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m-docs •  THRU 1927, p. 3

M — D O C S:    M I S C E L L A N E O U S    D O C U M E N T S
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      THIS IS THE THIRD PAGE of the M-DOCS (Miscellaneous Documents) pages, covering the period from January 1 to May 31, 1927.  The critical introduction to the page is forthcoming. 

      Complementary documents for this period are housed in the Henry Stimson Files, TOP 100, PAGE 100

      This website project is indebted to Mr. Brandon Ray, Summa Cum Laude college graduate from Ashford University in Iowa (with a B.A. in History and a minor in Political Science) for his meticulous transcriptions on this and many other pages. 


January 1, 1927.  The Mengel Company, The Freiberg Mahogany Company, Nicaragua Mahogany Company, and S. B. Vrooman Co. Ltd., to J. A. McConnico, American Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.   "Bluefields, Nicaragua, ¶ Jan. 1st. 1927. ¶ Mr. A.J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, ¶ Dear Sir:- ¶ We the undersigned Americal [American] Companies having interests at Cape Gracias, Wawa, Prinsapolca [Prinzapolka] and Pearl Lagoon believe that the only manner to safeguard these interests would be to include these Ports within the Neutral Zone as already established, for the following reasons: ¶ First: That owing to our Government having established Neutral Zones in Rio Grande and Puerto Cabezas and Admiral Latimer having stated that the Forestal Taxes shallbe [shall be] paid to the Constitutional Government headed by President Diez [Diaz], reprisals will be practiced against us, such as, cutting loose rafts of logs and letting same drift out to sea. ¶ Second: That interference with the loading of steamers will occur. ¶ Third: That Tug Boats, and supplies for same will be interfered with. ¶ We state one concrete case of the taking of supplies and interference with loading a stemaer [steamer] by the Liberals occupying the Port of Prinsapolca [Prinzapolka]. The Steamer Muneric loading for the Otis Manufacturing Company will be delayed and heavy demurrage incured [incurred] thru their supply of Gasoline having been taken by the Liberals, unless an additional supply can be gotten to Prinsapllca [Prinzapolka] immediately at a great unneccessary [unnecessary] expense. . . . "

January 1, 1927.  The Mengel Company, The Freiberg Mahogany Company, Nicaragua Mahogany Company, and S. B. Vrooman Co. Ltd., to J. A. McConnico, American Consul, Bluefields, p. 2.   "We believe the steamer Agwistar now loading at Cape Gracias for the Mengel Company will also be affected for reasons as stated above Nos. 1-2 and 3. ¶ Trusting that you will be able to get some prompt action on this request for protection of our interests, from Our State Department or Naval Forces now on the ground, we are, ¶ Yours very respectfully, ¶ The Mengel Company ¶ [unreadable] ¶ Otis Manufacturing Co. ¶ [unreadable] ¶ The Freiberg Mahogany Co. ¶ [unreadable] ¶ Nicaragua Mahogany Company ¶ by J.F. Neil - V.P. ¶ S.B. Vrooman Co. Ltd. ¶ J.E. [unreadable] "

January 2, 1927.  J. F. Neill, Vice President, Nicaragua Mahogany Company, to Admiral J. L. Latimer, Nicaragua, p. 1.   "Sir:- ¶ We are informed by the American Consul at Bluefields that you have issued a ruling that the forestal tax on logs exported from all ports on the East Coast of Nicaragua shall be paid to the American Collector of Customs, Bluefields. We are further informed that the American Collector of Customs, Bluefields, proposes to hold us liable for payment of forestal tax in every case except when we have asked for protection from you, but have failed to receive it. ¶ We desire to comply with these instructions, but we are constrained to point out certain practical considerations which must of necessity be taken into account in applying the above ruling. ¶ All ports on the East Coast are in the control of the revolutionists with the exception of Bluefields, Rio Grande and Puerto Cabezas which have been neutralized and occupied by American naval forces. The revolutionary authorities have hitherto refused to permit loading of logs at ports under their control unless payment of forestal tax is made to them. ¶ If the exporter refuses to pay the forestal tax to the revolutionary authorities and warns the said authorities that he will ask the protection of the U.S. Naval Forces there is every probability that the revolutionists will cut loose the rafts of logs and let them go to sea or indulge in other reprisals which the exporter is powerless to prevent. In such an eventuality any assistance rendered by you would of necessity be too late to be of value. ¶ We, therefore, suggest that there be an understanding as follows: ¶ “In the absence of an agreement between the Admiral in Command and the competent revolutionary authority whereby the said revolutionary authority consents to the payment of forestal tax to the American Collector of Customs at Bluefields that the exporter shall have the right whenever […] "

January 2, 1927.  J. F. Neill, Vice President, Nicaragua Mahogany Company, to Admiral J. L. Latimer, Nicaragua, p. 2.   "[…] necessary to pay the forestal tax to the de facto authorities except at ports where the U.S. Naval Forces are in position to extend adequate protection to the exporter and prevent the application of duress to labor necessary to load prior to time of exportation. ¶ Very respectfully, ¶ NICARAGUA MAHOGANY COMPANY, INC. ¶ By J.F. Neil ¶ Vice-President. ¶ Copy to American Consul, Bluefields. ¶ Copy to American Collector of Customs, ¶ Bluefields."

January 2, 1927.  J. A. McConnico, American Consul, Bluefields, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C.    "(True reading of Code Message sent to the Secretary of State, Washington, January 2, 1927.) ¶ SecState, ¶ Washington. ¶ January 2, 3 P.M. ¶ Begin quotation: Secretary of State, Attention Olds and Stabler. ¶ The undersigned American companies having logs at Cape Gracias, Pearl Lagoon, Wawa, Prinzapolka request that these ports be neutralized in order that the logs may be loaded and our properties protected. ¶ In view of the recent decision Latimer that forestal taxes on logs exported from all ports of east coast must be paid to American Collector of Customs at Bluefields we need and are entitled to protection from revolutionists who refuse to permit loading and threaten reprisals unless we pay tax to them. Revolutionists have already seized gasoline [from] Otis Manufacturing Company Prinzapolka preventing loading. ¶ Otis Manufacturing Company, Mengel Company, Nicaragua Mahogany Company, Freiberg Mahogany Company. End quotation. ¶ McConnico."

January 10, 1927.  Osmond Thompson, Bluefields, to Hon. A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, Nic.   "Bluefields, Nic. January 10th 1927 ¶ Hon. A.J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Dear Sir: ¶ I find it necessary to place before you the following facts because neither my Consul nor myself have obtained any satisfaction after appealing to the Commander of the Landing forces of the U.S.S. Galveston, and Admiral Latimer. I am a British subject. ¶ The Schooner Atlantic was wrecked on this coast 38 miles north east of Bluefields Bluff. She was insured. The Underwriters Agent, Mr. Thos. W. Waters, sold the wreck to me and gave me a valid title. I proceeded to rebuild the vessel, renamed her the “Seven Stars”, registered her under the Nicaraguan flag, and operated her in the trade on this ciast [coast?] between here and Puerto Cabezas for ten months, when she was seized by Louis Coe, one of the previous owners. ¶ The Schooner was in litigation at the time she was wrecked, and the Court had placed the vessel in the hands of one Carlos Pasos as Depository, and he was working her for the benefit of the owners. The Insurance of $6,000.00, the Underwriters Agent paid to the said Carlos Pasos, the Court appointee. My title is absolute. ¶ The political troubles here brought about an agreement before Admiral Latimer, between General Arguello of the Conservative Government, and General Moncada of the Constitutional Government. Article #7 of this agreement states clearly neither side shall use boats belonging to foreigners or foreign companies. Coe’s object in seizing the “Seven Stars” was to permit the Conservatives to use her. I protested to Commander Richardson of the U.S.S. Galveston and to the Admiral. So did the British Consul in my behalf, and all the satisfaction we received was the Admiral would look into the matter. ¶ The Admiral permits the vessel to remain in the hands of the Conservatives Government in violation of the agreement to which he was a party. The vessel has been taken up into the river between here and Rama and is used as a Man-of[-]War. She is in danger of being attacked by the Liberals and to be sunk. I protest energetically against action of the Admiral in not inisiting [insisting] that the agreement signed by himself- General Arguello and General Moncada, protecting foreign floating property be observed. ¶ Yours truly, ¶ Osmond Thompson"

January 11, 1927.  Lui Hong, for Ho Ming and Co., Bluefields, to Hon. A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.   "Bluefields, 11th January 1927.- ¶ Honourable A. J. McConnico, ¶ Consul of the United States of America, ¶ City. ¶ I Hing Ching, of lawful age, married, merchant and of this domicile and principal of the firmof [firm of] Wo Hing and Co of Cukra Hill, respectfully beg to submit the following claim against the Nicaraguan Government for damages sustained by the armed forces operating in the District of Pearl Lagoon and its vicinity during the months of August last up to the present date. ¶ My store situated at Cukra has been sacked and looted besides the different merchandise taking therefrom without my consent and in return I received a receipt from the troops and at times none. Herewith find eleven vouchers or receipts for goods numbered from 1 toll, the eleventh is the last voucher obtained from General Luis Zelaya, one of the expeditionary chiefs who commanded some of the Government forces at Pearl Lagoon. This last receipt fully proves my assertion of looting. ¶ From the appended list you will clearly see that I have lost ONE THOUSAND and TWENTY DOLLARS AND FORTYFIVE CENTS AMERICAN GOLD in cash and merchandise besides my clothing to the value of TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS, which make a total of TWELVE HUNDRED AND TWENTY DOLLARS and FORTYFIVE CENTS GOLD for which I respectfully claim said amount, from the Nicaraguan Government, which amount I hope that you will see that I obtain for my losses. ¶ Hoping that you will see the justness of my case which has not only put me out of business in the District of Cukra temporarily but has hindered me from gaining my livelihood and the accrued profits I obtained from my business. ¶ Respectfully submitted. ¶ Per Wo Hing and Co. ¶ Lui Hong"

January 11, 1927.  Lui Hong, for Ho Ming and Co., Bluefields, to Hon. A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 2.   "List of Vouchers representing articles forcibly taken during month of August, 1926, by the Chamorro military troops from the store of WO HING AND COMPANY, a Chinese firm at Cukra Hill, near Pearl Lagoon. ¶ 1. Voucher for the amount of $18.00 ¶ 2. “ “ “ “ “ [$]19.95 ¶ 3. “ “ “ “ “ [$]12.00 ¶ 4. “ “ “ “ “ [$]3.00 ¶ 5. “ “ “ “ “ [$].60 ¶ 6. “ “ “ “ “ [$]7.00 ¶ 7. “ “ “ “ “ [$]40.00 ¶ 8. “ “ “ “ “ [$]129.00 ¶ 9. “ “ “ “ “ [$]195.00 ¶ 10. “ “ “ “ “ [$]100.00 ¶ 11. “ “ cash and merchandise looted [$]495.00 ¶ $1,020.45 ¶ (Signed) WO HING AND COMPANY, ¶ Per HING CONG"

1.  January 15, 1927.  Robert E. Olds, for Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.    "ADDRESS OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS TO ¶ THE SECRETARY OF STATE ¶ WASHINGTON, D. C. ¶ DEPARTMENT OF STATE ¶ WASHINGTON ¶ January 15, 1927. ¶ Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Sir: ¶ The Department has received your despatch No. 197 of December 24, 1926, respecting the alleged unneutral conduct of Mr. Leon Frank, an American citizen. ¶ It appears that pursuant to the Department’s instructions you conferred with Admiral Latimer who submitted to you a copy of his correspondence to the Navy Department in which he recommended that no further protection be extended to Mr. Frank or to any property the latter may claim to own. In concluding your despatch you state you cannot concur in the recommendation of Rear Admiral Latimer that Mr. Frank be denied protection, and you refer the matter to the Department for determination. ¶ In giving consideration to Rear Admiral Latimer’s recommendation the Department has carefully examined, as you undoubtedly have also, the several statements of subordinate officers transmitted in his confidential report to the Chief of Naval Operations dated September 28, 1926. In addition to the general charges of unneutral conduct against Mr. Frank, it appears to the Department that there are at least two outstanding features of the report which, if substantiated, would more than justify the Admiral’s recommendation. The first is the charge, (which you characterize as “very damaging” to Mr. Frank) ¶ regarding […]"

2.  January 15, 1927.  Robert E. Olds, for Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.    "[…] regarding the receipt by one of the Liberal leaders of the letter (which he showed to Admiral Latimer) alleged to have been written by Frank, whose signature the Admiral states that he verified. Mr. Frank denies the charge and regards the matter as a mistake. ¶ The second feature is the matter of the serious admissions alleged to have been made by Frank to Lieutenant McGee and referred to in the latter’s report of September 14, 1926, (a copy of which is enclosed for your convenient information). In this connection the Department has reviewed your despatch No. 196 of December 17, 1926, in which you state, having reference to that part of the despatch dealing with the donation of money for the benefit of the rebel soldiers, that you “do not believe that Mr. Frank ever made the assertion attributed to him by Lieutenant McGee,” and that you “prefer to think that the Lieutenant misunderstood him.” Your apparently high regard for Mr. Frank as a result of your acquaintance with him for a period of two years is of interest to the Department, which, of course, desires to give due weight to your non-concurrence with Admiral Latimer’s recommendation. On the other hand, the charges preferred against Mr. Frank by Admiral Latimer are specific and very serious, and are alleged to be widely known as true. ¶ Before giving further consideration to the matter, the Department desires to receive a further report from you giving such facts (in addition to those contained in your despatches No. 196 of December 17 and No. 197 of December 24) as in your opinion support your refusal to concur in the Admiral’s recommendation. The Department […]"

3.  January 15, 1927.  Robert E. Olds, for Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.    "[…] ment is particularly anxious for your comment on Lieutenant McGee’s report, omitting any reference to his statement regarding relief work for the rebel soldiers, said to have been engaged in by you and the British Consul. Any events which have occurred subsequently to your last report, which you feel would be of help to the Department, should also be included. ¶ I am, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ For the Secretary of State: ¶ Robert E. Olds ¶ Enclosure: ¶ Copy of report. ¶ 317.115 B 621/15"

1.  January 17, 1927.  Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 1.   "COPY. ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua, January 17, 1927. ¶ Mr. A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Dear Sir: ¶ I desire to advise you that yesterday, January 16, at about 9 o’clock A.M., I observed a Diaz government launch removing from her anchorage my sloop UNION taking her to the Government wharf. ¶ I wish to register a vigorous protest against this action as no process, court or otherwise, has been taken against said vessel, and as she is American property, and our Navy, so it is said, is here to protect American lives and property, it seems strange that the Commander of the landing forces permitted this act. ¶ To review the status of the sloop UNION I wish to state that on May 21, last, the Constitutional forces seized the vessel, in escaping from Bluefields, and through the good office of your Consulate and the British Consul, and expending a considerable sum for cables, she was finally located at Bocas del Toro, and at my request you wired and requested the American Consular Agent at that point, to have her held subject to her owner’s orders. ¶ With the idea of preventing trouble I requested you to address then then Governor, Jose Solorzano Diaz, to permit her to return here. He consulted the Minister of Foreign Affairs at Managua, who replied that the sloop could return provided a bond of $2,000 was given to guarantee that she would not be seized again for revolutionary activities. It was impossible for me to give bond of that nature, but I offered to give bond for the ¶ amount […]"

2.   January 17, 1927.  Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 2.   " […] amount desired that I would not permit the vessel to be taken for any revolutionary purposes. My reason for not giving bond requested was as the vessel is used in Coastwise trade, I could not guarantee what may happen to any other coast points, as it was known that the Power Barges and other boats owned by the Cuyamel Fruit Company were seized and used by Constitutional forces without the company’s consent. ¶ While I was preparing to send for the vessel the civil war broke out anew in August, 1926, and shortly afterward I was notified by local authorities that as the vessel was at Rio Grande Bar in the service of the Sacasa forces, her Matriculation was canceled. This was an instruction from the Minister of Foreign Relations. You informed me that you had received a radiogram from the American Minister, Mr. South, of Panama that the UNION was held by Panamanian Authorities at that time, and would be released on proper proof of ownership. ¶ On October 2, 1926, after the port of Bluefields had been declared a Neutral Zone, and believing that we had the protection of our American Navy, I sent my sloop FERNANDINA, at an expenditure of $600.00 to Bocas del Toro, to prove ownership, make seaworthy repairs and tow the vessel to this port. Due to heavy weather the boats were forced to put into Port Limon, Costa Rica for fuel and supplies. Not finding fuel at Port Limon, they proceeded to Colorado Bar where sufficient fuel was secured to reach Bluefields. Upon arrival here accusations were made by local authorities to Commander Richardson of the Landing forces, that the vessels left Port Limon carrying thirty soldiers of the Sacasa forces landing them at Monkey Point, 20 miles south of Bluefields. ¶ On being advised by Commander Richardson of this accusation I offered to have the Captains make sworn affidavits before you, which he said would be satisfactory. My captains appeared before ¶ you […] "

3.  January 17, 1927.  Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 3.   " […] you making the affidavits, that none but the crew left Port Limon aboard the vessels. When these were presented he received them but would not accept them as evidence, and requested further proofs. At my request your Consulate cabled the American Consul at Port Limon, requesting that he secure from Port Officials data as to passengers and crew that sailed on the vessel when leaving there. The reply, a copy of which was sent to Commander Richardson, was as follows: ¶ “FERNANDINA LEFT HERE TOWING UNION, CREW OF SIX MEN ABOARD EACH BOAT, NO PASSENGERS.” ¶ In a previous conversation with Commander Richardson, as to the status of the sloop UNION he informed me that as she had no matriculation she was totally American property and could not be touched. ¶ I brought the UNION from Bocas del Toro, a friendly port to a Neutral port under American Naval Authorities, when I could just as easily taken her into any one of the Nicaraguan ports held by the Sacasa forces at the time, but by bringing her into Bluefields, the Neutral port declared by Admiral Latimer, I tried to prove my neutrality in the matter. ¶ After the proofs were presented to Commander Richardson disapproving the false accusations of the local authorities Captain Townsend of the U. S. S. GALVESTON, wrote to the then Governor, General Gustavo Arguello, that he was convinced that neither the FERNANDINA nor UNION had taken passengers at Port Limon, but as the UNION has been seized by the Sacasa forces in May, he the Governor was at Liberty to take the boat, although no truthful accusations has been filed against me or the vessel. ¶ I immediately filed protest at your Consulate requesting that you address Admiral Latimer to reconsider the decision of Captain Townsend. ¶ I was […] "

4.  January 17, 1927.  Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, p. 4.   " [...] I was later informed by Commander Richardson that it was the Admiral’s decision and not Captain Townsend’s and that he, Commander Richardson, was not in accord with it. Admiral Latimer replied to my appeal through you, that he washed his hands of the matter, and that it would have to be taken up with the State Department. About eight weeks have elapsed since above occured [occurred], and at the time I appealed for protection to the State Department through your Consulate, and up to the present have had no reply. ¶ It seems strange to me that we have a Navy in Nicaragua only for the protection of the Mahogany and Banana interests here, and that American citizens who have smaller investments are ignored. I claim as an American citizen the same right of justice accorded to any other American citizens or corporation, and ask that the Naval Commander be immediately ordered to see that my property is returned to me, and that I be indemnified for any losses sustained. ¶ I request that a copy of above protest be forwarded to the State Department and to the American Minister at Managua. ¶ Respectfully submitted. ¶ (Signed) LEON FRANK."


