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m-docs •  THRU 1927, p. 9

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      THIS IS THE NINTH PAGE of the M-DOCS (Miscellaneous Documents) pages, covering the month of November 1927.  The page is in progress.

     This website project is indebted to Mr. Brandon Ray, Summa Cum Laude college graduate from Ashford University in Iowa (with a B.A. in History and a minor in Political Science) for his meticulous transcriptions on this and many other pages.




November 5, 1927.  Letter from A.W. Paul, Pueblo Nuevo, to Major R. W. Peard, Ocotal.   "Pueblo Nuevo ¶ 5 Nov 27 ¶ Dear Major Peard: ¶ I returned to Pueblo Nuevo after a [an] uneventual [uneventful?] trip to famous 40. I took the rear since Satterfield knew the trail, and for the entire day enjoyed the pack mule oders [odors?] and readjusting of cargo. ¶ From reports it seems that Telepaneca [Telpaneca?] is showing signs of life again, that is, the few families that have returned do not take to the hills on nights when attack rumors are heard. Brown and Satterfield report that vegetables and other eatables are coming in in good quantity. The “fort” is about to receive a complete encirclement of barb-wire. Both the Marines and the Guardia seem to be content and on their toes. On the whole they have things pretty well sewed up, as it were. ¶ Brown reported that he had received information within the last few days, from a source which, while he can not verify, he believes to be worthy of thought, that a big concentration is taking place in the vicinity of Totogalpa, reported to involve from 300 to 500 men. The objective being Somoto. Incidently [Incidentally] – on my return trip to-day I met Nicanor Ezpinoza, who was returning from Somoto – in a chat with him he said that last night ten people were killed by different bandits just outside of Somoto – I merely mention it for what its [it’s] worth. ¶ Along the line – about this chap, Nicanor Ezpinoza, Brown and Satterfield both said that he was a live wire and always ready to give them live tips re- the bandits. They believe that some official is quite necessary in Telepaneca [Telpaneca?] and feel that at this time no better man can be found than Ezpinoza. On my way back to-day I fell in with Moncada, brother of the Jefe Politico of Ocotal, and in the course of events he gave me an insight of Ezpinoza that was not at all favorable. He said that his brother, The Jefe, was also aware of the same things. So it goes-- the old vicious circle. ¶ Brown reported that night before last a bugle call was heard in the hills across the river in rear of the church. ¶ Excellent progress is being made on the aviation field. Plenty labor is available. ¶ With kindests [kindest?] regards ¶ A.W. Paul ¶ PS Keimling’s report of operations is herewith enclosed. A pick-up was requested to expedite its transmittal."


November 6, 1927.  Weekly Memorandum No. 2, Major R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 1.   "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ CONFIDENTIAL: ¶ 6 Nov., 1927. ¶ WEEKLY MEMORANDUM NO. 2: (Information and Instructions). ¶ 1. Gould’s and Chappell’s combined patrols, with Hogaboom’s G.N. Detachment, totalling [totaling] 49 marines, 50 G.N. enlisted, one navy enlisted, with Lieuts. Boyle, Wells, and Neil, G.N., and Dr. Townsend, U.S. Navy, arrived at Jicaro on 1 Nov. after several skirmishes and one rather heavy engagement with bandits about six miles south-east of Jicaro. Total casualties for duration of patrol: one marine wounded in the elbow by glass from bandit bomb, two guardia rasos killed; bandits total casualties about fifty killed and at least thirty more wounded, this in addition to bandit casualties by planes as yet unknown, but believed to have been considerable. ¶ 2. In view of the following fairly reliable information from reliable native sources, concerning the fate of Lieut. Thomas and Sgt. Dowdell, no further operations on a large scale are at present contemplated in or around Quilali or Chipote. The difficult ammunition and ration supply situation this far north this time of year, and the present lack of sufficient auxilliary [auxiliary] weapons, has caused this decision. However, we are all hoping and expecting to thoroughly clean out Sandino and Chipote, within the next few months. ¶ 3. After their crash Thomas and Dowdell are believed to have removed their Lewis Gun from the rear cockpit before the plane caught fire; to have continued fighting the bandits with this gun until its ammunition ran out, killing four more bandits. They then abandoned the Lewis and successfully escaped from the bandits in their immediate locality, fleeing north-west along the valley of the Jicaro River in the direction of Jicaro. They captured two natives and forced them to act as their guides. One of these natives turned on an aviator and seriously wounded him about the head, neck and shoulders with a machete. The other aviator immediately shot and killed this guide, but the other guide escaped. Which aviator was wounded at this time could not be found out. The wounded one was then carried along without guides by the other until they found a cave along the river bank. The guide who escaped went to Sandino and informed him of where the aviators were, and Sandino went [with] a group of twenty-five, who after considerable more fighting, in which two more bandits were killed finally killed Thomas and Dowdell in this cave. After the aviators left the Lewis Gun near the scene of the crash, they were armed only with their automatics, and doubtless their ammunition finally gave out in the cave. ¶ 4. A more heroic stand against unbelievable odds could scarcely be imagined, especially when they had such an excellent chance to surrender, and very possibly might have later escaped alive, by giving Sandino such information as he may have wanted. Their only thought apparently was to sell their lives as dearly as possible and not let Sandino have the prestige of taking them […]"


November 6, 1927.  Weekly Memorandum No. 2, Major R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 2.   "Page two: Weekly Memo. No. 2. ¶ […] prisoners, as he would have capitalized it to the limit, without doubt. The above facts, if accurate, is a wonderful tribute to Marine Corps spirit, which knows no surrender. ¶ 5. The above information about Thomas and Dowdell came from the owner of the Orosi Ranch, about half way between Jicaro and Ocotal, who stated it was given to him by a brother of a bandit who was a witness to the death of the aviators. Information from this source in the past, has been reliable and he is known to be very friendly to Americans. ¶ 6. It has come to my attention that various Commanding Officers in the Division do not know where other officers in this area are stationed, and considerable delay in forwarding mail has thus resulted. Including a few contemplated transfers in the very near future, the following is an accurate list of officers’ addresses in this Division: ¶ ESTELI: Captain Kieren, Commanding. ¶ 2nd Lt. Brink. ¶ PUEBLA NUEVO [PUEBLO NUEVO?]: 1st. Lt. M.A. Richal, Commanding. ¶ 1st. Lt. A.W. Paul, (GN) ¶ 2nd. Lt. D.K. Claude ¶ SOMOTO: 1st. Lt. F.D. Harbaugh, Commanding. ¶ 2nd. Lt. Bellinger. ¶ PATASTE: (Mosher’s Ranch) ¶ 1st. Lt. Keimling, GN, Commanding. ¶ TELPANECA: 2nd. Lt. W.S. Brown, Commanding. ¶ 2nd. Lt. J.H. Satterfield, GN. ¶ OCOTAL: Capt. R.W. Peard, USMC and GN, Division Commander. ¶ Capt. G.C. Darnell, GN Cmdg 1st. Co. GN ¶ 2nd Lt. R.E. Hogaboom, GN, Asst to Div, Cmdr. ¶ 1st. Lt. C.H. Hassenmiller, Cmdg. Marine Detach. ¶ JICARO: 1st. Lt. O’Shea, Commanding (Now on sick list) ¶ 2nd. Lt. H.C. Waterman, USMC. ¶ 2nd Lt. Boyle, GN. ¶ 2nd Lt. Wells, GN. ¶ Cadet Neel, GN. ¶ Dr. Townsend, U.S. Navy. ¶ OCOTAL: On temporary duty; ¶ 1st. Lt. Gould (Will return overland to Matagalpa) ¶ 1st. Lt. Bruce, GN. enroute to Managua. ¶ Pay Clerk Powers. ¶ Dr. Trojakowski, (DC) U.S. Navy. ¶ 7. Dr. O’Neill. U.S. Navy, who has been on duty some time at Jicaro with the GN left Ocotal by plane today for Managua, and will return to U.S. by next transport. Second Lt. J.C. Chappell, U.S.M.C., who has been commanding the long distance patrol in this area for the past month, left Ocotal today by plane for Managua where he will go to duty with Observation Squadron 7-M, as an Observer. [...]"


