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m-docs •  THRU 1927, p. 8

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      THIS IS THE EIGHTH PAGE of the M-DOCS (Miscellaneous Documents) pages, covering the month of October 1927.  The page is in progress. 

     This website project is indebted to Mr. Brandon Ray, Summa Cum Laude college graduate from Ashford University in Iowa (with a B.A. in History and a minor in Political Science) for his meticulous transcriptions on this and many other pages.

 

 

OCTOBER 1927

1.  October 1, 1927. "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 1, 1927," Major Glenn E. Hayes, C.O. Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N., Managua, p. 1.   "Headquarters, Division of Nueva Segovia, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Ocotal, Nicaragua, October 1, 1927. ¶ From: The Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Chief of Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Via: OFFICIAL CHANNELS. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 1, 1927. ¶ Reference: Paragraph 15, Special Order # 60. ¶ 1. In accordance with the provisions of the reference, I report as follows for the week ending October 1, 1927: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ (a) Ocotal – peaceful. ¶ (b) Jicaro – peaceful. ¶ (c) Intervening territory – generally peaceful but inhabitants are nervous and easily excited. They appear to expect some enemy action in the near future. I believe this to be solely conjecture on their part. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ (a) No change ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ (a) Ocotal – very good – prices of all commodities are coming down. Sugar, which was $20. per hundred pounds when the 1st Company arrived at Ocotal, now costs but $12. for that amount ¶ (b) No noted change in other districts. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ (a) No periodicals published in Division. ¶ (b) No reports received on attitude of foreign press. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ (a) None. [...]"

2.  October 1, 1927. "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 1, 1927," Major Glenn E. Hayes, C.O. Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N., Managua, p. 2.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 1, 1927. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: ¶ (a) Fernando Vallecillo shot himself twice in the chest on the public street at 7:30 PM, September 27, 1927. He died about five minutes later as a result of those wounds. No persons actually witnessed this incident but the fact that he had been in a state of melancholia during the day together with the fact that neither his outer nor his under shirt was pierced by the bullets points directly to suicide. The pistol connected with this incident was a 32 calibre Smith and Wesson and was found close to the body. It contained two exploded cartridges the other chambers being empty. This pistol was purchased from Guillermo Lopez by Vallecillo on September 26th. The latter stated to Lopez that he intended to secure the regular permit for the possesion [possession] of firearms that same day. This office has no record of an application for a permit to possess or carry firearms by him. ¶ (b) A gang murder was reported to have taken place at Los Arados, one league north of Monsonte, on the afternoon of September 29th. Dispatched a patrol under the command of Captain Grover C. Darnall, Guardia Nacional, to that vicinity early in the morning of September 30. This patrol, apparently, had an unreliable guide as it later developed that he did not take them to the place in question but about one mile short of that place. This patrol returned at noon of the same day reporting that the inhabitants had heard of no bandit activity. I dispatched another patrol to that place the following morning and this patrol developed the fact that Geroncio Florian was killed at Los Arados as reported. He was, according to the reports of civilians, set upon by an armed band who fired at him and inflicted a slight scalp wound. He was then attacked with machetes and killed. One man fled from the patrol upon its approach but his horse was captured. Agepito Amaya has been apprehended in connection with this murder but the principal participants are still at large. The following named men, described by eyewitnesses to have actually killed Florian, are wanted by these headquarters: ¶ Gerardo Lopez – residence Monsonte – medium build – dark – slightly bearded – curly hair – has elephanthiasis [elephantiasis] of one foot – a known killer ¶ Eulalio Gomez – residence Monsonte – thin – tall – smooth shaven – dark – straight black hair. [...]"

3.  October 1, 1927. "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 1, 1927," Major Glenn E. Hayes, C.O. Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N., Managua, p. 3.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 1, 1927. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS, (continued): ¶ (c) The following named men were confined during the period covered by this report: ¶ September 27, Ramiro Ortez, residence ORISI Rancho, father Presentacion Ortez with same address. This young man is apparently violently insane but has intervals of apparently rational mentality. He was confined and otherwise restrained as a protection to himself and to others. A letter to the Chief of Guardia has covered this case. ¶ September 28, Francisco Salcedo, residence Ocotal. This man is charged with calumnia by one Fernando Jarquin growing out of certain public statements he is alleged to have made in connection with the death of Fernando Vallecillo. ¶ (d) The following prisoners were released during the period covered by this report for the reasons indicated: ¶ October 1st. Francisco Salcedo. Upon the execution of a fianza by a properly qualified citizen guaranteeing his appearance when desired. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS: ¶ (a) None other than the military patrols reported in police operations. ¶ Miscellaneous: ¶ (a) None. ¶ Glenn E. Hayes."

