está consolidado. Hay grandes inconformidades, porque resulta a estas horas que todos se creen dueños de los puestos públicos, que los empleados conservadores, que aún se mantienen en sus puestos son motivo de disgustos, para quienes no han logrado asegurarse una renta en los tesoros del Estado.  ¶  Cual es el punto de vista de la actitud de Sandino? Esto lo sabemos todos: Sandino quiere que los yankees se larguen del país.  ¶  El Presidente Coolidge, dijo en noviembre pasado: ‘La tranquilidad en las elecciones nicaragüenses y los indicios de la satisfacción de ambos bandos al respecto, han establecido las bases para el retiro de las tropas hacia lo cual se ha adelantado much en los pasados pocos meses.  ¶  ‘Se cree, añade el mensaje cablegráfico, que Coolidge, desea probablemente que las condiciones en Nicaragua se hayan restaurado a su normalidad antes de dejar la presidencia el 4 de marzo. ¶  ‘Las fuerzas irán reduciendo gradualmente, hasta dejar solamente la Legación o sea doscientos aproximadamente’.  ¶  Sobre la base de esta promesa deben entablarse gestiones amistosas con Sandino. Es mejor llevarlo al convencimiento por la razón, que no al sometimiento por la fuerza. Dentro del terreno de la diplomacia hay mucho que hacer, precisamente porque no se ha hecho nada.  ¶  Hace poco en una interesante entrevista que hicimos al doctor Escolástico Lara, nos dijo, que él podía ir donde el General Sandino, siempre que se le diera una promesa sobre lo que se desea. Creemos que sto no está en las estrellas para parometérselo y que esta promesa, significa para Nicaragua el advenimiento de una paz complete y el primer paso para la reconstrucción de Nueva Segovia.   ¶ — o — ¶   Hay otro punto que considerar en el problema neosegoviano. El del bandolerismo. Con el nombre de sandinistas merodean por los caminos bandas de individuous vagabundos, sin bandera alguna, cuya única ocupación es el robo. Van armados por los caminos pidiendo con el rifle al hombro cuanto necesitan, ni más ni menos que Gil Blas.  ¶  Esto será obra de pocos días; con éstos hay que obrar rápidamente, para éstos, el exterminio es la lay y para éstos precisamente deben armarse los ochocientos hombres de que se ha venido hablando.  ¶  Debemos considerar a estos bandos, como un producto de una guerra larga y nada más.  ¶  Hay un factor que no debemos descartar en una expedición punitiva: el adversario político, que está durmiendo con cincuenta ojos, mientras tiene abiertos los otros cincuenta, listos para atravesarse al Presidente Moncada y crearle dificultades en cualquer momento y en cualquier circunstancia. El conservatismo, unido a los sandinistas de Nueva Segovia, puede ser el origen de la conflagración interior. Talvez sea la chispa del polvorín.  ¶  Hay en este problema puntos obscuros que no alcanzamos a penetrar y aunque hay quienes aseguren que todo esto es lirismo, es el caso que durante tantos meses nada han podido hacer las fuerzas estadounidenses.  ¶  Lo decimos claramente, no estamos de acuerdo con esa expedición; queremos que se busquen medios que esten de acuerdo con todos los puntos de vista que presenta el problema sandinista que no solo está en Nueva Segovia."

Notes & Comments:  A penetrating and insightful analysis almost three weeks into the Moncada administration.  Key nuggets:  Here the Voluntarios are called a "punitive expedition," versus the official language as a "plan de pacificación" (pacification plan).  The author — probably the 77 year-old founder & editor of El Comercio, José María Castrillo — asks what happens if the expedition is defeated and suggests the whole thing might backfire and spread "el contagio de la rebeldía" it was meant to suppress.  He accepts that Sandino is driven by patriotic motives, but that "bandolerismo" in Las Segovias — criminals acting in "el nombre de sandinistas" — is also a big problem.  The framing of Moncada's government as not yet consolidated is entirely accurate, as is the recalcitrance of the Conservatives being ousted, and the potential Conservative menace if they ally with the Sandinistas.  Helps introduce some balance to the mostly politically blind reports of the Marines.

January 21, 1929.
"Memorandum To All Concerned," Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.   "I have just returned from Jinotega where I arranged certain details in reference to volunteers for the General and which you should know about.  ¶  Clemente Torres / Torrez is now in the vicinity of Jinotega and is to organize a group of about 50. He is to be a second jefe of Cantarere's [Simón Cantarero] and eventually may work under him. The plan for Torres is that he will get 15 or 20 men together at Jinotega, be given a few rifles and a small quantity of ammunition, and proceed under marine escort to San Rafael. At San Rafael the patrol will be aughmented by 15 or 20 more volunteers and some additional rifles and ammunition will be given them. They will then proceed under marine escort to Yali where additional men to bring them up to about 50 men will be taken in.  ¶  When Torres gets his men together for operations (initially) in the vicinity of Yali, the General desires that about 15 marines specially selected, with a very high type of non commissioned officer, preferably a gunnery sergeant, be put into the patrol. At least six of these marines should be armed with Thompsons.  ¶  I am making arrangements to get Guardia rifles and ammunition to Jinotega, San Rafael and Yali.  ¶  Plata [Gen. Alejandro Plata] will recruit a few men here and will then go to Jinotega and collect some men he left there. He will then proceed to Ocotal.  ¶  When dates are available as to movements, they will be communicated to you promptly.  ¶  Panel designations for these groups will be arranged by the Commanding Officer, Jinotega, who will communicate the information to this Headquarters and Aviation.  ¶  Clothing and equipment will also be provided by Guardia and Marines in Jinotega and packed to San Rafael and Yali.  ¶  H. SCHMIDT by direction"

Notes & Comments:  Here we learn the specifics of General Feland's vision for the initial mobilization of the Voluntarios in Jinotega under the umbrella of authority of the Marines.  In retrospect it is remarkable that Feland believed that this scheme would prove workable.  Feland became Commanding General of the Second Brigade on 16 January 1928 after a 5-month hiatus (he relinquished the position to Col. Louis Gulick in Aug. 1927).  He kept the job for only 10 weeks (to March 26).  Ironically, the "gunnery sergeant" of a "very high type of non commissioned officer" turned out to be Gy. Sgt. William A. Lee, stories about whose wanton violence & brutality toward civilians circulated widely in the rural zones around Jinotega & Yalí in subsequent decades.

January 22, 1929.
"También voluntarios"  /  "Para el envío de tropas," La Tribuna, Managua.   "Tenemos conocimiento de que los hombres que han de componer los resguardos de hacienda no serán reclutados como se hacia antes. Los jefes políticos de todos los departamentos han recibido circular del Ministerio para que procedan a buscar voluntarios. Se han dado también las órdenes para hacer los uniformes que serán azules, como antes de que fueran su primidos los resguardos. ¶  Se espera que dentro de unos quince días o más tardar dentro de un mes, estarán funcionando todos los resguardos nuevamente creados para la persecución del contrabando."

Notes & Comments:  This piece spotlights another extant & state-sanctioned violence-making group:  "Resguardo de Hacienda", under the authority of the Ministerio de Hacienda — on the lookout for illegal tax-evading activities.  A photograph of one Resguardo squad from 1928 is in PHOTO-DOCS > USMC-GN, PAGE 1.  The Resguardo lasted into 1930 and in some ways after.


"Para el envío de tropas.   En el Ministerio de la Guerra estuvieron trabajando los empleados durante todo el día domingo girando circulares firmadas por el Inspector General del Ejército General Carlos Pasos, relativas a la expedición al Norte.  ¶  En esas circulares que fueron enviadas a personas amigas del actual régimen, el general Pasos pide que ingresen a las filas del ejército que se está alistando o que busquen dentro de su comprehensión respectiva, elementos voluntarios y bien conocidos para que, en el menor tiempo posible, esté formado el ejército."

Notes & Comments:  Active urban recruitment via fliers sent to select friends of Moncada.  Carlos Pasos seems mainly involved for his capacity to recruit men.

January 23, 1929.
"Memo For Colonel Dunlap," Major Hans Schmidt, Managua, p. 1.   "One unimportant change in reference to the movement of the "Volunteers". Caldera [General Augusto J. Caldera] will go to Esteli on Friday and join the column there. Pasos [General Carlos Pasos] will go by the same plane to Ocotal. The column should be able to leave there by about 1000.  ¶  Caldera, who is from Masaya told the General this morning that he had some men coming in here from there and wanted to take them with him. The General [General Feland] was of course unwilling to hold up the movement any longer but asked me to tell you that if they do come up there later, you could probably juggle things so as to get them in. I doubt if any are sent up.  ¶  I am sorry to have had to write you so many times about the same things but you have no idea how many changes have been made. The President [Moncada] and his cohorts have made so many changes, that the General has informed them that it must stop.  ¶  Navas has been located and will probably be here next week.  ¶  If Dawson can get away from here early enough tomorrow and the Nicaraguans can stand the "gaff", they should be in Ocotal Saturday evening or Sunday morning. Although I originally set the hour of departure as 8:30 because I had been informed that Caldera could not leave here until Saturday, I have just informed Dawson that he may leave whenever he desires. I believe his present plan is to make Esteli the first night.  ¶  Colonel Lowell, G.N. is the liaison officer with the brigade for the voluntarios and he has given instructions to other Guardia Officers concerned to help in every possible way. They are to make the necessary arrangements for supplies, equipment and money in every locality. The General desires that there will be Navas and Caldera who are to be paid as the Chiefs of the column in the capacity of Scouts. Please tell Reagan to take up Caldera on his payroll at $150.00 a month and including the 25th of January. . . . "