November 6, 1927.  Weekly Memorandum No. 3, Captain R. W. Peard, p. 3.   "[...] Page Three; Weekly Memo. No. 3: ¶ 8. RATIONS: ¶ Forty bull-carts loaded with rations for Pueblo Nuevo are expected to leave Leon soon, being temporarily held up by recent rains. A pack train of 1900 rations from Esteli arrived at Pueblo Nuevo this week; 400 of these rations are now in Telpaneca; 1500 are in Ocotal, and a part of these 1500 will go forward to Jicaro by bull-carts in the near future. ¶ 9. Telpaneca had three patrols out last week, one of which had contact with bandits, killing or wounding three bandits, no marine casualties. ¶ 10. Somoto has started patrolling, mounts having been available for this post only within the past week. Lt. Bellinger has been out with a patrol west and south of Somoto along the Honduras [border?] for the last three days, they returned to Somoto today, and reported no contacts. ¶ 11. Lieut. Keimling’s detachment at Mosher’s Ranch (Pataste) has been particularly active and successful on patrolling, considering the size of his command. They captured twelve native rifles, killed one bandit, and took several bandit prisoners last week. ¶ 12. In the future all daily ration reports to this office will be made by actual physical inventory of rations on hand each day. In the past, many posts have been starting off each month with the correct statement of rations on hand by actual inventory, then each day deducting their rations strength, in reporting rations on hand. This resulted in all posts, where local purchases, were made, being considerably over in their storerooms and the information conveyed by their daily ration reports was unintentionally misleading to anyone wishing to know what actual rations they had on hand. This practice will be discontinued in the future, in all reports made to this office. ¶ 13. Stations that have no radio or telegraphic communication, will in the future, report to this office rations on hand, USMC, as opportunity presents itself, by patrols, or plane pick-ups, but no patrols or pick-ups will be made for this purpose only, except when the ration situation has become serious. ¶ R. W. PEARD ¶ Copy to: Brigade Cmdr. ¶ Jefe Director, GN. ¶ C.O. Matagalpa. ¶ C.O. 1st. Bn. Managua. ¶ C.O. Jicaro. ¶ C.O. Ocotal ¶ Reg. QM. 5 Reg. ¶ C.O. Somoto. ¶ C.O. Pueblo Nuevo. ¶ C.O. Telpaneca ¶ C.O. Pataste ¶ C.O. Esteli ¶ [unreadable, possibly “B-2”] 5 Reg." 


November 6, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for week ending 6 Nov. 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 1.   "HEADQUARTERS DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA, OCOTAL, NICARAGUA, NOVEMBER 6, 1927. ¶ From: The Division Commander. ¶ To: Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nic. ¶ Via: Official Channels. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for week ending 6 Nov. 1927. ¶ Reference: (a) Par 15, Special Order #60, G.N. ¶ 1. In compliance with reference (a), the following report is submitted; ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ Ocotal: Peaceful. ¶ Jicaro: Peaceful. ¶ Intervening and adjacent territory disturbed by bands of law breakers of various sizes, robbing, burning homes, commiting [committing] rape and murder, all in the name of some political party. ¶ During the past week several murders have been reported to the south-west of Somoto, near Santa Isobel and Santa Barbara and San Lucas, all reported as resulting from factional political fights. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES: ¶ No change. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ Dry weather of previous week broken by heavy rains this week, resulting in roads becoming worse again temporarily, but no change in local markets noted. Flour and sugar in native market about exhausted and roads not yet in condition for heavy hauling from Leon. Prices are thus high. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ No publications in this Division. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ None. All troops appear to be on friendly terms with majority of native population. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: ¶ See police report of even date. [...]"


November 6, 1927.  "Intelligence Report for week ending 6 Nov. 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 2.   "[...] Page Two: Intelligence report for week ending 6 Nov. 1927. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS: ¶ See reports of Gould’s and Chappell’s patrols already furnished your office. ¶ See Weekly Memo. No. 2, from Division Commander, Ocotal, dated 6 Nov. 1927. Copy furnished your office this date. ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: ¶ Telegraphic communication in all directions operating today. For past week, lines to Honduras have been generally out of order, and line to Jicaro interrupted twice. Radio communication from Ocotal to Jicaro, Matagalpa, and Managua, excellent in day time, but to Managua and Matagalpa practically impossible at night, and at night with Jicaro with difficulty. ¶ ELECTIONS OF 6 NOV: ¶ No election disturbances reported, due no doubt to fact that no elections were held, to the best of my information, in Nueva Segovia. The smaller towns had no officials to hold the election and the larger places, Ocotal in particular, did not have the election books, nor even booths designated for this election. The Alcalde at Ocotal is a Liberal, while the President of the Election Board, is a Conservative. Apparently neither one made the slightest effort to hold an election. I was not informed that the election would not be held, until the evening of 5 Nov. 1927. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION: ¶ No change. ¶ R. W. PEARD, ¶ Captain, G.N."