February 5, 1927.   Leon' Frank's Case.  Telegram from A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields.  " No. 207. ¶ AMERICAN CONSULATE. ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua, February 5, 1927. ¶ SUBJECT: Leon Frank’s Case. ¶ THE HONORABLE ¶ THE SECRETARY OF STATE, ¶ WASHINGTON. ¶ SIR: ¶ I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Department’s Instruction of January 1[second digit unreadable, most likely “5” or “6”], 1927 (Film No. 317.115 B 621/15), relating to the charges submitted by Rear Admiral J. L. Latimer against Mr. Leon Frank, an American citizen, alleging unneutral conduct and recommending the withdrawal of protection. ¶ The copy of the report of Lt. McGee, alleging serious admissions by Mr. Frank, has been carefully considered. I cannot accept his statements in view of the assertions of Mr. Frank and the British Consul that no such admissions were made. I have full confidence in both gentlemen; but the reports concerning Lt. McGee, received at this office, are not to his credit, compelling me to regard him with suspicion. ¶ If the Department desires I shall forward copies of written complaints concerning Lt. McGee and Commander Richardson, which I have on file. I cannot recall accurately the various verbal complaints submitted. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul. ¶ File No. 350."

MARCH 1927

March 9, 1927.  A. J. McConnico, US Consul, Bluefields, to Mr. Albert F. Hopkins, Secretary, Full Gospel Tract Depot, Philadelphia, PA.  "Bluefields, Nicaragua, March 9, 1927. ¶ Mr. Albert F. Hopkins, ¶ Secretary, Full Gospel Tract Depot, ¶ 8035 Oxford Avenue, Fox Chase, ¶ Philadelphia, Pa. ¶ Sir: ¶ Receipt is acknowledged of your letter of February 18, 1297, requesting this office to give the names and addresses of such Missionaries as we may know in the Bluefields Consular District. ¶ They are as follows: Revds. W. H. Hooper, D. H. B. Miller, G. A. Heidenreich, C. Conrad Shimer, and H. H. Stortz of Bluefields, Nicaragua; Revd. F. Wolff, Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua; K. Bregenzer, Karawala, Nicaragua; Revd. J. Fisher, Twappi, Nicaragua; Revd. N. Wilson, Quamwatla, Nicaragua; Right Revd. G. Grossman, Bragmans Bluff, Nicaragua; Revd. K. G. Hamilton, Cabo Gracias, Care of W. H. Seat; Revd. F. E. Schramm, Sangsangta, Care of W. H. Seat, Cabo Gracias, Nicaragua; and Revd. J. Palmer, Yulu, Nicaragua. ¶ Very respectfully yours, ¶ A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul. ¶ File No. 360. ¶ Enclosure: ¶ General Information Sheet."

March 26, 1927.  "Record of Events," Gen. Logan Feland (fragment).  "RECORD OF EVENTS continued. ¶ WEATHER: ¶ Fair, terrain very dry and dusty. ¶ CONDITION OF ROADS: ¶ Road from MANAGUA to MATAGALPA can be traversed by motor trucks. ¶ EVENTS: ¶ 25th March, 1927 the Force Service Company, Naval Forces On Shore In Western Nicaragua for duty at the Supply Base at CORINTO, was established, in accordance with Force Special Order Number 17, dated 25 March, 1927. ¶ 0820 Two (2) planes # 6369 and 6380 took off and returned 1140. Captains Mulcahy and Campbell pilots with Pvt Woolsey and Lt Lemly as observers. Cross country reconnaissance to GRANADA and return. ¶ 1020 Commander Special Service Squadron arrived LEON and departed 1040, for MANAGUA. He was met at the station by the Commanding Officer Landing Forces. ¶ 1345 Commander Special Service Squadron arrived MANAGUA. ¶ 1350 Commanding Officer, Landing Forces informed Commander LEON Detachment of rumored probable revolutionists’ attacks on LEON and LA PAZ CENTRO and gave instructions for repelling same. ¶ 1400-1420 Landing Forces notified (by phone) LA PAZ CENTRO, CHICHIGALPA and CHINANDEGA of plan to reenforce [reinforce] LEON patrol and outposts if necessary. ¶ 1825- Truck train from MATAGALPA to MANAGUA arrived MANAGUA. ¶ 1830- Upon receipt of further orders to Commanding Officer Landing Forces from General Saenz, regarding rumors attacking LEON, Commanding Officer Landing Forces informed Force Headquarters by phone and gave orders to Commander LEON Detachment for establishment of extra patrols in city, for having men ready for instant service and for holding in readiness special engine and cars to send to LA PAZ CENTRO with or for reenforcements [reinforcements] during the night, if and as necessary. ¶ 1845 Commanding Officer Landing Forces gave telephonic orders to Commander CHICHIGALPA patrol to hold special engine and cars ready to bring reenforcements [reinforcements] (80 men) from CHICHIGALPA, POSOLTEGA and QUEZALGUQUE [QUEZALGUAQUE] during the night if necessary. ¶ 1915- Commanding Officer Landing Forces received word from Force Headquarters (by phone) that a special train was being held in readiness in MANAGUA to transport 200 Marines to LEON if reenforcements [reinforcements] were requested. ¶ 1930- Commander LA PAZ CENTRO Patrol reported that only two privates of the daily patrol sent out (1 corporal and 6 privates) had returned to camp and that a searching party had failed to find the missing corporal and four privates. The two privates stated that the corporal had ordered them to return to camp and they believed the missing five contemplated desertion. ¶ 1940 Commanding Officer Landing Forces gave telephonic orders to Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment to hold special train just arrived at CHINANDEGA until further orders, to be used to transport reenforcements [reinforcements] (100 men) to LEON during the night, if necessary. ¶ 2015 Half hourly schedule (telephone) was established between Force Headquarters and Headquarters Landing Forces and schedule was maintained during the night. ¶ During the night of 25-26, two rifle companies and one (1) M.G. Platoon stood by [the words “under arms” are typed here, but crossed out] in MANAGUA, available for immediate movement, if necessary, upon orders from the Commanding General. Two trains also stood by to transport the above troops if necessary. ¶ ORDERS ISSUED: Force Special Order # 17. ¶ ORDERS RECEIVED: None. ¶ LOGAN FELAND, ¶ Brigadier General, U. S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commanding General, Naval Forces On Shore ¶ In Western Nicaragua. ¶ Copy to M. G. C., Cmdr Spec Ser Sqdn, file."

March 29, 1927.  "Record of Events," Gen. Logan Feland (fragment).   "RECORD OF EVENTS. continued. ¶ WEATHER: Fair, terrain very dry and dusty. ¶ CONDITION OF ROADS: Road from MANAGUA to MATAGALPA can be traversed by motor trucks. ¶ HEALTH OF TROOPS: Excellent. Sick in hospital (1 in Quantico). ¶ Sick present (29). ¶ EVENTS: ¶ 0825 Three (3) planes, #6369, 6361 and 6393 with Capt. Mulcahy, Capt. Campbell and MarGun Wodarczyk pilots, and Lt. McCullough, Pvt. Hoskinson, and Pfc. Johnson observers took off and returned 0950. Tactical problem- bombing attack on the MANAGUA Airdrome. ¶ 0835 One (1) plane took off and returned 0950. Lt. Lamson-Scribner, pilot and Capt. Pierce observer. Ship # 6381. Reconnaissance mission and utilizing a high frequency aircraft radio set. ¶ 0900 Letter sent to Commanding Officer Landing Forces: THE COMMANDING OFFICER LANDING FORCES WILL HAVE THE BRANCH RAILROAD FROM CHICHIGALPA TO SAN ANTONIO PATROLLED TO INSURE ITS PROTECTION. /s/ M.B. HUMPHREY, by direction. ¶ 0930 Commanding Officer Landing Forces notified Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment of the above patrol (by telephone). ¶ 1320-1700 Capt. Knighton USMC, on “gasolina” investigated rumor of 50 revolutionists near railroad in vicinity of LA CEIBA and upon return stated that rumor was groundless. ¶ 1325 A three (3) ship formation, Capt. Mulcahy, Lt. Cushman and Capt. Campbell pilots, and Gy Sgt. Geer, Capt. Pierce and Lt. Lamson-Scribner observers, took off and reconnoitered district in LEON area as personally directed by the Commanding General. On the return trip the airplane piloted by Capt. Campbell left the formation at LEON to make some aerial photographs. After photographing the city of LEON, this plane returned due east from LEON to MANAGUA and was fired upon by about 200 rifles and one or two machine guns in the hands of revolutionists, located in the woods. Twelve hits were registered on the plane, two in the wings and ten in the fuselage all of which entered the forward and rear cockpit, carrying away part of the rudder bar and the left tail skid control wire. The pilot returned the fire with 146 rounds from the fixed gun. Casualties of revolutionists unknown. Neither the pilot nor the observer was injured. Subsequent examinations of the planes revealed that plane #6361, pilot Lt. Cushman was hit four times and plane #6369, pilot Capt. Mulcahy was hit once by shots fired by revolutionists, on March 28th. ¶ ORDERS ISSUED: Force General Order Numbers five (5) and six (6). ¶ Force Operations Order Number nine (9). ¶ ORDERS RECEIVED: ¶ None. ¶ LOGAN FELAND, ¶ Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commanding General Naval Forces On ¶ Shore In Western Nicaragua. ¶ To: The Major General Commandant. ¶ Copy to: The Commander Special Service Squadron. ¶ File."

March 30, 1927.  "Record of Events," Gen. Logan Feland (fragment).   "RECORD OF EVENTS. March 30, 1927 continued. ¶ WEATHER: Fair, terrain very dry and dusty. ¶ CONDITION OF ROADS: Road from MANAGUA to MATAGALPA can be traversed by motor trucks. ¶ HEALTH OF TROOPS: Excellent. Sick present 49. ¶ Sick in hospital 3. (1 in Quantico). ¶ EVENTS: ¶ 0545 One truck departed MATAGALPA for MANAGUA with Capt. Beattie, Chaplain Murdock, two stragglers and one sick enlisted. ¶ 0645 Fifth Regiment truck convoy (12 trucks) left DARIO for MANAGUA. ¶ 0840 Three planes, Capt. Mulcahy, Lt. Cushman and Lt. Lemly, pilots with Cpl. Peterson, Cpl. Dunn and Pvt. Muller as observers took off in planes # 6369, 6381 and 6361 and returned 0920. This formation conducted a practice bombing attack on the MANAGUA Airdrome, experimenting with methods of live bombing on ground troops. ¶ 0920 One plane, Lt. Lamson-Scribner pilot and Pvt. Weber took off in plane # 6393 and returned 1030. This flight was made to photograph the various military activities located in MANAGUA. ¶ 0955 Two planes, Capt. Mulcahy and Lt. Lemly, pilots with Gy Sgt. Munsch and Mar.Gun Wodarczyk took off and returned 1245. Reconnaissance patrol directed by The Commanding General to reconnoiter along railroad and around the immediate vicinity of towns between MANAGUA and CHINANDEGA. ¶ 1200 “Gasolina” left LEON for MANAGUA, for use of Force Medical Officer. ¶ 1500 One truck arrived MANAGUA from MATAGALPA with Capt. Beattie, Chaplain Murdock, two stragglers and one sick enlisted. ¶ 1545 Fifth Reg. truck train (12 trucks) arrived MANAGUA from DARIO. ¶ 1700 Temporary outpost (1 officer and 16 men) at LA CEIBA relieved by permanent outpost (1 officer 18 men) from LA PAZ CENTRO Patrol. ¶ 1705 The Commanding General directed that two officers be detailed from the CHINANDEGA Detachment to meet Mr. Alejandro Ortega (representative to pay Conservative troops) and go with him to witness the payment of the soldiers; each soldier to receive two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) gold or the equivalent. ¶ 1720 Commanding Officer Landing Forces notified Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment of the above by telephone. ¶ 1900 Capt. R.G. Heiner (MC), USN., Force Medical Officer, arrived LEON on “Gasolina” from MANAGUA, to inspect available facilities for proposed base hospital. ¶ 1905 Force Headquarters received the names of the two officers from Commanding Officer Landing Forces, (Ensign Greenwald and Pay Clk White USN), who will witness the payment of Government troops in CHINANDEGA Department. ¶ 2030 Capt. Heiner USN, inspected “Instituto Nacional” and its Annex, reporting both suitable for hospital purposes, with preference for latter. Preliminary negotiations were begun with Gen. Saenz for occupation of the latter building. ¶ 2150 Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment reported 30 shots heard in the eastern outskirts of the city and that Commander CHICHIGALPA Patrol had been ordered to be ready to transfer re-enforcements to CHINANDEGA by special train if necessary. ¶ 2155 Commanding Officer Landing Forces directed Commander LEON Detachment to have 75 replacements ready to send to CHICHAGALPA [CHICHIGALPA] by special train if necessary. ¶ 2240 Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment reported that subsequent investigation of incident noted above, showed that shots had been fired by five mounted men (who had attempted to enter the town) upon being challenged by four native policemen, and that when the latter returned the fire the five mounted men fled. The special patrol-sent from CHINANDEGA Patrol to investigate the firing-was also fired upon by unknown persons in the vicinity of the Barracks, who disappeared immediately as soon as fire was returned by the patrol."