1.  October 1, 1927. "Chamorro's candidacy to the Presidency of Nicaragua," memo from Mr. Francis White to Mr. Robert Olds, p. 1.    "October 1, 1927. ¶ To: Mr. Olds. ¶ From: Mr. White. ¶ Re: Chamorro’s candidacy to the Presidency of Nicaragua. ¶ Chamorro called on the Secretary today with Chandler Anderson but the Secretary was very rushed and could not do more than shake hands and exchange civilities. Chamorro will be here all the month of October so there is no particular rush about seeing him. He told me that he wanted to come in to see me upon my return. If the Secretary sees him in any absence, I feel very strongly that we should tell him that we will not recognize him if he should run and be elected as President next time. The Constitutional provision is clear on this subject. It is as follows: ¶ “Art. 104. The term of office of the President and Vice-President of the Republic shall be four years, and shall begin on the first of January. No citizen who holds the office of President, either as the duly elected incumbent or accidentally, shall be eligible to the office of President or Vice-President for the next term.” ¶ The Department has consistently taken the position in the past that anybody holding the office for any length of time during one term is debarred from holding office during the next. This was applied by Mr. Hughes in the case of Martinez who succeeded to the Presidency on the death of Diego Chamorro at the end of 1923. He wanted to resign before the 1924 ¶ elections […]"

2.  October 1, 1927. "Chamorro's candidacy to the Presidency of Nicaragua," memo from Mr. Francis White to Mr. Robert Olds, p. 2.    "[…] elections and be candidate for re-election and we categorically told him that he would not be recognized. Colonel Stimson agrees with this interpretation and on September 26 saw Chamorro and reported his conversation as follows: ¶ “This afternoon General Chamorro called to see me with Major Rodriguez formerly of the Nicaraguan Constabulary. They remained nearly an hour. Chamorro promptly asked me whether everybody was eligible to be a candidate for the coming election. I told him that in my opinion he was not eligible having been an acting president during the preceding term. I also told him that I had personally witnessed the devastation which had taken place in Nicaragua and felt that it very largely came from his action under very bad advice and that for this reason I did not think that anyone would be inclined to modify on his behalf what seemed to be the plain construction of the Constitution. He said that he was the strongest and most popular man in the Conservative Party and that such a decision tended to handicap that Party. I told him that I hoped for his own sake and for that of his country he would go back there and get behind the Conservative who was nominated and do his best to elect him. He replied that this would not be equally effective in securing Conservative success. I said that we were in the country now and had solemnly promised to hold a fair election and would do our best to see that it was orderly and fair. I told him that in my opinion it was far better that America should not favor either party and that we did not intend to do so. That I had been surprised to find that as great manifestation of friendship was shown to this country by the Liberals when I went to Nicaragua as by the Conservatives. ¶ “He spoke with every appearance of frankness and the interview though plain spoken was devoid of any bitterness and we parted with expressions of mutual esteem.” ¶ The Secretary is prepared to do this and went into the matter of the Constitution himself about a month ago, and is satisfied that this is the correct interpretation. I feel very strongly, however, that we should go even further and tell Chamorro that we will not permit him to run. He ¶ was […]"

3.  October 1, 1927. "Chamorro's candidacy to the Presidency of Nicaragua," memo from Mr. Francis White to Mr. Robert Olds, p. 3.    "[…] was the cause of all the trouble in Nicaragua and now that we have gone in at considerable sacrifice of money and life to straighten things out I do not think that we would be justified in seeing all this work go for naught. Furthermore, we would stultify ourselves to conduct a free and fair election, permitting an individual to run for President when we knew we would not recognize him. Chamorro will say that the Secretary is dictating to Nicaragua and picking out its Presidential candidate. I think the answer is that he is doing nothing of the sort but is straightening out the mess Chamorro made, and that entails the election of a President who can constitutionally hold office. With the exception of one or two persons like Chamorro and Diaz who are debarred by the Constitution, we are of course making no exceptions whatsoever. Anybody else can run that wants to and they will get as fair a deal as we can give them and Chamorro will be free to throw the full weight of his influence to whatever candidate he wants. ¶ Dictated but not seen by Mr. White. ¶ A-L ¶ FW:ABN"

