Header image
Top 100  •  doc 95  •  p. 12 of 12
'Fat file' on 'Sandino Situation' by US Military Intelligence Division, 1928-33
T O P     1 0 0     D O C S





































































































Sandino Situation Files  •  PAGE 1  •  PAGE 2  •  PAGE 3  •  PAGE 4  •  PAGE 5  •  PAGE 6  •  PAGE 7  •  PAGE 8  •  PAGE 9  •  PAGE 10  •  PAGE 11  •  PAGE 12

Page 12 & Conclusion of Fat File on Sandino Situation, US Military Intelligence Division, 1928-33


Documents are presented here in their original sequence as found in three bulging file folders titled "Sandino Situation," Record Group 165, Entry 77, Box 2653, US National Archives II, College Park MD.

      Grateful appreciation is extended to Mr. Brandon Ray, Summa Cum Laude college graduate from Ashford University in Iowa (with a B.A. in History and a minor in Political Science) for his exacting transcriptions on this page and the previous eleven pages.  Thank you Brandon!

1.  June 14, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, trans. of "Sandino will not stop fighting until the Americans leave," Excelsior, Mexico City, June 13, 1932, p. 1.     "G-2 Report ¶ 3850-a ¶ MEXICO ¶ POLITICAL ¶ SUBJECT: Foreign Relations, Etc. ¶ Relations with Foreign Countries: ¶ SANDINO and the Nicaraguan Situation. ¶ 1. Forwarded herewith is translation of an article appearing in “EXCELSIOR” of Mexico City on June 13, 1932, carrying the headline: “Sandino will not stop fighting until the Americans leave.” ¶ Robert E. Cummings, ¶ Captain, Infantry, DOL ¶ Acting Military Attaché. ¶ Source: As stated. ¶ C/p ¶ From: M.A.Mexico. ¶ Report No. 3983 ¶ Date: June 14, 1932. . . . "

2.  June 14, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, trans. of "Sandino will not stop fighting until the Americans leave," Excelsior, Mexico City, June 13, 1932, p. 2.     " . . . (Translation) ¶ SANDINO WILL NOT STOP FIGHTING UNTIL THE AMERICANS LEAVE. ¶ His representative in Mexico says it is time the Yankee policy changed ¶ “It is time the Government of the United States tried to explain to its people the moral reasons which compel it to maintain armed intervention in Nicaragua, especially now that it has been demonstrated that after 20 years of ignominious occupation, characterized by bloodshed, the Nicaraguan people, as in 1912, still resolutely face the foreign bayonets, while the huts of peasants, which serve as targets for the planes of the American Navy, go flying to pieces through the air.” ¶ The foregoing, from Dr. Pedro José Zepeda, General Representative of the “Ejercito Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua”,- who further stated: ¶ “Our invincible chief, General Augusto Sandino,Best Clocks is determined to continue, without truce, his gigantic effort to secure the most complete national liberty, and if, to accomplish this, it should become necessary to resort to extreme military measures, he will doso [do so], but not until everything possible has been done to avoid useless bloodshed. Now, more than ever, the people are organized to cooperate with our Army. Serious men of recognized military prestige are joining the autonomist movement, which explains the recent arrival of General Manuel M. Valladares at the camp of our heroic General Gregorio Colindres who told me in a recent letter that 134 men from the National Guards had presented themselves to join his ranks, bringing with them seven machine-guns and a large quantity of arms and ammunition.” ¶ Dr. Zepeda smiled maliciously when we spoke of the triumphs boasted from Managua and from Washington, and said: ¶ “If that were true, there would not be a single soldier of General Sandino left. Our boys do not give battle unless they have all the strategic advantages, and as our troops are always taking the offensive, they never shoot wildly in the air, as there are strict orders not to shoot except at the precise instant of taking aim,- always endeavoring to take from the enemy at least double the number of cartridges fired. Only in this way can it be explained that our Army is better equipped than ever, and that in spite of the fact that flying columns have been duplicated, there are in the storehouses of the Segovias, arms and ammunition sufficient to continue our armed protest for another five years if need be.” ¶ Dr. Zepeda spoke with optimism as to the future of his country. He believes that an era of true peace and prosperity is approaching, and says the day is not far off when the doors of all the schools will again be opened. “I am confident”, he added, “that the worthy Nicaraguans, who have for so many years tasted the bitterness of exile, will return to their homes and will bring with them their accumulation of observations and studies. There is need, in Nicaragua, of the cooperation of all good minds. Many schools must be established . . . "

3.  June 14, 1932.  best replica watches Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, trans. of "Sandino will not stop fighting until the Americans leave," Excelsior, Mexico City, June 13, 1932, p. 3.     " . . . in the Interior, and the peasants must be prepared to cultivate the soil. General Sandino’s dreams must be realized by labor legislation in accord with modern tendencies. We want the minimum wage, as a Government law, and that the peasants and workmen shall enjoy the privileges of the seven-hour day, now unknown in my unhappy country, where foreign companies still impose ten and twelve hours labor a day, with wages inadequate to cover the most urgent needs. ¶ “Señor Adolfo Díaz, who for the fourth time aspires to become President of the Republic, supported by the Conservative Party, is going to the United States to seek the aid of Wall Street bankers, and, as there is nothing in the country which can be pledged, as security, he will offer five per cent of the salaries of public employees, in the attempt to get funds to start his electoral campaign. On the other hand, General Moncada, in view of the fact that Mr. Hoover did not give him permission to extend his presidential term for two years longer, is taking urgent steps in New York toward securing a new loan, of a million and a half dollars,- surely for expenses which he can never justify, but which he states will be used to entertain the members of the American Electoral Commission, which is coming –to our sorrow- to give us lessons in ‘democracy and liberty’, while in Washington, veterans of the World War are dying of hunger and poverty, and the brutal murder of Col. Lindbergh’s child is still shrouded in mystery.. ¶ “It would be better if Colonel Stimpson [Stimson] would honestly and frankly acknowledge his defeat in the tragedy of Nicaragua, and for one and all leave us alone to solve our own problems, cancelling with one stroke of the pen, the ambitions of Adolfo Díaz, whose only claim, in attempting to govern us, is the criminal support which he expects to again receive from the White House.” ¶ EXCELSIOR, June 13, 1932."

4.  June 9, 1932.  Alex A. Cohen, in the absence of the Military Attaché, Costa Rica, translations of El Imparcial, Guatemala, and La Prensa, El Salvador.     "G-Report. ¶ 2700. ¶ NICARAGUA (Pop. & Social) ¶ Subject: Public Order and Safety. ¶ Press Notices regarding Sandino. ¶ “El Imparcial” of Guatemala states that in a recent encounter with Guardia forces in Nicaragua Sandino was seriously wounded in one arm. ¶ It is also stated that he recently received a supply of arms which was landed in Tamarindo in the swampy region bordering on the Gulf of Fonseca. ¶ “La Prensa” of ElcSalvador [El Salvador] openly states that the Nicaraguan Liberals are the ones supporting Sandino, and more especially the Liberal emigradoes in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala. Toribio Tijerino is claimed to be one of Sandino’s principal agents even though at the outset Tijerino was turned down by Sandino because he had been “a bad Conservative”. ¶ Dr. Alejandro Cerda, a Nicaraguan living in Danlí, Honduras is claimed to be surgeon-in[-]chief for Sandino. There, safe from persecution he takes care of all of Sandino’s wounded. ¶ Women are now used exclusively by Sandino as messengers. ¶ Yet another report states that Sandino and Manuel Valladares are going to launch General Horacio Portocarrera, a Nicaraguan liberal who for many years resided in Guatemala and Honduras as provisional President of a new revolutionary movement being planned. ¶ There seems to be little doubt that the Dr. Cerda, mentioned above is acting as a go-between for Sandino. He has been prominently mentioned as such quite often lately. ¶ Sources: As stated. ¶ IN THE ABSENCE OF THE MILITARY ATTACHÉ: ¶ Alex A. Cohen. ¶ From: M.A. Costa Rica ¶ Report No. 16[unreadable] ¶ Date: June 9, 1932."

5.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 1.     "G-2 Report ¶ 3850-a ¶ MEXICO ¶ POLITICAL ¶ SUBJECT: Foreign Relations: Status of Relations with Foreign Countries: ¶ The Nicaraguan Situation, and Sandino. ¶ 1. In keeping with policy of this office to inform G-2 of everything which might be of possible interest concerning the activities of Sandino’s representative in México, Dr. Pedro José Zepeda, and articles appearing in the local press on the subject,- there are forwarded herewith translations of the following four press articles which have recently appeared: ¶ (1) News item of May 28th in which Dr. Zepeda is quoted concerning the coming elections in Nicaragua and the relations of the United States thereto. ¶ (2) News item of May 30th – same subject. ¶ (3) News item of May 31st which quotes a letter from a Committee of Nicaraguans in Mexico City concerning the candidacy of Juan Bautista Sacasa for President of Nicaragua, and its support of this candidate. ¶ (4) News item of June 1st. quoting from letters received in Vera Cruz alleged to have been written by officers associated with Sandino, describing the success of the latter’s movements. ¶ Robert E. Cummings, ¶ Captain, Infantry, DOL ¶ Acting Military Attaché. ¶ Source: Press. ¶ C/p ¶ From: M.A.Mexico. ¶ Report No. 3973. ¶ Date: June 7, 1932. . . . "

6.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 2:  Translation of "Nicaraguan Nationalists Repudiate Doctor Juan B. Sacasa," El Universal Gráfico, Mexico City, May 28, 1932.      " . . . (News item – EL UNIVERSAL GRAFICO) ¶ (May 28, 1932) ¶ (Translation) ¶ NICARAGUAN NATIONALISTS REPUDIATE DOCTOR JUAN B. SACASA ¶ They make the most serious charges against him in connection with his political action in Nicaragua ¶ A group of Nicaraguan citizens headed by Doctor Pedro A. Zepeda today made the following statements regarding matters in Nicaragua: ¶ Out of respect for our convictions and the sympathy which the Mexican nation has had for all of us fighting for the independence of Nicaragua, under the standard which General Augusto Cesar Sandino has raised in the Segovias, we wish to draw a definite line between certain elements which have rallied to the candidacy of the traitor, Juan Bautista Sacasa, and those of us who are vigorously opposing the alliance between the disinherited sons of our country with the Yankees who have intervened in our land. ¶ We consider Doctor Juan Bautista Sacasa as one of those principally responsible for the recent unfortunate occurrences in Nicaragua under foreign intervention, and his intention to climb to the presedency [presidency] of our Republic in elections supervised by marines who murder our brothers in the Segovias, from the secure heights of aeroplanes, we consider as a new demonstration of the lack of patriotism of the aforementioned Doctor Sacasa, one of the many vulgar, ambitious politicians unfortunately abounding in our country. ¶ We consider laughable the title of “Nationalist” which has been given the candidate in question by the traitors of our country, since, after heading the liberating movement of 1926, he approved the treason of José María Moncada, and had no scruples about accepting the position of Minister in Washington, when the Yankee Department of State had reported him as a “dangerous outlaw” when he was titular President of Nicaragua in Port of Cabezas. Doctor Juan Bautista Sacasa is a specimen of the most shameless Nicaraguan traitors. ¶ And once and for all we declare our adhesion to the Cause of General Augusto Cesar Sandino, and our unswerving determination to fight without ceasing or rest against the traitors and their allies, the intervening Yankees (los interventores yanquis). A profound patriotic sentiment and civic pride has maintained and maintains us in this unwavering attitude before the misfortune of our country, Nicaragua."