March 30, 1927.  Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.   "TIGER BRAND SHOES. ¶ CABLE ADDRESS “TANNING” BENTLEY CODE. ¶ BLUEFIELDS TANNING COMPANY, LTD. ¶ MANUFACTURERS OF ¶ LEATHER, BOOTS, SHOES AND BELTS ¶ HIDES AND SKINS OF ALL KINDS BOUGHT. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NIC., Mar 30th 1927 ¶ Mr. A.J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Dear Sir:- ¶ For your information and as a matter of record, I beg to advise you that this morning an armed squad of sailors of the landing forces of USS Denver, under command of Commander S.A. LaBounty, and without any previous notice, searched the tannery belonging to our company. ¶ When I learnt of the occurrence I went to American Headquarters and was informed by Junior Lieutenant [unreadable, possibly “Grasselese”] that they were searching for arms and that none was found, was also told that they had been a denouncement made to the effect that arms was hidden at the tannery and that the Nicaraguan who made the denouncementwas [denouncement was] under arrest. ¶ The Nicaraguan who made the denouncement has no standing and is without any responsibility. ¶ I give you all thisinformation [this information] to show you that it is their intention to molest me in any and every way possible. ¶ Yours very truly ¶ Leon Frank"


March 31, 1927.  "Record of Events," Gen. Logan Feland, Managua (fragment).   "RECORD OF EVENTS. March 31, 1927 cont’d. ¶ WEATHER: Fair; terrain very dry and dusty. ¶ CONDITION OF ROADS: Road from MANAGUA to MATAGALPA can be traversed by motor trucks. ¶ HEALTH OF TROOPS: Excellent. Sick present……….. 43 ¶ Sick in hospital…… 2 ¶ EVENTS: ¶ 0300 – Pvt. Lewis Gingras, 45th Co 5th Regt., died in hospital at MANAGUA, due to appendicitis. ¶ 0845 – Two planes #6361 and 6393 with Lt. Lamson-Scribner and Mar.Gunner Wodarczyk as pilots and Pvts. Williams and Anderson as observers, took off and returned 0930. This formation conducted a practice bombing attack on NICARAGUAN Airdrome. ¶ 0940 – The General Court Martial, of which Lt. Cmdr. William N. Richardson, Jr., U.S. Navy, is President, met. ¶ 1055 – General Court Martial adjourned to await the action of the convening authority, having tried the cases of F.J[.] McCarthy, Pfc. USMC., and C.E. Davenport, Seaman 2nd cl. USN. ¶ 1100 – General Saenz reported to Commanding Officer Landing Forces, that arrangements had been effected for the occupation as a Base Hospital (by the coming Hospital Unit) of the house belonging to Judge Arana, and now rented by the government as an annex to the Instituto Nacional. ¶ 1310 – Commander LEON Detachment reports that Pvts. Caudill and Whitley, USMC., stragglers from LA PAZ CENTRO Patrol since afternoon of 25 March, were returned under guard from MANAGUA. ¶ 1355 – Commader [Commander] Special Service Squadron (accompanied by his aide), arrived LEON on regular train from MANAGUA and departed for CORINTO at 1425, being met at the station by Commanding Officer Landing Forces, General Saenz and Dr. Ayon. Captain R.G. Heiner, (MC) USN., departed LEON for CORINTO on the same train. ¶ 1600 – Commander CHINANDEGA Detachment reports that Mr. Cutilla (Spanish citizen) was arrested at SAN ANTONIO by order of Government, and sent to CHINANDEGA under guard, where he arrived and was jailed at 1600. He was released, subsequently, at 1700, by telegraphic order from President Diaz. ¶ 1600 – Government Paymaster arrived CHINANDEGA on regular train from MANAGUA and finished payment of Government troops at 2000. ¶ ORDERS ISSUED: ¶ General Orders number nine, ten and eleven (9, 10, & 11). ¶ ORDERS RECEIVED: ¶ NONE. ¶ LOGAN FELAND, ¶ Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commanding General, Naval Forces On ¶ Shore In Western Nicaragua. ¶ To: The Major General Commandant. ¶ Copy to: The Commander Special Service Squadron."

APRIL 1927  (see also TOP 100, PAGE 100 for Stimson File)

April 8, 1927.  Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to US Minister, Managua, p. 1.   "Bluefields, Nicaragua, April 8, 1927. ¶ THE HONORABLE ¶ THE AMERICAN MINISTER, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ SIR: ¶ I have the honor to report that several protests have been filed at this office by American mahogany companies against the destruction of their camps by both Conservative and Liberal forces. ¶ On the 22nd instant, the Otis Manufacturing Company received a communication from its contractor, Don Jose Tomas Ocampo, who was in charge of a camp on the Rama River near Muelle de los Bueyes, stating that the Liberal troops had entered his camp, recruited his men and absolutely paralized [paralyzed] his works. ¶ He also stated that the operations of the camp on the River Bulun, a tributary of the Mico near the town of Santo Tomas and Acoyapa in Chontales, had been completely paralized [paralyzed] by the Liberal forces. And the Company had unconfirmed reports that the camp of Don Ernesto Largaespada, its largest contractor, had been burned, the cattle driven away, the supplies sacked, and Senor Largaespada himself made a prisoner. ¶ The S. B. Vrooman […]"

April 8, 1927.  Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to US Minister, Managua, p. 2.   "The S. B. Vrooman Company on March 22, 1927 protested against the destruction of its camps at Paso Lajas, Rama River, by Diaz troops, the men being recruited and the provisions being confiscated. ¶ The Nicaragua Mahogany Company today filed a protest against the destruction of its camps on Cusuca, Siquia River, under the management of Tomas Tejada, by Diaz troops. ¶ The protests of the first two companies were the subject of my radiogram of March 22, 1927. The protest of the Nicaragua Mahogany Company was not filed until today as previously stated. ¶ On Sunday the Jefe Politico will proceed to Rama with representatives of the mahogany companies and enter into a written agreement with the leader of the Liberal force to bring about a cessation of the molestation or destruction of camps by either party. ¶ I am, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul. ¶ File No. 350."


1.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ April 24, 1927 ¶ A. J. McConnico, ¶ U. S. Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nica. ¶ Dear Sir:- ¶ Late during the evening of Monday, April 18th I was asked by a representative Creole of Bluefields to visit the camp of Creole soldiers at Fruta de Pan, or Sloop House, to examine several sick men to determine if they were not suffering from Malaria. ¶ Before leaving the following morning I personally called on the officer on duty at the U. S. Naval Barracks, H. R. Darling, Pay Clerk, and notified him of my intention, and asked him if there was any objection. He said that there was not, but that it was understood that I make the visit at my own risk. He suggested, however, that I take a pass to show to any American sentries I might encounter, and he wrote me such a permit. My visit to the camp and return was uneventful. I had no occasion to show the pass. ¶ After my return, and while talking to you on the street, if you remember, Mr. Darling called me to one side. He asked me if I had had any trouble, and, if I had no objections, to tell him exactly how I had got to the camp and by what means I had returned. He stated that he had been requested to find out, merely a matter of curiosity, nothing official, as they know that the Creoles went back and forth, to and from the camp, almost at will. He also enquired as to the number of sick there, what was the matter with them and as to the conditions at the camp. ¶ I told him that I had left by one of the boats running regularly between Bluefields and Pearl Lagoon, and that the Captain of the boat had put me ashore at Sloop House Creek; that when I had finished my examination of the sick, numbering about twenty, I was brought on one of the gasoline launches belonging to the Creole contingent to the outskirts of town, there transferred to a pitpan, whose I do not know, and that two Creole boys, the names of whom I do not know, paddled me to the Point where I landed about dark. ¶ I [He?] informed me that, altho [although] I might not be aware of it, they, the naval officers, thought that these people were getting a mighty “raw deal,” and that, altho [although] they were compelled to obey orders, their sympathies were altogether with the Liberal cuase [cause]. He asked me what my ideas were about the situation. I told him about to what extent the Coast had been exploited since Knox started the game by turning the country over to the bankers, represented by Clifford D. Ham; how Hughes had given the franchise to the Nicaraguan people in 1923-4, as the first step towards eliminating the Diaz-Chamorro faction and putting a stop to the exploitation; how their great victory at the polls in the latter year seemed to augur well for the future prosperity of the country, through the elimination of the Diaz-Chamorro-Ham clique; how this same clique engineered the coup of 1925; how Crampton, Ham’s assistant, practically ran Chamorro’s end of the revolution here on the Coast in May, and how Admiral Latimer has been running the affair solely in the interests of the Diaz-Chamorro-Ham outfit ever since, and that any State Department regulation of […]"

2.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ […] the bankers’ pernicious activities had been merely nominal. ¶ Asked about the landing force from the Galveston I called his attention to the gratuitous insult offered me by Commander Richardson when, as a physician in charge of the Red Cross Hospital, I protested against his orders to put in the filthy and overcrowded local jail a half dozen patients of the hospital still having open wounds, without even consulting his own surgeon, and breaking his given word as an officer thereby; I cited the incident of his substitution for the report of his own surgeon, Lieutenant-Commander William E. Crooks, that of Dr. Jose D. Arana, a Chamorro physician, reports exactly the opposite as to the filthy, overcrowded and unhygienic conditions at the jail, and how Richardson was just as guilty as any of his officers of open and shameless drunkenness, the worst bunch of inebriates that has so far been wished on us. ¶ His reply was that they had known something about my affair with Richardson, and that I had had the best of the argument with him, for naval officers held any one of their number in contempt who would take advantage of his position and authority, and the fact that he was not only armed himself, but that he was surrounded by armed men under his direct orders, to insult an American citizen; and he also said that Richardson ought to have known that he could not “get over” anything on a surgeon of Dr. Crook’s reputation and rank. ¶ He repeated his assertion that the sympathy of the officers was with the Liberals and told me that when I wanted to visit the sick among the Creole contingent again to let him know, for they wished to do all that they could to help me. ¶ I told him empathically that I was no Liberal partizan [partisan]; that I had no reasons for believing that the politicians of one party were a bit more to be trusted than those of the other, but that my synpathies [sympathies] were altogether with the people of the Coast, as were those of every other decent white man, and that I would do all that I could in a professional way to care for their sick and wounded, as I had offered to do for the sick and wounded of the Diaz-Chamorro faction, and as I had done to the extent that I had been allowed – with not one cent of remuneration where the latter were concerned, and with next to none from any source. ¶ I also told him that there was absolutely no mistaken idea among us “old-timers” in Nicaragua as to exactly why our Navy is here making a “holy show” of itself for the befuddling of the people at home; and that, altho [although] we did not blame them personally for doing the “dirty” work they were compelled to do under orders, we did blame them for not doing it like “gentlemen” – and I complimented him on the exceedingly good conduct of the officers of his ship, the Denver, against whom I had so far heard not one complaint. ¶ When, on my way to my offices from noon breakfast on Saturday the 25th, Lieutenant Lehrfeld, now in command of the U. S. Landing Force, accosted me in front of the barracks and told me that he had just been to my offices to have a talk with me, I wondered why I was becoming, all of a sudden, so extremely popular with the Navy. I invited Mr. Lehrfeld to return with me and make his visit then, as I had an hour at his disposal at the time. He […]"

3.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ […] did so – and all the way over to the offices I kept thinking that now it is my turn to be “framed,” just as had Leon Frank, the British Consul and yourself, a few months ago, by, principally, Lieutenant McGee, of the Galveston, and I ran over in my mind the “sins” of commission of which I had been guilty and for which I might have to suffer under Admiral Latimer’s peculiar kind of neutrality. These were as follows: ¶ (1) I had been in charge of the medical end of the Red Cross Hospital which our naval officers, as well as the other Diaz-Chamorro active partizans [partisans] and sympathizers, had dubbed the Liberal Hospital. ¶ (2) I had written some two dozen letters of enquiry and protest and several articles containing the truth about the Nicaraguan situation, to some sixteen newspapers, periodicals and news syndicates of the States, and I know that my mail is being tampered with. ¶ (3) I didn’t approve of our drunken naval officers parading the streets of the town, and had so expressed myself on numerous occasions; and I had written letters of protest, first, to J. Gilmore Fletcher, a friend in the States with large interests here, asking him to use his influence in Washington to have our Navy sober up, then to U. S. Senator Shipstead, in the same vein, and, finally, to Admiral Latimer – to the last about the drunken conduct and incompetence, to say nothing of the untruthfulness, of Lieutenant Commander Richardson of the Galveston – and from none of these had I received a reply. ¶ (4) I had, as you know, contributed my quota to the accusations of drunkenness and utter unreliability against Lieutenant McGee of the Galveston, made at the request of the State Department – and I considered that it was about time that we heard something, in the usual “pussy-footing” way, regarding, at least, the accusations against our naval officers. If I am doing Lieutenant Lehrfeld an injustice, I shall apologize should the occasion arise. ¶ My sins of omission were only one: I had not openly, or in any other way, espoused the cause of the Diaz-Chamorro faction, as some Americans did, even during Chamorro’s unrecognized incumbency and in spite the fact that we had been warned by both you, as American Consul, and by some of our naval officers to observe a strictly neutral attitude – and I was therefore called a “Liberal,” whatever that signifies. ¶ Mr. Lehrfeld first asked me who was in command of the camp at Fruta de Pan, now that General Hodgson was dead, and about how many men were under his command. I told him that a Creole by the name of Connor was now in command, and that his force there consisted of about one-hundred men. He asked me if Buckley, an Anerican [American], was at the camp, saying that he had heard that he was in charge. I told him that I could assure him that Buckley was not there, altho [although] he might be at one of the other camps, as there were three of four others, according to information given to me. ¶ He then wanted to know if I thought that there was a probability of the Creoles attacking Bluefields. I told him that Connor struck me as a man with too much sense to attempt such a thing. He said that he had been greatly […]"

4.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ […] annoyed by the “civil” authorities coming to him with tales of expected attacks from that quarter; and I told him that as long as the farce continued of there being any other authority in Bluefields than his own, which fooled nobody, he would continue to be annoyed, that he knew, I knew, and that he now knew that I knew, that, as long as he was in command of the landing force here, he was both civil and military authority – with the possible proviso that both he and his superior officers would, in a crisis, probably take orders directly from the local representative of the bankers, the American Collector of Customs, just as the former landing forces had done from the former Collector, Colonel W. J. Crampton – the colonelcy being one of the rewards of Chamorro for the masterly way he had run the latter’s revolution for him on the Coast, before he was demoted, nominally by our State Department, in favor of Diaz, and just as, from all accounts, Colonel Clifford D. Ham had done in the Interior. ¶ He then said that he had met Ham, and that he had heard that he had resigned. I told him that the resignations of American diplomats and representatives, or, at the very least, their removal, were quite according to long established precedent under such circumstances; and I asked him if he knew that Ham was reputed to have personally benefitted, quite after precedent also, to the extent of some half-million dollars during his rule of Nicaragua. He said that he knew that he had become quite a wealthy man, and asked me who I thought would take his place. My answer was that, considering the colonelcy bestowed upon Crampton, I thought that he would likely be the man – if things really worked out according to the plans of the bankers. ¶ He thanked me for the compliment I had passed on the good behavior of the officers of the Denver and wanted to know what I had done about the Richardson affair. I told him that I had reported in writing to Admiral Latimer that Commander R. was drunken, untruthful and incompetent, and that, altho [although] I was not honored with a reply, about two weeks later the machinery of the Galveston got out of order, and she left. I also mentioned the fact that, after the Americans at Puerta Cabezas had complained in writing to the Captain of the Tulsa about the drunkenness of her officers ashore, her machinery also conveniently got out of order, and she left. He laughed. I added that the matter would not rest there, that we had ways of getting things past the “blockade” in the State Department, and that we were going to do so. ¶ He then asked me to give him the gist of the inside history of Nicaragua as bearing on the present trouble, which I did, from 1894 to the present time. I cited how Secretary of State Olney turned the Coast over to President Zelaya and American “business” for exploitation; how, when the thieves fell out finally, Secretary Knox disfranchised the people and turned all of Nicaragua over to the American bankers for a “refined” exploitation, from which the Coast has been the greater sufferer; how Hughes all but returned to them their franchise; how Kellogg is attempting to take it away from them again, and how it is for a continuation of this very remunerative exploitation by the bankers that the American Navy is fighting Nicaragua today – all other reasons for its presence here not being worth considering seriously. ¶ I added that all Central America, South America and most of Europe were perfectly well acquainted with these facts, and that only the people of the […]"

5.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 5.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ […] United States were in ignorance. His reply was that our people had certainly been kept in the dark. ¶ I then asked a few questions. I wanted to know why, if Bluefields was a neutral town, General George Hodgson had not been permitted to come to his home for medical treatment when he was practically dying. He said that he had got the Admiral’s permission for the General to remain for treatment unmolested, but that, when he went to inform him of this, he found that he had left for his camp the night before, that he had evidently been afraid to stay. I told him that it was the general opinion of those who knew him best that George Hodgson did not know what personal fear was, but that the reason he left was because the so-called civil authorities and their friends had threatened to set fire to the part of town in which he lived in order to smoke him out and get a shot at him without any risk to themselves; and that the General had said that, rather than cause any trouble for Bluefields and to the American forces, he would prefer to go back to his camp, even if it meant his death. ¶ I also wanted to know why, if this was a neutral town, armed Conservatives were allowed to roam the streets, and an unarmed Constitutional had to sneak in and out like a thief. His reply was that no armed men of either faction were supposed to be in town – not much of an answer as I had passed an armed Nicaraguan guard, with two armed American sailors, sitting in front of the palace not a half-hour before. I also wanted to know if he was aware of the fact that the Conservatives boasted that the American forces were their “hirelings,” paid to do their fighting for them. He didn’t answer me, he was nodding, half asleep, and he apologized, stating that he had been up very late the night before. ¶ He asked me what I thought of the “investigation” now being made by Stimson, sent down bt [by] President Coolidge to learn the truth. I replied that any investigation that did not include the Coast, or even start with the Coast, was no investigation at all; and that it is the opinion among the old residents here that, from Stimson’s former close association with Knox in Taft’s cabinet, he came down with orders, not to investigate, but to “go through the motions” so as to keep Diaz in the presidential chair until the loans are all made to the satisfaction of the bankers – loans that are not needed by Nicaragua. ¶ I asked him, then, if he knew whether it was true that the new move was to place Diaz officials in all of the so-called neutral towns now under the civil authority of Constitutional officials. His reply was that he did not know whether such was the case, and he wanted to know what I thought of such a possible move. I told him that, altho [although] Admiral Latimer had made more than one man’s share of blunders here, such a procedure would cap them all for pure imbecility, unless his idea was to bring on murder, riot and assassination, which we really thought not improbable, judging from past experiences of his activities. I told him that this was my idea of what would happen, judging from the present temper of the much tried Constitutional troops, already cheated out of every victory over, first, the Chamorro, and, then, the Diaz, troops, to say nothing of having been cheated out of their victory at the polls in 1924. ¶ I expressed it as my opinion that Admiral Latimer would find out that he […]"

6.   April 24, 1927.   Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul, A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 6.   "JOHN LOUIS MARCHAND, M. D. ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA, ¶ C. A. ¶ […] could not order the Constitutional leaders about in the same way that the American officials had become accustomed to order the Diaz-Chamorro officials to come and go; that he could not fool them into any further peace plans, after the October fiasco, and that they knew exactly for what they were fighting – the franchise. ¶ He left with the assurance that the Americans of Bluefields would not be subjected to any drunken shows by the officers of his command – and he left me under the impression that I had told him nothing of which he was not already familiar. ¶ I am making this report to you for the reason that there is a possibility that I may be “framed” and that this may be the first step in the procedure. If this proves to be not the case, there will be no harm done. ¶ Very truly yours, ¶ John Louis Marchand, M. D."