October 7, 1927.  "Violations of Instructoins for the Use of Codes and Ciphers," Brigade Commander L. M. Gulick, Managua, to Commander Special Service Squadron Flagship USS Rochester.   HEADQUARTERS, ¶ SECOND BRIGADE MARINE CORPS, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 7 October, 1927. ¶ SECRET ¶ From: The Brigade Commander. ¶ To: Commander Special Service Squadron, Flagship USS ROCHESTER. ¶ Subject: Violations of Instructions for the Use of Codes and Ciphers. ¶ Reference: (a) Letter from Commander Special Service Squadron to Brigade Commander, dated 24 September 1927, A6-3(304). ¶ 1. Contents of the above reference have been noted and steps have been taken to prevent further discrepancies in the use of codes and ciphers. ¶ 2. This office has not a copy of C&P 457, same was requested from the Chief of Naval Operations by radio, 3 September 1927, to date a reply to this request has not been received. ¶ 3. It is requested that this office be furnished with all changes in the use of codes and ciphers. ¶ L. M. GULICK."

1.  October 8, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 8, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 1.   "Headquarters, Division of Nueva Segovia, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Ocotal, Nicaragua, October 8, 1927. ¶ From: The Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Chief of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Via: OFFICIAL CHANNELS. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 8, 1927. ¶ Reference: Paragraph 15, Special Order # 60. ¶ 1. In accordance with the provisions of the reference, I report as follows for the week ending October 8, 1927: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ Ocotal – peaceful ¶ Jicaro – peaceful ¶ Intervening territory – generally peaceful. Bandits are reported, however, to be in the vicinity of La Puerta which endangers the line of communication between this city and Jicaro should they plan to move in the direction of Santa Clara ¶ Attitude of Civil Population Toward Forces: ¶ No noted change in area occupied. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ No change in conditions reported in my report of October 1, 1927. Prices fluctuate in the matter of foodstuffs, but this is believed to be normal considering the infrequency of pack trains due to inclement weather. Labor is plentiful and employment is available provided men are willing to leave the cities and work in haciendas. Most of them, however, prefer to remain in the cities where troops are present. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ No press in division. ¶ No information received as to attitude of foreign press. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ None. [...]"

2.  October 8, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 8, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 2.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 8, 1927, (continued). ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: ¶ See police report of even date. ¶ Military Operations: ¶ Two patrols arrived this week and returned to the stations assigned; one from Somoto and the other from Pueblo Nuevo. The patrol leaders reported that these patrols were accomplished without incident. Both patrols were composed entirely of Marine Corps personnel. ¶ A Guardia patrol repaired the Ocotal-Jicaro telegraph line which, Lieutenant Bruce reports, was cut in two places in the vicinity of Sabana Grande on October 1st. It is not known whether this out was effected by bandits or by sympathetic civilians. ¶ A Guardia patrol under the command of Sergento Manuel Rivas patrolled to Los Arados and return on a police mission on October 8th. This patrol was accomplished without incident. (see police report of even date) ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: ¶ Persistent reports have been received this week both at Jicaro and in this city that the bandit Sandino has been reenforced [reinforced] by 200 Honduranians [Hondurans]. The reports at Jicaro add also 200 Jinotegans. These reports are brought in by people who are not particularly well known and are not considered very reliable. ¶ The town of Hula has been reported occupied by bandits by a property owner there. He described his house, an isolated one, and stated that it was used by these men as quarters. He authorized the bombing of this house in the event that persons were discovered there. ¶ The plane piloted by Lieutenant Thomas is reported to have crashed one mile north of Ciudad Viejo near Quilali, this morning. This plane immediately burst into flames but the pilot and his observer were seen running rapidly from wreck. They signalled [signaled] their safety to the escort plane which proceeded immediately to Ocotal passing over Jicaro enroute and requesting of that station that a patrol be dispatched to the scene of the crash. A patrol under the command of 1st Lieutenant George O’Shea cleared Jicaro for that place at 1400 today. A patrol which had left Jicaro for Ocotal with the Guardia payroll and was but a few miles from Jicaro was recalled in view of the depletion of the command. [...]"