November 6, 1927.  "Irregularities noted at the election held November 6, 1927," Lt. A. C. Larson, Managua.   "IRREGULARITIES NOTED AT THE ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 6, 1927. ¶ 1. Lateness in opening the polling places for voting. ¶ 2. Closing the polling places before the proper time. ¶ 3. Not enough ballots furnished. ¶ 4. Location of polls not published prior to date of election. ¶ 5. Ballots not correctly printed – names of candidates in wrong columns. ¶ 6. Voters permitted to crowd the rooms and tables. ¶ 7. Vigilantes of both parties were permitted to go behind the fences, assist the committees in conducting the voting, to put the ballots in the ballot-boxes, and in some cases even to run the election. ¶ 8. Intimidating, heckling, confusing and bewildering the ignorant voters by making slurring remarks, suggestions as to the place to put the “X”, giving liquor, and numerous other petty ways were noted to have been practiced. ¶ 9. Use of policemen to intimidate liberal voters. ¶ 10. Registration books in need of revision; names entered sometimes with their mother’s names and some times with their father’s name, names not on the proper pages, names blurred due to the age of the books and the rough handling that they have received. ¶ 11. Members and secretaries not properly designated or appointed. ¶ 12. No election held due to failure to receive the records – in one case the president failed to bring them and dismissed the voters. ¶ 13. Recesses taken for lunch. ¶ 14. Voting places not sited according to places designated and advertised, and where held (in two cases in Managua in back yards) the flags were practically hidden. ¶ [15.] No ballot boxes furnished. ¶ 16. Records not properly marked and sealed on receipt nor on completion of the voting at the polls. ¶ 17. Members, secretaries and presidents of the committees very late in arriving, and in some cases entire failure to arrive. ¶ 18. In Nindiri when the ballots ran out four men voted on ballots obtained from a source other than the committee (one of these men is known to have been a conservative). ¶ IT IS TO BE NOTED THAT IN ALL THE ABOVE CASES THE IRREGULARITIES WERE PRACTICED BY THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY."


November 8, 1927.  "Election Ballots," Civil Relations Officer Arnold C. Larsen, Managua, to Brigade Commander, 2nd Brigade U.S.M.C., Managua.    "ACL-g ¶ HEADQUARTERS, ¶ SECOND BRIGADE MARINE CORPS, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 8 November, 1927. ¶ From: The Civil Relations Officer. ¶ To: The Brigade Commander, Second BrigadeMarine [Brigade Marine] Corps. ¶ Subject: Election Ballots. ¶ 1. In compliance with your orders, the undersigned observed the turning over of the ballots, following the local election, to the Acting Alcalde Raul Lacaya at his Office at the Municipal Building on 6 November 1927. ¶ 2. The ballots were brought to the Office by one of the Poll electoral representatives or by one of the party interpreters, in accordance with the Election Laws. One roll of ballots was sealed, (El Field Poll), with the signatures of the two interpreters, the Planta ELECTRICA ballots were in a sealed ballot box as were the ballots cast at BUENOS AIRES Poll. All ballots from the twenty-six other polls were merely rolled up and secured with a line or in a large package. These ballots were placed in the safe in the local Municipal Building except the two large sealed ballot boxes which were placed beside the safe. ¶ 3. It was observed that the polls were slow in turning over the ballots to the Alcalde but believe this due to the fact that many of the polls had both party representatives count over the ballots several times. ¶ 4. The Acting Alcalde Lacaya wished to impress on me the fact that he was absolutely non-partisan but his actions later disproved same. Having been fore-warned by natives of both parties that Lacaya had a reputation of being a shrewd unscrupulous politician, his operations were observed closely. Lacaya wanted to close his Office at about eight p.m. when twelve polls had not turned over their ballots but when I stated that my duty was to remain at his Office until all ballots had been received, he decided to remain. The attitude of the Secretary of the Alcalde and other “hangers-on” at the Municipal Building, was sarcastic and it appeared that my presence was interfering with their plans. ¶ ARNOLD C. LARSEN."


November 8, 1927.  "Special weekly East Nicaraguan coast information bulletin for the week ending 5 November 1927," Commander Special Service Squadron, Enroute Cristobal, C.Z. [Canal Zone], to C.O., 5th Regiment, 2nd Brigade, U.S.M.C.  "A8-EF-49/DLSB(462) ¶ COMMANDER ¶ U. S. SPECIAL SERVICE SQUADRON ¶ U. S. S. ROCHESTER, FLAGSHIP ¶ Enroute Cristobal, C.Z., ¶ 8 November, 1927. ¶ From: Commander Special Service Squadron. ¶ To: Commanding Officer, 5th Regiment, 2d Brigade, U. S. Marine Corps. ¶ Subject: Special weekly East Nicaraguan coast information bulletin for the week ending 5 November, 1927. ¶ 1. The following report of information, messages and despatches are quoted for your information: ¶ BLUEFIELDS: On 7 Nov. this garrison inspected by the Squadron Commander. Conditions were satisfactory. ¶ No disturbances during the recent elections. ¶ 51st Company (less Puerto Cabezas detachment) is distributed as follows: ¶ Bluefields ¶ Capt. Kendall - ¶ 29 enl. marines - ¶ 1 enl. navy. ¶ El Bluff ¶ 7 enl. marines. ¶ La Cruz ¶ 2d Lieut. Carroll - ¶ 16 enl. marines. ¶ Rama ¶ 11 enl. marines. ¶ RIO GRANDE: ¶ Area quiet. None of La Cruz detachment are stationed here. One armed guard travels on daily trip of Cuyamel Fruit Company boats. ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS: ¶ Squadron Commander arrived in Rochester on 6 Nov. and proceeded to Wawa Central. ¶ Detachment at Puerto Cabezas inspected by Squadron Marine Officer. ¶ The area is quiet. ¶ 2. No report of any disturbances along the east coast involving the military forces. ¶ L. B. Green, 2d, ¶ By direction."


November 9, 1927.  "[Guardia Nacional] Bulletin Number 2," Headquarters (p. 1 only).   "HEADQUARTERS, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 9 November, 1927. ¶ BULLETIN NUMBER 2: ¶ 1. A copy of THIS BULLETIN IN SPANISH WILL BE POSTED on the Bulletin Board at each Post of the Guardia Nacional. ¶ 2. The following will be published to all commands: ¶ On the occasion of the DISCHARGE AS UNDESIRABLE of Private Juan William C., #278, Guardia Nacional on 6 September, 1927 for having declared publically his political sentiments in front of the Petit Cafe in Managua, the following was published in Spanish to the assemble command in Managua: ¶ “Asyou [As you] all know very well, when an individual enters the Guardia Nacional, he is required to renounce all politic affiliations. All of you, on joining the Guardia swore allegiance to the Republic of Nicaragua and renounced all politic affiliation. All our efforts and our care must be employed for the good of the Guardia. If we are going to perform the police service of the republic and if we are going to be good policemen to perform our duties and to be faithful to our country and to our oath, we cannot have nay [any] kind of political feelings and therefore we cannot belong to any political party. ¶ “This individual that you see here, only a few nights ago publically declared in one of the streets of this city his political feelings and shouted “VIVAS” for one of the political parties. This individual has failed to comply with his word and his oath and therefore he does not deserve to wear the uniform that he has been using and which he has so dishonorably stained. This individual can not remain among us.” ¶ Politics has its place but must never control the military or police organization of a nation. The national police organization of a country is for the maintenance of peace, law and order. ¶ “Consequently and considering all that we have said Pvt. Williams is discharged from the Guardia Nacional.” ¶ 3. The following letters (in translation) are quoted for the information of the Guardia Nacional: ¶ “September 13, 1927.- Sr. General E.R. Beadle, Jefe Director of the Guardia Nacional.- Presente. – I have the honor of acknowledging receipt of your kind note of the 10th. Inst. and of the copy of the report made by the Comandante of the Division of the Guardia Nacional in Chinandega, of the fines imposed there since the Guardia took charge of the situation in that city, for the offenses enumerated therein. The work of the Guardia in Chinandega is satisfactory and I take pleasure in stating that in the account of the result of the internal revenues of said city for the month of August last, the percentage for fines figured in the lead as compared with that of the other departments.-- Very truly yours, Céasar Arana, MINISTER OF HACIENDA AND CREDITO PUBLICO.-” ¶ “Sept. 16, 1927.- Sr. Ministro de Hacienda y Credito Publico.- Presente.- I take great pleasure in acknowledging your esteemed letter of 13 September, which is very gratifying. I cannot thank you, however, for this without […]"  [the remainder is unavailable]