7.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 3:  Translation of "Henry Stimson Makes His Words Tragic," Excelsior, Mexico City, May 30, 1932, p. 1.     "(News item – EXCELSIOR – May 30, 1932.) ¶ (Translation) ¶ HENRY STIMSON MAKES HIS WORDS TRAGIC ¶ While the American Marines were firing upon the Nicaraguans, he offered an Octavian peace ¶ The elections will be a sanguinary farce ¶ The Representatives of Sandino again declares that he will not recognize the President elected under supervision ¶ With reference to telegraphic reports published by EXCELSIOR a few days ago, stating that the soldiers of General Augusto Cesar Sandino had been in combat with forces of the North-American Navy in Nicaragua, Doctor Pedro José Zepeda, general representative of this Nicaraguan revolutionist, yesterday made interesting observations regarding the attitude of the United States in the affairs of his country. ¶ While some telegrams reported the killing of 17 Sandinistas by American planes, in other telegrams of the same date Mr. Stimson declared categorically that the North-American soldiers had received orders not to fight the Nationalist forces again and to confine themselves to guarding the electoral polling places, adding that, after the elections in question, the United States forces would be withdrawn from Nicaraguan territory. ¶ “The statements of Mr. Stimson”, Doctor Zepeda told us, “do not agree with the acts of his soldiers in Nicaragua. For twenty years the United States has been exercising a shameful hegemony in the affairs (destinos) of my country and the insincerity of the recent statements of the Secretary of State is obvious, though they are in accord with the policy pursued (conducta que se ha venida observando) for many years past. ¶ “The Liberating Forces of Sandino were attacked by the North-American invaders, notwithstanding the fact that the former remained inactive, at least in the sector to which the telegrams of EXCELSIOR referred. This leads us to believe that either the orders of the Secretary of State are not obeyed, or that it has to do with understood values (valores entendidos), for what he says to the public of his country is one thing and what is ordered in Nicaragua is another.” ¶ The Elections to be another Farce. ¶ As regards the elections for which preparations are being made to name a new President of the Republic, Doctor Zepeda told us that only a small group of Nicaraguans is supporting the candidacy of Doctor Juan B. Sacasa. ¶ “Doctor Juan Bautista Sacasa, who formerly was a political leader (bandera)”, he said, “is now only a tramp (guiñapo) serving José Maria Moncada, whom he represented in Washington, . . . "

8.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 4:  Translation of "Henry Stimson Makes His Words Tragic," Excelsior, Mexico City, May 30, 1932, p. 2.     " . . . both of them betraying the principles of redemption for the country for which we fought in 1926. After the surrender of May 4, 1927, in which they shamefully trafficked with the rifles of the Constitutionalist Army, Moncada and Sacasa joined forces; and if these two ‘personages’ have now become estranged it is because the former has wished to be reelected while the latter is awaiting the reward for his unconditional servitude. ¶ “To us, the Nicaraguan Nationalists, neither of the candidates mentioned, for many reasons, possesses the qualities of dignity necessary for that position, because the fact of submitting to the holding of the presidential elections under the heel of Yankee armed intervention, under an electoral law dictated and imposed bythe [by the] invaders, is in itself a crime against the basic institutions of the Republic, for whose sovereignty and independence we have been fighting for five years without measuring the power of the enemy nor the sacrifice of of our army. ¶ “If the Department of State does not open its eyes and insists upon carrying out that electoral farce, which will result in the selection for the fourth time of the famous Adolfo Díaz, we shall have no recourse other than to continue with our rifles on our shoulders until real liberty is brought to the nation, in order that it may select without interference the men who shall guide its destiny.”"

9.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 5:   Translation of "The Problems of Nicaragua and the Activities of the Nicaraguans," El Universal Gráfico, afternoon edition, May 31, 1932, p. 1.     "(News item – Afternoon edition of EL UNIVERSAL GRAFICO – May 31, 1932.) ¶ (Translation) ¶ THE PROBLEMS OF NICARAGUA AND THE ACTIVITIES OF THE NICARAGUANS ¶ Those supporting the candidacy of Dr. Sacasa do so precisely because they consider him a patriot. ¶ Offering our columns, which is a principle of this daily, to all matters which are or may be of public interest, we published a few days ago the opinion of certain Nicaraguan elements opposed to Doctor Juan B. Sacasa, an aspirant to the presidency of that country crushed under foreign intervention. This note called forth the one which we give below from the group supporting the candidacy of that politician. With the publication of this letter we bring the incident to a close, since it is also a principle of this newspaper not to support polemics which degenerate into personal matters. ¶ Mexico, D.F., May 30, 1932. ¶ Director of EL UNIVERSAL GRAFICO, City. ¶ Dear Sir: The undersigned pro-Sacasa Committee was authorized in a meeting held yesterday to address you with respect to the article published in EL UNIVERSAL GRAFICO relative to our activities in support of the candidacy of Doctor Juan Bautista Sacasa for the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua. We respectfully request the publication of the following statements: ¶ I. We shall not start a discussion between those persons and ourselves, not because we fear the discussion but so as not to grant them the moral or intellectual prestige which such recognition would give them. Furthermore, we do not wish to aid them in their desire for publicity, nor make a display of our disagreement in a family matter, as are all things relating to the internal policies of Nicaragua. ¶ II. But as a satisfaction to the Mexican nation, which has demonstrated on many occasions its sympathy for Nicaragua in its hours of trial, we declare now and possibly this time only that our program rests upon a genuine aspiration for autonomy for our unfortunate country, without those farces which are as prejudicial as the labors of deliberate traitors; without vain boasts which are nothing more than a pretext for all manner of exploitations in the guise of genuine patriotism. ¶ III. We are supporting the candidacy of Doctor Sacasa because we consider him, from an intimate knowledge (of his character), to be one of the few men who will REALLY work for the rehabilitation of our country internationally, morally, and financially, which it is imperative to accomplish with dignity, after more than twenty years of disgrace. We have proof that we are placing our hopes . . . "

10.  June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 6:   Translation of "The Problems of Nicaragua and the Activities of the Nicaraguans," El Universal Gráfico, afternoon edition, May 31, 1932, p. 2.     " . . . upon a potential reality in spite of the difficulties which are apparent to the discerning, in these times when the obscure and insignificant would make use of the worn-out measure of publishing boastful statements to raise themselves to a position which they cannot support with facts. ¶ IV. Our object in supporting the candidacy of Dr. Sacasa is that the territory of Nicaragua may be liberated from foreign forces, against which forces most of the members of this Committee, and many of those who support it, have fought in all the fields of civic activity (actividad ciudadana): in the trenches and in the press, without asking recompense, without appearing abroad as worthy of consideration, without exploiting the martyrologists nor enjoying a monopoly on patriotism. ¶ V. We want the new Government of Doctor Sacasa in Nicaragua to be one which will build substantially within and extend its horizons abroad: by amending the laws as the times demand, abolishing the limitations on public education; opening new channels for industrial rights, in the first place, and lifting the spirit of the youth, in the second. We have learned much regarding the matter during our stay in Mexico. ¶ VI. We shall demand of Doctor Sacasa that he resume official relations with the Government of Mexico for many imperative reasons of affection and justice. And, in fulfillment of a profound desire now general among our compatriots, we shll [shall] ask that proofs of the most pure Central American unity shall inspire all his acts in case he is raised to power. ¶ These are the essential points of our work. We request the hospitality of the columns of the popular daily which you so worthily direct to make this explanation to the Mexican readers, not to our countrymen, who, while few, to be sure, take advantage of every circumstance to boast of a power and standing which they do not possess. ¶ We promise you not to take notice of those persons again in the columns of EL UNIVERSAL GRAFICO, for it would be equivalent to encouraging their activities, which pursue a course opposed to that of a genuine liberty-loving patriotism. ¶ Entreating your pardon for the annoyance caused you, we thank you and beg to remain, ¶ Respectfully yours, ¶ HERNAN ROBLETO, Secretary General. ¶ ROGERIO DE LA SELVA, Secretary of the Interior. ¶ JORGE SALINAS, Secretary Treasurer. ¶ ALBERTO SALINAS, Recording Secretary."

11 June 7, 1932.  Captain Robert E. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexican press reports on activities of Pedro José Zepeda & Nicaraguans & Sandino supporters in Mexico, p. 7:   Translation of "The Rebels of Nicaragua Now Form a Powerful Body (Legion Poderosa), La Prensa, Mexico City, June 1, 1932.      "(News item – LA PRENSA – June 1, 1932.) ¶ (Translation) ¶ THE REBELS OF NICARAGUA NOW FORM A POWERFUL BODY (LEGION PODEROSA) ¶ They do not operate, as formerly, in small bands. Now they engage in real battles. Several battles won. Augusto Cesar Sandino is now stronger than ever and his complete triumph over the invading hordes is imminent. ¶ VERACRUZ, May 29.- Señor Enrique Rivera Beltran, President of the Society “Hands Off of Nicaragua,” today received a letter written on the field of operations of the “Army Defending the National Sovereignty of Nicaragua” and signed by General Francisco Estrada, who represented General Cesar Augusto Sandino on a recent military expedition. ¶ General Estrada says that the Sandinistas continue advancing, that they control, to date, a great zone which extends to the interior of the country, and that at present not only are the Sandinista forces engaging in guerrilla warfare but regular field action in which several battalions and regiments participate. ¶ During the expedition, the column traversed the provinces of Jinoteca [Jinotega], Dhinandega [Chinandega], Leon, and a part of Managua, having strong encounters in which they were victorious, the principal ones having been those at Las Labranzas, El Jasmin and Ficaral, where the national and invading guards were completely dispersed on being defeated. General Estrada also states that they found public opinion in their facor [favor] wherever they went. ¶ Another letter signed by Colonel Socrates Sandino says that his brother, General Cesar Augusto, is enjoying perfect health and, in the words of that revolutionary, “he is strong, fat and glowing with health.”"