3.  October 8, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 8, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 3.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 8, 1927, (continued). ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: (continued) ¶ But two gangs of bandits are known to be operating west of Santa Clara, that of Anastacio Hernandez and the rather disorganized group under Santos Lobo. The latter was reported on October 2, 1927, to be in Santa Rosa and the commanding officer of the troops in that area was so advised. No reports have been received as to the location or intentions of Hernandez. He is a conservative and his method has usually been to operate near the border with the assistance of the conservative element on the Honduras side. It is also reported that he has received assistance from prominent conservatives in this department and that at times they have even directed his movements. He has been described as “the private assassin of the Pagaguas”. The latter are a family of considerable means whose residence is in this city. The only contact I have had with this family has been to arrest one member thereof for intoxication and to investigate the alleged theft of a calf by one other member. This latter case has not been decided and will probably remain pending for a period of about one week. The Pagaguas apparently have no social contact with other people in the city and are generally poorly thought of. Gustavo Pagagua was at one time during the recent revolution Jefe Politico of this Department and, from all reports, used that office to further his own ends and nothing else. These reports are from Conservatives and Liberals alike. He is reported, in some quarters, to be actively directing the movements and depredations of Hernandez. ¶ Work has progressed very satisfactorily on the construction of a new runway at the aviation field here. This work has been carried on by laborers from this vicinity under the direct supervision of Sergento Garcia of the Guardia. This work will probably he completed during the early part of the coming week. The runway now used was constructed directly across the prevailing wind with its consequential menace. I believe that the new field constructed will increase the factor of safety in taking-off by at least fifty percent, and that safe landings will be greatly facilitated thereby. ¶ Glenn E. Hayes."

1.  October 8, 1927.  Conference with Henry L. Stimson, Gen. Emiliano Chamorro, and others on the upcoming Nicaraguan elections, p. 1.  "Tuesday, ¶ October 4, 1927. ¶ NICARAGUA ¶ Conference with H. L. S. [Henry L. Stimson]"

2.  October 8, 1927.  Conference with Henry L. Stimson, Gen. Emiliano Chamorro, and others on the upcoming Nicaraguan elections, p. 2.  "Tuesday, ¶ October 4, 1927. ¶ NICARAGUA ¶ Colonel Dufour telephoned Mr. Anderson [“telephoned Mr. Anderson” is crossed out with “called” handwritten above it] at the office this morning, and I told him that Mr. Anderson had already left Washington, was now in New York, and expected to sail tomorrow at midnight. He said that he had received Mr. Anderson’s letter of September 30, and that, before talking with General Chamorro, he wanted to talk with the Nicaraguan Minister and others regarding the general situation. He said that he expected to see General Chamorro tomorrow. He is staying at the Mayflower. I told him that in case he wanted to get in touch with Mr. Anderson he could do so at the Metropolitan Club, New York, in the early morning, or at Mr. Anderson’s New York office after that. ¶ General Chamorro also came in this morning and asked me if I had the memorandum for him. I told him that I had mailed it to Mr. Anderson yesterday for revision and that I expected it back either Wednesday or Thursday and that I would deliver it to him immediately after it was put in final form. I also told him that I would deliver to him at the Mayflower this afternoon the copies of the letters which Mr. Anderson had Miss Thayer copy. ¶ Delivered at the Mayflower Hotel this afternoon for General Chamorro six copies each of the translation of his letters to Dr. Cesar and Mr. Anderson. ¶ Friday, ¶ November 4, 1927. ¶ General Chamorro called at the office this afternoon to inquire as to the date of Mr. Anderson’s return, and I told him that he was expected to arrive in New York on the “Homeric” on Wednesday, the 9th. He said that he expected to be in New York at that time and would make an effort to see Mr. Anderson. [...]"