1.  November 9, 1927.  "Report on election held in Managua, Nicaragua, November 6, 1927," Capt. Gilbert D. Hatfield, Managua, to Second Brigade Commander, Managua, p. 1.   "FIFTH REGIMENT, SECOND BRIGADE, UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS ¶ Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 9 November 1927. ¶ From: Captain Gilbert D. Hatfield, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ To: The Brigade Commander, Second Brigade, U. S. Marine Corps, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Report on election held in Managua, Nicaragua November 6, 1927. ¶ Reference: Election patrol orders, dated 19 October 1927. ¶ 1. I have to report that all provisions of the above reference were carried out on schedule and that all sub-divisions of the Brigade cooperated perfectly. The last patrol truck cleared Campo de Marte at 0650 and all were in position at least fifteen minutes before the opening hour of the polling places. ¶ The patrol leaders carried out all orders as given and all showed good judgement in solving problems not covered by detailed instructions and performed their duties properly. All official interpreters reported on time, no unofficial interpreters reported. ¶ 2. The elections as a whole were very quiet and orderley [orderly] and I have heard no criticism as to the conduct of the troops who participated in the patrol duty. The only comments I have heard were to the effect that the marines should have complete charge of all elections in the future. ¶ 3. There were two violations of the traffic regulations, three violations of the pistol carrying law and about ten persons were arrested for drunkeness [drunkenness]. It is to be noted that all the above violations were committed by Conservatives, especially the Conservative candidate, Senor Pablo Leal, who was first to attempt to use his automobile and who had considerable guarro concealed in his residence. This liquor and some fifty gallons additional were confiscated from his and other Conservative residences either just prior or during the election. ¶ So far as I have been able to ascertain no penalties other than confiscation of pistol and liquor, were exacted and I suggest that in the future a stringent penalty by provided by law. ¶ There were two reports that a large number of men who had voted in outside districts were to be brought in by train to repeat their votes here. The trains were watched by members of the Military Police Force, but no unusual arrivals were noticed. [...]"


2.  November 9, 1927.  "Report on election held in Managua, Nicaragua, November 6, 1927," Capt. Gilbert D. Hatfield, Managua, to Second Brigade Commander, Managua, p. 2.   "[...] In two of the polling places in the San Sebastian district policemen were posted, supposedly to keep order, but actually to prevent the Liberals from voting. In one place I found five policemen keeping the Liberals on the opposite side of the street. I examined the voting register and discovered that no Liberal votes had been cast. I then interrogated the policemen as to their authority and functions and they told me that they had been posted there by direct orders of President Diaz. I sent them back to the police station and posted a marine and a guardia to keep order. The presence of policeman at a polling station is expressly prohibited by existing law. ¶ There was but one threat of violence during the entire election, at the Buenos Aires polling place there was a protest against twenty-seven votes claimed to have been cast by criminals who had lost their franchise, and those protesting said they would seize the ballot box unless these votes were eliminated. This problem was solved by writing the protest on the backs of the votes in question to the city hall. I then posted four military policemenat [policemen at] the polling place and dispersed the crowd. ¶ In a number of instances the members of the board were late in appearing for duty and the polls were an hour or more late in opening. ¶ In other places there was a desire to close the polls as soon as the Conservative vote was cast and in two instances the polling places was moved from its published location and placed in a back yard, and the flag was displayed where it was not easily observed. These two latter irregularities were immediately corrected. ¶ 4. It is recommended that in future elections, especially the Presidential election, that the marines have complete supervision of the registration previous to the election and of the election itself, that one marine and one guardia and one interpreter be placed in each polling place, and in the larger ones, one non-commissioned officer in addition; that the ballots be counted by marines and the results published by blackboardsas [blackboards as] soon after polls close as the count can be made, and that the ballot boxes and ballots be guarded by marines until the official count is completed and published and all protests have been made and disposed of. ¶ It is suggested that a translation of the electoral laws be made and that a copy be placed in the hands of each officer and non-commissioned officer of the command at least one week before registration day and that they be required to familiarize themselves with the provisions of the law. [...]"


3.  November 9, 1927.  "Report on election held in Managua, Nicaragua, November 6, 1927," Capt. Gilbert D. Hatfield, Managua, to Second Brigade Commander, Managua, p. 3.   "[...] It is also suggested that steps be taken to provide heavy penalties for members of the boards who fail to perform their duties properly, for such persons as violate the traffic and pistol regulations and especially heavy ones for persons who either sell or give liquor to the voters. ¶ G. D. HATFIELD."


1.  November 10, 1927. "Por La Justicia," pamphlet by Marco Antonio García S., Pbro., Managua, p. 1.   "..."


2.  November 10, 1927. "Por La Justicia," pamphlet by Marco Antonio García S., Pbro., Managua, p. 2.   "..."


3.  November 10, 1927. "Por La Justicia," pamphlet by Marco Antonio García S., Pbro., Managua, p. 3.   "..."


4.  November 10, 1927. "Por La Justicia," pamphlet by Marco Antonio García S., Pbro., Managua, p. 4.   "..."


5.  November 10, 1927. "Por La Justicia," pamphlet by Marco Antonio García S., Pbro., Managua, p. 5.   "..."


1.   November 13, 1927.  "Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov 1927," Captain R. W. Peard, Division Commander, Ocotal, p. 1.   "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ 13 November 1927. ¶ From: The Division Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional. ¶ Managua. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov 1927. ¶ 1. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ Ocotal: Peaceful. ¶ Jicaro: Peaceful. ¶ The above applies to the towns themselves; the rural districts, especially east and southeast of Jicaro are in undisputed possession of the rebel Sandino, and all inhabitants not of his following have utterly deserted the area within the triangle formed by towns of Jicaro-Jinotega-Telpaneca exclusive. In the area north of the general line Jinotega-Esteli-Limay, many bandit groups range at will, robbing, murdering, raping and burning the homes of their political and personal enemies, except in the towns actually garrisoned by the marine and guardia troops. These conditions along the Honduranian [Honduran] border north of Conco Pinas [Cinco Pinos?] are similar, and are further complicated by raiding bands of Honduranian [Honduran] criminals and remnants of the former Conservative army of Nicaragua who refused to turn in their arms. These bands make their headquarters at the Hacienda of the Jefe Politico of Choluteca, Honduras, who is undoubtedly in league with them. His name is Sr. Felix Pedre Pinel. This information has been verified by members of the 3rd. company, G.N. who have been in San Marcos and at Sr. Pinel’s Hacienda in civilian clothes, as intelligence operatives from Pataste. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES: ¶ Ocotal: Friendly in public. Privately at least half the population are friendly to Sandino (Liberal) or Anastacio Hernandez (Leader of Conservative Bandits), and could not be trusted in the least in case of attack. ¶ Jicaro: The few residents of this place are friendly as their very existance [existence] is dependant [dependent] on protection of our troops. All surrounding country is at least 95% Sandinista. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ Possibly slight change for the better. More farmers working in the fields, but only those who are on terms of friendship with the bandits can live on their farms. [...]"