MAY 1927  (see also TOP 100, PAGE 100 for Stimson File)

May 8, 1927.   Letter from Col. Louis M. Gulick, Tipitapa, to "My dear Major Bartlett," p. 1.   "CP. FIFTH REGIMENT, ¶ TIPITAPA, NICARAGUA ¶ 8 May 1927 ¶ Time – 0900 ¶ My dear Major Bartlett:- ¶ A few notes to elucidate on certain features of the present situationthat [situation that] have been transmitted to you by messages and telephone. ¶ I do not know the agreement between the Government and the Liberals, but generally speaking the Conservatives are to evacuate the line they have been holding in the vicinity of Tuestepe and Boaco and retreat south of the Tipitapa River, which river we have been holding since 6:00 a.m. May 6th, 1927. The bulk of the Conservatives have already crossed south of the Tipitapa River and a few stragglers are now coming in. These Conservatives are going into camp at Panama (a farm) which is on the Managua road 3 kilometers south of Tipitapa. The Liberal troops have remained, as near as I can learn, in their position in the vicinity of Tuestepe and Boaco. General Moncada went through here the afternoon of the 6th accompanied by Major Brewster, Lieutenant Moran, U.S.N., and Mr. Willie, going to Las Banderas with the mission of giving instructions to the troops of his army to disband by being conducted to some place south of the Tipitapa River where they will be given $10.00 a piece for each rifle and a letter of amnesty which would allow them to return to their homes. ¶ It appears from the above that this will work out successfully as far as the Conservatives are concerned, but it is doubtful whether all of the Liberal leaders will agree to this proposition and it is contemplated that some of their leaders, such as Mexican General Escamilla, will not agree to the terms offered and will take such followers as they can gather and proceed to rob and pillage certain sections of the country. ¶ Tentatively, we are liable to receive orders to occupy certain towns in territory extending east to Boaco and west to El Sauce. The Second Battalion on the right, the Third Battalion in the center and the First Battalion on the left. The general plan is for the Second Battalion to occupy Boaco with one company and after securing the safety of this company to move another company into position farther to the west, probably Camoapa or Comalapa, or vicinity. The Third Battalion will secure its position in Matagalpa and […]"

May 8, 1927.   Letter from Col. Louis M. Gulick, Tipitapa, to "My dear Major Bartlett," p. 2.   "[…] establish a company in Esteli, the Esteli company consisting of a platoon from Dario and a Machine Gun platoon from Managua. After securing the company in Esteli, the Third Battalion will occupy Jinotega and then, if forces permit it, Muy-Muy. The First Battalion will operate northwart [northward?] from the Chinandega-Leon Railroad. Their center of activities will be in the vicinity of El Sauce. ¶ The plan of the General is for companies and larger units to secure themselves in their respective centers and then for them to operate from their respective centers with large elements of their commands against large bands of former Liberal Army troops. We are not going to make heros [heroes] out of a couple of cattle thieves by chasing them through the jungles with a squad of Marines. ¶ Major Shearer has been directed to issue immediate orders advising all Americans and foreigners to come into Matagalpa for complete protection. ¶ In view of the fact that your occupation of Boaco will occur within a week, it is my wish that you take immediate steps to acquaint yourself and your officers with the difficulties you will encounter and the methods of overcoming them. This is especially true of distances to be traveled, roads, rivers and lakes to be used as lines of communication, conditions of such and your various methods of transportation. Get maps, have them studied and question people acquainted with your future field of operations. ¶ Indications are that a Guardia Nacional will be established in Nicaragua while we are engaged in crushing banditry. The Fifth Regiment will be called upon to furnish a number of officers to organize and train the Guardia. I realize that taking these officers from the regiment is going to hit us pretty hard, but the loss of officers is one of the things we must expect in active operation and I do not expect the efficiency of this regiment to be impaired by any losses we may suffer in Nicaragua. I believe that those officers detailed to the Guardia will eventually be released by officers from the States who prefer that kind of duty. At first I doubt if these officers will get extra compensation but, eventually, as the Nicaraguan Treasury replenishes itself, it is intended to give them compensation similar to that of the Haitien [Haitian] Gendarmerie. Everything is funcitioning [functioning] very smoothly in the regimental area and I feel that all units are getting valuable training for the prospective move."

May 9, 1928.  Letter from Major H. G Bartlet, El Paso, Nicaragua, to "My dear Colonel Gulick," p. 1.   "HEADQUARTERS, SECOND BATTALION, FIFTH REGIMENT, ¶ Second Brigade, U. S. Marine Corps, ¶ EL PASO, NICARAGUA, ¶ 9 May 1927. ¶ My dear Colonel Gulick: ¶ Received your letter of yesterday giving me information of the present situation and was very glad to get some first hand information. ¶ It appears that Escamilla and Beltram Sandoval are out raiding, according to natives that have come in and that they have seized cattle and so forth about twenty miles east of us. ¶ The Boaco area assigned my Battalion as far as I can learn is one in which after the rainy season starts we will have to rely entirely on pack animals for transportation. From El Paso towards Riito there is no road and pack animals will have to be used to get supplies to Comalapa and Comoapa via El Paso. ¶ If it is sure that either of the above places are to be occupied please let me know so that I can build up a ration dump here as the road between here and Granada is now passable for our truck. ¶ I know nothing definite about the Tipitapa – Boaco road but believe that after the rainy season starts pack animals will have to be used on that road also. ¶ I believe that my proper method of supply will be via Tipitapa to Boaco and via El Paso to Comolapa [Comalapa] or Comoapa. Puerto Diaz to Comalapa is about the same distance as El Paso to Comalapa and the road is no better as far as I am able to learn. ¶ I do not think it will be possible or necessary to transport the 37 MM gun or Stokes around the country and as my infantry companies are short would like to make temporary transfer of Stokes and 37 MM crews to the infantry companies to bring them up to strength. ¶ The question of taking the radio to Boaco or Comalapa depends upon recharging of batteries and number of batteries available. We have only three now. [...] "

May 9, 1928.  Letter from Major H. G Bartlet, El Paso, Nicaragua, to "My dear Colonel Gulick," p. 2.   " [...] The question of transporting Captain Livingston’s Company up the Tipitapa River is one that depends on our being able to get the two life boats from the SS VICTORIA and a launch capable of towing them. The launch that I had to land with and which was sent back to Granada for repairs has been promised me and willl [will] be suitable for this work. The SS VICTORIA belongs to the Railroad and Mr. Carmen Diaz would be the one to see about the VICTORIA life boats. ¶ Rations for Captain Livingston’s command should be sent out from Managua, I think. ¶ Would suggest that Captain Livingston’s Company be accompanied by one section of machine gun and one machine gun officer (Lt. Cronmiller). ¶ It will take at least twenty four hours to get boats here from Granada for this transfer and twelve to make two boats trips to head of Navigation (ferry), for Captain Livingston’s Company. ¶ With kindest regards to all at Headquarters, I remain, ¶ Sincerely yours, ¶ H. G. BARTLETT, ¶ Major, U. S. Marine Corps"

1.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 1.   "(In compliance with Paragrap[rest of text cut off] ¶ (597 of the Consular Regulat[rest of text cut off] ¶ REVIEW OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES ¶ FOR THE YEAR 1926 – NICARAGUA. ¶ From American Consul, ¶ Corinto, Nicaragua. ¶ Christian T. Steger. ¶ Date of preparation: May 10, 1927. ¶ Date of mailing: May 31, 1927 ¶ There was forwarded with this Consulate’s monthly review of commerce and industries, dated January 5th, 1927, a preliminary review of industrial and commercial developments for the year 1926. The present report is supplementary, and will furnish only data which was unavailable at the time the preliminary survey was forwarded. ¶ Foreign […]"

2.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 2.   "FOREIGN TRADE. ¶ From the point of view of foreign trade, and the balance of trade, the year 1926 was most satisfactory. Due chiefly to the bumper crop of coffee, the chief export commodity, and the satisfactory prices, the total export value reached $13,028,726, setting a new record. Imports were valued at $10,254,512, leaving a favorable trade balance of $2,774,214. Thus, although the total trade was slightly less than in 1920, and the favorable trade balance smaller than in 1924, the year under review may be considered, from the point of view of foreign commerce alone, one of the most satisfactory since the war. ¶ The following table shows, for purposes of comparison, the values of imports and exporters of Nicaragua for the years 1920 to 1926, inclusive: ¶ Year ¶ Importation Value ¶ Exportation Value ¶ Total Foreign Commerce. ¶ 1920 ¶ $13,864,389 ¶ $10,787,345 ¶ $24,651,734 ¶ 1921 ¶ [$]5,309,902 ¶ [$]8,070,949 ¶ [$]13,380,851 ¶ 1922 ¶ [$]5,123,505 ¶ [$]7,903,446 ¶ [$]13,026,951 ¶ 1923 ¶ [$]7,268,432 ¶ [$]11,028,309 ¶ [$]18,296,741 ¶ 1924 ¶ [$]8,806,896 ¶ [$]12,990,026 ¶ [$]21,796,922 ¶ 1925 ¶ [$]10,379,820 ¶ [$]12,359,585 ¶ [$]22,739,405 ¶ 1926 ¶ [$]10,254,512 ¶ [$]13,028,726 ¶ [$]23,283,238 ¶ Imports. ¶ There was no marked change in the importations as compared with the year proceeding, either in the amounts of the various commodities imported, or in their sources. Entries of cotton goods show the only important decrease, from $2,669,589 in 1925 to $2,102,998 in 1926. Imports of chemical products, drugs, and medicines, while of less importance, show approximately the same percentile decrease, from $459,980 to $371,595. The only increase was in the importation of iron and steel products, values of which rose ¶ from […]"

3.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 3.   "[…] from $682,245 in 1925 to $843,664 in 1926. While a great part of these latter goods were used in peaceful pursuits, the increase may be attributed in large part to imports of barbed wire and other iron and steel goods for military purposes. ¶ The attached table (Enclosure No. 1) shows according to commodities imports during 1925 and 1926. ¶ The United States as usual supplied the bulk of imports into Nicaragua; although there was a slight decrease in the total value of goods supplied, from $7,272,191 to $7,116,715, the percentage of the total remains unchanged at 70%. The same may be said of Great Britain, which in both years supplied 11% of the total. Imports from all other European countries showed a slight percentile decline, with the exception of Germany, which increased its exports to Nicaragua from $607,118 in 1925 to $726,880 in 1926, or from 6% to 7% of the total. While entries of German goods are comparatively small, it may be noted that this competition is growing increasingly successful, especially in textiles, chemicals, glassware and porcelain, and a number of manufactures of metals. From less than $100,000 in 1922, German exports to Nicaragua have grown without fluctuation to more than $700,000 in 1926, or from 1% to 7% of the total. ¶ The table in Enclosure No. 2 shows imports into Nicaragua by sources, and percentages of the total originating in the more important countries of origin. Figures for 1925 are given for purposes of comparison. ¶ Exports. ¶ Thanks to the excellent coffee crop of the 1925-1926 season, total exports from Nicaragua in 1926 exceeded slightly the figure for the preceding year. Sugar exports reached little more than half the value of those in 1925. Exports ¶ of bananas […]"

4.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 4.   "[…] of bananas and wood, the principal East Coast products, were approximately 40% less than in the preceding year. This was due to revolutionary conditions which hindered the bringing of these products to seacoast, and the lack of labor. On the West Coast, where the Government was in control during the harvest season, every effort was made to facilitate the shipments, and coffee and sugar were moved promptly. ¶ The above described devlopments [developments] resulted in a decided change in the proportions to the total of exports of the more important individual items. For the second time in more than ten years, coffee exports account for more than one-half of the total value, while the proportion of the other important products is in most cases lower than it has been since 1920. The following table shows the proportions of the more important products to total exports since 1920: ¶ PROPORTION OF EXPORTS BY PRODUCTS: ¶ 1920 ¶ 1921 ¶ 1922 ¶ 1923 ¶ 1924 ¶ 1925 ¶ 1926 ¶ % ¶ % ¶ % ¶ % ¶ % ¶ % ¶ % ¶ Coffee ¶ 27 ¶ 29 ¶ 30 ¶ 35 ¶ 56 ¶ 45 ¶ 62 ¶ [unreadable, possibly “Woods”] ¶ 18 ¶ 11 ¶ 9 ¶ 16 ¶ 10 ¶ 15 ¶ 10 ¶ Bananas ¶ 7 ¶ 17 ¶ 25 ¶ 19 ¶ 13 ¶ 14 ¶ 9 ¶ Sugar ¶ 22 ¶ 16 ¶ 8 ¶ 12 ¶ 8 ¶ 12 ¶ 7 ¶ Gold ¶ 12 ¶ 12 ¶ 13 ¶ 7 ¶ 6 ¶ 5 ¶ 5 ¶ This change in the proportionate values of the various items, combined with the growing purchases of Nicaraguan coffee by France, has likewise brought about a change in the percentage of the total going to the various markets. In 1926 the United States, almost the largest customer, took only 53% of the total exports, as compared with 77%, 71%, 72%, 57%, and 65%, respectively, in the five years preceding. ¶ As was implied above, this change is partly due to the ¶ fact […]"

5.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 5.   "[…] fact that coffee, which is practically the only Nicaraguan product exported to France, gained greatly in relative importance, while production of those commodities of which the United States is the largest purchaser declined. At the same time absolute purchases by France increased, so that she assumed first place as a purchaser of Nicaraguan coffee, taking about 37% of the total crop, as compared with 20% in 1925. As a result, 22% of the total value of exports went to France, and compared with 16% in 1924 and 14% in 1925. ¶ No other changes of particular interest are noted in either the volume or destination of exports. These will be shown in more detail by two accompanying tables, the first of which (Enclosure No. 3) shows the principal items of exportation in 1925 and 1926, while the second (Enclosure No. 4) shows exports for the same periods according to countries of destination. ¶ Declared Exports to U. S. ¶ As Enclosure No. 5 there is likewise submitted a consolidated declared export return, showing total exports from Nicaragua to the United States in 1925 and 1926, as shown by consular records in the offices at Bluefields and Corinto. ¶ Customs [...]"