January 23, 1929.
"Memo For Colonel Dunlap," Major Hans Schmidt, Managua, p. 2.   " . . . The affair at San Antonio was a regretable thing for it appears (although details are lacking) that the patrol was two small for operations in the bandit infested areas.  ¶  Has the detailed written report of the Davis contact left your office?  ¶  In answer to your last two messagges; about seventy five men will leave here and therefore you will have room to inject some into the group up there. Hat bands, arm bands, etc. will be furnished and the Guardia Officer there will be instructed to do the same for up there or in case he does not receive instructions, he will do it upon your orders.  ¶  H. Schmidt, B-3"

January 23, 1929.
"Special Patrol," Northern Area Commander Col. R. H. Dunlap to "The Commanding Officers of all posts in the Northern Area visited by the DAWSON-PLATA patrol."  
"You will furnish Lt. Dawson with at least tw or three Marines on demand, who will be a part of a force of fifteen (15) armed with special weapons, to accompany Lt. Dawson and the Plata patrol (volunteers) which will operate in the north-western Nueva Segovia region.  ¶  2. You will select Marine who are physically fit, courageous and if possible possess a little knowledge of spanish. Commanding Officers should realize that this force of Nicaraguans organized under tried leaders of General Moncada will be invaluable as aid in suppressing banditry and will be able to obtain information of trails, bandits, etc., not possible to be obtained by Marines unaided.  ¶  3. It will be the quickest and surest method of suppressing banditry and all officers are instructed to give it their heartiest support. During Lt. Dawson's march to Ocotal, each Commanding Officer of the post through which he passes will furnish a strong escort to accompany him to the next post enroute capable of doing the same."  [Handwritten note at bottom:]  "Notice given of chg. from Gen. Plata to Gen. Caldera"

January 23, 1929.
"Instructions (Secret and Confidential)" Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal, to Second Lt. Marion L. Dawson, USMC.  
"1. You with a force of fifteen (15) Marines armed with special weapons will accompany General Plata's column at all times.  ¶  2. You will treat General Plata with respect and courtesy at all times but remember that you are supreme commander.  ¶  3. You will support this column in all actions and endeavor to keep the column ever on the aggressive after bandits.  ¶  4. You will instruct General Plata to see that his men (natives) in foraging provide sufficient food for your men.  ¶  5. You will see that General Plata conducts his column according to the laws of war and humanity, however you will not interfere when you believe he is routing out those men who accompany the different columns of bandits for a specific purpose and then return to apparently pacific pursuits.  ¶  6. You will retain a copy of Air-Ground Liason Code No. 2 in your possession at all times while operating with these volunteers and communication by panels will be conducted only by you or by the Marines under your command. Panel designations will be arranged by the Commanding Officer, Jinotega.  ¶  7. You will always be supported by a force of Marines in your vicinity on whom you can always rally or call upon for assistance.  ¶  8. The following route of march will be used: JINOTEGA-ESTELI-PUEBLO NUEVO-OCOTAL."

January 23, 1929.
"Native Volunteer Force, Memorandum for Commanding General," Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal.  
"1. Enclosures [6 total] are forwarded as confirmation and as showing steps taken by me toward assisting the organization of the native voluntary force.  ¶  2. Lieutenant Dawson will arrive Managua via plane on January 23 for duty with General Caldera. I consider him a very excellent young officer and he should perform this mission creditably.  ¶  3. Please advise if Gunnery Sergeant Lee and his contingent of picked marines will remain with General Plata's patrol that will operate initially in the vicinity of Yali. I recommend that this be done in view of the fact that these marines are now with Torres and are acquainted with the organization. Further, I shall be obliged to furnish specially selected marines for both native columns operating in Eastern and Western Nueva Segovia respectively."

January 23, 1929.
"Memo for Colonel Dunlap" [in response to Dunlap Memo of 23 Jan.], Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.  
"The last paragraph of your memorandum of 23 Jan leads me to believe that I have confused you in some of the details concerning the volunteers. They have changed things so much here that I have had difficulty keeping up with the situation.  ¶  The old Plata group, now under Cantarero is operating in the Jinotega area and has Lee and his marines still with it.  ¶  The Torres group is being organized and after it reaches Yali you will in accordance with my memo of January 21 be expected to furnish the marines for that group. About ten or twelve with a suitable proportion of Thompsons will be necessary.  ¶  Torres has always expressed a desire to operate against Centeno and initially at least he will operate under instructions from you in that vicinity if you do not recommend otherwise. Later on he may be sent to Cantarero or Cantarero may come up there depending on the situation.  ¶  I do not believe that Dawson has had quite as much time as would be desirable but he has taken hold of the thing and I can not see any difficulties ahead."

January 24, 1929.
"Notas:  Se va General Flores," La Tribuna (Managua).  
 " . . . De un momento a otro saldrá para Nueva Segovia el general Felipe T. Flores, con el cargo de Jefe Expedicionario de una parte de las fuerzas que se organizan para combatir con los rebeldes del norte."

January 24, 1929.
"La Región Segoviana," editorial in Patria (León), reprinted in La Tribuna (Managua).  
 "Grandes aprestos militares se están haciendo para iniciar una campaña contra Sandino en la devastada región segoviana. A la fracasada táctica yanky que tiene más de un año de estar operando sin ningún resultado, se le opondrá la criolla, dirigida por jefes nicaragüenses, pues se tiene el propósito de hostigarlo y vencerlo con su mismo procedimiento de emboscadas y de guerrillas. Allá veremos, si no nicas, pueden más que los yankees, contra sus hermanos que enarbolan el pendón de la soberanía de Nicardagua, y que por desgracia, el caos que reina en la región segoviana ha dado origen el feroz bandolerismo, que ha servido de pretexto para considerar a Sandino como a jefe de bandidos y ladrones.  ¶  A la verdad, que el gobierno de Moncada, con esta expedición se va a jugar todo su prestigio, pues se debe tomar en cuenta que la América Latina, mantiene oido avizor en todo cuanto se refiere al héroe de las Segovias y si la tal expedición de generales sale derrotada su fracaso repercutirá en todo el mundo, agigantándose más y más la y legendaria figura de Sandino, que como un hércules moderno, quiere limpiar este establo de Nicaragua, corrompido moralmente hasta los tuétanos."

January 25, 1929.
"Notas:  Se va el Gral. Caldera," La Tribuna (Managua).  
 "El general Augusto J. Caldera, quien fue designado al fin para que fuera al Norte con las tropas como jefe expedicionario, saldrá de esta capital hoy en aeroplano hasta Estelí, de donde emprenderá el viaje hacia Ocotal, por tierra, con la gente que está preparada al efecto en aquella población."

January 25, 1929.
"Suspensión de los enganchamientos," La Tribuna (Managua).  
 "La Comandancia General dirigió ayer circular a los jefes Políticos de todo el país ordenándole la suspensión de los enganches de gente para ir a combatir al Norte hasta nueva orden, dando a conocer que ya se reunió el número de hombres que necesitaba."

January 26, 1929 (1012).
Radiogram from District Commander Matagalpa to CO Fifth Regiment, with handwritten note.  

January 26, 1929.
"Los viajes en avión," La Tribuna (Managua).  
"A las siete de la mañana de ayer salió en hidroavión, con destino a El Cabo de Gracias a Dios, el Coronel José Saravia, nombrado Gobernador de aquella comarca por acuerdo reciente del Ejecutivo.  ¶  A Estelí  ¶  También salió a las siete y media de la mañana de ayer, con destino a Estelí, el general Augusto J. Caldera, acompañado del intérprete don José de Jesús Espinosa, con el objeto de hacerse cargo de las tropas que como jefe expedicionario llevará a Ocotal.  ¶  El Gral. Pasos  ¶  El general Pasos saldrá mañana con destino a Ocotal acompañado de dos ayudantes suyos, como Inspector General de las tropas expedicionarias del Norte.  Va en avión también."

January 27, 1929.
"Memorandum for Major Schmidt," Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal.  
"Referring to your memo of the 25th, it is probable that Navas will prefer to select his own men for the Murra Column. He told me that a large number of his old men are now on the East Coast and that he wanted them. Of course, to get the best results the men must know their leader and vice versa.  ¶  I believe that Navas can recruit a part of his force in this Area, once he gets on the ground. This will be an advantage, for, considering the nature of the duty, hills people ought to prove more suitable than those from the large centers.  ¶  [symbol '#' in margins]   Capt. Stockes reports that recruiting for the volunteer force is not popular about Somoto ------ only 12 recruits have been obtained thus far. However, Lt. Dawson now has 82 volunteers with his column, and that practically fills the allowed strength for Caldera. Thus, you see whe have no excess here.  ¶  I am inclined to think that the reported disinclination to volunteer for service is due mainly to the fact that the public does not as yet know who the jefes will be. [Handwritten notes at bottom:]   # Stockes says he can get recruits now - probably 50  ¶  ## Note - sent Caldera to Condega - he probably will arrive today or tomorrow with his cal."

January 29, 1929.
Letter from Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal, to "Berk" (Col. R. C. Berkeley), p. 1.  
"Dear Berk.  ¶ Inclosed money in payment of my indebtedness. Thanks [now] so much.  ¶  Caldera & his army marched into town yesterday afternoon from Pueblo Nuevo.  ¶  They look pretty well.  ¶  One of his Colonels -- Col. Cajani was backed up at Caldera request - Dawson has later told me that Cajani got drunk & threatened his troops with a pistol - that he Dawson had him confined - later letting him go but as Cajani started drunken again he Dawson told Cajani that he could no longer exercise [the] command. I understand the Minister of War [--] has ordered Cajani back to Managua from Esteli - I have instructed the C.O Esteli to honor the order. The troops are short, some equipment and the 30 additional sets ordered have not arrived. If they do not come or are not sent today will you make sure they are sent tomorrow Wednesday 30.  ¶  It is important to show every effort to help at this stage.  ¶  I shall keep the force here for 3 days - then send them to Somoto where they will begin to operate.  ¶  . . . "

January 29, 1929.
Letter from Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal, to "Berk" (Col. R. C. Berkeley), p. 2.  
" . . . 2  ¶  I am curious to find out immediately who is to command the 25 men from Somoto. I believe it is to be Felipe Flores - of Leon. Please find out and let me know.  ¶  I have insisted that there are to be but 100 in all in the N.W. region and all under Gen Caldera. If this is not a fact please make it so. ¶  If this force never has a contact it is going to exercise a decided influence for good in that the natives will see that Nicaraguan authority is interested in suppressing the bandits.  ¶  Already I can see an evidence on the part of the Conservatives (who fear much) an effort to be first to us with every information.  ¶  Best to the General & you,  ¶  Sincerely  ¶   Dunlap"

Notes & Comments:   Emphasis above is mine, for one of the most revealing sentences in this entire collection.