12.  June 3, 1932. Military Attaché, Tegucigalpa, "Political Activities of Nicaraguans Residing in Honduras."     "Enclosed is a copy and translation of a letter written by M. Balladares M., which was delivered to the American Legation at Tegucigalpa by Alberto Gamez (Nicaraguan resident in Honduras) on 1 June, 1932. ¶ This letter and two letters, translations of which were forwarded with Naval Attaché report #56-32, dated 28 May, 1932, were alledgedly [allegedly] written by Balladares while at the camp of Juan Gregorio Colindres in Nicaragua and are part of his propaganda and plan to join Sandino in a revolutionary movement against President Moncada. The signature on the above mentioned letter has been verified and is believed to be genuine. ¶ Gamez has been friendly with this legation and this fact which is probably known to Balladares would tend to substantiate the opinion of the Naval Attaché that all three letters were written for the express purpose of coming into the possession of this office. ¶ Gamez delivered also a copy of his reply to Balladares, (copy and translation enclosed). ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Sec. Brigade, Managua, ¶ Guardia”"

13.  May 20, 1932. "Extracts from personal letter of 1st. Lt. W. L. Bales, USMC, NNG., to Lt. Col. R. L. Denig, USMC, dated 20 May 1932."     "Extracts from personal letter of 1st. Lt. W. L. Bales, USMC., NNG., to Lt. Col. R. L. Denig, USMC., dated 20 May 1932: ¶ “****** We have also had some severe jolts in the past year. Last month – April – was a bad month for the Guardia. It was by far the worst since the Guardia was organized. We had 4 officers killed and lost 7 automatic weapons and quite a bunch of ammunition, together with a few other odds and ends. Of course it wasn’t altogether one sided. We punished the bandits quite heavily – Lt. Hamas did a splendid piece of work during the last week in April, and in my opinion broke up the most threatening bandit move that Sandino has ever planned. As you perhaps know, the threat of a genuine revolution down here is quite real, I for one fully expect it. There was a plan on foot to coordinate this revolutionary movement with Sandino. An outfit was to cross the Rio Negro into Chinandega and make a raid on the town of Chinandega at the same time Sandino’s Jefes were to swing down from the Segovias and hit Leon. Money and loot were the immediate objectives in this move and forestalling the elections the secondary objective. The raid was to be May 15th. I think that Hamas’ fight at Gambuco mountain prevented Sandino from carrying out his part of the program. He was broken up and disorganized and then the big thing was he expended so much ammunition in that 3-1/2 hour fight that his May 15th offensive had to be called off. They felt quite safe in that camp and free to organize their operations. Hamas surprised them. Of course you know the approximate location of Cerro Gambuco. ¶ Well we are not clear of the threat yet. As soon as Sandino can collect another supply of “parque” they intend to try again. We have very good information that some where in the vicinity of San Bernardo, not far from the lower Rio Negro, there is a dump of some 700 rifles and so the story goes – 230 cases of ammunition. I doubt the number of cases, but am beginning to believe the 700 rifles. However, we hope to forestall a combined movement now that we seem to be getting a fairly good line on their plans. But you can see that things are not easy here. There are those who do not want an election this Fall and it is fairly clear to me that if there is an election it will be a most eventful one – the most eventful in the History of Nicaragua. ******” ¶ 5/25/32 rbh"

14.  May 25, 1932.  U.S. Navy Press Room, press release on National Guard & civico patrol military contact with large group of bandits under Pedro Altamirano at Neptune Mine on May 23.     "NAVY PRESS ROOM ¶ IMMEDIATE RELEASE ¶ MAY 25, 1932. ¶ Lieutenant Colonel Calvin B. Matthews, USMC, commanding the Nicaraguan National Guard Detachment, reported to the Department that Lieutenant Earl T. Gray [not to be confused with Earl Grey tea], (Corporal, USMC) with a combined Guardia and civico patrol of twenty men had a contact on May 23rd one mile west of Neptune Mines, in the western section of Jinotega province, with a large group of bandits under Pedron Altimarino which had been threatening the Guardia post there. The fighting lasted thirty minutes and was very intense. Upon the return of the patrol to Neptune Mines, the barracks were attacked by another group of bandits from the north. This attacked was repulsed. Planes bombed and redispersed the bandits, breaking up further attack. ¶ Seventeen bandits were killed in these encounters, but no serious casualties were sustained by the Guardia. ¶ Lieut. Gray’s home is in Indianapolis, Indiana."

15.  May 28, 1932. Military Attaché, Tegucigalpa, "Political Activities of Nicaraguans Living in Honduras"     "The enclosures hereto are translations of alledged [alleged] copies of letters supposed to have been written by M. Balladares M. Neither of the original letters were seen by the Naval Attaché but the two copies were obtained from separate sources. ¶ It is entirely possible that the original letters were sent to the addresses in each case, but a more plausible solutions is that they were written for the express purpose of falling into the hands of a member of this legation with an idea of interesting the United States in what the writer attempts to picture as a serious movement. (See Naval Attaché report No. 53-32, dated 20 May, 1932). ¶ The present whereabouts of Balladares is unknown and it is possible that he is in the interior of Nicaragua, however this office believes that he is not far from Danlí observing developments. ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Sec. Brig. USMC Managua, ¶ and Guardia ”."

16.  May 21, 1932. Translation of Manuel Ballardes M., Military Camp Luz y Sombra, to General Francisco Cano, Chinandega.     "TRANSLATION ¶ Military Camp, Luz y Sombra (Lights and Shadows), May 21, 1932. ¶ General Francisco Cano, ¶ Chinandega ¶ My dear brother: ¶ I am now in the camp of General Colindres, who has received me, both he and his valiant soldiers, with great enthusiasm. Tomorrow I will leave for the camps of General Sandino which are eight days distant, all on foot as these roads are very bad, I want you and all my friends to know of my sacrifices to succeed in my object, and I am enthused with the belief that within twenty days we will shake hands with you, with more than two thousand men, well equipped; we have 75 machine guns with plenty of ammunition, in addition to an ammunition train of 50 mule loads. You will receive letters from different points announcing to you our approach eight days before our arrival with the columns; so that the columns from El Viejo and Chinandega joined can take Chinandega, driving the enemy out as soon as the forces have evacuated the plaza, then come toward Argelia to join the columns of Dr. Lara, Castro Wassmer, and Valladares Torrez. Tell Guillermo Esquivel, as he has a hacienda guard, to clear at once for Quezalguaque to take the arms of the guard at the distillery, then return and join you. This is when you receive orders from me; order Colonel Nayo Telles and the others who are on the frontier to concentrate in El Viejo and hide out in the fincas awaiting my orders. Generals Ulloa (two brothers) already have these orders; I also recommend that Generals Juan Herrera Valle and Altamirano clear Chinandega for the vicinity of the farm “La Cruzada”, so that Andres Real can feed them there. In this same mail you will receive Ten thousand proclamations to be distributed throughout the country. Tell my daughter Angelica, one day before attacking Chinandega, to tell Humberto to leave with as many Guardias as will go, so they won’t catch him with his mouth open when I arrive, as they might execute him, but not to let the young people know until the last minute so they can evacuate Chinandega. I trust in God, but it can not be long now until our secrets will be known. The conservative party in Honduras have prepared a coup, in accord with Emiliano (Chamorro) for the 24 of June next. We have drawn all the threads, but we are so strong, and we are counting on you, that we will not have to turn back, as we will have them subdued in a very short time. According to word we have received, Moncada is preparing to clear out, leaving us fighting, and the Yankee plan to go before the elections. Tell all our friends that I will be named, with the good will of General Sandino, his staff and army, the Provisional President, our intentions are to unite the Liberal Party, in the war or in the Assembly. Tell Manuelito (Manuel Balladares Jr.,) to turn his power of attorney over to Dr. Ramon Silva to defend his interests and if within twenty days he has not received word, to come to Danlí via Tegucigalpa, and go to Alfonso Irias who lives in Danlí; there is where we send our letters from the camps where I now am, that he may come with José Montealegre, but to come knowing what they are doing, as from the frontier to these camps where I am they have to come several days on foot and to bring their rain coats, and buy wool shirts and campaign hats in Tegucigalpa because it is cold in these mountains. This letter is for you but if they don’t find you it is for the Colonels L. Moncada, Leonardo Telles or Ricardo Ulloa so that my Leaders and friends put this movement into action. ¶ Fatherland and liberty. ¶ (s) M. Balladares M. ¶ P.S.- Remember to take the rifles, that are in the attic, the 30-30’s and the Thompson."

17.  ca. May 21, 1932.  Translation of Manuel Ballardes M., Military Encampment of General Juan Gregorio Colindres, to General Augusto C. Sandino, His Encampment, p. 1.     "TRANSLATION ¶ Military Encampment of General Juan Gregorio Colindres. ¶ General Augusto C. Sandino, His Encampment. ¶ My distinguished Chief and friend: ¶ This, your soldier, has come in search of his idol and of the fondling of the Americas. The hour has arrived when the eople [people] of Nicaragua rectify and believe you to be the saviour of the country, of the National dignity, and at the same time of the interests of the Liberal Party which is menaced on all sides; first by the treason of mercenary Moncada, who has an agreement with the opposite party, who are actually prepared to fight us. We have drawn all the threads, and I will explain everything that occurs, from our point of view. ¶ I am endosing [endorsing? endowing?] these letters so that you know all our movements. ¶ The whole of the occident and the remaining departments of the orient are ready and awaiting only your command for the uprising, as I have sent ten thousand proclamations for distribution in which I have changed the ideas, and are not the same as the ones Tijerino sent you. This proclamation is signed by Dr. Lara and by your brother and servant (Balladares). Dr. Lara is in hiding by now, and all the lions of the van guard who shook hands with you in Las Mercedes, have joined us. In El Viejo are Generals Ulloa (two brothers) who now lead the forces formerly commanded by General Cabulla. They have more than two hundred rifles and several machine guns. Among our numbers in Chinandega are the following: Colonel Francisco Cano, the first leader of that Department, a first cousin of mine; General Altamirano; Colonel Lino Moncada; General Higinio Peralta, Colonel Juan Herrera Valle; Guillermo Moncada; Guillermo Esquivel. All this nucleus of men with more than four thousand soldiers. In León we have Dr. Lara with his prestige; General Castro Wassmer and the family Balladares Torres, first cousins of mine. These men represent the sentiments of the brave people of León, and all the rest of the Departments of the Oriente. I have sent communications to my unconditional friends, men of action and talent, and of social and financial position. ¶ This movement is enormous, we have formidible [formidable] entails, within and outside of the country, and very soon I hope to have the pleasure of presenting more than fifteen thousand soldiers in the camps of the occident to our idol, to the saviour of the country and of the party. ¶ Our brother and beloved friend, Don Alfonso Irías, has returned from here with letters of mine. ¶ I have also written to my friend, General Ubico, who thinks only in the Union of Central America, who told me to count on his help when the mercenary Moncada plays his card of treason; he also minifested [manifested] his interest in the triumph of the Liberal Party of Honduras and Nicaragua, telling me that without the good will of the Liberal Party of Nicaragua he could not effect this great work; and being such a good friend of mine, because I have even cattle business with him, we should take advantage of the pretentions of this gentleman so that he can help us, notwithstanding his friendship with the Yankees; as in my letter I let him know that the Provisional Government would be inaugurated by his friend and servant (Balladares), that our flag, to let the world know it, is the flag of the country so that in its folds we may enroll the conscience of the people, reminding you that your red and black flag of the liberation of Nicaragua will still float over the army of the liberator, General Sandino. For all that we succeed in doing, it will still be held in high place where it now floats; we will undo nothing, never, without the consent and good will of our idol. We are yours, and all I have is yours also. ¶ (Continued---- . . . "