6.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 6.   " [...] CUSTOMS COLLECTIONS. ¶ Collections by Months. ¶ Figures for imports by months are not available, but the statistics of customs collections by months, which are given below, will give some indication of the trend of importation. It will be noticed that during the first months of the year, there was a steady increase in collections, lasting through April; from this time on, however, as a result of unstable political conditions, a gradual but steady decrease set in, continuing practically without fluctuation until the end of the year. Figures for 1926 are given for purposes of comparison. ¶ Customs Collections by Months. ¶ 1925 & 1926 ¶ 1925 ¶ 1926 ¶ January ¶ $189,888.99 ¶ $172,598.07 ¶ February ¶ [$]222,617.35 ¶ [$]202,429.49 ¶ March ¶ [$]206,763.70 ¶ [$]230,185.63 ¶ April ¶ [$]181,497.49 ¶ [$]283,922.72 ¶ May ¶ [$]190,128.28 ¶ [$]233,894.56 ¶ June ¶ [$]173,207.7[unreadable, possibly “1”] ¶ [$]225,319.54 ¶ July ¶ [$]184,119.48 ¶ [$]194,212.66 ¶ August ¶ [$]197,298.96 ¶ [$]173,463.11 ¶ September ¶ [$]192,368.81 ¶ [$]152,760.43 ¶ October ¶ [$]190,891.98 ¶ [$]151,191.85 ¶ November ¶ [$]200,619.65 ¶ [$]163,280.29 ¶ December ¶ [$]220,463.33 ¶ [$]142,642.57 ¶ Totals ¶ $2,349,865.73 ¶ $2,325,900.92 ¶ Of the […] "

7.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 7.   " [...]  Of the above total, for 1926, import duties account for $2,179,406.20, while $142,936.96 was collected from export taxes, and the remainder of $3,557.76 is accounted for by miscellaneous receipts. The figure given above does not include receipts from the surtax of 12 1/2% on import duties, which amounted to $266,302.08, bringing the general total for 1926 to $2,592,203.00[.] ¶ Collections by Ports. ¶ The majority of the collections were as usual made at Corinto, receipts at which port were 68% of the total. El Bluff, the customs house of Bluefields, collected 18.6%, and Puerto Cabezas 9.1%. A detailed statement of collections by ports follows: ¶ Customs Collections by Ports. ¶ 1926. ¶ Cabo Gracias ¶ $28,961.18 ¶ Corinto ¶ [$]1,580,493.46 ¶ El Bluff ¶ [$]432,061.69 ¶ El Castillo ¶ [$]----- ¶ Puerto Cabezas ¶ [$]213,803.07 ¶ San Juan del Norte ¶ [$]146.76 ¶ San Juan del Sur ¶ [$]67,732.96 ¶ Managua ¶ [$]2,701.81 ¶ $2,325,900.92 ¶ Government […] "

8.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 8.   " [...] GOVERNMENT FINANCES. ¶ At the beginning of 1926, the financial situation of the Government was very favorable, due to the large collections during the previous year. During 1926 total revenues were even larger than in 1925, and almost equalled [equaled] those of the year of greatest production, 1920. ¶ The following tables show in detail the production of the various revenues and the distribution of the total, for the year 1926. Figures for the preceding year, and for the year 1920, in which collections were the largest on record, are given for the purpose of comparison. ¶ National Revenues. ¶ Production ¶ 1920 ¶ 1925 ¶ 1926 ¶ Customs revenues ¶ $2,055,989,66 ¶ $2,350,260.84 ¶ $2,325,900.92 ¶ 121/2% surtax on imports ¶ [$]231,361.03 ¶ [$]271,726.22 ¶ [$]266,302.08 ¶ Consular Fees ¶ [$]135,670.38 ¶ [$]108,891.39 ¶ [$]98,251.57 ¶ Forestal tax ¶ [$]99,953.11 ¶ [$]124,461.91 ¶ [$]75,060.15 ¶ Internal revenues ¶ [$]1,467,476.49 ¶ [$]1,029,186.31 ¶ [$]1,017,887.75 ¶ School taxes ¶ [$]214,537.58 ¶ [$]242,850.51 ¶ [$]244,813.21 ¶ 50% sale of public lands ¶ [$]2,614.63 ¶ [$]2,958.85 ¶ [$]693.50 ¶ Property transfer tax ¶ [$]9,998.73 ¶ [$]3,947.82 ¶ [$]3,736.88 ¶ Dividends, Pacif. Railway ¶ [$]81,630.00 ¶ [$]80,000.00 ¶ [$]215,000.00 ¶ Dividends, National Bank [$]14,700.00 ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]50,010.00 ¶ Surcharge of $0.10 on rum & alcohol ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]--- ¶ Product of Corinto wharf ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]7,095.76 ¶ [$]7,517.93 ¶ Totals: ¶ $4,444,458.32 ¶ [$]4,358,212.68 ¶ [$]4,442,296.16 ¶ Distribution […] "

9.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 9.   " [...] Distribution. ¶ 1920 ¶ 1925 ¶ 1926 ¶ Expenses administration of customs service ¶ $162,274.29 ¶ $144,715.29 ¶ $129,390.73 ¶ Service bonds of 1909 ¶ [$]345,011.08 ¶ [$]367,252.45 ¶ [$]367,322.76 ¶ Service general revenues ¶ [$]3,163,788.50 ¶ [$]2,672,282.07 ¶ [$]2,640,405.68 ¶ Service of guaranteed customs bonds ¶ [$]307,514.21 ¶ [$]387,228.55 ¶ [$]373,551.9[unreadable, possibly “1”] ¶ Expenses of collection of direct tax ¶ [$]3,446.91 ¶ [$]3,526.20 ¶ [$]4,000.63 ¶ Cancellation of emergency issue ¶ [$]63,539.9[unreadable, possibly “5”] ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]--- ¶ Service of school revenues ¶ [$]214,537.58 ¶ [$]362,850.51 ¶ [$]378,313.21 ¶ Service of forestry tax ¶ [$]99,953.11 ¶ [$]117,537.81 ¶ 28,500.00 ¶ Payment of floating debt ¶ [$]96,330.00 ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]--- ¶ Customs dues remitted ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]199,342.65 ¶ [$]206,364.48 ¶ Funds in hands of Collector ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]23,477.16 ¶ [$]--- ¶ Special services ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]80,000.00 ¶ [$]265,010.00 ¶ Customs refund ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]--- ¶ [$]49,675.41 ¶ $4,456,395.63 ¶ $4,358,212.68 ¶ $4,441,534.41 ¶ Note: Undeposited funds carried over from 1919 to 1920, and from 1926 to 1927, account for the differences between collections and distribution in the year 1920 and 1926, respectively. ¶ Despite the large returns during the year, excessive expenditures for military purposes have added to the indebtedness of the Government, and emptied the Treasury. At the beginning of 1927 the financial situation was extremely critical. Some relief was attained by the negotiation of a loan of $1,000,000 in March of 1927; most of this amount, however, was used to repay advances from the National Bank, and pressing debts. In addition to this loan, there are outstanding war claims whose amount has not yet been determined, but which will become an obligation on the Government as soon as they can be examined and passed on by a claims commission. ¶ The High Commission created in conformity with the Financial Plan of 1927 has continued to supervise the distribution of the extraordinary funds, and attend to the service of the Guaranteed Customs Bonds. Thus the payment of interest and amortization […] "

10.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 10.   "[…] amortization of the public debt has not been interfered with. One drawing was held in July, 1926, to retire bonds to the value of $110,000, and at a second drawing in January, 1927, further retirements in the amount of $125,000 were made, bringing the total retirements from 1926 revenue to $235,000. The total amount outstanding as of February 1st, 1927, is $2,632,000. [...] "

11.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 11.   " [... ]BANKING ¶ No developments of interest took place during the year with respect to banking or finance. The average circulation of the Cordoba increased again as compared with the preceding year, the monthly average rising from 3,467,000 in 1925 to 4,253,000 in 1926. ¶ Interest rates showed little fluctuation, ranging from 8 to 12%, according to the nature of the security and of the loan itself. New York exchange remained unchanged at 99.5 buying and 101 selling, throughout the year. ¶ Roads […] "

12.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 12.   " [...] ROADS AND STREETS. ¶ Despite shortage of money and other difficulties arising from internal disturbances, more progress was made in highway and street construction than in any previous year. ¶ Although no new road construction was undertaken, resurfacing was done on two important roads: that from Managua to Matagalpa, and that from Managua to Jinotepe. The total spent on this work during the year was $120,000. It is hoped that the surfacing done is of a character to last through the wet season without being destroyed; in which event work can be begun in the next dry season where it is being left off at present, with the expectation of sufficient progress being made to make these roads practicable for automobiles throughout the entire year. ¶ Paving in Managua. ¶ During the latter half of the year 1925 preliminary surveys were made by an American engineering concern, resulting in a contract with the Government for the paving of all the inner section of the city of Managua. By the beginning of 1926 the surveys were finished, a program of construction covering a period of four years was drawn up, and a construction plant had been acquired and installed. ¶ Construction of streets of penetration macadam (that is, a macadam base bound and covered with asphalt) was carried on throughout 1926. Completed construction was not more than half of the proposed program for the year: partly because of political disturbances and interference, but chiefly because the advances from the Government were made irregularly and below the amounts agreed upon. ¶ Total construction completed to February 1st, 1927 amounted to 11,629 square meters, or about 2 lineal kilometers, of streets within the city, and 1 kilometer of ¶ paved […]"

13.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 13.   "[…] paved road leading to the cemetery just outside the city. Sanitary sewers and water mains had been laid beneath all the paved streets, and 4,900 lineal meters of concrete curb and gutter have been completed. ¶ Total expenditures to January 1st, 1927, were $416,180, of which $200,000 was advanced during 1925, and a like amount during 1926. About three-fourths of this total was expended for the preliminary surveys, and for plant and equipment, so that less than $100,000 has gone into actual construction work. The expenditures for plant and equipment, of course, constitute the chief overhead for the four year program, and amounts expended from this time on will show more immediate results. ¶ Sanitation [...] "

14.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 14.   " [...] SANITATION ¶ The work of sanitation and hygiene initiated under the auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation has been carried on during the year without change. While no new activity could be begun, due to political disturbances and shortage of funds, it was possible to continue without diminution the program already in existence. Sanitary conditions in the larger cities and in the port of Corinto continue [to be] good, none of the preventable tropical diseases having been prevalent during the year. ¶ Mines […]"

15.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 15.   " [...] PROGRESS IN MORE IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES. ¶ Mines and Mining. ¶ In the mines of both coasts operations have been carried on with great difficulty. To the usual difficulty of transportation was added, during the year under review, the fact that one or more of the mines usually lay within one of the zones of military activity. Two mines on the East coast carried on the production of gold, and two in Western Nicaragua produced gold and silver. The San Albino Mines, at La Libertad, which had been acquired by American owners about a year ago, worked during most of the year in a primitive fashion. However, in December production began with modern machinery which had in the meantime been installed. Production from this mine may be expected to increase during the coming year. ¶ Accurate statistics of production are not available; however, for all practical purposes, exports may be assumed to be all of production. Shipments of gold were valued at $686,265, or almost exactly $100,000 more than in 1925. Silver exports declined from $78,431 in 1925 to $33,782 in 1926. ¶ Coffee. ¶ The 1925-1926 coffee crop, which was harvested and shipped during 1926, was slightly in excess of 18,000,000 kilograms. Prices were good, and the total export value of $8,100,397 was the largest on record. As was mentioned above, in connection with the discussion of exports, it was entirely due to this excellent crop that the country enjoyed some measure of prosperity during the year. ¶ Official statistics of exports by countries are not at hand. However, statistics compiled by this Consulate […]"

16.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 16.   "[…] sulate, giving quantities alone, show a total exportation of 19,6[unreadable, possibly “5”]9 short tons of coffee through the Port of Corinto during the year. Of this amount, 7,10[unreadable, possibly “8”] tons went to France, [unreadable, possibly “6”],413 tons to the United States, 1,447 to Germany, 1,[unreadable, possibly “5”]09 to Holland, and 600 England. Thus France has regained her position as the largest taker of Nicaraguan coffee, which for the preceding two years had been held by the United States. ¶ Due to uneven distribution of rains, shortage of labor, and damage caused by volcanic fumes, the production of the 1926-1927 crop was not more than 60% as great as that of the year preceding. The total export crop will hardly exceed 10,000 short tons. ¶ Woods. ¶ Production of woods, the second item of exportation in point of value, declined by about 30% as compared with the previous year. This industry, represented chiefly on the East Coast, suffered greatly from interruptions arising from revolutionary activity. Shifting zones of military activity made continuous production impossible in man sections; recruiting of workmen for military services made labor scarce; and disputes regarding payment of the forestal tax to the Puerto Cabezas Liberal Government, which was in control of most of the East Coast, added to the difficulties. ¶ Bananas. ¶ For practically the same reasons as those mentioned in the case of woods, production and exportation of bananas, the third item in value, decreased in approximately the same measure. Exports declined from 3,0[unreadable, possibly “2”]7,147 bunches, valued at $1,736,053, in 1925, to 2,162,745 bunches, valued […]"

17.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 17.   "[…] valued at $1,225,661, in 1926. ¶ Revolutionary conditions likewise prevented the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company from exploiting to any extent its new 10,000 acre tract on the Wawa River, due to inability to complete its railway. ¶ Sugar. ¶ Production of sugar in the 1925-1926 season was about 17,500 short tons, of which about 11,500 short tons were exported during the year 1926. ¶ Customs statistics show an exportation of 10,155,619 kilos of sugar, valued at $876,228, in 1926, as compared with 10,980,910 kilos, valued at $1,559,165, in 1925 – a negligible change in volume, but a decline of almost one half in value. The records of this Consulate, however, show that in the case of exports to the United States, which were more than two-thirds of the total, the unit prices remained approximately the same during the two years. While it is not possible at present to explain the discrepancy, it is believed that the figures of the Consulate are correct, and that the statement of value for 1925 in the customs figures must be erroneous. ¶ Shipments to the United States in 1926 were 16,030,500 pounds, valued at $499,160, as compared with 20,203,500 pounds, declared at $632,767, in 1925. ¶ 600 ¶ CTS/5."

18.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 18.   "ENCLOSURE NO. 1 ¶ Review of Commerce and Industries – Nicaragua, 1926 ¶ IMPORTS INTO NICARAGUA ¶ Years 1925 and 1926. ¶ Articles ¶ Value, 1925 ¶ Value, 1926 ¶ Cotton manufactures ¶ $2,569,589.00 ¶ $2,102,998.00 ¶ Foodstuffs ¶ [$]1,468,207.00 ¶ [$]1,440,751.00 ¶ Chemical products, drugs, medicines. ¶ [$]459,980.00 ¶ [$]371,595.00 ¶ Iron and steel ¶ [$]682,245.00 ¶ [$]843,664.00 ¶ Leather goods ¶ [$]365,573.00 ¶ [$]351,384.00 ¶ Petroleum ¶ [$]146,921.00 ¶ [$]140,060.00 ¶ Gasoline ¶ [$]169,538.00 ¶ [$]169,642.00 ¶ Fibre and vegetable manufactures ¶ [$]293,332.00 ¶ [$]259,688.00 ¶ Liquors, beers, wines. ¶ [$]280,210.00 ¶ [$]291,594.00 ¶ Other ¶ [$]3,840,696.00 ¶ [$]4,283,136.00 ¶ Totals ¶ [$]10,376,291.00 ¶ [$]10,254,512.00"

19.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 19.   "ENCLOSURE NO. 2 ¶ Review of Commerce and Industries – Nicaragua, 1926 ¶ IMPORTS INTO NICARAGUA ¶ (By countries of origins) ¶ 1925 and 1926. ¶ Country of origin. ¶ Value, 1925 Dollars. ¶ Percent of total, 1925 ¶ Value, 1926 Dollars. ¶ Percent of total, 1926 ¶ United States of America ¶ $7,272,191 ¶ 70[%] ¶ $7,116,715.45 ¶ 70[%] ¶ Great Britain ¶ [$]1,230,378 ¶ 11[%] ¶ [$]1,127,637.22 ¶ 11[%] ¶ Germany ¶ [$]607,118 ¶ 6[%] ¶ [$]726,879.84 ¶ 7[%] ¶ France ¶ [$]283,436 ¶ 3[%] ¶ [$]253,738.38 ¶ 2.4[%] ¶ Italy ¶ [$]191,143 ¶ 2[%] ¶ [$]164,935.00 ¶ 1.6[%] ¶ Spain ¶ [$]69,290 ¶ [$]57,188.27 ¶ 0.6[%] ¶ Other European countries ¶ [$]204,175 ¶ 2[%] ¶ [$]184,829.68 ¶ 1.8[%] ¶ Panama ¶ [$]107,225 ¶ 1[%] ¶ [$]115,250.97 ¶ 1.1[%] ¶ Honduras ¶ [$]68,175 ¶ [$]112,542.06 ¶ 1.1[%] ¶ [El] Salvador ¶ [$]19,134 ¶ [$]21,471.02 ¶ Mexico ¶ [$]35,405 ¶ [$]35,142.68 ¶ Costa Rica ¶ [$]29,588 ¶ [$]18,359.80 ¶ Guatemala ¶ [$]9,412 ¶ [$]5,624.34 ¶ West Indies ¶ [$]12,735 ¶ [$]11,537.09 ¶ British Honduras ¶ [$]154 ¶ [$]870.07 ¶ Other American countries ¶ [$]17,746 ¶ [$]5,966.46 ¶ China ¶ [$]4,239 ¶ 14,387.41 ¶ Japan ¶ [$]48,942 ¶ 75,377.45 ¶ Peru ¶ [$]165,538 ¶ 2[%] ¶ [$]183,992.48 ¶ 1.8[%] ¶ India ¶ [$]242 ¶ [$]22,058.20 ¶ Other Asiatic countries ¶ [$]15 ¶ [$]8.50 ¶ African countries ¶ [$]10 ¶ [$]---- ¶ Totals ¶ [$]10,376,291 ¶ [$]10,254,512.37"

20.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 20.   "ENCLOSURE NO. 3 ¶ Review of Commerce and Industries – Nicaragua, 1926 ¶ PRINCIPAL EXPORTS OF NICARAGUA ¶ Years 1925 and 1926. ¶ Articles ¶ Unit ¶ Quantity ¶ Value 1925 ¶ Quantity ¶ Value 1926 ¶ Coffee ¶ Kilos ¶ 1[unreadable, possibly “0” or “7”]822,223 ¶ $5,627,133 ¶ 1[unreadable, possibly “0” or “7”],671,664 ¶ $8,100,397 ¶ Bananas ¶ Bunches ¶ 3,027,147 ¶ [$]1,736,053 ¶ 2,162,745 ¶ [$]1,225,661 ¶ Woods ¶ Feet ¶ 32,189,956 ¶ [$]1,910,793 ¶ 18,368,975 ¶ [$]1,342,238 ¶ Sugar ¶ Kilos ¶ 10,980,910 ¶ [$]1,5[unreadable, possibly “3” or “5”]9,165 ¶ 10,155,619 ¶ [$]876,228 ¶ Gold ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ [$]586,268 ¶ -- ¶ [$]686,265 ¶ Hides & skins ¶ Kilos ¶ 397,228 ¶ [$]219,452 ¶ 282,516 ¶ [$]164,512 ¶ Silver ¶ -- ¶ [unreadable] ¶ [$]78,431 ¶ -- ¶ [$]33,782 ¶ Lard ¶ Kilos ¶ 80,009 ¶ [$]27,044 ¶ 5,879 ¶ [$]2,085 ¶ Other ¶ -- ¶ [--] ¶ [$]61[unreadable, possibly “6”],246 ¶ -- ¶ [$]597,558 ¶ Totals ¶ $12,359,585 ¶ $13,028,72[last number cut off]"