January 29, 1929.
"Memorandum for Colonel Dunlap:  More about the volunteer army," Major Schmidt, Managua, p. 1.  
"Navas is here. Neither the General or I have seen him. We are collecting his men for his selection and no doubt we will get him out this week.  ¶  General Feland asked me to write you about some points in connection with his column. Do you desire that they come to Ocotal first? The General also asks for your opinion as to the number of men he should take and feels that about 120 should start from there with the idea of subsequently shaking them down to about 100 if you consider that the right number for him to have eventually. Also some men from Masaya and Chinandega will be in the group who will want to go with Caldera. Also a few may be picked up and I believe most certainly Navas will have in mind a few good men he knows in your eastern area. Please make such trades of men between groups (Caldera and Navas) (if Navas is to come there) as indicated in my previous memos concerning Masaya and Chinandega men.  ¶  Even though Navas may be able to find some men there do you not consider it advisable for him to leave here with from 100-200 men? No doubt Caldera will lose some men and so will Navas.  ¶  If you have about 50 recruits there or around Somoto believe you have plenty.  ¶  It might help me some to know the results of your conference with Major Lowell. Has he placed sufficient money there in hands of Guardia Officer for all needs except payment of Caldera and Navas?  ¶  Caldera and Navas are to select their own seconds sending their names to President Moncada for confirmation and commission. The only ones we are going to pay are Caldera, Navas and Plata and as indicated you in my message today not other leaders are contemplated and no other groups are to be formed. The man Flores has, as far as we know, no standing and is not to form any group. I understand Juan B. Rivera is Caldera's second jefe.  ¶  . . . "

January 29, 1929.
"Memorandum for Colonel Dunlap:  More about the volunteer army," Major Schmidt, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . If you consider it advisable and I can help in any way, I would be very glad to come up there and talk things over with you or your operations officer.  ¶  H. SCHMIDT by direction."

January 29, 1929.
"A Las Segovias," La Tribuna (Managua).  
"Es posible que mañana parta para las Segovias el ministro de la Gobernación doctor Bernardo Sotomayor, acompañado de un mecanógrafo o mecanográfa; posiblemente vaya la señorita Matilde Salcedo. El viaje será en aeroplano, y durará unos tres días.  ¶  El señor ministro va a los departamentos del Norte a conferenciar con los alcaldes y los notables de 20 pueblos para ver de solucionar el conflicto de aquellos departamentos asolados por una guerra de más de un año. En Ocotal esperará al señor ministro el Alcalde de San Lucas para acompañarlo a ciertas poblaciones de jurisdicción."

January 30, 1929.
General Augusto Caldera, Ocotal, to Col. Dunlap, Ocotal.  
"Particípole que Manuel Vásquez que salió de Tegucigalpa con 50 hombres fue batido por Sanabriga a 18 leguas de la frontera. Tengo informes que Garvacio Baquedano [Verbonico Vaquedano] va hacia San Francisco Guajiniquilapa con 25 hombres y que de San Marcos salieron 40 rifles para la frontera.  Felícito Moncada está listo para venirse á Nicaragua.  Un Gutiérrez sandinista que estuvo a 3 leguas de Somoto hace 3 días dijo que llegaría Sandino, que lo esperaran.  Traje de esa 80 hombres, y el Coronel Dunlop dice que aun no está autorizado para completer cien.  Yo necesito hacerlo con somoteños conocedores que ya están listos me dijo.  Salgo rápidamente dentro de 3 días y que si más tarde lo creía necesario dividiera mis fuerzas en dos para mandarlas donde fuera necesario. Dr. Sotomayor le informará.  ¶  Gral. Caldera."  [Original document]

January 30, 1929.
"Memo for Colonel Dunlap," Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.  
"The replacement for Cajina should be called a Colonel, as no additional Jefes or sub-Jefes are to be employed as such nor is it desirable that they be known as such.  ¶  Do not exceed total quota of 100 for Caldera and his Colonel.  ¶  Is Juan B. Rivera acting as Caldera's second?  ¶  When Caldera group is organized please let us know how many excess are available there.  ¶  Twenty additional replacements were sent to Leon this morning to go up with Cartwright. Others will go to Esteli by truck when volunteers are moved either latter part of this week or early next week.  ¶  I have asked, through the usual diplomatic channels, that Carmen Torres be turned over to your command.  ¶  H. SCHMIDT Major, USMC B-3"

January 30, 1929.
"Memo for B-2," Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.   
"The following jefes of the volunteer army are now at the aviation camp:
¶  General Excamillo [Gen. Juan Escamilla]
¶  General Gregorio Zeledon [Gregorio Zeledón]
¶  Colonel Bernardo Vilchez [Bernardo Vílchez]
¶  Colonel Leandro Parazos
¶  Colonel Abraham Ruiz
¶  Colonel Moises Ruiz [Moisés Ruiz]
¶  Lt. Colonel Manuel de Jesus Correa
¶  Major Gerónimo
¶  Major Antonio Membreno
¶  Captain Miguel Manuel Angel Caldera
¶  Captain Gerónimo Zavala [Gerónimo Zavala]
¶  In addition to the above ten officers there are 42 volunteers at the camp.  ¶  All the men had one day's instruction on range: they have each fired 5 shots in each of the following positions: prone, kneeling, and standing.  ¶  /s/ H. Schmidt"

January 30, 1929.
"Retiro de los marinos," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Alabama, 28 Noviembre. Robert Narey de la organización ‘Anti imperialista’ está dando pasos para reunir a las familias de marinos muertos en Nicaragua, con objeto de hacer petición seria ante Hoover para que retire a las fuerzas infantes estacionadas en aquel país y dejarse libre al gobierno de Moncada para que extermine la acción vandálica del rebelde Sandino. Dice Mr. Narey: ‘Han desaparecido de Nicaragua los gobiernos que necesitan de nuestras bayonetas para poderse mantener en el poder, nuestras fuerzas garantizaron el libre sufragio de los nicaragüenses resultando el Sr. Moncada, ser el representativo legítimo de la voluntad de aquel pueblo. Ahora dejémoslo solo que estoy seguro cuenta con suficientes elementos voluntarios para dominar a Sandino. No tenemos necesidad de que nuestros inocentes soldados sigan siendo diezmados en una acción que ya no les corresponde’.  ¶  Associated Press."

January 30, 1929.
"Nombramientos," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El general Juan Escamilla fue nombrado jefe de la Columna expedicionaria que ha de operar en el Setentrión de la república.  ¶  El coronel Juan B. Rivera fue nombrado segundo jefe de las tropas expedicionarias que operarán en el Norte bajo el mando del general Augusto J. Caldera."

January 31, 1929.
"Declaraciones del Gral. Feland," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El general Feland invitó ayer los Directores de los diarios que se editan en esta capital para hacerles algunas declaraciones. Concurrieron el Director de La Prensa don Adolfo Ortega Díaz, el de La Noticia don Juan Ramón Avilés y de El Comercio estuvo primero su fundador don José María Castrillo y luego en su lugar su hijo del mismo nombre.  ¶  El general Feland declaró que el general Escamilla no es el Jefe de las fuerzas expedicionarias que operan en el norte, que el único jefe de dichas fuerzas es él (Feland) y que la cooperación del Gral. Escamilla, creyeron de importancia por ser un experto guerrillero; que por lo demás, no hay por qué temer nada de él, puesto que no hará más que cumplir las órdenes que le dé su superior; y además, es de la completa confianza del Presidente Moncada."

January 31, 1929.
"Escamilla en aeroplano," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"En un aeroplano de los Estados Unidos partirá para el Ocotal el General mexicano Escamilla para ponerse al frente de tropas que operarán en el Norte.

February 1, 1929.
"Sigue el enganche," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El Gobierno envió a Masaya y lugares circunvecinos una comisión que encabeza el señor Héctor Rodolfo Flores para reunir más gente voluntaria que se aliste en las filas del gobierno y vaya a combatir al norte al mando de cualquiera de los generales que operarán en aquella región.  ¶  El inspector general del ejército, General Carlos Pasos dió poderes a Flores para desempeñar la comisión a que nos referimos antes, habiendo partido ayer el comisionado para volver cuanto antes a la capital.

February 3, 1929.
Battalion Intelligence Report, 3rd Battalion, 5th Regiment, Matagalpa.  
". . . General Plata has a force of sixty volunteers here now [in Jinotega City] and intends to take the field when the Guardia District Commander has received funds needed for his use, and uniforms and equipment for men enlisted here."