18.  ca. May 21, 1932.  Translation of Manuel Ballardes M., Military Encampment of General Juan Gregorio Colindres, to General Augusto C. Sandino, His Encampment, p. 2.     " . . . Translation ¶ I want to consecrate my last days and last energies by helping you in your great work. ¶ I had not come before because it was necessary for the traitor Moncada to give us a motive (flag), and justify us in that way in the eyes of the world, in this step of such transcendency. ¶ There are enormous problems envolved [involved] in our great work, we do not come with the ambition of a presidency. We are in back of something a little greater. In the first place: the country. Let us fortify our brains, sharpen our wits, and grease our machine guns, to the encounter with diplomacy or war, that we may win an honorable peace or a certain victory in the fields of battle. ¶ Thus, it all depends on you my dear General, if you order me to march to your encampment, or if I should await you here in the encampment of our brother General Colindres, so that from here you may send our last word to the people of the occident, ordering the reconcentration of our columns, and prepare everything with your talent and strategy, for the march where we are sure of shaking hands with our valiant an beloved leaders and soldiers of the occident. ¶ In my heart I have strong faith and illusion of our final triumph. ¶ I should tell you that your triumph is won, you have now made them feel in North America, those who deal in the human flesh of our brothers, the import of your mission. About five days ago Colonel W. G. Sheard, Chief of the Guardia National de Nicaragua, came to Tegucigalpa in a tri-motor plane to hold a conference with me, that is what he said, and to whom I saw fit to give my statements in writing. Through his manner and speech I was given to understand that all the blaim [blame] for the disgrace of Nicaragua, and their shame, falls on the degenerate Moncada; and after my conference and his return to Nicaragua, we received word by wire from Danlí that the President had asked the consent of Congress to retire. That is too bad because we would like to catch him alive and submit him to a liquidation and take from him all that he has stollen [stolen] and repay the losses of the poor people of the Segovia, who have been slaughtered and destroyed in the market of the traitor Moncada. ¶ With great emotion do I await the chance to embrace our beloved Chief, his worthy and valiant companions, to whom I beg you to extend my regards. ¶ How I long to see in our caravan, the dear friend of ours, Augustín Sanchez Salinas, your Secretary, as the father of this valiant young man was the Secretary of, and loved by, the man of his ideals and sentiments: the great Maximo Jerez. ¶ With my respects to your distinguished Señora (wife), whom I no doubt will meet here, I am, your affectionate and respectful friend and subordinate. ¶ M. Balladares M."

19.  ca. May 23, 1932. Translation of Manuel Ballardes, Encampment "Light and Shadows," to Mr. Alberto Gámez.     "TRANSLATION ¶ Encampment “Lights and Shadows”, 23 May, 1932. ¶ Mr. Alberto Gámez. ¶ My esteemed friend: ¶ I have the pleasure of participating to you that yesterday I entered the first camps of General Juan Gregorio Colindres, and both he and his valiant soldier have received me with great enthusiasm. General Colindres is a perfect gentleman, pleasant conversationalist, educated and cultured, and well liked by the tigers of his van guard. I am writing you hurriedly, as, upon despatching these letters, I will prepare to match to the mountains along the Coco river and expect to be at the side of our idol, General Sandino, the fondling of the Americas, very shortly. ¶ Undoubtedly very few of the high politicians, as they are called, in Central America, have found out the magnitude of this great movement, which will shortly be converted into the arbitrary of our grand deeds. ¶ I am filled with enthusiasm and courage when confronted with this wonderful organization, and I am disposed to colabrorate [collaborate] with it, that it might be solid and well founded; we will fortify our brains, sharppen [sharpen] our wits, and oil our machine guns in search of our triumph in diplomacy or in war. ¶ Upon my arrival at the General Encampment where my friends are now awaiting me the Provisional Government will be inaugurated, and we will announce it to the spanish [Spanish] speaking world, and hoist our flag of blue and white in which we enfold the the conscience and dignity of our people. ¶ We will very soon give you the news which crosses our path daily. This is how all men who love their country should feel; we seek not a degraded presidency, nor selfish private interests which unfortunately have disgraced our people. ¶ With cordial personal regards from your affectionate friend, ¶ Fatherland and Liberty, ¶ (s) M. Balladares M., ¶ P.S. You can publish anything I send you that does not touch the “Machos” (Marines), publish everything. Move the press. ¶ TRANSLATION ¶ TEGUCIGALPA, HONDURAS, 28 May, 1932. ¶ Mr. Manuel Balladares, ¶ Encampment “Lights and Shadows”, ¶ Republic of Nicaragua. ¶ Most Esteemed Manuel: ¶ I am acknowledging the receipt of your letter of the 23rd of this month from this camp. As you will understand, the contents of this letter have done nothing but profoundly surprise me. ¶ For obvious reasons not requiring explanation, I beg of you not to mix me in these matters which you have taken in hand, and which as you well know I have not seen fit to interfere with. This does not keep me, however, from appreciating personally the confidence you demonstrate in me by trusting the information contained in the letter referred to in my knowledge. ¶ Having expressed the foregoing, I close by wishing you all the protection of God. ¶ With kindest personal regards, your affectionate friend,"

20.  May 23, 1932.  Military Attaché, Tegucigalpa, "Alleged Violation of the Honduran-Nicaraguan Border," p.1.     "The Honduran Minister of Foreign Affairs, on 18 May, informed the American Minister in Tegucigalpa of the following incidents of violation of Honduran Territory: ¶ Reported by Commandant of Cifuentes, Honduras, on 30 April,-- That a patrol of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, forty in number, under the American Marine, Lieut. Jacob Keller, who gave the excuse that they did not know they had crossed the border. ¶ Reported by the Governor of the Department of Colón, Honduras, on 9 May,-- That the residents of Mocarrón complain that a body of Nicaraguan Guardias have crossed the border into Honduran territory causing all kinds of damages, such as destroying property, stealing all movable goods, and burning the settlements of Saulala, Leymis, San Gerónimo, Pranza, Sujil, Suaven, Paloyumpa, Ulgras and Voyraopanes. One of the victims of the misdeeds committed by the Guardia Nacional in numbers varying from 23 to 25, regularly commanded by two Yankee officers, is the individual Rafael Blanco, who was born and reared in Leymis, from whom they stole 40 head of cattle, destroying his crops, and forcing him to move to Mocarrón, the rest of the residents of those places have run the same luck. ¶ Reported by the Judge of Danlí, Honduras, on 17 May, 1932,-- That a report was received from Escuapa that Nicaraguan Guardia patrol crossed the border and entered the settlement of Nance of that jurisdiction where they captured Juan Pablo Bellorin, a Nicaraguan who resides and is registered in Danlí, whom they later executed. Fernando Quinteros was a witness to this act. ¶ The Honduran Government did not seem much concerned over the Cifuentes incident realizing the difficulty in locating the border in that vicinity. However, the Foreign Minister stated it would probably be necessary to despatch soldiers to protect its nationals on the border due to the Macarrón and Nance incidents. It is believed very doubtful if the Honduran Government despatches soldiers to the Macarron area as it is located in the partially explored, sparsely inhabited mosquitia area. However, nothing could be more favorable than the placing of troops in the Cifuentes--Nance area. Although the reliability of the Honduran soldiers is almost nil, it is possible that the presence of troops in the vicinity might discourage the reported free movement of Nicaraguan bandits in this area. ¶ The Macarrón incident was possibly the outcome of the mutiny at Kisalaya which is in the immediate vicinity of the towns mentioned in the report and the pillaging was no doubt performed by the guardias who deserted from Kisalaya and not the action of regular guardia properly commanded. Nance is the name of a farm south of Escuapa, near the Nicaragua--Honduras border, where this is a . . . ¶ (See page two--- . . . "

21.  May 23, 1932.  Military Attaché, Tegucigalpa, "Alleged Violation of the Honduran-Nicaraguan Border," p. 2.     " . . . small settlement, and no further information of the incident, other than that contained in the telegram to the President, is available. ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Sec. Brigade, Managua."

22.  April 29, 1932.  Major A. R. Harris, Military Attaché, San José, Costa Rica.  "Activity of Sandinista Forces."     "NICARAGUA ¶ POPULATION & SOCIAL ¶ No. 2700 – Public Order & Safety. ¶ Activity of Sandinista Forces. ¶ A telegraphic report from Managua dated April 28th states that due to the activity of the Sandinistas, martial law has been declared in Estelí and in all the Departments of the North and also on the Atlantic Coast. This disposition does not affect the regions between Corinto, Managua and Granada, nor the departments of Rivas and Chontales. ¶ Sandino has stated that on May 15th he is opening up a grand offensive against the Yankees and the Guardia Nacional. For the last six months all of his forces have refused to stand and fight, even when greatly outnumbering the Guardia. His forces have conducted a guerilla warfare consisting of surprises and raids. Immediately upon encountering resistance they have run away in all directions and reconcentrated again at some pre-designated point. This “manifesto” of Sandino may indicate a change of policy in his methods. ¶ Report No. 1588, ¶ San José, April 29, 1932. ¶ Source: Cable from Managua to “La Tribuna”. ¶ Personal knowledge. ¶ A. R. Harris, ¶ Major, G.S., M.A.-"

23.  February 26, 1932.  Captain Robert R. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexico City.  Translation of "Heavy Offensive Attack of Sandino's Army Against the Invader," La Prensa, 26 Feb. 1932, p. 1.     x"G-2 Report ¶ 3850: ¶ MEXICO ¶ POLITICAL ¶ SUBJECT: Foreign Relations: ¶ Mexican Press on Nicaragua. ¶ 1. Forwarded herewith is translation of an article which appeared in the “Prensa” of February 26, 1932, entitled “Heavy Offensive Attack of Sandino’s Army Against the Invader”. ¶ Robert E. Cummings, ¶ Captain, Infantry, DOL ¶ Acting Military Attaché ¶ Source: As stated. ¶ C/p ¶ From: M.A. Mexico. ¶ Report No. 3803. ¶ Date: Feb. 26, 1932. . . . "

24.  February 26, 1932.  Captain Robert R. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexico City.  Translation of "Heavy Offensive Attack of Sandino's Army Against the Invader," La Prensa, 26 Feb. 1932, p. 2.     " . . . (Translation) ¶ Article published in “La Prensa” of February 26, 1932. ¶ HEAVY OFFENSIVE ATTACK OF SANDINO’S ARMY AGAINST THE INVADER ¶ Soon all Nicaragua will be Controlled, the Enemy Wiped out by Gunfire, at the Cost of Blood and Lives ¶ Dr. Pedro Zepeda, general representative of the “Ejercito Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua”, delivered last night to LA PRENSA the following bulletin received from the field of Sandino’s operations: ¶ “Our Army has, since last October, been developing an offensive worthy of the national honor of Nicaragua, which we propose to carry through during the present year, to prevent, by force of right, the whole Machiavelian [Machiavellian] farce of elections which will be attempted under foreign supervision in our country. ¶ “With this in view, a number of columns have left our general headquarters, which will filter through all the Departments of our Republic, including that of Managua. Likewise, a total of 1,600 men – our finest boys – with 36 machine-guns and 6 hundredweight of dynamite, all under the command of “brother” General Francisco Estrada; and with him will also fight Generals Carlos Salgado P., and Juan Pablo Umanzor, and Colonels Padilla [unreadable] Altamirano. ¶ “Our forces will carry instructions to add men and arms, and to hold the enemy at bay, while the undersigned takes possession of one of the principal departmental centres (“cabeceras”) of Nicaragua, which will be a decisive signal to proceed with an enveloping movement throughout the country. ¶ “Our army is ready in the following order: ¶ “‘Brother’ General Pedro Altamirano, with 700 men and 9 machine-guns, active in the Departments of Matagalpa and Jinotega. ¶ “‘Brothers’ Generals Pedro Antonio Irías, Simón González, and Colonels Abraham Rivera and Perfecto Chavarría, with 1,000 men and 10 machine-guns, face the enemy on our Atlantic seaboard. ¶ “‘Brothers’ General Ismael Peralta and Colonel Díaz Hernández Mayréna, with 300 men and 4 machine-guns, threaten the enemy in Chontales. ¶ “‘Brothers’ General Juan Santos Morales and Colonel Ruperto Hernández Roblero, cover the Departments of León and Chinandega. ¶ “‘Brothers’ Generals Juan Gregorio Colindres and José León Díaz, will remain in the service of these headquarters. ¶ “On the Costa Riva and Rivas frontiers, we have as immediate chiefs of those forces, heroic young intellectuals, well known in the political circles of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. ¶ “Our army is increasing daily, and each one of our expeditionary leaders is authorized to appoint new military chiefs to operate in their own localities against the invaders and against the dogs who are traitors to our Country.- . . . "