21.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 21.   "ENCLOSURE NO. 4 ¶ Review of Commerce and Industries – Nicaragua, 1926 ¶ EXPORTS FROM NICARAGUA ¶ By countries of destination. ¶ Years 1925 & 1926. ¶ Country of destination ¶ Value, 1925 Dollars ¶ Percent of total, 1925 ¶ Value, 1926 Dollars ¶ Percent of total, 1926 ¶ United States of America ¶ $7,970,740 ¶ 65[%] ¶ $6,903,764 ¶ 53[%] ¶ Great Britain ¶ [$]516,341 ¶ 4[%] ¶ [$]254,628 ¶ 2[%] ¶ France ¶ [$]1,676,663 ¶ 14[%] ¶ [$]2,928,439 ¶ 22[%] ¶ Germany ¶ [$]481,801 ¶ 4[%] ¶ [$]693,535 ¶ 5[%] ¶ Spain ¶ [$]405,568 ¶ 3[%] ¶ 610,893 ¶ 5[%] ¶ Holland ¶ [$]408,496 ¶ 3[%] ¶ [$]521,285 ¶ 4[%] ¶ Italy ¶ [$]90,775 ¶ 1[%] ¶ [$]280,502 ¶ 2[%] ¶ Finland ¶ -- ¶ [$]239,622 ¶ 2[%] ¶ Other European countries ¶ [$]16,556 ¶ 155,811 ¶ 1[%] ¶ Cuba & West Indies ¶ [$]330,178 ¶ 2[%] ¶ [$]97,218 ¶ Colombia ¶ [$]1,591 ¶ [$]44,575 ¶ Canada ¶ [$]131,322 ¶ 1[%] ¶ [$]100,130 ¶ 1[%] ¶ Panama ¶ [$]34,238 ¶ [$]16,527 ¶ Mexico ¶ [$]800 ¶ [$]309 ¶ Peru ¶ -- ¶ [$]1,827 ¶ Chile ¶ [$]25,102 ¶ [$]1,242 ¶ British Honduras ¶ [$]1,320 ¶ [$]406 ¶ Guatemala ¶ [$]45,218 ¶ [$]96,504 ¶ [El] Salvador ¶ [$]54,940 ¶ [$]18,271 ¶ Honduras ¶ [$]81,024 ¶ 1[%] ¶ [$]44,066 ¶ Costa Rica ¶ [$]84,907 ¶ 1[%] ¶ [$]18,443 ¶ Other American countries ¶ -- ¶ [$]120 ¶ China ¶ [$]1,505 ¶ [$]609 ¶ Totals: ¶ $12,359,585 ¶ $13,028,726"

22.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 22.   "[Note: The typed numbers on the following page are rather blurry, making accurate transcription of them difficult. The following transcription may not accurately reproduce the numbers that were originally typed.] (FORM NO. 20—CONSULAR.) ¶ (Corrected November, [unreadable].) ¶ ANNUAL DECLARED—EXPORT RETURN. ¶ Statement showing quantities and values of declared exports from Nicaragua to [hole in paper] United States of America during the year ended December 31, 1926, and a comparison with the preceding year: ¶ ARTICLES. ¶ UNIT OF QUANTITY. ¶ 1925 ¶ QUANTITIES. ¶ VALUES. ¶ 1926 ¶ QUANTITIES. ¶ VALUES. ¶ [unreadable, possibly “Amalgam”] ¶ Oz. ¶ 287 ¶ 2,256 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Animals, live ¶ Birds ¶ No. ¶ 3,442 ¶ 3,066 ¶ 4,616 ¶ 10,602 ¶ Other ¶ No. ¶ 1,515 ¶ 11,592 ¶ 2,069 ¶ 15,848 ¶ Bananas ¶ Bunches ¶ 2,538,805 ¶ 1,565,360 ¶ 1,348,921 ¶ 1,110,330 ¶ Castor seeds ¶ Lbs. ¶ 6,756 ¶ 358 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ [unreadable, possibly “Coconuts”] ¶ No. ¶ 737,345 ¶ 20,537 ¶ 997,730 ¶ 20,953 ¶ Coffee ¶ Lbs[.] ¶ 6,068,743 ¶ 1,647,800 ¶ 8,997,753 ¶ 2,352,183 ¶ Coins, silver ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 221 ¶ -- ¶ --142 ¶ Cork ¶ Lbs. ¶ 290 ¶ 225 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Cotton ¶ “ ¶ 2,090 ¶ 193 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Currency, U. S. ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 12,000 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Cylinders, empty iron ¶ No. ¶ 42 ¶ 538 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Gold ¶ Oz. ¶ 32,904 ¶ 556,231 ¶ 38,619 ¶ 442,968 ¶ Hides ¶ Lbs. ¶ 606,241 ¶ 127,033 ¶ 443,565 ¶ 105,777 ¶ Jelly, fruit ¶ “ ¶ 44 ¶ 11 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Nickel ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 300 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Rubber ¶ Lbs. ¶ 295,517 ¶ 92,181 ¶ 278,851 ¶ 103,063 ¶ Silver ¶ Oz. ¶ 148,661 ¶ 89,537 ¶ 64,415 ¶ 41,437 ¶ Skins ¶ Lbs. ¶ 160,883 ¶ 65,225 ¶ 161,155 ¶ 53,440 ¶ Sponges ¶ “ ¶ 750 ¶ 672 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Sugar ¶ “ ¶ 20,203[,]500 ¶ 632,767 ¶ 16[,]030,500 ¶ 499,160 ¶ Woods ¶ Cedar ¶ Ft. ¶ 4,882,257 ¶ 322,811 ¶ 2,085,538 ¶ 171,933 ¶ Cocobolo ¶ Lbs[.]¶ 666,730 ¶ 6,575 ¶ 2,210,731 ¶ 32,455 ¶ Coffee wood ¶ “ ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 24 ¶ 2 ¶ [unreadable, possibly “Cenizaro”] ¶ “ ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 19,877 ¶ 876 ¶ Lignum vitae ¶ “ ¶ 823,624 ¶ 8,062 ¶ 531,732 ¶ 8,084 ¶ Mahogany ¶ Ft. ¶ 19,837,761 ¶ 1,569,122 ¶ 14[,]371,363 ¶ 1,126,276 ¶ [unreadable] ¶ Lbs[.] ¶ 1,446,503 ¶ 17,634 ¶ 825,512 ¶ 11,511 ¶ Others, [unreadable] ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ 1,450 ¶ -- ¶ -- ¶ Woods, [unreadable, possibly “Dye”] ¶ [unreadable, possibly “Balsas”] ¶ Lbs[.] ¶ 5,810 ¶ 4,659 ¶ 8,961 ¶ 7,311 ¶ Brazil ¶ “ ¶ 1,137,367 ¶ 8,464 ¶ 792,671 ¶ 12,495 ¶ [unreadable] ¶ “ ¶ 4,000,908 ¶ 20,849 ¶ 4,248,102 ¶ 35,566 ¶ TOTAL ¶ $6,791,456 ¶ $6,160,780 ¶ Returned American goods ¶ 116,008 ¶ 80,724 ¶ $6,907,444 ¶ $6,241,504 ¶ No exports to Porto Rico [Puerto Rico], Hawaii, or the Philippines. ¶ Units as prescribed by Schedule governing the Statistical Clarification of Imports, General Instruction No. 761. ¶ (Signature), American Consul. ¶ This form is to be filled up and sent to the Department of State, in duplicate, at the end of each calendar year. ¶ The articles of export are to be arranged in alphabetical order. ¶ The statistics of declared exports to the United States proper should be shown separately, and three supplementary tables added for Porto Rico [Puerto Rico], Hawaii, and the Philippines. If no invoices have been certified for shipments to those islands, the fact should be stated. ¶ Exports from consular agencies should be stated separately, and should show the same separations for the United States proper and the insular possessions. ¶ Returned American goods should be stated separately."

23.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 23.   "BLUEFIELDS ¶ Lu-1009 ¶ 4/8/27 ¶ DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ¶ Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce ¶ WASHINGTON ¶ SPECIAL CIRCULAR NO. 1009 – LUMBER DIVISION ¶ To all firms on Exporter’s Index handling mahogany ¶ UNFAVORABLE MAHOGANY PROSPECTS IN NICARAGUA ¶ (Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, February 11, 1927-#236354) ¶ According to reports received from the various mahogany companies operating in the eastern part of Nicaragua, the prospects for a normal yield during the ensuing season are more unfavorable than at any time for the past thirteen years. Under normal conditions the shipments average annually 15,000,000 board feet of mahogany and 3,000,000 board feet of cedar valued at $1,500,000. If 60 per cent of that quantity is obtained this year the more optimistic exporters will be surprised. ¶ The mahogany year, for those connected with the industry, begins July 1 and extends to June 30 of the succeeding year. The greater proportion of the shipments is made during the December and the March quarters owing to seasonal floods on the rivers. It is during the December quarter that the exporting companies engage contractors to obtain specified quantities of logs. Each contractor agrees to supply from 500,000 to 1,500,000 board feet, the total aggregating 25,000,000 board feet. Owing to the many difficulties encountered in the business it is not usual that more than 75 per cent of the quantity contracted for reaches tide water. ¶ Conditions in eastern Nicaragua prevented the exporters from making the customary contracts during the past December quarter, and the unsettled conditions that prevail at present have caused them to limit their obligations in the way of supplying contractors. The dry season in the mahogany areas begins in January and continues until May. It is then that trees are felled and rolled or hauled to the nearest creek or rivulet. The contractors can not therefore expect but a limited output during the remainder of the dry season. ¶ Although many difficulties have been encountered by the operators in floating the logs to tide water and in placing them aboard ocean steamers at eastern ports of Nicaragua, the quantities shipped from July 1, 1926 to January 1, 1927 compare favorably with those of the corresponding period of last year. ¶ A comparative statement follows: ¶ July 1, 1925 to January 31, 1926. ¶ Mahogany, board feet, 11,199,029--$920,938 ¶ Cedar, “ “ 1,262,311--$105,375 ¶ July 1, 1926 to January 31, 1927 ¶ 10,914,033--------$845,742 ¶ 429,478--------$58,633 ¶ During the mahogany year from July 1, 1925, to June 30, 1926, the quantities shipped were: 16,037,355 board feet of mahogany valued at $1,313,061, and 2,705,919 board feet of cedar valued at $202,888. ¶ J. C. Nellis, ¶ Acting Chief, Lumber Division."

24.  May 10, 1927.  "Review of Commerce and Industries for the Year 1926," US Consul Christian T. Steger, Corinto, p. 24.   "GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET ¶ BLUEFIELDS CONSULAR DISTRICT. ¶ AMERICAN CONSULATE, BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA. ¶ Area, Topography, Climate. ¶ The district comprises the eastern half of Nicaragua, including the Departments of Cabo Gracias a Dios, Bluefields, Prinzapolca [Prinzapolka], Rio Grande, Siquia, and eastern sections of Jinotega and Chontales. Its area is approximately 25,000 square miles. ¶ The surface of the land is low and level on the coast, but undulating in the interior, attaining an altitude of 2,500 feet or more. Navigable rivers enrich the soil with alluvial deposits during the flood seasons as they flow towards the Caribbean Sea. Tropical vegetation and forests of pine and hard woods abound. ¶ The climate is tropical, the temperature varying from 60 to 90 degrees, Fahrenheit. The rainy season extends from June to January; the dry, from February to May; but on the coast it rains almost daily, the annual rainfall being about 200 inches. ¶ Population, Race, Language, Standards of Living. ¶ The population, according to the latest census (1920), was 44,000, classified as follows: White people, 13 per cent.; black, 15 per cent., copper-colored (Miskito), 21 per cent., and mixed (Spanish-Indian), 51 per cent. Spanish is the prevailing language, but Miskito is spoken by the Indians, and English is common on the coast. The majority of the people live very primitively, their purchasing power being limited. ¶ The principal towns and their population, are: Bluefields, 7,226; Prinzapolca [Prinzapolka], 800; Cabo Gracias a Dios, 500; Pearl Lagoon, 900; San Juan del Norte (Greytown), 400; Rama, 900; and Puerto Cabezas, 500. ¶ Leading Occupations and Industries. ¶ Banana cultivation and mahogany cutting constitute the chief sources of wealth. The banana sections are on the Escondido River and the Rio Grande. Large banana interests are being developed on the Wawa River. Mahogany is obtained in the interior along the banks of the various rivers. ¶ The pine lumber industry at Puerto Cabezas is becoming more important each year. At Bluefields are small docks for repairing coastal vessels, a tannery, an electric light plant, ice factories, and a small shoe factory. Otherwise there are but few industrial enterprises. The agricultural possibilities are great, but not exploited. Staple food products, such as, corn, rice, beans and sugar are imported to meet local demands. ¶ Leading Imports and Exports. ¶ Fully 85 per cent of the imports are supplied by the United States, consisting mainly of food products, staple cotton goods, machinery for saw mills, mines, and two private railways, paints, varnishes, general hardware and cutlery, drugs, chemicals, shoes, and paper products. In 1924, the imports were valued at $2,698,833. ¶ Bananas and mahogany are the principal exports, the value of each averaging $1,500,000 annually. Other exports are cedar, gold bullion, coconuts, and rubber. In 1924, the exports, practically all to the United States, were valued at $3,296,931. In 1925, the exports to the United States were valued at $3,801,122, consisting of the following: Mahogany, 19,801,609 board feet, $1,566,586; cedar, 4,845,719 board feet, $320,914; bananas, 2,558,805 bunches, $1,565,260; gold (bullion and dust), 21,787 ounces, $189,378; coconuts, 737,345 (number), $20,537; rubber, 34,264 pounds, $14,912; and miscellaneous, $123,535. ¶ Trade Conditions: Terms of Credit. ¶ Foreigners, mostly Americans, control the wholesale trade; Chinese, the retail trade, especially groceries and general merchandise. The attitude of importers is favorable to American goods, preference being given with due consideration for price and quality. Commercial travelers are subject to a tax of $15, but the law is seldom enforced. Samples are admitted free of duty under bond providing for their exportation. ¶ The usual terms of credit are from 30 to 90 days against acceptances, according to the class of goods. Credit information may be obtained from commercial agencies of American banks specializing in Nicaraguan trade. Banco Nacional de Nicaragua maintains a branch in Bluefields, the only banking institution in eastern Nicaragua. ¶ Character of Packing Desirable. ¶ All imports should be packed securely to withstand rough handling, and with due reference to customs classification in order to avoid the payment of heavy duties on containers. ¶ General Customs Policy and Regulations. ¶ American officials, under Treaty arrangement, are in charge of the customs administration of Nicaragua. Duties are based largely on weight, gross and net. Exporters should exercise care in complying with instructions furnished by Nicaraguan importers. Bluefields is the principal port of eastern Nicaragua, the point of distribution for most of the imports. Other ports of entry are Cabo Gracias a Dios, Puerto Cabezas, and San Juan del Norte. ¶ Copies of the Tariff of Nicaragua in English may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., at a cost of ten cents. Information regarding the preparation of consular invoices may be secured from Nicaraguan Consuls in the United States. ¶ Transportation Conditions and Connections. ¶ Two steamship companies operate ships between New Orleans and Bluefields; and one between New Orleans and Puerto Cabezas. The Cuyamel Fruit Company maintains a weekly service, calling at Cienfuegos on its southbound trip; the Orr Fruit and Steamship Company, a 15-day service, calling at Cienfuegos and Jamaica when southbound. The Vacarro Brothers operate ships every 20 days from New Orleans to Puerto Cabezas. All mail and freight for eastern Nicaragua should be forwarded by way of New Orleans. ¶ There are no highways in the district, the only means of communication between points being by river boats or on mule back over trails. Coastal vessels ply up and down the coast connecting with river launches on the San Juan River for Lake Nicaragua. Then on Lake-steamers interior points may be reached. Coastal vessels also maintain irregular schedules between Colon and Bluefields. ¶ Postal Regulations and Rates. ¶ The postage rates of the United States apply to mail matter from the United States to Nicaragua. On letters, or other first class mail to Nicaragua, the rate is two cents an ounce or fraction thereof. ¶ Waiver. ¶ No responsibility is assumed by this consulate for the business standing of firms submitted upon the request of American exporters. ¶ Communications should be addressed to: ¶ THE AMERICAN CONSUL, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Revised February, 1926."