February 4, 1929.
Patrol Report, Lt. H. H. Hanneken, Sacramento (near Murra).  
"Following from Hanneken at Sacramento. Quote.4 Feb. 1430. Went out with Jiron and hiked all night/ Jiron did not guides here ) Returned to Sacramento at 1400 to day. The place where Jiron left Sandino is Chabarria (the owner's name) between Mata-de-Guineo and Murra/ Have a guide here now who knows Chabarria's place/ Can you find another guide? I will leave here to-morrow morning, Tuesday 5 Feb with Lt. Walraven and about 30 men and attack Sandino during the night, attempting to enter the camp. If I can get another guide will send detachment under Ridderhof and McFarland to Mata-de-Guineo and operate toward Chabarria/ Here is some dope:
Jiron states Sandino has thirty men in his camp. Sanchez, Estrada, Simon Gonzalez are with Sandino. Sanchez has a light Browning. Sandino's men have about 5 or 6 rounds ammunition, but plenty of Springfield ammunition. Sandino has never entered Honduras since his banditry but has always had his camp between Mata-de-Guineo and Chupon. General and Colonel Montoya (Montolla) have quit Sandino and have gone with a letter for the new president of Honduras, Mejia Colindres, to obtain permission for Sandino with 30 men to pass through Honduras and then Sandino is going to Mexico, for the purpose of obtaining ammunition. Jiron has quit Sandino and was on his way to Honduras when he was captured. Jiron is a native of Guatemala. Colonel Aponte Hernandez a Venezuelan, has also quit and has gone to Venezuela. Jiron thinks that Salgado is going to quit and also all the rest except Ortez, who does not get along with Sandino and who wants to be the big jefe. (Ortez is a native of Ocotal about 24 years old) Ortez has 60 men, 1 Lewis machine gun, 1 Light Browning, 1 Thompson and 60 good rifles with a good supply of ammunition--, the best equipped outfit. Ortez is now operating between Ocotal and the Honduranian border. Pedro Altamirano has always been an assassin, is about 55 years old, has 30 men all murderers, has one Lewis Machine gun and operates between Jinotega-Santa Cruz and the Cua/ and knows the country better than any other bandit. Diaz from San Salvador about 40 years old, has 30 men, all rifles, operating between Yali-Coco River. Salgado, Nicaraguan, about 55 years old, has 30 men, only rifles and is operating in the Somoto area. Ferdinando Quintero, Honduranian has quit and is in Honduras. The various generals come to see Sandino about twice a year for orders. Sanchez captured a German boy at a coffee plantation at Balsamo about Dec 2 who is still a prisoner. Sandino wanted to execute him, but Jiron as Chief of Staff objected to it and Sandino said he should be killed, that he was a Saxon. Jiron expects that now that he (Jiron) is gone that Sandino will execute him. Mrs. Williams, wife of Williams of Los Encinos has been giving Sandino information since he has been a bandit. Jiron thinks that everyone of Sandino's men are disgusted. Sandino has not even a penny. The men have little ammunition and are only held by threats of Sandino. Sandino has learned that there are several columns of Nicaraguans with Marines coming out and does not believe it, but is seriously worried over it/ Sandino has not taken an active part in any engagement so far. He is armed with a Colt .44 special and a small bolo. Jiron when captured had a Colt automatic pistol (non govt) 35 rounds ammunition, Marine Corps saddle. He speaks English well, appears intelligent, is soldier of fortune 61 years old, married, has a son (28) a daughter (20) in Guatemala City/ He has and can give much information. ¶ (Sgd) Hanneken ¶ unquote ¶ Confidential ¶ Geyer" 

Notes & Comments:  This report was written the day after Hanneken & Escamilla captured General Girón; see TOP 100 PAGE 27.

February 6, 1929.
"Rumor," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Ayer circuló la noticia, en esta capital, de que el cabecilla Manuel María Jirón, uno de los jefes sandinistas y de cuya captura hablamos en nuestra edición de ayer, ya fue traido a esta capital habiendo sido conducido inmediatamente a la Penitenciaría.  Nada oficial se sabe.

Notes & Comments:  This little piece is noteworthy in several ways.  First, the headline seems pretty emblematic of the Nicaraguan press during this period, with "rumors" presented as news.  Second, the piece appeared only three days after Hanneken & Escamilla captured General Girón; see TOP 100 PAGE 27.

February 6, 1929.
"Los voluntarios del general Escamilla," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El general Escamilla acompañado del general Carlos Pasos estuvo en León a buscar gente de enganche habiendo logrado conquistar a 40 hombres, que llegaron a esta capital el lunes por el tren ordinario. El general Escamilla y el general Pasos debían regresar a Managua, ayer, con otros cuantos hombres.  ¶  Ahora el viaje del general mejicano a la zona Norte depende del número de gente que consiga dentro de algunos días más."

Notes & Comments:  Assuming the information reported here is accurate, it is noteworthy that Gen. Escamilla was in León recruiting men only two days after he & Hanneken captured Gen. Jirón Ruano (captured Feb. 3, Escamilla in León Feb. 5).

February 7, 1929.
"Algo de lo que dice," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El señor Ministro de la Gobernación, contestando a preguntas nuestras relativas a su viaje a Ocotal, nos dijo:  ¶  — Puede decirse que los puntos de Somoto, San Juan de Telpaneca, Dipilto, Ciudad Vieja y otros tantos del departamento de Nueva Segovia están completamente saneados de rebeldes y todo el mundo puede transitar sin los peligros de otros tiempos; pero naturalmente las gentes de las montañas siempre andan huyendo porque no existe en ellas el espíritu de cohesión para establecer la defensa de la comunidad; ahora, de lo que se trata es de que esa gente diseminada por todas las montañas se repliegue en los poblados a fin de que cerca de las gentes de la poblaciones se sienten garantizadas y se den a labrar la tierra; el Gobierno les proporcionará las facilidades y cuando ya tengan algunas cuantas aves de corral y cuenten con los ranchos de que antes disponían en los mismos lugares que ocupaban, construidos con el auxilio del Gobierno, entonces serán restituidos a sus pertenencias contando con los principios para vivir, principios que no les sería facil obtener de nuevo sin el decidido auxilio del Gobierno. Se cuenta con que los hombres que se retiren de los centros poblados vuelvan a sus antiguas posesiones, al cabo de cierto tiempo, con ideas nuevas sobre la cohesión que debe existir entre los asociados que vienen de fuera de la comunidad.  ¶  Esperamos, pues, que dentro de unos veinte días, más o menos, las poblaciones de Santa Maria y Macuelizo, hoy completamente deshabitadas, hayan vuelto a la vida ordinaria con el regreso a sus hogares de las personas que ahora se encuentran lejos, obligadas por las circunstancias especiales que han imperado desde hace tiempo en el departamento.  ¶ Al referirse al desarrollo del plan de pacificación, nos dijo, lleno de confianza, que los líderes con quienes se entrevistó en Ocotal están organizando en sus respectivas jurisdicciones centros de propaganda pacifista que deben estar trabajando con ahinco en la consecución de los fines que el Gobierno persigue.

February 7, 1929.
"Sobre el Enganche," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El Presidente de la República, acompañado del Secretario de la Comandancia General, Encargado de Despacho de la Guerra, estuvo ayer por la mañana en el Campo de Aviación en donde se alojan todos los voluntarios que han de salir dentro de pocos días, bajo el mando del Gral. Juan Escamilla.  ¶  El mandatario los arengó vívamente encomiando su patriotismo y prometiéndoles buenas recompensas para cuando vuelvan de los campos de batallas del Norte.  ¶  Los últimos hombres enganchados en esta capital fueron:  ¶  Miguel Esguerra, Napoleón Sotelo, Miguel Miranda, J. Sabino y Reinerio Rodríguez, Santos Roa y Alfredo Acosta.  ¶  Ayer volvió a dar orden la Comandancia General de suspender el enganche de liberales voluntarios, pues considera que ya tiene el gobierno número suficiente de tropas para organizar una fuerte expedición.

February 10, 1929.
"En Yalí," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Según noticias recibidas por la Comandancia General, el General Alejandro Plata se encuentra en la actualidad, con un puñado de gente voluntaria, en las proximidades de Yalí.

February 10, 1929.
"Memorandum for Major Schmidt," Col. Dunlap, Ocotal.  
"Reference your memorandum received this date and re 50 selected Voluntarios to be sent here, I just received a note from Captain Stockes who is in the field with General Caldera. He reports that Caldera preserves excellent discipline is aggressive etc. (In this respect note that it was Pojingo [Simón Jirón or Pichingo] and his men who went out and got contact) That General Caldera is anxious to get rid of a lot of his men who are from the south, who can not keep up and are in no way as suitable for the work as are the men recruited up here. Also that he wishes to get rid of the discontents. That he wishes to fill up their places with men recruited up here.  ¶  I got 25 men with Pojingo for Caldera - I do not think he wanted them at first. Now see his attitude. I think it would be wiser to let me fill vacancies as occurring by men recruited here.  ¶  Again I do not want these 50 unless I can place them with either Caldera or Navas - or maybe you can place them with Plata.  ¶  I have no room in this town for them and would not like to send them off by themselves unless there was a really excellent native officer in command of them.  ¶  In other words I don't think you should get me to absorb any more of them - certainly not at the present. Give me time to shake these I have down and see them doing good and then I maybe can use another column. Really though they are not made good unless they have a fair sprinkling of men from this region and officers among them too.  ¶  Navas will probably not get in until day after tomorrow - possibly tomorrow ('') I will then see what he lacks, try and get him outfitted by asking you to send me stuff) and send him to the east.  ¶  I am really pleased the way Caldera, Stockes and Dawson have camped on the trails of the bandits and the ground they have covered.  ¶  Please tell Colonel Berkely that I will send Dawson in for examination when I can get him. I want Roberts to take his place. Is there not some mistake about Dawson? He was examined about one month ago and found physically unfit.  ¶  Dunlap"

February 13, 1929.
"Recogiendo armas," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"El Jefe Político de Matagalpa, general Rigoberto Reyes, quien se encuentra gozando de permiso en esta capital, nos informó que en aquella jurisdicción se han estado quitando armas a varios particulares; los jueces de la mesta en combinación con los marinos y los guardias nacionales están efectuando esta obra con el objeto de contribuir a la conservación del orden en la región del Norte."

Notes & Comments:  This article is included mainly to illustrate the disarmament campaign unfolding at the same time that the expeditions of Voluntarios were getting underway.