25.  February 26, 1932.  Captain Robert R. Cummings, Acting Military Attaché, Mexico City.  Translation of "Heavy Offensive Attack of Sandino's Army Against the Invader," La Prensa, 26 Feb. 1932, p. 3.     " . . . “Our army has no means of issuing reports, so we leave that to the deceitful enemy, whose reports always tell how they are caps. Nevertheless, our army is about to take military control of the whole Republic, and yet the enemy still keep on deceiving themselves and the people. Part of the responsibility for this is due to the paid press of Nicaragua which has brought on the greatest confusion among the Nicaraguans who will now be surprised to see our army victorious throughout all the Republic. ¶ “Our military operations will make themselves felt, as did the taking of Chichigalpa and other towns, and the public observer will see the fallacy of the enemy reports. ¶ “Nicaragua can only be freed by bullets and at the cost of our own blood; therefore our army is determined to annihilate the electionary forces and the “hangmen” of Nicaragua. ¶ “General Headquarters of the ‘Ejercito Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua’. ¶ “Las Segovias, Nicaragua, C.A., January 16, 1932. ¶ “Patria y Libertad” ¶ (signed) “CESAR AUGUSTO SANDINO”"

26.  February 22, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Sandino, Nicaraguan Bandit, Anxious to Come to an Agreement," p. 1.     "On varied occasions, by different individuals who the Naval Attaché is convinced have a connection either direct or indirect with Sandino, it has been suggested and assured that Sandino is quite anxious to come to an agreement and withdraw from his activities in the mountains of Nicaragua. Each of these individuals on separate occasions have assured the Naval Attaché that the only solution of this problem would be to convene a Central American conference with a representative of each of the five republics, attended by Sandino, and by a delegate of the Government of the United States, who would be nothing more than an observer. Sandino, it is alledged [alleged], would be willing to comply with the decision of such a conference, and is even desirous of obtaining such terms, thus giving him recognition, at least by the Central American Governments, as a political figure and an ulterior motive for desisting from further activities without prejudicing his prestige with his present following and sympathizers. It is understood that he would require a safe conduct to attend the conference which would be invalid on his departure from the conference. One of the above mentioned individuals stated that it would be necessary for President Moncada to write a letter to Sandino proposing this conference. Another admitted that he communicates with Sandino and stated his willingness to write a letter to Sandino proposing said conference provided the American Legation approved. The Naval Attaché discussed the matter with the American Minister who decided against making any such proposal as it was in the nature of a recognition of Sandino as other than a bandit and outlaw. ¶ Reliable reports were received that Sandino came to the farm “Entre Rios” in the section of Honduras on the border of Nicaragua known as Cifuentes, where he stayed from the 9th to the 11th of this month, then returned to Nicaragua via El Limon. An investigation of these reports indicates that he came to Honduras as he was hard pressed by patrols of the Nicaraguan Guardia, and was half decided to leave Nicaragua, at least temporarily, for a sojourn into Mexico. The investigation further indicated that his return to Nicaragua was effected for two main reasons: first, that in view of the disturbances in Salvador, he considered it highly unsafe to attempt his passage through that country; and second, that while he was in Honduras he was joined by Arturo Vega, Augustin Sanchez Salinas, and a number of other strong Sandinistas who convinced him that he should return and resume his activities. ¶ On 23 February, Ramón Guillen, Nicaraguan, residing in Danlí, Honduras, presented himself in this office. The object of Guillen’s visit presumably was to inform the Naval Attaché of his willingness to aid in settling conditions in Nicaragua, however it is believed that he might be an envoy from Sandino to feel out the attitude of the U.S. Government. ¶ (See Page Two--------- . . . "

27.  February 22, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Sandino, Nicaraguan Bandit, Anxious to Come to an Agreement," p. 2.     " . . . Guillen was asked what he considered the best solution to pacify Nicaragua and his reply consisted of the following rather radical suggestions: ¶ 1st. The immediate withdrawal of all American forces. ¶ 2nd. Elections not to be supervised by Americans but held under purely Nicaraguan control. ¶ 3rd. President Moncada to resign turning the control of the Government over to the Council of Ministers. ¶ 4th. Sandino to be permitted to remain in Nicaraguan without molestation only to be required to promise to cease operations. ¶ Mr. Guillen was informed that his proposals were quite impossible to carry out. However, if he could obtain from Sandino a reasonable proposal he might aid in coming to a solution. He was enlightened too, regarding the position of the U.S. Government relative to the President of Nicaragua, and informed that it was without power to ever request a constitutionally elected President to resign and would never consider such a measure. ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Hqtrs USMC Opr&Tr. ¶ COMSPERON ¶ Sec. Brig. Managua"

28.  February 17, 1932. Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa. "Activities of the Nicaraguan Bandits."     "On 4 February, 1932, information was obtained to the effect that Augustín Sanchez Salinas (Nicaraguan, resident of León), with a group of eight other Nicaraguans had been arrested in Paraíso, Honduras, as it was alledged [alleged] they attacked the Comandante of that town, at the same time firing at him with pistols and shouting “Viva, Sandino!”, and they were concentrated at Danlí, Honduras, for observation. On February 9th, information was received from several sources that Sanchez and most of the group left Danlí to join Sandino, who was at that time in Honduras in the vicinity of Malacate Mountain with the intention of returning immediately to Nicaragua via El Limon. This information re Sandino was radioed to the Second Brigade, U. S. Marines, in Managua. ¶ Before Augustín Sanchez Salinas was arrested, Dr. Alejandro Cerda G., showed the Naval Attaché a letter from Sanchez in which he (Sanchez) requested Cerda to arrange for his return to Sandino. Sanchez and this group of Nicaraguans concentrated at Danlí were not placed in jail, but were required to report daily to the police in Danlí, making it an easy manner for them to leave the vicinity as reported above. ¶ The fact that, the reports that Arturo Vega, Augustin Sanchez Salinas, the aforementioned group, and numerous other Nicaraguan Sandinistas are returning to Nicaragua, have been verified, and in view of the fact that Sandino is sending out extensive recruiting propaganda, leads the Naval Attaché to believe that Sandino really intends to carry out his announced offensive into the interior of Nicaragua. ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Hqtrs USMC Opr. & Tr. ¶ Comsperon ¶ Sec. Brig. Managua"

29.  Feb.-March 1932.  Press Clippings.  "U.S. Marine Hurt in Nicaraguan Guard Skirmish," Feb. 4, A.P.  "Marines Push Sandino Drive," Feb. 11, 1932.  "Sandino Attack in Nicaragaua Reported Near," Feb. 26.  "Sandino Warns of New Revolt," Pittsburgh Press, Feb. 27.  "Reports Town Taken By A Sandino Force," Feb. 27.  "12 Slain in Nicaragua in Three Skirmishes," New York Times, March 16, 1932.      "U.S. Marine Hurt In Nicaraguan Guard Skirmish ¶ Sergeant Brannon Wounded, 2 of National Guard Killed in Clash With Sandinista ¶ By The Associated Press ¶ MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Feb. 3.—Two members of the National Guard were killed and a United States marine was wounded slightly in the course of skirmishes near Matagalpa City yesterday and on Monday, it became known today. The clashes occurred on the Tuma River and involved a National Guard patrol of forty-eight men under a Marine first sergeant, C. T. Brannon, of Atlanta, an acting lieutenant, and Second Lieutenant M. A. Cramer, of Marmarth, N. D. A group of Sandino’s followers was encountered and left four of their dead and two of their wounded at the scene of the encounter. ¶ National Guard headquarters reported that the patrol made contact with a group of 100 Sandinista, fighting for two and a half hours before the enemy retreated. There was another skirmish of thirty minutes in the afternoon, after which the Sandinistas were dispersed. Sergeant Brannon’s wound, in the face, was superficial. There was evidence that the Sandinistas had suffered other casualties at the scene. ¶ SANDINO WARNS OF NEW REVOLT ¶ Nicaraguan Tells of Recruiting Forces to War on U. S. Marines ¶ By The United Press ¶ MEXICO CITY, Feb. 26—Plans for an extensive drive against the government of Nicaragua and United States forces in that country to prevent the presidential elections in November were announced today by “Colonel” Agustino C. Sandino, Nicaraguan insurrectionist through his foreign agent Dr. Jose Zepeda. ¶ Sandino’s statement dated “Headquarters Las Segovias, Nicaragua, January 16” announced preparations had been proceeding since last October to prevent the “Machiavelian [Machiavellian] election farce which it is proposed to enact (in Nicaragua) under foreign supervision.” ¶ The statement adds that armed groups have been dispatched to the principal provinces, supplied with arms and dynamite, to recruit more men. ¶ 12 SLAIN IN NICARAGUA IN THREE SKIRMISHES ¶ National Guard Suffers No Casualties in Clashes With Insurgents Over Three Days. ¶ By Tropical Radio. ¶ MANAGUA, March 15.—Nicarague [Nicaragua] National Guard headquarters report that eight insurgents were killed in a sharp skirmish recently near San Benito. There were no guard casualties. ¶ The insurgent bandit camp was destroyed and considerable supplies and ammunition were captured. Donald Truesdale of the United States Marines and a Lieutenant in the National Guard, commanded the patrol. ¶ Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. ¶ WASHINGTON, March 15.—Increasing insurgent activities in Nicaragua were indicated in dispatches to the Navy Department today. Three contacts in three days, in which twelve insurgents were killed and many more wounded were reported from Marine headquarters at Managua. In all instances the battles were with detachments of the Nicaraguan National Guard operating under command of the United States Marines. ¶ The first engagement was last Friday, when a detail of the guard under Lieutenant Donald Leroy Truesdale fought a battle in the Province of Nueva Segovia with a band under commander of the Chieftain Toreyes. Eight insurgents were killed and an unknown number wounded. ¶ The following day a guard patrol had a running fight with insurgents near the Honduran border. The bandits were chased into Honduras. Casualties were not given in the dispatch to the department. ¶ On Sunday in the third contact in the Province of Leon four insurgents were killed and several wounded. There were no guard casualties in any engagement. ¶ On Feb. 4 Captain Arthur C. Small and a guard patrol from Yali, in the north of Jinotega Province, had contact at El Tule with a group of about twenty-five insurgents, whose leader was not identified. One rebel was killed and one wounded. ¶ MARINES PUSH SANDINO DRIVE ¶ COLON, Panama, Feb. 10 (U.S.).—Eighty are reported dead following an outbreak of fighting in Nicaragua between guerrilla troops headed by Augusto Sandino and government soldiers aided by United States Marines. ¶ Reports from Bluefields, Nicaragua, stated the national guard has started a drive to clear the country of bandits. ¶ Sandino personally is leading the anti-government drive while Marines at the head of native troops are covering the entire seaboard. ¶ Sandino Attack In Nicaragua Reported Near ¶ Spokesman Says Rebel Leader Has Army of 2,600Men [2,600 Men] Ready to Attack Managua ¶ By The Associated Press ¶ MEXICO CITY, Feb. 25.—Dr. Pedro Jose Zepeda, foreign representative of General Augustino Sandino, Nicaraguan rebel leader, made public here today a statement which he said came from Sandino, in which the latter announced that he had built up his army to 2,600 men, equipped with thirty-six machine guns, plenty of rifles and ammunition, and that he was now ready to start a drive on Managua, Nicaraguan capital. Most of the troops are in the northern provinces, the statement said. It also quoted Sandino as saying: ¶ “Nicaragua will be freed only with bullets and at the cost of our lives, and for that reason our army proposes to end the farcical elections and drive out the hangmen in control of the country.” ¶ REPORTS TOWN TAKEN BY A SANDINO FORCE ¶ Mexico City Aide of Nicaraguan Leader Says Chinandega Will Next Be Stormed. ¶ MEXICO CITY, Feb. 26 (AP).—Dr. Pedro José Zepeda, foreign representative of General Augustino Sandino, the Nicaraguan insurgent leader, said today a force of Sandinistas under General Francisco Estrada had taken possession of Bella Vista, fifteen miles from Chinandega, Nicaragua. ¶ He said they were prepared to storm the Chinandega garrison, which has been reinforced by troops in command of Captain T. R. Humblen, an American, and that other Sandinistas had captured Sauce and Villanueva. ¶ Dr. Zepeda also asserted President J. M. Moncada of Nicaragua had declared a state of siege in the States of Chinandega and Leon, and that complete censorship over telegraph and telephone in these provinces has been applied. ¶ The representative declared that at a time when the whole world was sympathizing with China for her defense against Japan it was time for the United States to “clean her record” on the American Continent by ceasing “imperialistic activities” in Nicaragua, where a withdrawal of United States Marines would be in keeping with the ideals expressed by the State Department in the Chinese situation."