2.   November 13, 1927.  "Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov 1927," Captain R. W. Peard, Division Commander, Ocotal, p. 2.   "[...] Page Two: Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov. 1927: ¶ Business in the towns where troops are stationed, is gradually improving, more people returning to their homes from Honduras, stores seeking more stocks, and when roads to Leon improve sufficiently for cargo hauling by bull-carts from that place, it is believed the prices of staple articles will be lowered. At present the demands for supplies from the smaller towns that have been at the mercy of bandit raids, keep the prices in the larger places at abnormal prices, due to general shortage of supplies. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ No publications printed in this Division. ¶ The REVISTA ARIEL, a bi-monthly publication, pub- in [published in?] Tegucigalpa, the Capital of Honduras, has a wide circulation in this Division, and is so blatant in its Sandinista propaganda as to be ludicrous if it were not for the childlike credulity of its readers in this area, who glean from this source all the statements that they hope will come true, in their ignorant partisan friendships for the bandit element. This publication, combined with the utterly ridiculous claims and statements put out by Sandino regarding his successes in battle against the marines and guardia, keep the ignorant herds of Sandino’s followers, childishly faithful, and they believe utterly that Sandino will drive the American forces from Nicaragua and then be the most famous personage in Nicaragua’s history. A marked copy of the Revista Ariel, number of 1 November 1927, is herewith enclosed. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ None. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: ¶ See police report of even date. ¶ Military Operations: ¶ On 8 November 1927, a Hacienda within one mile of Pataste was raided by a group of bandits from Honduras frontier; Lieut. Keimling and a combined mounted patrol of marines and guardia from Pataste pursued this bandit group and caught them near La Cruz, west of Pataste near the Honduras border. For detailed report on this contact see Keimling’s Patrol Report dated 10 November. ¶ On the night of 7-8 November, a mounted patrol from Telpaneca consisting of twenty marines and guardia, surprised a bandit camp of about fifty of Sandino’s followers north-east of Telpaneca at 5.00 a.m. and killed four bandits, wounded ten or more, and captured four rifles. Lieut. Satterfield, G.N. was in command of this patrol. For full details, see Lieut. W.S. Brown’s Patrol Report dated 8 November. [...]"


3.   November 13, 1927.  "Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov 1927," Captain R. W. Peard, Division Commander, Ocotal, p. 3.   "[...] Page Three: Intelligence report for week ending 13 Nov 1927: ¶ The foregoing are the only contacts with bandits reported by the various patrols in this Division during the past week. ¶ COMMUNICATIONS: ¶ All telegraph lines in and out of Ocotal are in order except the line to Jicaro, which has been out of order for the past two days. ¶ A new field radio set and operator arrived here from Managua this week. It was sent to Pueblo Nuevo today and is destined for use at Telpaneca. It is expected to be in operation by the middle of this week at that place. ¶ Radio communication continues to be impossible at night between Ocotal and Managua. Between Ocotal and Jicaro an evening schedule is operated without difficulty. ¶ ELECTIONS: ¶ Elections are to be held in this Division on 20 November 1927, in towns that failed to hold elections on 6 Nov. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION: ¶ No change and no political activity noted. ¶ R. W. PEARD, ¶ Captain, G.N. ¶ Division Commander ¶ Copy to: Brigade Intelligence Officer. ¶ File."


November 14, 1927.  Cable from U.S. Minister Charles C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington, p. 1.  "(SEXTUPLICATE) ¶ No. [unreadable, possibly “523”] ¶ Managua, November 14, 1927. ¶ The Honorable ¶ The Secretary of State, ¶ Washington. ¶ Sir: ¶ I have the honor to report that the American Consul at Bluefields, Nicaragua, on August 10, 1927, transmitted to the Legation a request from Mr. Albert Fagot, an American citizen residing at Cape Gracias, that the Legation assist Mr. Fagot in connection with a case recently decided against him by the Supreme Court of Nicaragua. It appears that a Mr. Carlos Hernaldo Ibarra had brought suit against Mr. Fagot in connection with a contract for cutting mahogany and cedar and that the suit had been decided against the latter, first in the local court and then by the Appellate Court at Bluefields. When the decision of the latter court was rendered, Mr. ¶ Fagot’s […]"


November 14, 1927.  Cable from U.S. Minister Charles C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington, p. 2.  "[…] Fagot’s attorney, who was a Liberal, had been imprisoned and later deported for political reasons. A brother of the attorney, acting as “agente oficioso,” appealed to the Supreme Court at Managua, which rejected the appeal on the ground that the “agente oficioso,” under the circumstances, had no legal standing before the court. This decision was rendered by the Supreme Court before its re-organization in accordance with the Stimson Agreement. The Legation has thus far been unable to obtain from Mr. Fagot a full statement of the facts upon which the original suit against him was based. ¶ The Legation is today requesting the Consul at Bluefields to inform Mr. Fagot that it is not in a position to take any action in his favor. The only ground upon which Mr. Fagot’s claim for denial of justice is based appears to be the Supreme Court’s decision that the appeal from the decision of the Appellate Court at Bluefields could not be considered because the case was one in which an “agente oficioso” could not properly act under the local law. This would appear to be a matter for the Supreme Court to decide and the propriety of questioning its decision would, in any event, be very doubtful. Under the present circumstances it would be extremely inadvisable to suggest that one of the decisions of the former Supreme Court be reversed, because the Legation and the Department have constantly insisted that the decisions of the de facto court be respected. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your [...]"   [finalsignature page not copied]