3.  October 8, 1927.  Conference with Henry L. Stimson, Gen. Emiliano Chamorro, and others on the upcoming Nicaraguan elections, p. 3.  "[...] Saturday, ¶ October 9, 1927. ¶ NICARAGUA ¶ I saw Secretary Kellogg by appointment at 9 o’clock this morning. He told me that the position of the Department in regard to General Chamorro’s candidacy in the coming Presidential election in Nicaragua was that he was disqualified under Article 104 of the Nicaraguan Constitution, and would not be recognized by this Government if elected. We discussed Article 104, the Spanish text of which he had before him, and he admitted that it might be interpreted differently, but that the Department was interpreting it to mean that a citizen who had exercised the Presidency during any part of a presidential term was disqualified for the succeeding period, and he said that the experts in the Department had advised him that the Spanish could be so interpreted and that he had obtained a legal opinion to the effect that this was a proper interpretation in view of the purpose of the provision. I pointed out to him that the literal interpretation was that “the citizen who is exercising (or who may be exercising) the Presidency is not eligible for a succeeding term”, but he rejected this rendering, and said that it would make the provision meaningless if it permitted anyone who is in the office to resign shortly before the election and then be elected for the following term. He is quite wrong about this, because the purpose of the provision is to prevent the individual in the office of President from exercising the power of the Presidency to have himself elected [“or nominated” handwritten here] for another term, and it certainly cannot apply to anyone who is not in the office at any time during the Presidential campaign. ¶ I also pointed out to him that this Government had declared that General Chamorro was not the Constitutional President of Nicaragua while he was exercising the presidential power, and that, of course, the Constitution could not be interpreted as applying to such a case, because that would imply that the Constitution recognized that a man who was not President constitutionally could exercise the presidential power. He said that he did not think my point was well taken, but as he had no time to give to a discussion of the matter at the moment, any further discussion would have to be postponed. ¶ He told me that he had made an appointment to see General Chamorro and the Nicaraguan Minister at 10 o’clock, and he said that he would like to have me come in with them, and I told him I would do so if they had no objection. ¶ Between the two appointments I saw General Chamorro and told him what Secretary Kellogg had said, and advised him in his interview with the Secretary not to raise the question of his candidacy, so as not to give him a chance to state officially to them what he had stated to me, and that in order to avoid bringing up this point he should say that there was a number of matters concerning the Nicaraguan situation which he would like to talk over with him at his convenience, and that he was to be here through the month of October and would await the Secretary’s pleasure for a further conference. [...]"

4.  October 8, 1927.  Conference with Henry L. Stimson, Gen. Emiliano Chamorro, and others on the upcoming Nicaraguan elections, p. 4.  "[...] NICARAGUA ¶ At 10 o’clock General Chamorro, Minister Cesar, and I, called on the Secretary, who had with him, as I anticipated, Assistant Secretary White and Mr. Stokley Morgan, evidently anticipating that General Chamorro was going to raise at this conference the same question that I had raised at the previous one. General Chamorro very skillfully carried out the program we had arranged, and he confined himself to expressing his approval of the Administration’s plan of supervising the coming election in order to insure a free and fair popular decision, and I told the Secretary that I had explained to General Chamorro that he had very little time at his disposal this morning, and so we would not ask to go into any other questions. The Secretary had told me that he could only give us a few minutes and we must make our interview short. General Chamorro then said that at the Secretary’s convenience he would like to come in to see him again for a longer discussion of some important matters, and the Secretary said that after Mr. Olds got back he would be glad to see him and would make an appointment at their mutual convenience. The interview terminated on that basis."

1.  October 15, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 15, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 1.   "Headquarters, Division of Nueva Segovia, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Ocotal, Nicaragua, October 15, 1927. ¶ From: The Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Chief of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua[,] Nicaragua. ¶ Via: Official Channels. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 15, 1927. ¶ Reference: Paragraph 15, Special Order # 60. ¶ 1. In accordance with the provisions of the reference, I report as follows for the week ending October 15, 1927: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ Ocotal – peaceful. ¶ Jicaro – peaceful. ¶ Intervening and adjacent terrritory [territory] – disturbed. Bandits under Carmen Torrez with a strength of about 150 men are reliably reported to be operating in Jalapa – Muyuca – Arinal – La Puerta area. Residents of San Fernando and Santa Clara are still living at Aryan in fear of depredations by this band. Anastacio Hernandez with a band whose strength is not known but is not believed to be in excess of fifty men, is reported to be operating in the El Potrero – San Fabian – Dipilto area and but few houses in the area are occupied by their owners or regular tenants. ¶ Attitude of Civil Population Toward Forces: ¶ No change noted in area occupied or in adjacent territory. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ No change in conditions noted in my reports of October 1 and 8, 1927, except that increasingly inclement weather is hampering travel on the roads to an even greater degree. Some merchants are now handling their own pack trains due to their inability to secure muleros and packers to do so. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ No press in Division. ¶ No information received as to attitude of foreign press. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ None. [...]"