30.  March-April 1932.  Press Clippings. "250 Bandits Routed by 18 Guardsmen," New York Times, March 10, 1932.  "Nicaraguan Rebels Kill Marine Leader," April 8, 1932.  "Sandino Warns of Carnage If Marines Stay," Boston Transcript, April 13, 1932.     "250 BANDITS ROUTED BY 18 GUARDSMEN ¶ Marine Officer in Command of Nicaraguan Patrol Had Mule Shot From Under Him. ¶ FOUGHT WAY OUT OF TRAP ¶ Bandits Lost 8 Killed and Many Were Wounded—One Guardsman Killed and Three Hurt. ¶ Special Correspondence, THE NEW YORK TIMES. ¶ MANAGUA, March 9.—An idea of the difficulties and dangers encountered by American officers serving with the Nicaraguan National Guard is given in a report submitted today by Second Lieutenant C. H. Clark of the United States Marines, attached to the Nicaraguan forces of an engagement between his men and bandits near El Sauce, in the northern part of the country. ¶ One guardsman was killed and three wounded, while the bandits lost eight killed and many more wounded[.] Two dynamite bombs, together with two rifles and ammunition, were captured. Lieutenant Clark left Villa Nueva with seventeen men Feb. 24, bound for Limay, via Achuapa. He picked up a native guide at Los Pinos. The party left Caracol at noon. ¶ “Fifteen hundred yards further on we were ambushed at a place called Posa Honda,” the report says. “The contact lasted two hours and the group was estimated at 250. It was thought to contain Colindres, Salgado and Umanzor. The bandits employed four automatic weapons and were very aggressive. The patrol was immediately surrounded, the bandits closing in until they were only about fifty yards from the creek banks, throwing bombs down on the patrol.[”] ¶ Officer’s Mule Killed. ¶ “When my point entered the creek I was eight men back from the first man and could not see what kind of a place we were entering. My men were some five or ten yards apart. When I came into the creek bed, the first man was nearly through the ambush which was laid in and from both sides of the creek, the high banks making it impossible for my men to see more than twenty feet on either side and the big rocks in front affording perfect hiding and protection for the bandits. ¶ “As I came out into the creek the bandits opened fire on me with a Lewis, killing my mule. Immediately the cargo mule behind broke loose from the mulero. Returning down the trail I called to the men in front to take the left bank, my idea being to try and hold the bandits off until I could get an idea of the position.” ¶ The bandits were closing in. Two of the National Guardsmen were wounded at the first fire. A bomb knocked Lieutenant Clark down but one of his men drenched his face with water and helped him back to cover. Thinking it impossible to hold the position, Lieutenant Clark signaled his men to follow him up the right bank of the creek in the face of what he thought was the main group of the enemy. There was hand-to-hand fighting until they got to the top of the hill where Lieutenant Clark left five men with his wounded and started down the ridge with the rest of his force to look for a missing man. The bandits were running in every direction. Two of them were killed as they sought to get the pack off the dead mule. Two more guardsmen were wounded as they returned to the hill crest. ¶ Dead Man Left Behind. ¶ After bandaging the wounded, Lieutenant Clark again started down the hill with six men. The bandits fled as they reached the creek. The body of a dead guardsman was found, his shoes, rifles and belt missing. Stretchers were made for the wounded and the party started for Achuapa. The guide had been killed so Lieutenant Clark followed the creek northward. The dead man proved too much of a burden and his body was hidden back of the trail and two trees were marked with a cross to indicate the position. The party had to travel slowly and reached Achuapa at 10:30 that night. ¶ “I recommend the entire patrol for citation, and especially note and recommend the conduct of Cabo Panfilo Mendez,” the report concludes. “After being dazed and nearly killed, he fought bravely, begging to accompany me down the hill. I also want to recommend the conduct Raso Iginio Romero, Raso Manuel Gomez and Raso Velasquez Apolonio. These men, while wounded, continued to fight without any thought of self or of asking for aid and took the entire trip without complaining. In fact, the conduct of the entire patrol was such that no words can repay them for the way they conducted themselves.” ¶ Sandino Warns of Carnage If Marines Stay ¶ Nicaraguan Insurgent Makes Blood and Thunder Plea to Parents ¶ Mexico City, April 12 (A.P.)—An appeal to the American parents of marines serving in Nicaragua to demand withdrawal of their sons before the “ghastly and useless carnage” of the approaching November elections, has been made by General Augustino Sandino, Nicaraguan insurgent leader, in an open letter to President Hoover and the American people. The letter was released here today by Dr. Pedro Jose Zepeda, General Sandino’s foreign representative, as final plans for the observance of Pan American day Thursday were completed. ¶ “Many of your sons will not be aboard the American battleships leaving Nicaragua in November when the United States withdraws its fighting forces,” Sandino wrote. “These sons of American parents will not be going home. They will lie in their coffins, or, worse still, their bodies will rot in Nicaraguan jungles. Patriotic Nicaraguans will recognize no Government imposed by American marines. The winners will not be recognized, the Government will be overthrown and chaos will result. ¶ “I will disband my troops if the marines withdraw now, but otherwise a post-election revolution is a certainty. Nicaraguans seek only the privilege of following out their own destiny. It is our country and we wish to keep it so.” ¶ NICARAGUAN REBELS KILL MARINE LEADER ¶ Sergt. Levonski, New York, Is Victim of Mutiny in Guard Outpost. ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua, April 7 (A.P.). Sergt. Charles J. Levonski, U. S. Marine Corps, of New York, a lieutenant in the guardia nacional of Nicaragua, was killed early yesterday in a mutiny led by discontented native sergeants at Kisalaya, a guardia outpost at which he was in command. ¶ His lieutenant, Carlos Reyes, a Nicaraguan, was wounded. ¶ The remoteness of the outpost is believed to have inspired the natives to start the mutiny. Kisalaya is located on the Wanks River. Twenty-five men were stationed there with the two officers. ¶ After the officers had been attacked ten loyal guards joined the nearest garrison, while fifteen fully armed men went up the river for Jinotega. ¶ Col. Lloyd L. Leech, of Virginia, commander of the Atlantic Coast, is bending every effort with airplane reconnaisance [reconnaissance] and patrol ground work to capture the mutineers. ¶ Levonski had been in Nicaragua for more than four years and had an excellent record for gallantry in the war with the Segovias. ¶ He was considered popular with the native soldiers and was rated as one of the most efficient officers in the republic. ¶ (Associated Press.) ¶ The death of Sergt. Levonski was reported to the Navy Department yesterday by Lieut. Col. Calvin B. Matthews, commanding the Nicaraguan national guard detachment. ¶ Col. Matthews reported that Levonski’s body had not yet been recovered. One sergeant and fourteen enlisted guardia of the command had deserted from he [the] post at Kisalaya. ¶ Levonski was born in Warsaw, Poland, November 2, 1903. He had continuous Marine service since he first enlisted April 21, 1923. He participated in approximately 25 engagements with insurgents since he went to Nicaragua in January, 1928. His father, Alexander Levonski, lives at Dolgeville, N. Y."