November 18, 1927.  "Report in re Chipote," Major R. W. Peard, Ocotal, to Brigade Commander, Managua, p. 1.  "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ CONFIDENTIAL: ¶ 18 November 1927. ¶ From: The Division Commander. ¶ To: Brigade Commander, Managua. ¶ Subject: Report in re Chipote. ¶ Reference: (a) Your Confidential Letter dated 16 Nov 1927, ¶ subject: Letter of Instructions. ¶ Enclosure: (1) Statement of Manuel Viques Molina, bandit prisoner at Ocotal. ¶ 1. The above named prisoner was sent here for confinement from Jicaro, having been captured and brought in by O’Shea’s patrol immediately after the crash of Thomas and Dowdell near Chipoteal Ridge. This prisoner is a boy about seventeen years of age, very large and fat, for his age, probably weighs about 185 pounds. Heretofore, no information of any value had been procured from this prisoner. ¶ 2. Upon the receipt of my copy of reference (a) today, we induced the above prisoner to tell us what he knew about Sandino and El Chipote, his statement hereto attached, and it is believed the facts stated therin [therein] are fairly accurate in so far as the intelligence of the bandit permitted. ¶ 3. This prisoner, handcuffed and secured to a mule, would make an excellent guide for any of our combat columns in their next operation against El Chipote, as he is thoroughly subdued and not at all antagonistic, and personally knows the exact road to Chipote from Quilali and San Albino, also knows where El Chipote really is. ¶ 4. This man had no information about Thomas and Dowdell as he was probably captured before Sandino finally located them. ¶ R. W. PEARD ¶ Copy to: Jefe Director, G.N. ¶ File, Confidential."


November 18, 1927.  "Statement of Manuel Viques Molina" (Nov. 17), in "Report in re Chipote," Major R. W. Peard, Ocotal, to Brigade Commander, Managua, p. 2.  "[...] GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA. ¶ OFICINA DE LA 1 ER COMPANIA, 17 NOVIEMBRE 1927. ¶ STATEMENT OF MANUEL VIQUES MOLINA (PRESO) ¶ I was at my coffee plantation on 30 Sept 27, when Alejandro Molino and Alejandro Figueroa passed by with a pack train for Sandino. They invited me to join them and go to see him (Sandino) about two mules that Sandino had taken away from me. The pack train contained shoes and clothing, with three pack mules and two saddle animals. I went with them to Chipote and they delivered the cargoes to the first outpost at the bottom of Chipote Hill, to Colonel Simon Gonzalez, one of Sandinos [Sandino’s] chiefs. I was there three days, the third day I went to San Jose to get my mules by order of Sandino. I was in company of Elentino Salgado, one of Sandino’s soldiers, who was riding a wild horse, which threw him off and broke his leg, down by the river. We were there when we heard some shots fired on top of the hill. We hid in the brush and the Marines came and captured me, on the evening of 7 Nov 27 I think it was. The riflr [rifle] and 300 rounds of ammunition which I was captured with belonged to the man with the broken leg, but at the time that I was captured, I was actually one of Sandino’s soldiers and ate and slept with his men at his camp. The camp where I stayed is called Santa Ana, and there were sixty men all armed with rifles. I only saw one machine gun which was a Lewis at this camp. I met a man with ten head of cattle and they have corn-fields at Chipote Hill. I asked one of the soldiers how many men that were there and he stated two thousand, all the men I saw were armed. I heard 600 men came from Honduras. The Chief of the Honduras soldiers is Porfirio Sanchez. On the 15 Sept 27 I saw him with 10 men passing through Yali. The day that the airplane fell I was with one of Sandino’s soldiers looking for my mule. While I was in the pasture, a runner came and told the soldiers that a plane had fell, and they ran towards Jicarito. Capitan Galeano went to see the air-plane that fell, with 20 soldiers. I was with ten soldiers at the pasture and they went to the place where the plane fell as re-inforcements. During the time that I was there I never saw an air-plane fly over Chipote. Next day after the plane fell, I went to San Jose pasture to get some mules, I was in this pasture when the Marines came and captured me. Sandino keeps his stock at San Jose pastures and they are clearing land for planting rice and beans and are gathering corn and storing it. There are two large houses on top of Chipote which are used to store privisions [provisions] in. The store keepers [keeper’s] name is Ladislas Palacio who lives at Yali. Coronel Coronado Maradiago is in charge of all of Sandino’s arms and ammunition. From Quilali to Chipote is about three and one half leagues, and from San Albino to Chipote about five leagues. ¶ Manuel Viques Molina."


November 20, 1927.  "Weekly Memorandum No. 4," Captain R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 1.  "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ 20 November 1927. ¶ WEEKLY MEMORANDUM NO. 4. ¶ (Information and Instructions). ¶ 1. At 2330 on 13 November, Captain Darnell, Lieuts. Hogaboom, Wells, G.N. and Dr. Townsend, U.S. Navy, with ten marines and five guardias, cleared Ocotal to investigate bandit activities reported about ten miles south-east of Ocotal. They arrived at the bandit hangout just before daylight but due to poor judgement on the part of an overanxious native guide, the bandits spotted the patrol too soon. One bandit prisoner was captured, and several wounded, who escaped. No marine or guardia casualties. ¶ 2. Lieut. Wells, G.N. with five marines and five guardias cleared Ocotal at 0400 yesterday to investigate conditions in and around Dipilto. Mr. Albir, the Honduranian [Honduran] Consul at Ocotal, who is also Alcalde of Ocotal, accompanied the patrol as he has extensive land holdings in that area. Only two inhabited houses were seen between Ocotal and Honduras including the town of Dipilto. Dipilto has about thirty houses, and a large church, but is absolutely deserted. The patrol returned to Ocotal at 2130 same day. At one house near the border on the Honduras side, they met fifteen men all armed with revolvers. Three of these men requested permission from Lieut. Wells to return with him enroute to Esteli, armed. Wells very properly refused this request and thereby deprived us of some very fine souvenirs. Everyone along the border on the Honduranian [Honduran] side carries arms openly and apparently the Honduranian [Honduran] authorities make no effort to disarm them. A fine large house at Mr. Albir’s Hacienda on the Nicaraguan side had been burned to the ground. ¶ 3. Lieut. Gould’s patrol from Matagalpa which just completed a trip through Sandino’s territory, left us this week on their return trip to Matagalpa. They are in Esteli today. Gould reports the loss of several animals and some equipment in action, but there are rumors from various places he passed through, that he is not the only one short on these items. ¶ 4. The bullcart train from Leon should arrive in Pueblo Nuevo shortly, as they have made excellent time thus far. Lieut. Claude and six marines from Pueblo Nuevo have joined this train as a guard of honor. We suspect there is JAM on these bullcarts! The latest report on cranberries is none too optimistic, but Captain Baker assures me that if the ship gets in before Thanksgiving we will get ours. If the cranberries do not arrive for Thanksgiving let’s give thanks anyway, as Christmas is coming. ¶ 5. The company headquarters of the Sixteenth Company has arrived at Esteli; Captain Kieren, first sergeant, company clerk, bugler, typewriter, ‘neverything; several marines out this way state positively that they can remember when they served with companies that had all this fancy equipment. [...]"