2.  October 15, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 15, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 2.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for week ending October 15, 1927. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: ¶ See police report of even date. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS: ¶ On October 9th, 1927, a patrol under the command of 1st Lieutenant George O’Shea, consisting of ten marines and ten Guardia, together with Captain John B. O’Neill, Guardia Nacional, was proceeding to the scene of the crash of the plane piloted by Lieutenant Thomas near Quilali. They were attacked by a force of about 200 bandits near the scene of the crash which force was later augmented by about 175 more bandits. They fought their way through one of the smaller forces and made their way down stream beds to Jicarito, continuing their journey to Jicaro by road. During the engagement near the scene of the crashed plane four members of the Guardia Nacional were killed. No other casualties were suffered by the patrol in this operation. The names of the men killed in action are as follows: ¶ Sergento Porfirio Melendez, #101, ¶ Raso Juan Benavides, #35, ¶ “ Luis Bustos, #122, and ¶ “ Francisco Gutierrez, #6. ¶ Lieutenant O’Shea reports that all members of the Guardia Nacional who were members of this patrol conducted themselves with great coolness under fire, and that their work generally was a credit to our organization. Recommendation for citation and decoration of these men has been made the subject of separate communications. ¶ Captain Roger W. Peard, Marine Corps, arrived at Ocotal with a patrol of seven men arrived from Pueblo Nuevo at 7:30 PM, August 9, 1927. He reported the area covered clear. ¶ A patrol consisting of thirty marines under the command of Gunnery Sergeant Gordon, left Ocotal for Jicaro with a ration train at 0800 October 12, 1927, arriving at the latter place in the early evening October 13, 1927. They reported the road clear. ¶ A patrol under my personal command left Ocotal at 0400 this date for Mosonte. This patrol consisted of thirteen mounted marines, three Guardia, and Lieutenant Chappell of the Marine Corps. The mission of this patrol was to capture certain alleged murderers known to reside in that city and to search the town for arms which were believe [believed] to be there. [...]"

3.  October 15, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 15, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 3.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 15, 1927 ¶ The patrol accomplished its mission, capturing four persons alleged to have participated in the murder of Geroncio Florian on September 29, 1927, at Los Arados, and confiscating one rifle found in a house occupied by women. The patrol returned to Ocotal at 0830 the same date without further incident. (See police report of even date for information in greater detail) ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: ¶ Difficulty has again been experienced this week in maintaining telegraphic communication with Jicaro. This has been due to enemy sympathizers cutting the line near Sabana Grande on October 11th, and to the heavy rains which have caused short circuits. The operators experience particular difficulty in the early morning, but as the lines become dried out the work becomes easier. The lines at best are poorly insulated being strung usually between trees. All patrols, however, carry a machete and are instructed to cut branches back from the line whereever [wherever] observed near it. ¶ Santos Lobo, a bandit leader in the Pueblo Nuevo area was killed on the night of October 11th, at a house about six miles north west of that city. It is reported that he attempted to rape the wife of the owner of this house, one Oresco, and that the latter killed him with a knife, another person hitting him at the same time with a machete. Lobo’s men attempted to capture Oresco but he escaped and made his way to Pueblo Nuevo, reporting the facts to the commanding officer of marines there. A patrol under the command of 1st Lieutenant Merton A. Richal, Marine Corps, proceded [proceeded] to the scene the next day and exhumed the body, verifying the identification. It is believed that his death will disorganize his band which was composed, principally, of Honduranian [Honduran] thugs and murderers. Seven of the band were captured by Lieutenant Richal’s patrol and one killed in addition to Lobo. ¶ A frightfully brutal murder occurred about 2000 yards east of this city during the night of October 13 – 14. Four men were attacked from behind with machetes and literally hacked to pieces. These persons had evidently been brought from some distance to the scene of the crime and were apparently defensless [defenseless] as two of the [them] were tied together with rope. Their bodies were, to all appearances, purposely left in the center of the main road as a warning to the populace of the town and to the military garrison. Two bodies were identified as persons from the vicinity of Telpaneca and it is believed that they were brought as prisoners from that area. (See police report of even date.) [...] "

4.  October 15, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for the week ending October 15, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 4.   "[...] Subject: Intelligence report for the week ending October 15, 1927. (continued). ¶ Miscellaneous: (Continued) ¶ Sanchez was reported [“on Oct 11th” handwritten here] to be in the vicinity of El Sapote, a small village between Ciudad Antigua and the OCOTAL – JICARO road, with 150 men. This report was made by one Julio Maridiaga, who is considered reliable. ¶ Work has been about completed on the new runway for airplanes at the aviation field here. All that is left to be done is to clear one corner of cut brush, lop off a few trees, and “fine-comb” the area for twigs and thorns. The aviators have used this runway several times and are very enthusiastic over it. The new field with the old one affords them an opportunity to land or take off in any one of six directions desired[.] ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION: ¶ No changes. ¶ Glenn E. Hayes."