February 13, 1929.
"Encuentro en Nueva Segovia," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Noticias telegráficas llegadas de Ocotal dan a conocer que una patrulla de diez hombres bajo el mando del coronel Simón Jirón C. [“Pichingo”], tuvo contacto con un grupo de rebeldes cerca de la presa de ‘El Zapote’ el 8 del corriente a 10 millas al suroeste de Santa Maria.  ¶  Los informes agregan que no se conoce el número de bajas que se le causó a los rebeldes; pero se sabe que les fueron arrevatadas 8 mulas, 3 caballos, 3 monturas y 2 alforjas.  ¶  El General Caldera  ¶  Se sabe también que el General Augusto J. Caldera, que opera en la zona del norte con un grupo de voluntarios, se halla a 5 millas de suroeste de Las Manos, cerca de la frontera con Honduras."

February 15, 1929.
"De nuevo al Setentrión," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Ayer regresó en avión a Nueva Segovia el general Augusto J. Caldera después de haber conferenciado con el Presidente de la República sobre las nuevas excursiones que ha de realizar para ultimar la empresa que le fue encomendada."

February 21, 1929.
"Serio Encuentro de Guardias con Rebeldes," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"Jinotega, 20 de Febrero de 1929.  ¶  Señor Comandante General.  ¶  Tengo el honor de comunicarle a Ud. que ayer, entre las once y las doce de la mañana, en el lugar ‘La Pavona’ de esta jurisdicción, hubo un encuentro entre un destacamento de Guardias Nacionales y una cuadrilla de bandoleros; el resultado fue que los bandoleros huyeron dejando como veinte muertos en el campo y de los Guardias hubo tres heridos; uno de ellos de bastante gravedad.  ¶  La cuadrilla andaba al mando de Pedro Altamirano (a) Pedrón.  ¶  Del General Plata se sabe por comunicación que recibí ayer, que se encuentra en Yalí a donde se retiró para dar descanso a sus soldados después de varios días de recorrer las montañas de Yalí, sin niguna novedad.  ¶  Jefe Político  ¶  PEDRO J. LOPEZ"

February 23, 1929.
"Montañeses de Yalí," La Tribuna (Managua).   
"EN JINOTEGA.  ¶  En la Comandancia General se ha recibido la noticia de que un grupo de 200 montañeses de Yalí, se presentó a las autoridades de Jinotega con el propósito de hacer una manifestación pro Gobierno Constituido. Las autoridades de aquella cabecera han ofrecido en la población garantías a los montañeses y han dado los pasos necesarios para proveer a su alimentación.  Se piensa en asegurar trabajo a esos hombres en la recolección del café en la zona jinotegana.  Lo mismo que en Ocotal se formará una Junta en Jinotega para que trabaje en beneficio de la paz y una pronta reconstrucción en las zonas afectadas."

February 23, 1929.
"De Matagalpa" La Tribuna (Managua).   
"12 de Febrero de 1929. Señor Director de ‘La Tribuna’.  ¶  Managua.  ¶  Existe en este Departamento un grupo considerable de autonomistas que con fe y entusiasmo apluden su patriótica actitud y están dispuestos a colaborar con el conglomerado de esa para todo lo que tienda a la liberación y progreso de nuestra patria por los medios que aconseje la Directiva de esa capital.  ¶  Efectos de la pacificación americana  ¶  Persona que nos merece todo crédito, llegada de Jinotega nos informó lo siguiente:  ¶  Que en el paraje ‘La Pita’ en la montaña de la jurisdicción de dicha ciudad, un grupo de marinos llegó a casa de Cruz García, y registrando la casa dicen que le encontraron unos tiritos de la U. y unos pocos de Sprinfields. Esto fue motivo para que a García que se encontraba trabajando, en paños menores, lo capturaran y lo culatearan hasta hacerle brotar sangre de la cara y de la cabeza, y lo condujeron a casa de Salvador Picado, como a tres mil varas de distancia de la de García y lo fusilaron sin llenar ninguna fórmula, como matar un perro rabioso. La casa de Salvador Picado queda dentro de la montaña a medio día de camino del camino real que de Jinotega conduce a Bocaisito.  ¶  El grupo de marinos autor de este asesinato forma parte del destacamento que permanece en Poteka [Poteca] embarcadero del río Wanky [Río Coco]. De esta clase de asesinatos han ocurrido en todos los caseríos y montañas tanto de esta jurisdicción como de la de Jinotega, y esto ha contribuido para que se haya hecho más encarnizada y dilatada la lucha libertaria de Sandino . ¶  La Guardia Nacional en este Departamento deja mucho que desear, sobre todo la que permanece en los pueblos de la jurisdicción, en donde ejercen toda clase de violencias con los habitantes de los pueblos, caseríos y haciendas. Si este cuerpo no se selecciona y se instruye en sus deberes cívicos no se sabe a que extremos vamos a llegar.  ¶  Muy adelantados van los trabajos del puente de hierro y base de cantera que se construye en el río de ésta por donde pasará la carretera para esa ciudad.  ¶  La Jefatura de Sanidad está procediendo con actividad a la vacunacián para evitar en lo posible el flajelo de la viruela y sus derivados.  ¶  CORRESPONSAL."

February 24, 1929.
"Notas — Refugiados en Jinotega," La Tribuna (Managua).   
". . . Los refugiados en Jinotega de las montañas de Yalí son 240, en su mayoría cafetaleros. . . ."

February 25, 1929.
"Memo. for Gy. Sgt. Lee," Major Schmidt, Managua.  
"Your report of 22 February is not quite as complete as I would like to have it. You do not state who killed the man. Did Plata do it himself or order it? Did marines have anything to do with it? Why didn't you advise him not to do it?  ¶  Military commissions have been formed to try cases under Martial Law and no one in the field is allowed to kill an outlaw. That is for the military commission to decide.  ¶  Regardless of what you believe to be right you surely can see that such actions will make things very difficult for us. There is a military commission in Jinotega and one in Ocotal.  ¶  I understand that the President sent orders to Plata not to kill people in the manner he did.  ¶  The burning of known bandit houses is legitimate, but do not burn any others for all the people who have been driven out of that area must have some place eto live later on.  ¶  Until further orders do not go North of the Coco without permission from Brigade Headquarters.  ¶  I believe you are doing some good work but be careful and do not go too far."    [NOTE:  Lee's report of 22 February has not been found]

March 8, 1929.
"Court-Martial of Andrez López, in the Camp of Oconguas," General Juan Escamilla, et al., p. 1.  
"In the camp of Oconguas the 8th of March, 1929 at 8 a.m. convened. Convened the undersigned, as members of a court martial by order of the expeditionary chief of Volunteers of this zone, General Escamilla, with the object of knowing the charges against the prisoner Andrez Lopez, which have been preferred; the following is the case and its results.  ¶  Manuel J. Corea, Pres. Deogracias Moncada, Secretary  ¶  At the Camp Oconguas March 8th 1929 at 8 a.m. The present Fiscal W. Espinosa, who has been questioned in order that he may make the charges against the prisoner Andrez Lopez, he said: “1. That he knows by the confession made by the prisoner Lopez that he has had active participation in banditry and rebelry commanded by General Sandino, the declarer states that upon going out upon a commission with the said prisoner as a guide, he said that he knew where to find water because he had once seen the wife of the bandit Salgado, come out from there after taking a bath, he sent to see if it was true, it being true that there was water in the place indicated by the prisoner Lopez. 2. That in the moment of being captured in his camp, that is the right name for it although it was deserted and captured by the vanguard of General Escamillas army, it is possible that he had been in this camp for several days and according to what was found there it was clear that he was not there by himself. 3. That the person interrogated about the different places confessed that it was true that he had remained in said camp several days fleeing from the aeroplanes and that he was alone; but according to the inspection of said place we judge that not alone was he in company of other persons but was also a spy of the bandits, communicating as the first opportunity the advance of the forces of the Volunteers. 4. That also he said to the sentries that guarded him, that it was true that he knew several of the chiefs under Sandino, he also gave the names; he also manifested that a daughter of the prisoner Lopez, was the mistress of one of the aides of Sandino, by name Monico Peralta. 5. That having been interrogated by the General about what he had said to the sentries he answered, that he promised the General that he would show him where he could find some of the bandits and the secretary of Sandino, who is called Cupertino Rivera, upon a commission to the places indicated by him he confessed that he did not know the places of which he had spoken before, that is, he tried to make a fool out of the General and the commission. According to what is here written a true confession of the prisoner, I beg that this Honorable Tribunal declare that he is guilty and in name of the Public, the welfare, and justice for the Nicaraguans capital punishment be applied as an example to the bandits. This was said and signed with the Secretary M. J. Corea, President, W. Espinosa, Fiscal, Deogracias Moncada, Secretary, Luis Rivera Antrada, Counsel for the defense. . . . "

March 8, 1929.
"Court-Martial of Andrez López, in the Camp of Oconguas," General Juan Escamilla, et al., p. 2.   
"Camp of Oconguas 8th of March 1929 at 9 a.m. I had the prisoner Andrez Lopez brought to my office, asking his name, profession, age, and residence and he answered that he was named as mentioned above, forty nine years old, married, laborer, and resided in Quilali, asking him if it was true that he was working during the time he was captured he answered, that he lived there and that he was trying to hide from the aeroplanes, I preferred the charges of belonging to a column of bandits, which charge he denied, I read to him the charges made by the Fiscal, he answered, that all quoted as his having said was true, denying as before that he was affiliated with banditry, he said this and he read his statement, found it in good order and does not sign due to ignorance. M.J. Corea, President, Deogracias Moncada, Secretary.  ¶  In the Camp of Oconguas March 8th 1929 at ten a.m. Colonel Luis Revera Andrada, was named as counsel for the defense, and he accepted the appointment. J. M. Corea, President. ¶ In the Camp of Oconguas the 8th of March 1929 at 11 a.m. the court-martial convened and consisted of Colonel M. J. Corea, Pres. Col. W. Espinosa, Fiscal, Luis Revera A counsel for the defense and Deogracias Moncada, Secretary. After having examined the present statements, they decree; that the prisoner Andrez Lopez is guilty of the crime with which he is charged, as an agitator of public order and of the laws of the Republic: according to the merit which these crimes lend and in accordance with the martial law of the Constitution and Military Laws, and after hearing the Counsel for the Defense who said, that his client confessed said declaration and that he had nothing more to say; and having notified the prisoner to make his last will and testament the prisoner answered that he had no reason for making a testament. This Tribunal being in complete accord, they sentence the prisoner Andrez Lopez, to capital punishment, which we ratified and signed before the authorized secretary.  ¶  M. J. Corea, President W. Espinosa, Fiscal  ¶  Luis Rivera, Counsel for the Defense  ¶  Delgracias Moncada, Secretary."