May 11, 1927.  Letter from Col. Louis M. Gulick, Tipitapa, to "My dear Major Bartlett," p. 1.  "CP. 5th Regiment ¶ TIPITAPA, NICARAGUA ¶ 11 May 1927. ¶ Time 1420 ¶ My dear Major Bartlett:- ¶ I received your letter of the 9th yesterday and am going to try and straighten you out on some of the questions you asked. ¶ General Moncada, Montenegro, Wassmer and Correa came into Tipitapa last night, spending the night here and this morning held conference with General Stimson, the American Minister, the Admiral and General Feland. I can not give you the details of the discussion as I do not know, but I can assure you that the Red cause was well looked after. ¶ You mentioned Escamilla and Beltram Sandovalare [Sandoval are] out raiding. This may or may not be true but General Moncada informed us that Escamilla was in Boaco with Daniel Mena. He further stated that General Sandino and Sandoval were out. ¶ Boaco is in the area assigned your Battalion and no doubt you will have great difficulty with roads during the rainy season and it will be necessary to move everything forward by pack train. You speak of Comolapa and Comoapa as places that you may have to move supplies to out via El Paso. In this connection it would be better in most of the places east of Boaco to supply from a railhead at Granada by boat to the nearest points on the lake to the places we might occupy. I am not ready yet to decide whether it will be necessary to have a ration dump at El Paso, but I doubt it very much. ¶ Your 43rd Company is being brought in here today for bivouac and we expect it to go forward to Boaco via Tuestepe within the next few days. The Red forces are having rations and clothing sent to them at Boaco early tomorrow morning. The guard for this train will be from the 43rd Company with Brown commanding (one section). They will go forward to remain and the balance of the company, plus one Machine Gun Section, will leave here when ordered, taking 30 days rations and reserve ammunition. A small guard from the First Battalion will also go along to bring the bull cart train back here. . . . "

May 11, 1927.  Letter from Col. Louis M. Gulick, Tipitapa, to "My dear Major Bartlett," p. 2.  "... Relative to the 37 MM guns and Stokes – I have decided that they will go forward with their organization. I realize that your infantry companies are short, but we will not make temporary transfers in the Battalions as you may expect to be filled up and probably made over strength in the near future from one battalion coming from Haiti and one from Quantico. Your battalion will also be supplemented by one company from these troops to take the place of the 51st Company now at Rama. ¶ As I understand it now, your radio batteries are being recharged at Managua through Granada. Is this so? In the future you will have to use any means of transportation to get your batteries back to Managua and your recharged batteries forward. ¶ The question of transporting Captain Livingston’s company up to the Tipitapa River, I have decided that we would probably save time by taking them back to Granada and by train to Sabana Granda [Sabana Grande] or Managua and out through Tipitapa if this appears to be the best way to occupy towns to the north, but your area will probably be to the eastward of Boaco and the companies of your battalion should better use lake transportation nearest the towns to be occupied. You will receive orders when a [an] infantry company goes out whether or not you will take a machine gun section along, which, I think, is quite probable. ¶ Mail is expected from the United States about the 15th. I am sendint [sending] this letter over to Tisma this afternoon, hoping to get it through to you via the truck which is taking the machine gun section belonging to the 77th Company to El Paso from Tisma. ¶ Sincerely yours, ¶ L.M. GULICK ¶ Colonel, USMC ¶ Major H.G. Bartlett, USMC, ¶ Comdg. 2nd Batt. 5 Regt., ¶ El Paso, Nicaragua."

May 13, 1927.  Letter from Wilhelm Hüper, German Vice-Consul, Matagalpa, to Major M. E. Shearer, USMC, Commanding Office, 3rd Battalion, 5th Regiment, Matagalpa.  "Matagalpa, May 13th, 1927. ¶ Major M. E. Shearer, ¶ Commanding Officer, ¶ 3rd. Battalion – 5th Regiment, ¶ Matagalpa, Nicaragua, C. A. ¶ Sir: ¶ As representative of the coffee plantation “HAMONIA”, property of Mr. John Bosche, now a resident of Piedmont, California, I beg to report the following: ¶ On May 10th, 1927, at about four in the afternoon, more or less sixty armed Liberals came to the “Hamonia” and took byforce [by force] the following animals: ¶ 1 extra fine riding mule valued at - $150.00 ¶ 1 horse (Caballo tordillo) “ “ “ 75.00 ¶ 1 “ ( “ salpicado) “ “ “ 40.00 ¶ 1 “ ( “ “ ) “ “ “ 30.00 ¶ 1 mare (Llegua tordilla) “ “ “ 30.00 ¶ 1 horse (caballo sorrillo) “ “ “ 25.00 ¶ 1 “ ( “ melado) “ “ “ 15.00 ¶ 4 mules all first class “ “ “ 210.00 ¶ Total $575.00 ¶ The Mandador or Overseer on the place protested only to be threatened by the Liberals in every way. According to information I have received, the leaders of this Liberal gang were Dr. Narciso Gonzalez, Adan Medina and Pedro Picado all of Jinotega. ¶ As I will have to file claim in order to recover the loss above mentioned, I will appreciate it very much if you would acknowledge the receipt of this report, copy of which I hold, to present as part of my proofs later on. ¶ Thanking you in advance for your courtesy, believe me, Sir, ¶ Yours very respectfully, ¶ Wilhelm Hüper ¶ German Vice-Consul."

May 14, 1927.  Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, President, Bonanza Mines Company, to US Consul M. J. McConnico [sic], Bluefields.  "DIRECT ALL CORRESPONDENCE VIA BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA ¶ [hole in paper] C. WARNICK, ¶ PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER ¶ CABLE ADDRESS: ¶ WARNICK ¶ PHILADELPHIA ¶ BLUEFIELDS ¶ BONANZA MINES COMPANY ¶ EXECUTIVE OFFICE ¶ 1218 LOCUST STREET ¶ PHILADELPHIA, PA. ¶ U. S. A. ¶ MINES: ¶ DISTRICT OF PIS-PIS ¶ NEPTUNE MINE, May 14 1927 ¶ Mr[.] M. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Dear Sir: ¶ Please submit to the Mixed Comission [Commission] the following vouchers for supplies and money furnished Liberals as per their demands, vouchers are originals herewith enclosed, being as follows: ¶ Voucher signed by Francisco Gonzales $154.88 ¶ Voucher signed by Sebastian Perez … [$]54.50 ¶ Voucher signed by Luis Arroliga ….. [$]500.00 ¶ Voucher signed by Fernando Gutierrz [Gutierrez?] ¶ Humberto Milina … [$]266.60 ¶ Voucher signed by Ramon Gradis …… [$]500.00 ¶ Voucher signed by Rodolfo Dorn B ….. [$]48.60 ¶ $1524.58 ¶ Kindly acknowledge receipt and send copy of any receipt you may receive from Mixed Comission [Commission] covering same. Your kind attention will oblige, ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ Benjamin C. Warnick ¶ President."

May 16, 1927.  Letter fro Colonel L. M. Gulick, Managua, to "My dear Major Shearer," Matagalpa.  "HEADQUARTERS 5TH REGT. ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 16 May 1927 ¶ Time 1555 ¶ My dear Major Shearer:- ¶ I returned here today and re-established my Headquarters in camp in Managua. ¶ I am sending you copies of Force Order Number 8 dated 8th May and Arms Commission Memorandum of 11th May to make sure you have them, in case they have not reached you, also a copy of a letter from the Commanding General, for your information and on which I sent a radiogram requesting information today. ¶ Yesterday at Tipitapa was a big day. We handled 1357 Liberals across the River, including 169 armed and 63 wounded. This number coming into Managua was met by a celebration last night but today they are dispersing to their homes. ¶ There was a fight night of May 15th-16th at 3:00 a.m. at La Paz [La Paz Centro] in which 300 rebels made an attack on the town guarded by Conservatives and our Marines. Street fighting took place and Captain Cannon [Buchanan] and one Private were killed and two privates were wounded. The Marines then took a hand and drove the Rebels out of town, killing 13. These are all the details I have in regard to this matter. ¶ We are expecting 300 additional Marines from Haiti on the 19th. One Platoon of the 17th Company left Granada this morning for Rivas by boat and will return to Granada tomorrow to take a number of Reds across the lake on their way to the East Coast. ¶ General Stimson left Managua this morning enroute to the United States via the U.S.S. TRENTON. The Admiral has gone to Corinto. Colonel Rhea is busy making plans for the organization of the Guardia Nacional but does not seem to get very far on account of lack of funds. As you know he was made Director in Chief. ¶ Very sincerely, ¶ L.M. GULICK, ¶ Colonel USMC ¶ Major M.E. Shearer, USMC, ¶ Comdg. 3rd Batt., 5th Regt., ¶ Matagalpa, Nicaragua."

1.  May 19, 1927.  "Record of the Leading Personalities in Nicaragua," Mr. C. Kerr, Guatemala, to Sir A. Chamberlain, London, p. 1.  "[This Document is the Property of His Britannic Majesty’s Government.] ¶ No. 8—ARCHIVES. ¶ 423 ¶ SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA ¶ [May 19, 1927.] ¶ CONFIDENTIAL ¶ SECTION 1. ¶ [A 2937/2937/8] ¶ No. 1. ¶ Mr. Clark Kerr to Sir Austen Chamberlain.—(Received May 19.) ¶ (No. 45. Confidential.) ¶ HIS Majesty’s Minister at Guatemala presents his compliments to His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and transmits herewith copy of a record of the leading personalities in Nicaragua. ¶ Guatemala, April 26, 1927. ¶ Enclosure in No. 1. ¶ Record of the Leading Personalities in Nicaragua. ¶ Chamorro, General Don Emiliano. ¶ ILLEGITIMATE son of an illegitimate father; approximately about 55 years of age; belongs to one of the oldest and most important families of Granada, which since the middle of last century has played a very prominent part in the history of Nicaragua and of the Conservative party. Two of his ancestors (General Frutus Chamorro and Don Pedro Joaquín Chamorro) were Presidents of the Republic, as was also his uncle, Don Diego Chamorro. It is generally believed by the family that the presidency is theirs by divine right. In the revolution of León against the Liberal régime of President Zelaya in 1896, Emiliano Chamorro, who had already taken part in the war against Honduras in 1894, figured as a subaltern in the forces of Zelaya. In 1906 he appears as chief officer of the Conservative Revolution of Lake Nicaragua, on which, with a few companies, he took possession of the small armed vessel “93,” belonging to the Government. At the end of the revolution he migrated to Honduras, and only appeared for a brief period during the war between Nicaragua, [El] Salvador and Honduras in 1907, in a surprise attack of no importance against Zelaya at Dipilto. Chamorro appears as an important figure in the revolution of 1909, which started on the Atlantic seaboard with the rebellion of the Governor of the Coast, General Juan Estrada, against President Zelaya. With the fall of Zelaya, the revolution continued against President Madris [Madriz], and Chamorro, with skill and bravery, waged a mountain warfare, bringing a column from the coast by Chontales and Matagalpa. This body of troops was annihilated in open battle by Government troops in the marshes of Tisma, Masaya. General Chamorro, now a fugitive, returned to the east coast, and his name only reappears when the revolutionary forces under General Mena and Moncada arrived at Granada; then Chamorro figures as a delegate of the revolutionary President Juan Estrada, but he had no military power. The Government of the United States recognises as President General Juan Estrada and Vice-President Don Adolfo Díaz. General Chamorro was advised to visit his properties in Honduras. He returned, however, some months after, when General Estrada resigned and Vice-President Don Adolfo Díaz took his place. It was really General Luis Mena who took charge of the Government. This man, however, rebelled against Díaz, and in July 1912 a bloody revolution began with the bombardment of Managua and the siege and sack of Masaya. General Chamorro now figures as General-in-chief of the Díaz Government. His aspirations for the presidency were frustrated by the decisive intervention of the American Minister, Weitzel, and Don Adolfo Díaz was elected President; whilst Don Emiliano Chamorro was sent to Washington as Minister for Nicaragua. In Washington he gained the sympathies of the Department of State, which gave its good offices (mission of Admiral Caperton to President Díaz) to secure his election as President in 1917. During his presidential term, and under pressure of the American Government, Nicaragua declared war on Germany, but […] ¶ [133 t—1]"

2.  May 19, 1927.  "Record of the Leading Personalities in Nicaragua," Mr. C. Kerr, Guatemala, to Sir A. Chamberlain, London, p. 2.  "[…] frequently his manner of procedure towards the United States was not to the satisfaction of Washington. Useless attempts to induce the American Government to agree to his re-election decided him to agree to sham elections by which his uncle Don Diego succeeds him in the presidency under promise to restore the presidency to him at the next elections and to appoint him immediately again plenipotentiary in Washington. The premature death of President Diego Chamorro prevented the fulfilment of this arrangement, and General Chamorro went to the polls to be beaten by the candidate of the coalition (elections, however, were very doubtful as regards fairness). The vacillations of this new Governor, Don Carlos Solorzano, and the withdrawal of the American marines from Nicaragua in August 1925, gave the opportunity to General Chamorro for his coup d’Etat of the 25th October, 1925, which caused the resignation of Solorzano and the proclamation of General Chamorro as his successor by a Congress ad hoc. This was the cause of the civil war which is now ruining the country. The constant hostility of the American Government finally resulted in the withdrawal of General Chamorro from power in November 1926, and being sent upon a diplomatic mission to England, France, Italy and Spain. It is generally believed that the political career of General Chamorro may be at an end, and that he is rapidly losing the popularity which he enjoyed among his followers. During his first term of presidency no one has any complaint against him as a Governor, as it was observed that he is very inclined to forget and to pardon offences even of a personal nature. During his second administration the abnormal state of affairs frequently obliged him to bestow favours upon his adherents disastrous to the public administration. Political opponents tried to accuse him of being a person lacking in honesty in dealing with public funds, but it is doubtful whether such is the case, or that his financial position improved under the circumstances. ¶ Díaz, Don Adolfo. ¶ Fifty-one years old. Belongs to a family always affiliated to the Conservative party. He is of Costa Rican origin, but his ancestors were Italian. He began work in Managua as a book-keeper and afterwards went to the Atlantic coast, where he entered into a mining business and became manager of an American concern. In 1897 he took part in a revolutionary movement against Zelaya. Afterwards he migrated to Costa Rica for some years. He took a most important part in the revolutionary movement on the Atlantic coast against Zelaya and Madris [Madriz]. He was Minister of Public Works under President Juan Estrada, whom he succeeded as Vice-President when for political motives this latter resigned from the presidency in his favour. During the first months of his Government he was President in name only, as all the power was in the hands of General Luis Mena, Minister of War, but when Mena rebelled against President Díaz he was able, with the aid of the American Government, to dominate the situation, and in reality held the power. Intervention in his favour of the American Minister, Weitzel, was the reason for his success without opposition in the presidential elections of 1912 (ad usum delphini). During his administration and with the help of the American Government the gold standard was established, the customs service reorganised, the Nicaraguan national debt was reduced, partly thanks to the reductions not always just, made by the Mixed Commission of Claims. He concluded the contract with the United States for their inter-oceanic canal. Owing to the revolution of General Mena, American armed intervention took place for the first time during the Díaz Administration. He has never been popular, and has always been charged with having brought about the intervention of the United States, although that without this decisive fact political passions and party factions would never allow an era of peace which would permit the country to develop its natural resources. He was designated President of the Republic by election on the 14th November, 1926, by National Congress after the resignation of General Chamorro. His first period of administration was fraught with serious economical difficulties, and it appears that the second will be no less serious than the first, in view of grave political and administrative questions. ¶ Moncada, General José María. ¶ A very intelligent and ambitious man. He has always belonged to the Liberal party. His life has been essentially dedicated to journalism as a reporter and […]"

3.  May 19, 1927.  "Record of the Leading Personalities in Nicaragua," Mr. C. Kerr, Guatemala, to Sir A. Chamberlain, London, p. 3.  "[…] contributor to newspapers, or as editor of the political paper the “Centinelo.” He took part in the León Liberal revolution of 1896 against General Zelaya, afterwards migrating to Costa Rica. In the revolution of the Atlantic coast of 1909-10 he held an important post as military chief, having directed a number of important engagements. He was Minster of Home Affairs in the Cabinet of President Juan Estrada, but subsequently being involved in the coup d’Etat which led to the resignation of Estrada, he again emigrated, remaining absent from Nicaragua for several years. He has always shown himself as a supporter of American politics, and only recently appears to have become anti-American. He is Minister of War in the Cabinet of Dr. J. B. Sacasa at Puerto Cabezas and General-in-chief of the revolutionary forces. He aspires to the Presidency of the Republic. Generally considered to be the best military leader in Nicaragua. ¶ Cuadra Pasos, Dr. Carlos. ¶ Lawyer about 50 years of age, extremely well educated, very intelligent, an exceptionally good orator, but a weak character. Obsessed with the idea of becoming President. Belongs to a very distinguished family of Granada which has already provided former Presidents. He was absent from the country during the presidency of General Zelaya. He took part in the revolution on the east coast in 1909-10, where he acted as counsellor and private secretary to President Juan Estrada; afterwards he was Nicaraguan member on a Mixed Claims Commission. He was candidate for the presidency in 1916, and he ceded his votes in favour of General Chamorro when it became apparent that the American Government was aiding this latter. An arrangement was not fulfilled by General Chamorro whereby he guaranteed the friends of Cuadra Pasos participation in Congress and in the courts, and for Cuadra Pasos himself to be Minister at Washington. He retired from public life during the administration of General Chamorro, but was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Government of Don Emiliano Chamorro’s uncle, President Diego Chamorro, and he represented the republic at the Pan-American Congress at Santiago de Chile. During the elections of 1924 he was a member of the Coalition party against the candidacy of Chamorro, but when it was evident that he was not the favoured candidate of President Martínez he went over to the side of General Chamorro. After the coup d’Etat of the 25th October, 1925, he was nominated President of Congress, and in that character was sent to Washington in order to obtain the recognition of Chamorro by the American Government—a mission which failed. On his return from the States he acted as intermediary between Chamorro and the American Legation to try and save from ruin the Conservative party. In the character of representative of Chamorro, he was a delegate at the conferences of the “Denver,” October 1926. He is at present the most important Minister in the Cabinet of Don Adolfo Díaz, as Minister for Foreign Affairs. ¶ Espinoza, Dr. Rodolfo, R. ¶ About 50 years of age, a physician and surgeon of a very high reputation. He has for many years resided out of the country, first in Costa Rica, then Honduras, and afterwards in Guatemala, where he practised with success. He was Minister for Foreign Affairs under President Zelaya, and in which position he was sent to Costa Rica. Minister Plenipotentiary in Washington. With the exception of two years, 1919-20, he has been absent from the country since the fall of the Liberals from power. He holds a high position in Central American Masonry, having attained the grade of 33, and is Grand Master of the Supreme Lodge of Honduras. He is very popular in Managua; always in hopes of attaining the presidency. Was a Liberal delegate at the conferences in the U.S.S. “Denver,” October 1926. He has taken an active part in the present civil war, and is Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet of Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Pereira, Don Tomás. ¶ About 57 years of age; a merchant of León. Enjoys a very good reputation and is well liked. He has never, however, attained great political distinction. He is president of the Liberal Nationalist Committee. Is a brother of the late Mgr. Pereira y Castellon, Bishop of León. Was deported from the country in March 1926 for conspiring against the Government of Don Adolfo Díaz; he is now in Costa Rica. [...]"