October 16, 1927.  "Memorandum for the Division Commander, Ocotal," S. M. Harrington, By direction, Managua.  "HEADQUARTERS, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 16 October, 1927. ¶ MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIVISION COMMANDER, OCOTAL: ¶ 1. Please fill out form [unreadable, possibly “No. I-1”] whenever opportunity permits in the case of the following: ¶ Carlos Salgado ¶ Jose Leon Diaz ¶ Simon Jiron ¶ Tonbio Solorzano [Toribio Solórzano] ¶ Porfirio Sanchez ¶ Anastacio Hernandez ¶ Pedro A Irias ¶ Manuel Echeverria ¶ Jose Leon Diaz ¶ Carlos Quezado ¶ Pedro Navarro ¶ Sebastian Barahona ¶ Simon Gonzalez ¶ Francisco Estrada. ¶ Juan Gregorio Colindres ¶ S. M. HARRINGTON, ¶ By direction"

October 18, 1927.  "Report of conditions in Nueva Segovia for October 17, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua.  "Headquarters, Division of Nueva Segovia, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Ocotal, Nicaragua, October 18, 1927: ¶ From: The Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Chief of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ DIRECT ¶ Subject: Report of conditions in Nueva Segovia for October 17, 1927. ¶ 1. In view of the interruption of telegraph service between this city and Managua, which is believed to have been caused by the heavy recent storms, it was impossible to report the conditions in this division by that means. A written report for that date is, therefore, submitted: ¶ (a) A mounted patrol consisting of myself, Second Lieutenant Clarence J. Chappell, Marine Corps, three enlisted men of the Guardia Nacional, and accompanied by the Criminal Judge of thedistrict [the district] and the Director of Sanidad, cleared Ocotal at 1430 on October 17, 1927, to investigate the reported murder of two men at San Fabian. The latter place is located about two leagues north of this city on the OCOTAL-DIPILTO road. Upon arriving thereat search disclosed the bodies of two men in one of the houses. These men were apparently brutally murdered with machetes, being cut about the head and body. They were identified as: ¶ Valentin Rodriguez, aged 21 years, a resident of Ocotal, and a servant in the employ of Señor Don Jose Peralta of the city. ¶ Pedro Gomez, age not known, residence at his own ranch in the Dipilto Mountains. ¶ No reasons or motives are known for this crime, but it is believed that it was committed by members of a band of thugs under Anastacio Hernandez, who has been reported in that locality. Rodriguez was a Conservative and Gomez a Liberal. The bodies, which had apparently been in the position in which found for three or four days, were buried on the spot, and the patrol returned to Ocotal without further incident[.] ¶ (b) Lieutenant Bruce at Jicaro reports that there are persistent rumors in that city that Lieutenant Thomas and Sergeant Dowdell worked their way across country and arrived at Telpaneca. ¶ Glenn E. Hayes."

October 19, 1927.  "Report of conditions Nueva Segovia for October 18, 1927," Commanding Officer Glen E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua.  "Headquarters, Division of Nueva Segovia, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Ocotal, Nicaragua, October 19, 1927. ¶ From: The Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Chief of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Report of conditions Nueva Segovia for October 18, 1927. ¶ 1. At 4:00 pm October 17, 1927, while I was on patrol to San Fabian, an inhabitant of Mosonte reported firing near that city. Captain Roger W. Peard, Marine Corps, who was in the city of Ocotal at that time, dispatched a marine patrol to Mosonte to investigate the occurrence. That patrol left at 6:45 pm the 17th and returned at 3:00 AM the 18th. This patrol reported no enemy activity at Mosonte but stated that the inhabitants were very frightened and were in the brush. ¶ 2. Juan Amaya, aged 62 years, and Jose Angel Amaya, aged 17 years, appeared at these headquarters for medical treatment, the former suffering from a gunshot wound in the left bicep and the latter from a serious machete cut on the right side of the head. These men reside at El Rodeo on the Quisuli River about two miles north of the Ocotal-Jicaro road. They reported that a group of men came to El Rodeo at about 4:00 PM on October 17, 1927, tied up the women and made the statement that they would take them before “the General” that evening. The men residing there fled but in their flight were attacked by members of this band receiving the wounds reported. In addition Jose Expectacion Amaya was killed. The women escaped and their captors left the town in a northerly direction. ¶ 3. No reports have been received as to general enemy activity in the vicinity of Jicaro. Lieutenant Bruce states that there [are] no rumors in that city as to any changes in the enemy’s dispositions to the eastward. ¶ 4. This report is transmitted by letter in view of the poor reported communication by telegraph between this city and Managua. ¶ Glenn E. Hayes."