March 10, 1929.
"De Somoto," La Tribuna (Managua). 
"El general Augusto J. Caldera salió ayer de Somoto para Ocotal de donde volará con destino a esta ciudad, de hoy a mañana.  ¶  Y vice versa  ¶  En cambio general Felipe T. Flores salió de Ocotal para Somoto a hacerse cargo de las tropas que comandaba el general Caldera."

March 12, 1929.
"Memo for Commanding General," Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal.   
"MEMO FOR COMMANDING GENERAL:  ¶  It is understood that President Moncada contemplates offering Lola Matamoras to Managua, and holding her under surveillance there. I have no objection to this procedure, and am inclined to think it a good riddance. Attached is a pamphlet which just arrived in the mail addressed to her.  ¶  Gen. Caldera has apparently become much interested in this woman and he may have something to do with the plans for ordering her to Managua.  ¶  R. H. DUNLAP, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Northern Area."

March 12, 1929.
Report by Voluntario General Juan Escamilla, Oconguas, to Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal (English translation only).   
"The present is to salute you and to render a report of this district. I have explored well this district, all through Oconguas, Remango and La Luz, and I have only found old camps, all the people have fled from this district. These camps have been dis-occupied at least twenty days or more. Tomorrow I am going to leave, going to Congojas, Chicheana, and Paredes to the North of Mt. Paredes.  ¶  Mr. Andres Lopez, whom I had captured about six days ago had told me that he would take me to where there were some Sandinistas, but I was out two days with him and he did not lead me any place. He knew everyone and gave me excuses for them, although he did not give any of them up to me, he is the one that told me that Sandino had concentrated on the 12 of February 35 men, and told them that he who loved him would follow him and that he did not see any way of escape. Mr. Lopez says that he does not know what directions Sandino took, but that Sandino knew that they were going to put Volunteers in this deployment with the Marines and that it was probable that he would be found and captured, that 35 men followed him and the rest went to Zapotilla where they were going to hide.  ¶  Mr. Lopez says that he knows that all that live in this district left for the same place. The Pedro Altamirano has gone towards Jinotega. With Mr. Lopez, I also carried out the order I have about bandits, on the 9th of the present month.  ¶  I believe that there may be people hidden in the district of Murra, or that around the Encinos [Los Encinos] los Guilians [la famila Guillén] has them in hiding, or they have gone to Zapotillal. I work day and night so pray within a month and a half I will have fulfilled my promise to you, that within that time the country would be tranquil.  ¶  You Colonel, know well that Mr. Guiliara [Guillén], has been for a long time helping the people of Protrerios [Los Potreros], El Silencio and all in that vicinity, also of the Encinos [Los Encinos]. It would be a good idea that when we move our camp from Oconguas, we should camp for 3 or 5 days in Protrarios [Los Potreros], so that we may get all the people that are in those mountains, of whom the majority are armed men.  ¶  Awaiting your orders, please receive the warmest salutations from myself and the Volunteers.  ¶  Sincerely,  ¶  S / Escamilla."

March 10, 1929.
"Notas — La Quieren en El Sauce ," La Tribuna (Managua). 
"LA QUIEREN EN EL SAUCE  ¶  Los vecinos de El Sauce se han dirigido a las autoridades del gobierno pidiendo que se mande a aquella población un piquete de guardias nacionales con el fi de que los garanticen contra la criminalidad."

March 14, 1929.
"Las Cosechas Se Han Perdido," La Tribuna (Managua). 
"En esta capital se encuentran el señor Gilberto Morales, director de policía de Jinotega, quien nos suministró los datos que siguen, relativos a la situación difícil que atraviesa el departamento de donde es autoridad.  ¶  El General Plata en Yalí  ¶  El General Alejandro Plata se encuentra en Yalí con 100 hombres bien armados y con un grupo de nueve ametralladoras que le sirven para la defensa de la zona cafetalera mencionada. Ha logrado mantener la tranquilidad en una gran extensión en donde tiene escalonados a sus hombres; pero en resumen el resultado conseguido no es tan práctico porque la mayor parte de las cosechas de Yalí, zona eminentemente cafetalera, no puede ser sacada al exterior de las montañas porque los propietarios tienen miedo de exponer sus productos y la gente que los transporte a los actos de violencia de los rebeldes.  ¶  Más de 15 mil quintales de pérdida  ¶  Se estima que más de 15 mil quintales de café perderán los propietarios de Jinotega. Pedrón estuvo en la vecindades de la cabecera de aquel departameneto por espacio de unos ocho días, pero eso fue suficiente para meter miedo a la gente honrada que dejó de trabajar; además, está siempre palpitante la amenaza de otroas pequeñas columnas que se dice permanecen en las vecindades de Jinotega esperado un momento oportuno para invadir de nuevo las zonas agrícolas.  ¶  En el mismo Yalí no se pudo cosechar todo el café; muchos de los pequeños productores no recogieron ni un grano.  ¶  Pedrón se llevó un gran botín  ¶  Pedrón Altamirano se llevó un gran botín después de su excursión por las vecindades de Jinotega. Se calcula que se alzó con más de C$ 5 000 en mercanderías, alhajas y efectivo.  ¶  Pedrón estuvo con su banda compuesta como de sesenta hombres a legua y media de la cabecera sembrando gran alarma en los ciudadanos pacíficos.  ¶  El la actualidad Pedrón ha ido a refugiarse a las montañas de La Virgen y Guapinol, lugares en donde tiene su centro de operaciones.  ¶  Allí está Sandino?  ¶  Los habitantes de Jinotega que están viendo más de cerca los asuntos que se desarrollan por aquellas regiones, suponen que Sandino no ha abandonado su campañ y que las noticias de que se encamina a México o a la Argenetina carecen de fundamentos, según todas las probabilidades.  ¶  Salgado cerca de Somoto  ¶  Por otra parte hemos tenido noticia suministrada por persona que acaba de llegar de Nueva Segovia, de que Carlos Salgado se encuentra con una pequeña columna de hombres a 3 leguas de Somoto. Se habla también de la existencia de otras pequeñas columnas que recorren la zona de Somoto, lo mismo que la de Jinotega.  ¶  Los vecinos de esta útima ciudad se hallan exasperados y se han dirigido al gobierno pidiéndole que ponga aaaalos medios conducentes a prestar garantías a los habitantes de toda la región, pues la vida se está haciendo imposible con la constante zozobra introducida por la existencia de esas columnas de rebeldes.  ¶  Volvieron a sus propiedades  ¶  Los 250 hombres que de Yalí llegaron a Jinotega en vez pasada, volvieron a sus propiedades llevando la promesa del gobierno de que les garantizarla en sus vidas y haberes. Se les ofreció también que se proveería a sus necesidades de conformidad con las facultades del gobierno.  ¶  De esa promesa se derivó la creación inmediata de la junta de pacificación que empezará a funcionar en breve en aquella ciudad.

March 15, 1929.
General Logan Feland, Managua, to US Minister Charles Eberhardt, Managua, including report of Voluntario General Augusto Caldera, p. 1.   
"My dear Mr. Minister:  ¶  In accordance with the American Legation’s, Tegnoigalpa, despatch of February 26 – 3 pm, which you transmitted to me, I have the honor to inform you that on investigation conducted by forces under my command, discloses the following:  ¶  The Marine Commander with the patrol states as follows:  ¶  “In the past thirty-eight days the undersigned has patrolled the border from Oyote to San Pablo, via Santa Emilia, Calpulos, Zapotal, Bado Grande, Suyatal, Santa Maria, El Yano, Brajil, Los Minos, El Posto, Volean, Jalapa, Toteoasinte, Guineo and Paredes, about 250 miles. There is little doubt that the bandit groups, if they feel so inclined, cross the frontier into Honduras without fear of punishment. It is believed this is particularly true of the border between Oyote and El Posto and between Tetacasinte and San Pablo.  ¶  We were not at any time in Honduras. In fact we followed in general the Rio Poteca from Guineo to Parades, keeping to the West of same and in one case where the trail appeared to cross the river and go into Honduras we turned southwest and passed between the summit of Monte Negro and the Rio Poteca, cutting our way with machetes for the best part of the day, Feb. 22nd.”  ¶  The report of the Nicaraguan General in charge of the Volunteer Forces, is as follows:  ¶  “Informing you of our excursion over the Northern Frontier, and referring to the communication addressed to the Minister of War of Honduras by Mr. J. Gamero M., manifesting to you that all that is stated in that communication has not the slightest truth.  ¶  Events have happened in the following manner: On the 20th of February we arrived at Totcoacinto [Teotecacinte], Nicaraguan territory, where we were royally treated by the Bellorin family, to whom were paid two cows that were killed, and in the valley, all the tortillas consumed by our forces were brought there. On the 21st we left enroute to Guineo, without being one moment in Las Trojas, such as was stated in the communication referred to. In no other part have we paid such a high price for provisions as at El Guineo. Paying for the tortillas two . . . "

March 15, 1929.
General Logan Feland, Managua, to US Minister Charles Eberhardt, Managua, including report of Voluntario General Augusto Caldera, p. 2.  
" . . . cents each, said payment was made by the undersigned Caldera in the presence of the undersigned Capt. Geo. F. Stockes, the same a pig for eight dollars, the payment made by the same Caldera in the presence of the referred to Captain, to the mother of Jose Arauz, the price was fixed by her. And to Arauz a payment was made by Captain Stockes of seven dollars in the presence of Caldera, for a calf not two years old. This same individual and Apolonio Valica were taken as guides on a road to Parades, said road having been used formerly by the bandits. Upon the ending of this excursion they were paid and allowed to return to Guineo, taking with them owing to forgetfulness a machete of the National Forces. The other individuals have not been with our forces.  ¶  We believe we should manifest to you that these individuals according to their own statements have been born and raised on Nicaraguan territory.  ¶  In regards to the violation of women or attempt, we judge absolutely impossible, because the ones that are there are so filthy and repulsive that they would not incite the most careless soldier.  ¶  We have answered with the most absolute truth the false charges of Mr. J. Gamero M., who undoubtedly has been duped.  ¶  AGUSTO J. CALDERA.  ¶  In connection with these reports attention is invited to the fact that up to the time of receiving your message, our forces worked under the impression that there would be no objection to their operations in the disputed territory when contact with bandits was possible.  ¶  With assurances of my high regards, believe me, Mr. Minister, I am,  ¶  Very respectfully,  ¶  LOGAN FELAND Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Second Brigade, U.S. Marines.  ¶  Honorable Charles C. Eberhardt Minister of the United States to Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua."