31.  April 1932.  Press Clippings.  "Sandino's Men Kill Sailor and 2 Marines," New York Herald Tribune, April 23, 1932.  "Well Known At Annapolis" and "Fight Follows Sandino's Warning To Hoover," Baltimore Sun, 24 April 1932.  "Nicaragua Causing U.S. Some Concern," Baltimore Sun, April 24, 1932.     "SANDINO’S MEN KILL SAILOR AND 2 MARINES ¶ Trio Were Serving As Officers Of Nicaraguan National Guard ¶ LIEUT. L. C. BRUNTON IS AMONG VICTIMS ¶ Married To Former Baltimore Girl On Annapolis Graduation Day ¶ [N.Y. Herald Tribune Copyright, 1932] ¶ Managua, Nicaragua, April 22 (By Wireless)—A second lieutenant and a corporal of the United States Marine Corps and a petty officer of the United States Navy were killed yesterday in a hot four-hour battle with Nicaraguan insurgents owing allegiance to Gen. Augustina Sandino. ¶ Eight soldiers of the Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional were killed and three wounded, and the Sandinistas’ losses were reported to have been heavy. ¶ List Of American Dead ¶ The dead: ¶ SECOND LIEUTENANT LAWRENCE C. BRUNTON, U. S. M. C. (Guardia first lieutenant); next of kin, wife, Mrs. Alice M. Brunton, San Diego, Cal. ¶ CORPORAL LAURIE T. COVINGTON, U. S. M. C. (Guardia first lieutenant); next of kin, mother, Mrs. Clara Covington, Spartanburg, S. C. ¶ FINIS H. WHITEHEAD, U. S. N., pharmacist’s mate, first class (Guardia second lieutenant); next of kin, mother, Mrs. Nancy C. Whitehead, Grosse Point, Mich. ¶ The bodies of the Americans were brought from the battlefield by airplane and interred this afternoon at Managua in the new general cemetery. The funeral cortege was accompanied by the marine officers and enlisted men stationed in the capital. ¶ Rebels Finally Repulsed ¶ The encounter, which ended several months of comparative quiet in the northern sector of the country, included three contacts between about 200 Sandinistas, whose leaders’ names are not known, and Guardia patrols numbering about fifty men, commanded by the Americans, at Point Las Puertas, near Apali, some thirty miles northeast of Ocotal. ¶ The fighting lasted from 11.30 A. M. to 3.30 P. M. The rebels finally were hurried back by a patrol under Guardia Capt. Chandler W. Johnson, U. S. M. C. first lieutenant, which drove them easterly toward San Fernando. ¶ Well Known At Annapolis ¶ [Annapolis Bureau of The Sun] ¶ Annapolis, April 22—Lieut. Lawrence C. Brunton, U. S. M. C., who was killed yesterday in a brush with insurgents in Nicaragua, was well known in Annapolis. ¶ He was graduated from the United States Naval Academy in June, 1930, and on graduation day married Miss Alice May Bender, an Annapolis girl, formerly of Baltimore, in St. Mary’s Church here. Mrs. Brunton is living with her stepparents at Mountain View, Cal., at present. ¶ Following his graduation, Lieutenant Brunton spent nine months in Philadelphia on duty and was then transferred to California. About a month ago he was sent to Nicaragua for a two-year tour of duty. ¶ Fight Follows Sandino’s Warning to Hoover ¶ Mexico City, April 22 (AP)—Dr. Pedro Jose Zepeda, foreign agent for Gen. Augustino Sandino, Nicaraguan rebel, said today that the battle in which three Americans lost their lives with a drive to commemorate the killing on May 5, 1931, of Gen. Miguel Angel Ortez, one of the principal Sandino lieutenants. ¶ Dr. Zepeda asserted he had this information from General Sandino himself. Ten days ago the Nicaraguan insurgent addressed an open letter to President Hoover in which he declared that unless the United States wanted to leave many Americans dead on Nicaraguan battlefields the marines should be withdrawn forthwith. ¶ Says Hoover Ignored Warning ¶ Word that this warning to the President had been ignored has come to him, Dr. Zepeda said, from General Sandino, who again called on the marines to withdraw because “it is useless for them to remain to sponsor elections, as candidates elected in marine-supervised elections would be overthrown without delay and chased from the country.” ¶ The foreign agent quoted General Sandino as saying that he would continue his drive around Ocotal, in the vicinity of his mountain headquarters, and that yesterday’s battle was a mere skirmish compared with what was to come. ¶ NICARAGUA CAUSING U. S. SOME CONCERN ¶ Killing Of More Marines Reveals Complicated Political Situation ¶ TROOPS TO LEAVE JAN. 1 ¶ State Department Determined To Withdraw Forces—Moncada Wants Them To Stay ¶ [Washington Bureau of The Sun] ¶ Washington, April 23—The killing of two American marines and one navy petty officer in Nicaragua on Thursday has increased the State Department’s determination to withdraw all American forces by January 1, 1933, but at the same time has revealed a complicated political situation which causes real concern in the State Department. ¶ Despite nearly four years of Marine Corps occupation, insurgent attacks in Nicaragua have not abated, but on the contrary the past twelve months has seen a growing number of them. During the past year, fifteen marines lost their lives in Nicaragua, according to Maj.-Gen. Ben H. Fuller, commandant of the Marine Corps. They are exclusive of the three men killed this week, and also exclusive of the large number of native Guardia killed by insurgents. A total of 116 skirmishes were listed by General Fuller for the past year. ¶ Wants U. S. Troops To Stay ¶ Although the State and Navy Departments have described the insurgents as “bandits” and “Communists,” President Moncada has said they were led by General Sandino and his henchman, General Colinores [Colindres]. Because of the numerous attacks President Moncada has been anxious to retain the marines in Nicaragua beyond January 1, despite the fact that their presence blocks his plan to succeed himself in office, in contradiction to the Nicaraguan constitution. ¶ In addition to the opposition to General Sandino, President Moncada is opposed by factions within his own Liberal party, one headed by Juan B. Sacasa, leader of the 1926 revolution which finally put Moncada in the Presidency, and also by a Dr. Arguello. Because of his activity for the Presidential nomination, President Moncada has forced Dr. Sacasa to resign as Nicaraguan Minister here. ¶ Moncada Sent Delegation ¶ In order to secure a revision of the constitution allowing him to remain in office, President Moncada sent a delegation to Washington headed by Carlos Morales. Senor Morales remained here more than a month and held vari- […] in charge of Latin-American […] endeavoring to persuade him to […] Moncada’s point of view. […] Senor Morales was assisted […] Louis Manuel Debayle, […] charge d’affaires and former […] in Baltimore. ¶ Mr. White, however, […] adamant and sent President […] a note bluntly refusing his […] following which Senor Morales […] to Nicaragua. ¶ The incident was not without […] numerous aftermaths, for shortly […] his return, Nicaraguan newspapers published interviews with […] Morales, in which he placed the […] for his failure to Washington […] shoulders of Dr. Debayle. The […] he said, had not created the […] atmosphere for his visit and had […] him look ridiculous in the eyes […] world. ¶ What had happened was a . . . "

32.  April 24, 1932.  "Nicaragua Causing U.S. Some Concern" and "Lewis Says Marines Save Investments of Bankers," Baltimore Sun.     "NICARAGUA CAUSING U. S. SOME CONCERN ¶ Killing Of More Marines Reveals Complicated Political Situation ¶ TROOPS TO LEAVE JAN. 1 ¶ State Department Determined To Withdraw Forces—Moncada Wants Them To Stay ¶ [Washington Bureau of The Sun] ¶ Washington, April 23—The killing of two American marines and one navy petty officer in Nicaragua on Thursday has increased the State Department’s determination to withdraw all American forces by January 1, 1933, but at the same time has revealed a complicated political situation which causes real concern in the State Department. ¶ Despite nearly four years of Marine Corps occupation, insurgent attacks in Nicaragua have not abated, but on the contrary the past twelve months has seen a growing number of them. During the past year, fifteen marines lost their lives in Nicaragua, according to Maj.-Gen. Ben H. Fuller, commandant of the Marine Corps. They are exclusive of the three men killed this week, and also exclusive of the large number of native Guardia killed by insurgents. A total of 116 skirmishes were listed by General Fuller for the past year. ¶ Wants U. S. Troops To Stay ¶ Although the State and Navy Departments have described the insurgents as “bandits” and “Communists,” President Moncada has said they were led by General Sandino and his henchman, General Colinores [Colindres]. Because of the numerous attacks President Moncada has been anxious to retain the marines in Nicaragua beyond January 1, despite the fact that their presence blocks his plan to succeed himself in office, in contradiction to the Nicaraguan constitution. ¶ In addition to the opposition to General Sandino, President Moncada is opposed by factions within his own Liberal party, one headed by Juan B. Sacasa, leader of the 1926 revolution which finally put Moncada in the Presidency, and also by a Dr. Arguello. Because of his activity for the Presidential nomination, President Moncada has forced Dr. Sacasa to resign as Nicaraguan Minister here. ¶ Moncada Sent Delegation ¶ In order to secure a revision of the constitution allowing him to remain in office, President Moncada sent a delegation to Washington headed by Carlos Morales. Senor Morales remained here more than a month and held vari- […] in charge of Latin-American affairs, endeavoring to persuade him to President Moncada’s point of view. In this, Senor Morales was assisted by Dr. Louis Manuel Debayle, Nicaraguan charge d’affaires and former Consul in Baltimore. ¶ Mr. White, however, remained adamant and sent President Moncada a note bluntly refusing his request, following which Senor Morales returned to Nicaragua. ¶ The incident was not without its numerous aftermaths, for shortly after his return, Nicaraguan newspapers published interviews with Senor Morales, in which he placed the blame for his failure in Washington on the shoulders of Dr. Debayle. The latter, he said, had not created the proper atmosphere for his visit and had made him look ridiculous in the eyes of the world. ¶ What had happened was a series of newspaper stories about the trials and tribulations of Senor Morales, who weighed well over 200 pounds, and who fell down on the ice in the heart of the capital’s shopping district, according to local newspapers. He was helped to his feet only by the assistance of four men. ¶ Washington newspapers also carried the story of how Senor Morales had arrived in the city in December wearing a white tropical suit and had bought so many green silk pajamas at a local department store that that establishment detailed one of its employes [employees] to accompany him wherever he went around the city to guide him in other purchases. ¶ 85 Cents For Two Bananas ¶ Another story featured in the local press was Senor Morales’ discovery that two bananas at a well-known capital hotel cost 85 cents and his protest that he could buy a whole bunch in Nicaragua for that price. ¶ The climax came, however, when Senor Morales discovered his photograph published in a Washington newspaper. He had taken great precautions that his photograph be not made public and he knew that only two people in the capital had it. One was Dr. Debayle, and the other was Dr. Leo S. Rowe, director of the Pan-American Union. ¶ All of this, Senor Morales claimed in his interview given to Nicaraguan papers, did not create the proper atmosphere for his negotiations and for the continuation in office of President Moncada. ¶ 2 Members of Guard Killed ¶ Managua, Nicaragua, April 23 (AP)—Insurgents killed two members of the Nicaraguan National Guard Thursday morning in an attack on the east coast garrison at Kisalaya, it was learned today. The defenders repulsed the attack. ¶ Lewis Says Marines Save Investments Of Bankers ¶ Washington, April 23 (AP)—The crack of rifles in Nicaraguan jungles reverberated in the Senate today with a charge by J. Hamilton Lewis, of Illinois, that American marines had been “murdered” there after being sent to protect the “investments of private bankers.” ¶ Demanding the withdrawal of the marines, the Illinois Democrat said that “all we get from our Government” about the affair is that those killed were repelling the assaults of “insurgents.” He added that the “insurgents” felt they were repelling an invasion of their country. ¶ “The lives of our young men have been used as pledges for the investments of private bankers,” Lewis asserted. “There is no justification for sending our soldiers there.” ¶ The marines were being kept in Nicaragua to support the present administration, Lewis charged, because it is under some “pledge to pay these debts to private American bankers.” ¶ As a result of the course pursued by the United States, Lewis said, this country has no friends in Central and South America."