1.  October 22, 1927.  "Conversation.  General Emiliano Chamorro.  Non-recognition by Department of General Chamorro's candidacy for President of Nicaragua," Francis W. White, Washington, p. 1.    "Conversation. ¶ October 22, 1927. ¶ General Emiliano Chamorro ¶ Non-recognition by Department of General Chamorro’s candidacy for President of Nicaragua. ¶ General Chamorro called on me to-day and stated that he would like to know how the Department felt towards him since the happenings of October 25, 1925. He said that he had always been very friendly to the United States and was sorry if the Department had changed its feeling in any way toward him on account of what had taken place in Nicaragua. He stated that had he been told definitely at the outset that he would not be recognized, he would not have assumed the presidency. When he and General Estrada were taking the Loma, General Estrada had said to him that as soon as the Loma was taken, he should immediately return to his house and remain there quietly, but that he, General Chamorro, had replied that he did not care about the presidency, but merely wanted to be sure that everything went off peacefully and without causing trouble and uprisings in Nicaragua. He felt sure that as soon as it was known that he was in charge of the Loma, there would be no uprisings throughout the country. After the seizure of the Loma, he had seen Mr. Eberhardt very little, and he complained that he had not been definitely told that he would not be recognized, or he would not have taken the final steps. ¶ I told General Chamorro that I understood that he had been so ¶ informed, […] "

2.  October 22, 1927.  "Conversation.  General Emiliano Chamorro.  Non-recognition by Department of General Chamorro's candidacy for President of Nicaragua," Francis W. White, Washington, p. 2.    "..."

3.  October 22, 1927.  "Conversation.  General Emiliano Chamorro.  Non-recognition by Department of General Chamorro's candidacy for President of Nicaragua," Francis W. White, Washington, p. 3.    "..."

4.  October 22, 1927.  "Conversation.  General Emiliano Chamorro.  Non-recognition by Department of General Chamorro's candidacy for President of Nicaragua," Francis W. White, Washington, p. 4.   "..."

October 22, 1927.  "Intelligence report for the week ending October 22, 1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 1 only.    "..." 

October 23, 1927.  "Study and recommendations for patrolling of Coffee Zone," Lieut. Lewis Miller, Managua, to Jefe Director, G.N.N., Managua.   "..."

October 25, 1927.  "Information for the Command," Bilingual public flier signed by Col. L. H. Gulick, U.S.M.C.   "...."

October 25, 1927.  Bilingual public letter of instructions to all interpreters employed by the Marine Corps for duty during the Election Period November 6, 1927, by order of Second Brigade Commander Lieutenant-Colonel B. S. Berry, U.S.M.C.   "..."

October 26, 1927.  Letter from J. A. Fagot, Bluefields, to U.S. Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.   "..." 

1.  October 29, 1927.  "Intelligence report for the week ending October 29,1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 1.  "..." 

2.  October 29, 1927.  "Intelligence report for the week ending October 29,1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 2.  "..." 

3.  October 29, 1927.  "Intelligence report for the week ending October 29,1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 3.  "..." 

4.  October 29, 1927.  "Intelligence report for the week ending October 29,1927," Commanding Officer Glenn E. Hayes, Ocotal, to the Chief of the G.N.N., Managua, p. 4.  "..." 

1.  October 30, 1927.  "Weekly Memorandum No. 1," Capt. R. W. Peard, Commanding Officer, Ocotal, p. 1.   "..." 

2.  October 30, 1927.  "Weekly Memorandum No. 1," Capt. R. W. Peard, Commanding Officer, Ocotal, p. 2.   "..." 

3.  October 30, 1927.  "Weekly Memorandum No. 1," Capt. R. W. Peard, Commanding Officer, Ocotal, p. 3.   "..." 

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