November 20, 1927.  "Weekly Memorandum No. 4," Captain R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 2.  "[...] Page Two: Weekly Memo. No. 4. ¶ 6. Each post in this Division will render a roster of enlisted marines in their command of the 25th. of EACH month, direct to this office. Pueblo Nuevo will send in rosters for Telpaneca and Pataste. This roster from each post, must be received at Ocotal as near the first of the month as possible, if you wish to assure your command will be paid on time. ¶ 7. As the road conditions improve, do not lose sight of the fact that marines are trained and equipped as Infantry. This is not a Cavalry Division. Many patrols and troop movements can be made to better advantage on foot, especially when no rations are taken and contacts with bandits may be expected. In actual combat with bandits, mounts complicate the action and reduces your man power to an appreciable degree, not to mention losses of animals and equipment. ¶ 8. Bullcarts will be needed in the very near future to haul rations from Pueblo Nuevo to Somoto, Ocotal and Jicaro. Guards for them will be furnished. If there are any good bullcarts in your neighborhood that can be interested in this work, let me know. Payment will be made on a tonnage basis, or at so much per cart per trip. ¶ 9. The radio set arrived at Telpaneca about dark one evening this week, and was in operation at 1.00 p.m. next day. I’d call that pretty snappy work! ¶ R. W. PEARD, Captain ¶ Copies to: Brigade Cmdr. ¶ Jefe Director, G.N. ¶ C.O. Matagalpa. ¶ C.O. Jicaro. ¶ C.O. Ocotal. ¶ C.O. Somoto. ¶ C.O. Pueblo Nuevo. ¶ C.O. Telpaneca. ¶ C.O. Pataste. ¶ C.O. Esteli. ¶ Brigade Q.M. ¶ C.O. 1st. Bn. 5 Reg. ¶ Brigade Paymaster. ¶ File."


November 20, 1927.  Letter from Lt. M. A. Richal, Pueblo Nuevo, to Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 1.   "..."


November 20, 1927.  Letter from Lt. M. A. Richal, Pueblo Nuevo, to Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 2.    "..."

November 20, 1927.  "Intelligence report for week ending 20 Nov 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal.   "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ 20 November 1927. ¶ From: The Division Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, G.N., Managua. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for week ending 20 Nov 1927. ¶ 1. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: ¶ Towns in which there are marine or guardia garrisons: conditions peaceful. ¶ Rural districts: No change from last report. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES: ¶ No change from last report. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: ¶ To the north and southeast of Ocotal, the coffee crop is not being properly worked due to natives’ fear of bandit outrages. North of Ocotal practically no work being done on the coffee crop and it will probably be a total loss for this reason. As soon as the Honduras border is reached, a decided change is noted; on the Honduranian [Honduran] side, everyone is working clearing ground etc. for the coffee crop, except natives otherwise employed. Everyone along the Honduras border in Honduras goes armed, even boys of ten and twelve years of age, and no apparent effort is made by Honduranian [Honduran] authorities to disarm them. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: ¶ No publications printed in this Division, but all Managua papers have a fair circulation in this area, and the Honduras publications that reach here are mostly pro-bandit, or pro-Sandinista, in all their articles concerning Nicaragua. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: None. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: See police report of even date. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS: ¶ Only one contact with bandits during past week. ¶ (See Weekly Memo. No. 4, from this office). ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: During past week a field radio set has been installed at Telpaneca and is working satisfactorilly [satisfactorily]. ¶ Today troops are observing elections in all possible voting places in Esteli Province, Condega being the only place where there is trouble expected by native [natives?], but nothing definite. ¶ R. W. PEARD."

November 20, 1927.  "Police report for week ending 20 Nov 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal.   "OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF POLICE, ¶ OCOTAL, NUEVA SEGOVIA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 20 NOVEMBER 1927. ¶ FROM: The Director of Police. ¶ TO: The Jefe Director, G.N., Managua. ¶ SUBJECT: Police report for week ending 20 November 1927. ¶ 1. OPERATIONS: See weekly intelligence report of even date and weekly memo. #4, from Division Commander. ¶ 2. NEW CONFINEMENTS DURING PAST WEEK: ¶ Salvano Mejia- 14 Nov 27: Bandit captured by Darnell’s patrol. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Manuel Biguez- 13 Nov 27: Sandino bandit captured by O’Shea’s patrol. (AT Div Cmdr). Trans. from Jicaro. ¶ Manuel Gutierrez- 17 Nov 27: Drunk and Disorderly in city of Ocotal: (AT Dir of Pol) ¶ 3. RELEASED DURING PAST WEEK: None. ¶ 4. CONTINUED IN CONFINEMENT: ¶ Miguel J. Escobar- murder suspect- (AT Civil Crim Judge). ¶ Ontero Zebelo- bandit. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Jasora Ruiz- “ “ “ “ ¶ Deonisia Pasteran- “ “ “ “ ¶ Victor Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Jose Anglo Amaya “ and murder suspect. (AA Crim Judge) and AT Div Cmdr. ¶ Augustin Flores- bandit suspect, Hernandez gang. (AA Div Cmdr) ¶ Francisco Martinez- bandit. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Miguel Perez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Transito Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Encarnacion Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Martinez Colindres- bandit and murder suspect. (AA Crim Judge) and (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ R. W. PEARD, Captain, ¶ Guardia Nacional. ¶ Director of Police ¶ Copy to: Brigade Intelligence Officer. ¶ File."

November 22, 1927.  English translation of letter from Jefe Politico of Chinandega (Anastasio Somoza Garcia?) to Minister of Finance, Managua.  "Chinandega, November 22, 1927. ¶ Minister of Finance, ¶ Managua. ¶ Sir:-- ¶ I inform you the following:-- ¶ While collecting my check in the Administration of Internal Revenues of this city, for the month of November, the Administrator showed me your communication in which you direct to send to the Legal and National Board of Directors of the Conservative Party, 5 per cent of the total amount of said check, as that money does not belong to the Government, but to the Conservative Party, adding that no check should be delivered if the owner of it did not deposit the above mentioned 5 per cent. ¶ The budget in force, on page 20, states the monthly salary of $100.00 for the Jefe Politico and $10.00 for office expenses and etc. The check in my favor does not state any deduction, and I do not understand why that money belongs to the Conservative Party instead of the Government of Nicaragua. ¶ I am an employee of the Government of Nicaragua, but not of the Conservative Party, and as I am of different opinion than that of the Conservatives, therefore, I make you my claim, asking for justice and protesting against such disposition of charging me with the above mentioned 5 per cent. ¶ Yours truly, ¶ Jefe Politico."

November 22, 1927.  Ricardo López C., Ministro de la Gobernación, "Circular" a los Señores Jefes Políticos de los Departamentos de Managua, Granada, Masaya y Carazo.   "..."

November 24, 1927.  Joaquín Edwards Bello, "Ante la Conferencia Panamericano," La Nación, Santiago, Chile.  "..."