March 15, 1929.
"Memorandum for the American Legation," General Logan Feland, Managua, p. 1.  
"In accordance with your request of 14 March, the following information is submitted:  ¶  1. Pursuant to a conference held early in January, it was decided to organize three groups of Volunteers for operations in the outlaw infested areas. Approximately three hundred men were selected from a greater number and the President selected three Generals to lead them. These groups are administered by the Guardia and operate in combined operations under the tactical control of the Commanding General and subordinates designated by him. They are at all times directed and assisted by our forces which are always in close support.  ¶  One group operated in Eastern Segovia, another in Western Segovia and a third in the area Northeast of Jinotega. Recently the first two mentioned groups were in Eastern Segovia and in conjunction with our forces operated effectively in that area. The third group after having operated for some time in the Jinotega Area went to the area Northeast of Yali and in conjunction with our forces did very good work.  ¶  Those forces have operated in a most efficient and aggressive manner and have assisted materially in that the ignorant people in the bandit areas have been impressed with the fact and made to realize that the United States is not enforcing its will upon the Nicaraguan people unsupported by any authority of this country.  ¶  Their services have been extremely valuable in the outlaw infested areas, principally because their knowledge of the people, customs and country has enabled them to detect and apprehend the outlaw spies, agents and sympathizers of the Sandino forces.  ¶  Much good has been done and it has afforded the Nicaraguan Government an opportunity to assist in the restoration of a more complete peace and also it has afforded the Nicaragua Government an opportunity for the expression of its national sovereignty against her enemies.  ¶  Additionally those forces and officers of the Nicaraguan Government pursuant to an act of the Congress furnish the agencies by which the Nicaraguan Government is enabled to try outlaws and their agents under Martial Law. The Marine Forces have nothing to do with this except to turn over any prisoners together with the evidence, to the Guardia.  ¶  2. General Jiron, a Guatemalan, was captured by the Marine Forces early in February. He stated that he had quit and was on his way out of the country. He also stated that a number of other leaders and men had, or would quit and subsequent events tend to . . . "

March 15, 1929.
"Memorandum for the American Legation," General Logan Feland, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . confirm that information. He acted as a guide for our forces in later operations and was subsequently taken to Ocotal for the purpose of getting as much information out of him as possible. Late in February, and under promise of clemency in the form of a parole, providing he was instrumental in clearing the Murra Area, with which he was very familiar, of bandits, he acted as a guide with the Volunteer group under the leadership of General Escamilla. On the 6th of March General Escamilla reported to the President that after a trial by Court Martial authorized by the President, he has executed Jiron for treacherously misleading the Nicaraguan Column.  ¶  (NOTE: For the Legation  ¶  The above is the information available in this case. It was purely a Nicaraguan Government affair, was conducted entirely by them, and Jiron was executed pursuant to the sentence of a Court Martial which acted upon the orders of the President and with which my forces had nothing to do.  ¶  In view of the above and if additional information is desired, it is suggested that the Legation communicate with the President of Nicaragua who will have more complete information on the subject.  ¶  Additionally it should be kept in mind that Jiron was the one who led the raid on the Mining Area in April of 1928, in which a great amount of American and foreign property was destroyed and taken away. According to reports from police officials and our officers he robbed many Nicaraguan people leaving many of them destitute and starving and also made Mr. Marshall a prisoner, keeping him in captivity until as a result of which he later died.)  ¶  3. Immediately after the election it was apparent that the outlaw morale was very low. They were poorly clad, were having difficulty in getting the necessary supplies of food, were short of ammunition and were beginning to realize that Sandino no longer had a real mission. Statements of deserters were to the effect that they realized the futility of maintaining their cause. The so-called patriotic motives of Sandino were no longer evident even to the most ignorant of them and whereas he had formerly obtained and held his following by persuasive methods, he had recently resorted to compulsory methods and to threats of punishment.  ¶  Intensive patrol operations were immediately resumed or rather they were conducted on a greater scale than was possible during the election.  ¶  The results to date indicate a further and almost complete disintegration of the outlaw structure. Eastern Segovia and the area Northeast of Yali have been completely cleaned out and reports indicate that a large number of the foreign bandits with their leaders have gone out of this country and possibly have quit entirely. It is considered extremely likely that Sandino, fearing of his personal safety has gone out of the country, whether temporarily . . . "

March 15, 1929.
"Memorandum for the American Legation," General Logan Feland, Managua, p. 3.  
" . . . or permanently, cannot be known. It is reported that he has gone to Honduras or to British Honduras and the reports incident thereto appear well founded.  ¶  Banditry is certainly no longer a lucrative profession in Nicaragua and it is believed that outlaws have been made to realize it, and as soon as the Guardia Nacional is able to assume all of its functions the Commanding General believes that the force here may be materially reduced.  ¶  The situation at present is as follows:  ¶  Altamirano is in the area northeast of Jinotega. Indications are that his band has split up into small groups. Altamirano is a real bandit and the Commanding General does not believe that he has over concerned himself greatly about the so-called patriotic motives of Sandino. While it is true that he has worked with him and under him, he has done so more as a matter of existence than anything else.  ¶  Ortez and Salgado have recently been very reliably reported as moving in the direction of the Rio Negro and the information is such as to indicate a very strong possibility that they are attempting to reach the Gulf of Fonseca, probably with the intention of embarking for some other country.  ¶  A few very small groups still exist in the San Juan de Telpaneca area.  ¶  In conclusion it may be stated without fear of contradiction, that the military situation at the present time is the best that ir has even been, and that this country is in the most peaceful state it has ever enjoyed. The Commanding General however desires to state that there is and always will be some banditry in this country.  ¶  LOGAN FELAND"

March 15, 1929.
"Trial and Execution of Bandit Leader, Manuel Maria Jiron Ruano," Lt. H. H. Hanneken, Oconguas. 
 "1. The subject-named bandit was turned over to Gen. Escamilla on March 2, 1929 at Rempujon, (Narauyal).  ¶  2. Jiron was tried on March 2, 1929.  ¶  3. Above enclosure gives the trial and sentence of Jiron.  ¶  4. Jiron was executed by a firing squad of Voluntarios, commanded by Isaq Solano, Colonel Voluntarios, at about 5:30 p.m. on March 2, 1929, at Narauyal (Rempujon).  ¶  5. Present at the execution were the undersigned, Lt. Jordan, Gen. Escamilla and above firing squad. No other witnesses were present.  ¶  6. Jiron when asked by the Commander of the firing squad, whether or not he (Jiron) had anything final to say, stated, No.  ¶  7. Jiron died instantly and was buried at the place of execution.  ¶  /s/ H. H. HANNEKEN"

March 21, 1929.
"Cumpleaños del Director de Comunicaciones Gral. Caldera," La Tribuna (Managua). 
"Ayer celebró en Chinandega su cumpleaños el Director General de Comunicaciones general Augusto J. Caldera.  Los empleados del ramo de que es jefe le dirigieron calurosas felicitaciones."

March 24, 1929.
"Statement of Manuel Matute" (English translation only), Gen. Juan Escamilla, Las Flores, District of Jinotega.  
"Statement of Manuel Matute.  ¶  Reyes Romero lives at the slope of Guapinol. This Romero is a soldier of Pedro Altamirano. He is the spy of the Coco River and the Picada of Jinotega. At Santa Cruz he gets money loans and provisions for the bandits of that region. Altamirano’s trips are from the Sedro [Los Cedros] to the ridges of Bocaycito along the Tuma River in a valley called Collolar [Coyolar]. The spy at Bocaycito is Eduardo Picaco. He stays in the mountains of Bocaycito for a few days and when he sees patrols, he notifies the bandits and joins them. Leocadio Garcia is the spy at Sonpopera and on the Cua River, the spies are Siferino Mendez and Jetrudes Mercado. At the Guapinol, the spy is Sabas Mazanares and a son of Santos Vasques, and Toribio and Francilino Hernandez are at Las Flores. There is a “Picada” at la Pita, and it is said that Altamirano passed over the ridge through Los Sedros [Los Cedros], and that his family and two sons were with him, and that they have a rendezvous in the mountains of Pita and Bocaycito. Rosendo Zelaya, who lives in Jinotega, is the Sandinista agent who gets provisions in this district, at Las Flores, for Altamirano. Sr. Matute says that Ynes Rodriguez, who lives at Los Sedros [Los Cedros], provides Altamirano with supplies, and know where his encampments are, and Mr. Matute also says that while he was with Altamirano, he assassinated the following: at Cua, Moises Moreno; at Los Sedros [Los Cedros], Ramon Mendez; at la “Kebrada” [La Quebrada], Rosalio Rugama; and the edge of the Pantasma Valley, Ramon Rugama. This is what Sr. Matute stated on the 24th of March, 1929.  ¶  Los Flores, District of Jinotega"