4.  May 19, 1927.  "Record of the Leading Personalities in Nicaragua," Mr. C. Kerr, Guatemala, to Sir A. Chamberlain, London, p. 4.  " [...] Aguado, Dr. Enoc. ¶ Lawyer, with a very good reputation. Resides at Managua. A Liberal and a member of the committee of the party. Member of Congress. His sentiments are moderate, and it appears that he has always been in favour of peace. Aged 40. ¶ Parajon, Francisco. ¶ Between 40 and 50 years of age. He was a colonel in President Zelaya’s army, having been one of the cadets instructed by Captain Uebersetzig. He was present at the battle of Namasigue in the war with Honduras, where he was wounded twice. He is said to have been wounded at Tamarindo in August 1926. He has suffered a good deal of persecution at the hands of the Conservatives. He owns a farm in the district of León, and is well spoken of by all who have dealings with him. The wounded Conservatives whom he has sent into hospital say that he has treated them well. ¶ Sacasa, Dr. Juan Bautista. ¶ Doctor and surgeon, is a son of Dr. Roberto Sacasa, a former President of Nicaragua. He was educated in the United States. Is personally honest, well bred and incapable of taking advantage of his position to his own benefit. Was not an active politician, but a few years ago went to the United States in the interests of the Liberal party. His candidacy for the presidency was the result of a referendum amongst the Liberals, in which he was opposed by Dr. Leonardo Argüello. This referendum was promoted by Dr. Julian Irias. He is scarcely strong enough to govern a country like Nicaragua, but possesses all the other necessary qualities. Proclaimed himself President of the Republic at Puerto Cabezas after the designation of President Don Adolfo Díaz in Managua. ¶ Argüello, Leonardo. ¶ A doctor and surgeon, but does not practise. Is about 43 years old. Has devoted himself to politics for many years. Is a great orator and full of advanced ideas. Affable and intelligent, very clever, but inclined to intrigue. In 1912 took an active part in the Government of León during the revolutionary occupancy. A delegate (Liberal) at the conferences of the “Denver” in October 1926. Was Minister for Public Instruction in the Cabinet of Don Carlos Solorzano. Is a member of Dr. Sacasa’s Government at Puerto Cabezas."

1.   May 22, 1927.   Report of Commission of General José Alejandro Pasos, Jefe de Militar, Boaco, to Captain Louis E. Fagan, CO 43rd Co., p. 1.    "To: Captain Louis E. Fagan ¶ CO 43rd Co. ¶ REPRODUCED AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES ¶ In complinace [compliance] with your order of 16 May 1927. To procede [proceed] to disarm the patrols and to organize provisional authorities. I have the pleasure to report the following: ¶ CARRYING OUT THE COMMISSION ¶ The same day that I received your orders, I sent out a commission consisting of: Myself as Chief with twenty four of the Citizen Guard and Cpl. William N. Lindsey and Pvt. William L. Wronsky. ¶ Starting from this city we repaired thetelegraph [the telegraph] line that connects this city with Matagalpa as far as MuyMuy. At the Pass of Sacal we organized a safety guard a subordinate of the Citizen Guard. We left in command Tomas Gonzalez with seven men armed with Springfields and thirty rounds of ammunition each. ¶ Two miles from Sacal we were threatened by the patrol of the Conservative Army, according [to] the information from three prisoners who said the same was commanded by Roman Hernandez. ¶ The prisoners whom they had set free, informed me that the patrol had destroyed cattle, killed peaceful citizens and taken all kinds of spoils and property. ¶ They also informed me that they had burned the house on the La Primerava Hacienda, property of a resident of this city, a Liberal, Doctor Leopoldo Ramierz [Ramirez?] Mariena; a malicious and disgraceful act. ¶ The same day I slept with my Guard, with a strict watch in the Neuva Guinea [Nueva Guinea] Hacienda of Andez Montenegro. ¶ The following day at 1008 I left Neuva Guinea [Nueva Guinea] for Tierra Azul; at this place established another subordinate Guard consisting of citizens Conservative and Liberal noted for honesty and whose names I send you on a separate sheet. ¶ To this subordinate Guard I left twenty rifles of those new Springfields and two Remingtons. These were placed at the disposition of the honorable citizens who wished to guarantee order in that place. ¶ In this same place Tierra Azul; and obedient to your instructions and also of the inspector of telegraphy of this Zone, namely telegrapher I. Filadelfo M. Ayorga, a person that to my opinion is ideal for this work, from Tierra Azul we set out for San Vincent and Olama where the guard of my cargo were cared for at a Liberal Hacienda of that place, who manifests sympathy naturally and logically for the American Marines. ¶ From Olama we arrived at Matiguas, later we went to Horcon, Las Lomas and Paso Hando. In Matiguas the citizens of this place without distinction of color, politics they are of common accord and unanimously satisfied with the provisional military Chief and the Alcalde for that jurisdiction. Jacinto […]"

2.   May 22, 1927.   Report of Commission of General José Alejandro Pasos, Jefe de Militar, Boaco, to Captain Louis E. Fagan, CO 43rd Co., p. 2.    " […] Gadea acting provisional sergeant of the Citizen Guard. There also the Senoras Naciso Herrera, Carlos Ortega, Ismael Garay and Ignacio Gonzalez; all of which are faithful Conservative with the exception of Senoras Gadea and Garay who are Liberals. ¶ From Matiguas we received authentical [authentic] information that Miguel Espinosa, Alcalde of that place before the revolution was continually committing depredations. He is at the head of one hundred and ten men seventy of which are mounted. At your convenience I suggest that you name a commission to effect the collection of these arms. ¶ In this place of Matiguas I understand that there seventeen rifles of different makes, in bad condition and probably could not be fired. The Military Chief Gadea has fourteen Mauser rifles with out [without] ammunition. Senor Gadea promises to send these to oe [me?], when they receive the twenty five Springfields from me to be used by the Citizen Guard in case of necessity. ¶ Nothing manifests that the actionsare [actions are] verified in all these places. At the end of nineteen days these and the neighbors nearby, that are integral part offer to establish the telegraph between Matiguas and Muy Muy, if the Government will furnish the necessary material. For my part, I recommend the construction of this line, becoming with the benevolence of the Government and the people of Matiguas, the key way to the Atlantic Coast and extending to the jurisdiction of the Rio Grande. It should be appropriate then to suggest the sending of American Marines to this place, for the efficiency of the provisional authorities namely, to assure the restoration of order in this neighborhood. ¶ CONCLUSION OF THE MISSION ¶ Of so much time mentioned in Matiguas I returned from my commission from you to the Hacienda Nueva Guinea, where having left Cpl. Adrian Figueroa with a part of the Citizen Guard to carry out special instructions that I ordered: to the effect, Cpl[.] Figueroa with diligence worthy of mention, recovered a Hotchkiss Cannon 7.6, that the Government Forces sent to General Bartolome Viquez. They had abandoned the hill of Las Galias to the front of Cerro de Palo Alto. The cannon together with the rifles before mentioned, I bring with me, and have the pleasure to turn over to you this valuable cargo. ¶ The same Corporal Figueroa made an excursion from Nueva Guinea to Cerro del Caballo and surrounding places. In the first place he was violently attacked by the patrol of the Government Army. ¶ Some individuals under the name of (Gonzalez) that before and since the war are actually qualified as the offenders in this jurisdiction, according to public opinion, and in the records of the Alcalde of this city; these individuals under the name of Gonzalez and whose real names are: Dionisio, Guillermo, Nativadad and Laureano; they carry with them a Lewis machine gun. As they declare themselves, and having three thousand (3000) rounds of […]"

3.   May 22, 1927.   Report of Commission of General José Alejandro Pasos, Jefe de Militar, Boaco, to Captain Louis E. Fagan, CO 43rd Co., p. 3.     "[…] ammunition, with three huts serving as guard houses, I do not think adviseable [advisable] to attack the “Gonzalez” as my guard is so few in number and they have an escape in the mountains where they are loding [lodging?]. ¶ In my tour I have the honor to complete your order as telegraphed from this city 18 May 1927 “To effect passage to the Hacienda San Rafael, property of Louis Felipe Mora, a fighter of the Conservatism in this jurisdiction” I notified the men in this place the adviseability [advisability] of bringing in the national rifles that they have in their possession. ¶ As yet I have no immediate results, but I hope to see them in the future. ¶ TOTAL OF ARMS COLLECTED IN TOUR. ¶ Then of the rifles and equipment entrusted to me: I have the honorto [honor to] report: L [1?] cannon, Hotchiss [Hotchkiss], 7.6 ¶ 72 Rifles, various makes ¶ L [I] hope to bring to you tomorrow 11 more which were promised to me. ¶ COMPONENTS OF THE CITIZENSGUARD [CITIZENS GUARD] OF MY COMMAND ¶ The Citizen guard of my charge in this tour, with your help the order and discipline and the activities were above standard. Your elements have earned personal comment and I am very grateful for the splendid conduct and efficiency of Corporal Liendsey [Lindsey?] and Private Ronski [Wronski?][.] ¶ I also mention Corporals Celestino, Cruz, Figueroa and Joaquin Solorzano and especially Fortunato Barquero. ¶ Your Servant. ¶ General Jose Alexjandero Pasos ¶ Jefe de Militar."

1.  May 28, 1927.   Letter from A. B. Brand and [J. Ma. Paton], San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.   "San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua, ¶ May 28th, 1927. ¶ The American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, ¶ Nicaragua. ¶ Sir: ¶ On the 25th instant we sent a message to be forwarded from the Colorado Bar wireless station, which we now beg to confirm, as follows: ¶ “American Consul, ¶ Bluefields. ¶ “Five hundred disbanded troops should be moved immediately. Here five days committing depredations. Authorities Greytown no control. Food and military guard required. ¶ Brand. ¶ Paton.” ¶ The first lot (some 300 and odd) came down from the Lake on the 21st instant. The second installment, on the 24th, and since the sending of our message, above quoted, a fresh bunch arrived on the 27th instant, so that now there are over six hundred here, and we understand there are several hundred more to come. ¶ These men claim that they are the discharged soldiers of General Moncada’s forces. That they were promised transportation back to the coast; coming from Managua to Fort San Carlos, at the south-eastern end […]"

2.  May 28, 1927.   Letter from A. B. Brand and [J. Ma. Paton], San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.   "[…] of Lake Nicaragua, under a guard of American marines, by whom they were turned over to the “tender mercies” of the local government officials. They further claim that they have received no rations since leaving San Carlos, which may not be quite true; but that while they were with the Marines they had all they required. However, they seem to be more than able to take care of themselves, and as soon as they arrived here proceeded to commandeer all the cattle they could lay hold of, and to ravage the nearby plantations, which were just recovering from the attentions bestowed on them by the plundering savages that passed through here last year. They have killed off most all the milk cows in this neighborhood and are now robbing the hen-roosts, and say openly that, if they are not provided with food, they will sack the town. ¶ Our local Governor who, by the way, says he has received no instructions from headquarters, frankly admits that he is powerless, with the small force at his command, to prevent all this. The town is completely out of provisions. Governor Gutierrez has sent radio messages, as well as written communications by the motor-boat “Venture,” to the Jefe Politico, at Bluefields, begging that transportation be furnished these people, but no attention has been paid to him. Most of them belong to Puerto Cabezas and the upper coast, and are only too willing to return […]"

3.  May 28, 1927.   Letter from A. B. Brand and [J. Ma. Paton], San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.   "[…] there. ¶ We cannot bring ourselves to believe that these men have been wilfully [willfully] sent here to terrorize and ravage the place, so we addressed you the foregoing message, trusting that you would bring the matter to the attention of the American Naval Commander on the coast. ¶ Can you do anything to induce the proper authorities to provide transportation facilities for these men? The situation here is desperate. ¶ Very respectfully yours, ¶ A. B. Brand ¶ J. Ma. Paton ¶ May 30th. -- Since writing the above, the “Victorine” has arrived. The captain demands C$200 for the trip. One hundred of the men have subscribed C$100 and the town people will make up the difference; but there are still five hundred men left, and more to come from the interior."

May 28, 1927.   Daily report of intelligence, Naval Forces on shore in western Nicaragua (on Cabulla's death), p. 1.   "Naval Forces on shore in western Nicaragua, ¶ Managua, Nicaragua, ¶ 28 May, 1927. ¶ Daily report of Intelligence. ¶ From: 0001 to 2400 ¶ (a) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ Quiet. ¶ (b) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD NAVAL FORCES. ¶ (1) Press: No change since last report. ¶ (2) Other sources: No change since last report. ¶ (c) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. ¶ Usual activities at the market; no change in labor situation since last report. ¶ (d) FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION. ¶ None reported. ¶ (e) POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ Two (2) men arrested by civil police for minor thefts. Two (2) men arrested for attempted house breaking. One (1) man arrested for theft of a horse. Two members of the Guardia Nacional arrested for insulting the police. Four (4) men arrested for intoxication. ¶ (f) MILITARY OPERATIONS. ¶ See attached report. ¶ (g) MISCELLANEOUS. The following extracts translated from La Prensa and El Commercio: La Prensa – [the word “The” is typed here and crossed out] In the city of El Viejo a wounded man presented himself before the Captain of the American Forces informing him that Francisco Cabulla had wounded him. This happened between 9:00 and 10:00 p.m., May 26. The Captain went to the house of Cabulla with a few Marines of his detachment and asked Cabulla why he had committed such action. Cabulla tried to draw the pistol he was carrying and one of the Marines drew his pistol, and shot Cabulla, killing him instantly. Cabulla’s woman who was present shot toward the group of Americans and she received a bullet that caused her death two hours later. While it is reported that Cabulla was shot by a Captain, they (La Prensa) state that they have been informed that it was an enlisted man who fired the fatal shot. ¶ El Commercio – It is reported that Cabulla had trouble with some Marines stationed at El Viejo. They in trying to avoid a disgrace informed Captain W.P. Richards of all that had happened. He de- […]"

May 28, 1927.   Daily report of intelligence, Naval Forces on shore in western Nicaragua (on Cabulla's death), p. 2.   "[…] cided to take measures to avoid a disgrace. Captain Richards went searching for Cabulla to warn him against any happenings. Arriving at the house where Cabulla and his woman were staying the Captain told Cabulla that in view of the instance that occurred between Cabulla and other persons he saw himself forced to disarm him. As soon as Cabulla understood he replied that he would not submit to being disarmed. In view of that reply and seeing that Cabulla was drawing his pistol, Captain Richards drew his pistol and shot Cabulla, while he was yet in the act of drawing his pistol. Cabulla fell dead without being able to do anything else against the Marine Captain. Cabulla’s woman who had witnesses [witnessed?] this short tragedy saw her man fall mortally wounded, she threw herself over the bleeding body and taking that was still in the stiffened hand of Cabulla she shot at Captain Richards. He seeing himself threatened and noting the decidedly angry attitude of the enraged woman defended himself by shooting the woman at the very moment she was making ready to fire a second shot at him. She also fell mortally wounded. ¶ J.P.S. DEVEREUX, ¶ Second Lieutenant, U.S.M.C., ¶ Bn-2."