November 25, 1927.  "Special police report in the case of Sr. Fernando Jarquín A. (hijo), former Lieutenant, Federal Army of Nicaragua," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal.   "The Director of Police. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, G.N., Managua. ¶ Subject: Special police report in the case of Sr. Fernando Jarquín A. (hijo), former Lieutenant, Federal Army of Nicaragua. ¶ 1. The above named man, about twenty three years of age, with his father of same name, mother, and three sisters, has been living in Ocotal for several months with his aunt, Sra. Carmen Chamorro, the wife of Sr. Carlos Chamorro, who is a relative of Ex-President Chamorro of Nicaragua and at present an employee of the Nicaraguan Govt. at Managua. ¶ 2. About two weeks ago Mrs. Carmen Chamorro came to me and reported that a large diamond ring valued at eight hundred dollars had been stolen from here [her?] jewel case in her home at Ocotal. The box was found locked and in perfect order when the theft was discovered and she said she felt certain that her nephew, Fernando Jarquin hijo, had the ring. ¶ 3. Immediately after this theft had been reported, young Jarquin came to me and asked for transportation by plane to Managua stating that he was going to U.S. immediately. ¶ 4. Not knowing what he had done with the diamond, I hesitated to accuse him of the robbery and feared a search would not locate the missing stone. ¶ 5. Finally, on 23 Nov 1927, I informed him that plane transportation had been arranged for him to Managua on the next day, 24 Nov. and for him to have all his baggage on the field by 9.30 a.m. ¶ 6. Yesterday, when all his baggage had arrived at the landing field, I searched him and his effects and recovered the stone, which was positively identified by Mrs. Chamorro and returned to her. Young Jarquin then confessed and was placed under arrest by me. At the urgent request of Mrs. Chimorro [Chamorro], he was set at liberty, as she felt keenly the disgrace which would attach to her immediate family, in case he was brought to trial. ¶ 7. The above matter has been reported to you in detail as it is believed that young Jarquin, due to his past military education, political and family connection, will probably be one of the first applicants for a commission in the Guardia Nacional, when native officers are desired. ¶ R. W. PEARD ¶ Copy to Brigade Cmdr."

November 27, 1927.  Letter from Pio Palma, Jinotega, to Sr. Comandante General Don Augusto C. Sandino, El Chipote, p. 1.  "..."

November 27, 1927.  Letter from Pio Palma, Jinotega, to Sr. Comandante General Don Augusto C. Sandino, El Chipote, p. 2.  "..."

November 27, 1927.  Letter from Martiniano López, San Marcos de Colón, Honduras, to Señor Don Nicolás Vásquez.   "..."

November 27, 1927.  English translation of letter from Martiniano López, San Marcos de Colón, Honduras, to Señor Don Nicolás Vásquez.   "San Marcos de Colon, ¶ Honduras, 27 November 1927. ¶ Nicolas Vasquez. ¶ Dear Sir: ¶ I am pleased to greet you in company of your family, and when you receive my humble remembrances I hope you enjoy it as I do when I write you. ¶ After my greetings, pardon me for my troubles, but I only wish you to inform me about my father. Tell me if you know whether he is dead or alive, because he was carried away by the gringos and liberals and as yet we do not know of his whereabouts. Please answer me by the bearer. ¶ After this I wish that you would answer me the letters that I sent to you. I cannot write you anymore. ¶ Martiniano Lopez."

November 27, 1927.  "Intelligence report for week ending 27 Nov 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 1.  "OFFICE OF THE DIVISION COMMANDER ¶ DIVISION OF NUEVA SEGOVIA ¶ OCOTAL, NICARAGUA. ¶ 27 November 1927. ¶ From: The Division Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, G.N., Managua. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report for week ending 27 Nov 1927. ¶ 1. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: No change. See Weekly Memo. No. 5, from this office in re new post established at Orosi Ranch, and bandit activity that vicinity. ¶ ATTITUDE CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES: No Change. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: No change except, carts have begun arriving from Leon with cargo for merchants. Four bull-carts from Leon arrived Ocotal this week; four days on road from Achuapa to Pueblo Nuevo, and two days from Pueblo Nuevo to Ocotal, with full loads. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS: No change. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION: ¶ No Change. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS: See police report of even date. All bandit prisoners are worked daily, except Sundays, under marine and guardia sentries, on the Aviation Field. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS: See weekly memo. No. 5, from this office. ¶ A patrol of five marines and one navy enlisted, on a reconnaissance mission along river four miles north of Somoto, were fired on from ambush by unidentified person; Private Rue, 49 Company, was shot in back on left side and had to be brought in to Somoto on a stretcher. Dr. Townsend, U.S. Navy, was sent to Somoto this afternoon to attend the case. No further details available. ¶ MISCELLANEOUS: Telegraph lines have been out of order for several days between Ocotal and Jicaro, and Ocotal and Honduras. ¶ A radio set has arrived at Ocotal for the new post at Orosi Ranch and will go forward at first opportunity. ¶ R. W. PEARD"

November 27, 1927.  "Police report for week ending 27 Nov 1927," Capt. R. W. Peard, Ocotal, p. 2.  "OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF POLICE ¶ OCOTAL, NUEVA SEGOVIA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 27 NOVEMBER 1927. ¶ From: The Director of Police. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, G.N., Managua. ¶ Subject: Police report for week ending 27 November 1927. ¶ 1. OPERATIONS: See weekly intelligence report of even date and weekly memo. #5, from Division Commander. ¶ 2. NEW CONFINEMENTS DURING PAST WEEK: ¶ Alberto Rugama- 23 Nov 27: Bandit and robber; captured in Ocotal. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Tiburcio Nandero- 24 Nov 27: Bandit and murder suspect; captured in Ocotal. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ 3. RELEASED DURING PAST WEEK: ¶ Manuel Gutierrez- Fined $5.00 and costs by Director of Police on 20 November 1927 for drunkenness and disorderly conduct. Paid fine and costs amounting to $5.30 and was released same date. ¶ Tiburcio Landero- Fined $1.00 and costs by Director of Police on 24 November 1927 for drunkenness. Paid fines and costs amounting to $1.30 and was released same date. ¶ 4. CONTINUED IN CONFINEMENT: ¶ Miguel J. Escobar- murder suspect- (AT Civil Crim Judge). ¶ Ontero Zebelo- bandit (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Jasora Ruiz- “ “ “ “ ¶ Deonisia Pastoran- “ “ “ “ ¶ Victor Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Jose Angel Amaya- “ and murder suspect. (AA Crim Judge). and AT Div Cmdr. ¶ Augustin Flores- Bandit suspect, Hernandez gang. (AA Div Cmdr). ¶ Francisco Martinez- bandit. (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Miguel Perez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Transcito Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Encarnacion Lopez- “ “ “ “ ¶ Martinez Colindres- bandit and murder suspect. (AA Crim Judge) and (AT Div Cmdr). ¶ Salvano Mejia- bandit suspect “ “ “ ¶ Manuel Biguez- bandit “ “ “ ¶ R. W. PEARD ¶ Copy to: Brig. Intelligence Officer. ¶ File. ¶ Captain, G.N. ¶ Director of Police."