March 24, 1929.
"Battalion Intelligence Report," Capt. W. J. Green, 3rd Battalion, 5th Regiment, Matagalpa.  
". . .  E. MILITARY OPERATIONS: ¶ The following patrols were operating in this area during the period covered by this report: ¶ Capt. Arnett’s patrol operating in the Las Lajas and Las Camelias areas. Lt. Fagans mounted patrol operating in the Caratera area and patrolling from Caratera to Paso Real De Cua. Sgt. Sterns’ Algovia patrol operating in the Isla-Cornubia, Dos Placeras, Uluse, and Buena Vista areas. General Plata’s patrol operating in the Yali area.  ¶  Bandit Activities:  ¶  0518 The following from Lt. Fagan at Caratera: Fairly reliable information reports Pedron on other side of the Pena Blanca in the area of La Pavona, Paso Real De Cua with one hundred men. 0522 The following from Co. San Rafael. Native agent Concordia reports that enroute Yali yesterday afternoon he encountered a women (Luisa Herrera) and learned from her that a group of bandits under Irias had sent her from her home on northern slope of ridge, place called Los Volcancitos less than two leagues from Yali. Bandits told her that they meant to fortify position and give battle to marines they believed following. 0523 The following from Co. San Rafael: One hundred and fifty bandits raided the finca of Andis Bresuis three leagues from Concordia at 2300 last night. Bandits led by Diaz Blandon and Irias took horses, mules and clothing and left finca completely wrecked. All were well armed. . . . "

March 26, 1929.
Letter from Gen. Juan Escamilla, Las Flores, to Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal (English translation only).  
"I received your letter dated March 23rd, and I answer you with great pleasure, and I will give you an account of the prisoners that I have taken, for being implicated in banditry at Cua. I took Sr. Manuel Matute who, according to what he says, works in Los Sedros [Los Cedros] and according to statements made by him, was a soldier under Altamirano. Today I gave the Lieutenant a copy of the statement made by him so that he may send it to you at Ocotal and I sent him another one in Spanish, and I will tell you what happened when we arrived at the house of Julio Guatemala. The report of a bomb was heard, to the south. I immediately ordered a detail of Voluntarios out, and in ten minutes the detail came back with two men and four women who were found hiding at the mountain in some enormous caves, but the Jefe of the detail tells me that three men ran away, up the mountain. The prisoners are: Concepcion Herrera and Esteban Perez. They would not give the names of the men who ran away. They say that Julio Guatemala is in Jinotega, but this man is in the camp of Altamirano, and is in contact with him, and goes to Jinotega and brings information for the bandits. Upon the burning of a house, another bomb exploded. It was in the roof of the house. Some pieces of fuse were found for bombs. I have confined Concepcion Herrera in these barracks and Esteban Perez I left at his house, because he has rheumatism and cannot walk. The women have been left in their homes. I am not disturbing anyone but Herrera who is confined. I salute you most affectionately. I am always at your service.  ¶  J. Escamilla.  ¶  P.S. My troop of Volunteers respectfully greets you."

Marzo 26 de 1929.
Sr. Natividad Espinosa, Managua, al Excmo. Sr. Logan Feland, Jefe de las Fuerzas Americanas (original).  
"Señor:  ¶  En la ciudad de Jinotega y en las carceles de esa ciudad se encuentra preso el jóven Alfonso Torres, por atribuirsele el haber acompañado a otros que militan o han militado en las fuerzas del Gral. Sandino. Puedo asegurar al señor Feland que el joven Torres, sobrino mio, hace mas de siete meses que se encontraba alejado de ese movimiento con el propósito de no mezclarse mas en esos asuntos, y eso es facil comprobarlo.  ¶  Como ahora se encuentra preso y ha sido duramente maltratado por las fuerzas expedicionarias, vento a rogaros ordeneis sea trasladado a esta capital donde pueda permanecer en prision, pero con las debidas garantias. Os hablo, señor, en nombre de los mas altos senetimientos de humanidad y en las seguridad de que pondreis toda atencion a la súplica que con todo respeto os hago.  ¶  Con toda atencion s.s.  ¶  [signed] Natividad Espinosa"

March 27, 1929.
Jefe Expedicionario Felipe F. Flores, Los Calpules, Honduran border, to President José María Moncada, Managua (English translation only).  
"Yesterday General Juan B. Mendez, Expeditionary Commander of Honduras, sent Colonel Abel Balladares to confer with the bandit Carlos Salgado who is at Los Calpules, in Nicaraguan territory. The conference having taken place, Salgado stated that within eight days he would decide whether or not he will give up, as he has to consult his comrades first: Colonel Balladares told him that General Mendoza would not permit him to enter Honduran territory, and that he would defeat any attempt to get in (Honduras).  ¶  I saw General Mendoza today at Los Calpules, at 10:20 am and he informed me that Salgado had left at 11:30 pm yesterday, which information was obtained through his spy system, and the news was satisfactory to me, since I see the interest which he is taking in cooperating with us, in order that this frontier may be pacified. I have captured some of the bandits’ accomplices, and I am trying to find their rendezvous, so as to defeat them. I will let you know as to the result.  ¶  Your affectionate subordinate,  ¶  Felipe F. Flores. Jefe Expedicionario."

March 29, 1929.
Telegram from Jefe Expedicionario Felipe F. Flores, frontier on outskirts of Pedragalito, to President Gen. José María Moncada, Managua (English translation only).  
"Frontier on outskirts of Pedragalito. 29 March, 1929 9:00 a.m.  ¶  Mr. President, Gen. Jose Maria Moncada, Managua.  ¶  I arrived here at 8:00 a.m. behind some bandits, and according to information they passed through here at 2:00 p.m. yesterday going in direction of Las Manos. I continue in pursuit of them. I have information that a Honduran force has left Yuscaran to look after this border and to prevent the bandits from crossing into Honduran territory.  ¶  Your affectionate subaltern,  ¶  FELIPE F. FLORES Expeditionary Chief.  ¶  Jose J. Espinosa Secretary.  ¶  To Colonel Dunlap for his information and further transmission to the President of Nicaragua.  ¶  J. J. Espinosa Sec’y."

March 31, 1929.
"Report of Patrol," Lt. H. H. Hanneken, La Flor, Jinotega, p. 1.  
"1. Lt. Hanneken, Gen. Escaumilla, 10 Marines, 20 Voluntarios and a prisoner Conception Herrera cleared La Flor at 0700 to patrol area around La Flor to investigate various persons living in area. Upon arriving about 3 miles S.E. from La Flor found a large champa and one small one occupied by 3 women and children and one man, none of them attempted to [flee?] saw us about 200 yds away. The man Transito Vasquez stated that Altimarano had passed about 1/2 mile away from this place about 15 days previously and had gone to the house of Jose Garcia for the purpose of killing Jose Garcia and that a Vasquez had also taken to the brush because Altimarano would also kill him. Took Vasquez along to show us the trails in area. Arrived at Jose Garcia’s finca about a mile away and about 4 miles S.E. of La Flor and found Senora Garcia at the house with three small children, stating her husband was in the woods. She blew a horn and said her husband would show up directly. Mrs. Garcia stated that Altimarano had camped at her finca about 15 days ago and remained for 24 hours waiting for Jose Garcia to make an appearance with intentions of killing him, but Jose did not appear, so Altamarno’s band left taking trail toward Boraicito. About 3 days later Capt. Edson arrived at her house and remained about 5 minutes. Altamarno while there killed a beef and a hog. That he had about 40 men and that she knew about 4 of them. . . . "

March 31, 1929.
"Report of Patrol," Lt. H. H. Hanneken, La Flor, Jinotega, p. 2.   
"[first line missing] . . . reports, attached hereto. Cleared Garcia finca and about 400 yds. away received message drop from plane containing Brig. Field Order #1 dated 28 March. Arrived at Base at 1400.  ¶  2. Lt. Jordan 10 Marines, 20 Voluntarios cleared Base at 0730 to patrol to Julio Guatemala’s. Attached is patrol report.  ¶  3. Lt. Piper’s Detachment arrived at La Flor at 1530 and camped for the night.  ¶  H. Hanneken"

March 31, 1929.
Jefe Expedicionario Juan Escamilla, La Pavona, to President General José María Moncada, Managua (English translation only).   
"The present letter is to salute you and to advise you about the expedition in this district of Jinotega. As we were advised that the bandit Pedron Altamirano was around this district we turned back towards this district, but I have not been able to find him. I captured six men of Altamirano’s, but I haven’t been able to locate him where they thought he was. Yesterday I went as far as the borders of the Tuma River, but the bandits had already retired. I have listed all the people going with Altamirano.  ¶  I sent a list to Colonel Dunlap, in Ocotal, to have him order the arrest of some gentlemen of Jinotega who live there. They help Altamirano.  ¶  One of my prisoners was an officer (jefe) under Altamirano; his name is Manuel Matute. That man declared something of importance from which I have drawn out documents compromising some persons, about whom I have already advised, so as to have them captured in order to end the Sandinist propaganda established by them in the villages. I have made up my mind to have this zone tranquil in eight or ten more days.  ¶  At the northern zone of Segovia it was almost tranquil. I had 162 Sandinistas surrender in San Juan de Telpaneca and about thirty and some in Quilali. Some forty who are still around the Jalapa district are still to be taken care of.  ¶  I have made up my mind to go and subdue them when I turn back to that zone.  ¶  Within eight days I want to start over El Balsamo, El Varillal and Cerro Blanco for they have a few cantonments thereabout in the mountains and I expect to chase them out soon and have them tamed down.  ¶  Soon I’ll be informing you about the other journey, which I’ll take over the mountains of Cerro Blanco and Telpaneca.  ¶  Respectfully yours,  ¶  Your subordinate at your orders, ¶  (s)  J. ESCAMILLA."


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