33.  April 1932.  Press Clippings. "Marines in Clashes with Nicaraguans," New York Times, April 26, 1932.  "Insurgents Increase Activities in Nicaragua," A.P., April 29, 1932.  "Sandino Leader Killed in Battle - Florencio Silva, Chief Aide of Nicaraguan Insurgent Chief, Falls in Clash - Rebel Force is Routed," Baltimore Sun, April 30, 1932.     "MARINES IN CLASHES WITH NICARAGUANS ¶ Three Guard Patrols, Led by Americans, Kill Four and Wound Seven Outlaws. ¶ 100 RAIDERS HUNTED DOWN ¶ Troops Recapture Belongings of Two Slain Non-Commissioned Officers—Mutiny Leader Dead. ¶ Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES. ¶ MANAGUA, Nicaragua April 25.—A Nicaraguan National Guard patrol of forty soldiers under Gunnery Sergeant John Hamas, of Philadelphia, Sergeant John A. Burns of Burgaw, N. C., Corporal David H. Wallace of Caddo, La., and Louis Emilio Guetierrez of Ocotal pursuing band which had attacked and killed three United States Marine Corps non-commissioned officers near Apali serving with the guard battled with a group of 100 outlaws yesterday near the Guambuco mountains. ¶ The outlaws, led by Carlos Salgado and Fulgencio Hernandez, employed rifles, automatic weapons and bombs, were routed by the guards in a sharp skirmish. The outlaw casualties were two dead and seven wounded and the only guard casualty was Frolian Garcia, a Nicaraguan, who was severely wounded. ¶ Arms, ammunition, dynamite, bombs and supplies were captured. Among the articles taken from the outlaws were a blanket belonging to Corporal Covington and puttees of pharmacist’s Whitehead. ¶ The National Guard then made camp for the night. The outlaws concentrated and attacked the Guard camp twice last night but were driven off. ¶ Sergeant Hamas, in reporting the clash, praised the fine services Sergeant Burns and Gutierrez for their leadership and untiring energy throughout the engagement. ¶ Captain Edward L. Burwell, United States Marine Corps, at Ocotal reported that two National Guard patrols made two contacts with outlaws in that vicinity yesterday. ¶ National Guard headquarters reports that former Sergeant Sebastian Jimenez, leader of some deserters from Kisalaya Garrison on the East Coast when First Lieutenant Charles J. Levonski of the Marine Corps was killed, joined the outlaws, receiving the rank of Colonel. A few days ago, with thirty outlaws Jimenez attacked the Guard camp he had deserted. In a sharp encounter Jimenez and another mutineer were killed. ¶ Insurgents Increase Activities In Nicaragua ¶ Managua, April 28 (AP)—The Nicaraguan Congress today declared a state of war in the department of Esteli and in the areas about the most important towns of Northern Leon and Chinandega departments. A state of siege was declared also in the eastern coast departments and the northern area departments. ¶ The Congressional decree was a result of renewed activities by insurgents in recent weeks. The areas affected do not include the regions served by the railroads from Corinto to Managua and Granada, nor the departments of Rivas and Chontales. ¶ Several United States marines serving as officers of the Nicaraguan National Guard, and a number of enlisted guardsmen have been killed or injured recently in skirmishes with insurgent forces. ¶ SANDINO LEADER KILLED IN BATTLE ¶ Florencio Silva, Chief Aide Of Nicaraguan Insurgent Chief, Falls In Clash ¶ REBEL FORCE IS ROUTED ¶ Sustain Heavy Casualties From Hands Of Patrol Of National Guardsmen ¶ [Washington Bureau of The Sun] ¶ Washington, April 29—Gen. Augusto Sandino’s chief leader, Florencio Silva, was killed during one of the sharpest fights that has taken place this year between Nicaraguan insurgents and the Nicaraguan National Guard, commanded by American marines. ¶ The battle, as reported to the Navy Department today, took place last Monday near the Honduran border, and the insurgents, after being routed, fled into Honduras. ¶ 250 In Insurgent Force ¶ Although two Marine Corps officers and one navy man were killed in a skirmish last week, only one National Guardsman was slightly wounded in the latest battle. Under the leadership of Lieut. John Hamas and assisted by Lieut. John Alfred Burns and Roy E. Vogel, forty-five members of the guard surprised 250 insurgents and occupied their defense positions of rocks and logs, which had been thrown up around thirty-five shacks. The fight lasted three hours. ¶ The engagement, as reported to the Navy Department by Lieut.-Col. Calvin B. Matthews, commanding the Nicaraguan National Guard detachment, took place as follows: ¶ “Patrol discovered and attacked what it thought to be Sandino’s camp. Sandino thought to have been present during the fight, also ex-Sergeant Garcia and ex-Corporal Cornejo (Nicaraguan non-commissioned officers of the Guardia), who deserted from Quilali. The camp consisted of about thirty-five shacks of various sizes.[”] ¶ Flank Attack Frustrated ¶ “Bandits, estimated at 250, formed firing line 600 yards in length while Guardia occupied a well-prepared bandit defense position of rocks and logs about 200 yards from the bandits. Evidently the bandits had no time to occupy their defense point and retired across a ravine over which the firing took place. Bandits tried to attack from a flank but were driven off. They then scattered in all directions, retiring in a general westward direction across the border into Honduras. Trails to north and west were combed but no new contact could be gained. ¶ “Bandits employed at least eight automatic weapons, rifles, pistols, and hand grenades and bombs. The bandit casualties included Florencio Silva, chief of Sandino, killed, also many wounded. Guardia captured six rifles, several Thompson drums with ammunition, and destroyed camp. Bandits had everything packed up upon arrival of the Guardia, evidently intending to move camp; therefore, most of equipment and supplies was taken with them in their flight. Guardia casualties, one slightly wounded.”"

34.  February 3, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Propaganda Bulletins Sent Out By Sandino," p. 1.     "The following is a translation of propaganda bulletins sent out by Sandino, received in Tegucigalpa by the local representative of the associated press. These bulletins bore what is believed to be the genuine signature and seal of Sandino. ¶ “Our Offensive, Dignifying the National Honor.--- ¶ Our Army has started since the month of October of last year, the unrollment of our offensive dignifying the Nicaraguan National Honor which we propose to finish during the current year, to impede through the force of right the fraudulent machinations of the ellections [elections] which they intend to hold with foreign supervision in the country. Columns have gone out from our General Headquarters with this object who will interne themselves in all the Departments of our Republic, including that of Managua. Also in addition to these we have sent out a total of 1600 men with 36 machine guns and 500 lbs. of dynamite; all under the command of General Francisco Estrada, with whom will operate the Generals Carlos Salgado P., Juan Pablo Umanzor and Colonels Padilla and Altamirano. ¶ Our forces have the instructions to augment themselves with men and arms and keep a line on the enemy, until the undersigned is able to take one of the principle department capitals of Nicaragua, which act will be the signal designated for them to proceed with a general movement involving the entire country. ¶ Our Army is formed in the following order: General Pedro Altamirano with 700 men and 9 machine guns to operate in the departments of Matagalpa and Jinotega. Generals Pedro Antonio Irias, Simón Gonzalez and Colonels Abraham Rivera and Perfecto Chavarria, with 1000 men and 10 machine guns to harrass [harass] the enemy on the Atlantic coast. General Ismael Peralta and Colonel Daniel Hernandez Mayréna, with 300 men and 4 machine guns to hostilize the enemy in Chontales. General Juan Santos Morales and Colonel Ruperto Hernandez Roblero, to cover the departments of León and Chinandega. Generals Juan Gregorio Colindres and Jose Leon Diaz to remain on duty in these Headquarters. On the border between Costa Rica and Rivas, we have as immediate Jefes of our forces, heroic and intellectual young men who are well known in the political circles of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. ¶ Our Army is increased daily, and all of our expeditionary Leaders are authorized to appoint new Jefes who will operate in their own neighborhood against the invaders and dogs and traitors of the country. ¶ (See Page Two-------- . . . "

35.  February 3, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Propaganda Bulletins Sent Out By Sandino," p. 2.     " . . . Our Army has no information service, which we leave to the enemy to enact whose false informations always say that they are destroying us and that our bullets barely perforate their sombreros. Notwithstanding the fact, our Army is now ready to take over the military control of the Republic, but they continue to pretend to be fooling themselves and the public. Part of the responsibility belongs to the Nicaraguan press who have caused the greatest confusion in the country and will now be greatly surprised to see our Army triumphant in all the Republic. ¶ Our military operations they will be made to feel through fault of their own as in the case of the taking of Chichigalpa and other towns, as the public observer should learn to believe the opposite of all the information given out by the enemy. ¶ Nicaragua will only be freed by bullets and at the cost of our own blood; because our Army proposes to stop the farce elections and the shameless of Nicaragua. ¶ General Headquarters of the Defensive Army of the Sovereignty of the Nation of Nicaragua; The Segovias, Nicaragua, Central America, January 1, 1932. ¶ FATHERLAND AND LIBERTY. ¶ (s) A. C. Sandino. ¶ CESAR AUGUSTO SANDINO.” ¶ (Seal) ¶ “PEACE IN NICARAGUA.-- ¶ To the Indo-Spanish observers: ¶ The peace in Nicaragua, since the very start, exists and will continue to exist, in the conception that the Indo-Spanish governments have racial dignity. ¶ Our Army does not sustain bandalic ideas as propagated by the international politics of the United States of North America. Very much to the contrary, our Army is a representative of the Hispanic dignity and from the very start has accepted the unequal fight in which we find ourselves through shame of the people of our race; but the governments of our people, have not cared or have not perceived as yet that our sacrifices are through the shame of them and of our people. ¶ Our fight started in 1912 with the death of General Benjamin Zeledon, which is the same beginning of the inviction of Bolivar and is the ideal of Bolivar was vandalic, we accept with pleasure the qualification of BANDITS. ¶ It is considered indispensable to think of abolishing the treaties, pacts and conventions; celebrated behind our backs, between the United States and the governments established by them in Nicaragua. To the contrary we are persuaded to believe that we have the means of abolishing them through a general reclamation of our rights made by the twenty one publics of Spanish America. ¶ (See Page Three------- . . . "

36.  February 3, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Propaganda Bulletins Sent Out By Sandino," p. 3.     " . . . Our Army aspires to conceive the Hispanic nationalization of the inter-oceanic canal route, of the possible naval base in Central American Territory and waters. With this motive there exists a project which originated with our Army called “REALIZATION OF THE SUPREME DREAM OF BOLIVAR”. This redeeming project, which was elaborated on by the personal inspiration of the undersigned, was inspired at the foot of a mountain jungle in the forests of our Segovias, the 20th of March, 1929. In the same epoca an invitation was extended to the twenty one governments of our Racial America, so that in a conference in the capital city of the Republic of Argentina that our project might be recognized. But with the same dissimulation which always characterizes our governments they were deaf to the calling of our Army for the recognition of a common right which has always pertained to Hispano-America. We make the honorable exception of the President of Salvador, at that time Doctor Pio Romero Bosque, who replied with full dignity. ¶ Therefore, from that time our Army has had to pass different phases, including that for which I was at the point of being the victim of closed policies when I crossed the border of Nicaragua in June of 1929, to seek help with which to sustain the cause which pertains not only to Our Defensive Army of the National Sovereignth [Sovereignty] of Nicaragua, but also to all our Racial America. The unjustified indifference of the Indo-Spanish governments is of no import, in the face of the suffering of Nicaragua, which distinguishes them as unfit to represent their people who are dignified and conscientous [conscientious]. ¶ The Ex-President of Salvador, Doctor Pio Romero Bosque, the Ex-Minister of Salvador in Mexico, Doctor Juan Ramon Uriarte, and the benevolent patriarch Señor Joaquin Trincado in Buenos Aires, Republic of Argentina conserve copies of our mentioned project, from whom you may solicit a copy of the project referred to by us. ¶ Wishing a Happy New Year to all our people of Indo-Hispano, in 1932.- ¶ General Headquarters, Las Segovias, Nicaragua, C.A., January, 1, 1932. ¶ FATHERLAND AND LIBERTY. ¶ (s) A. C. Sandino, ¶ CESAR AUGUSTO SANDINO” ¶ (Seal) ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Hqtrs. USMC,/COMSPERON,/sec. Brig. Managua."

37.  January 30, 1932.  Naval Attaché, Tegucigalpa.  "Reliable Information Re Nicaraguan Bandits."     "The following information was received from a messenger of Sandino’s who came to Danlí: ¶ He accompanied Juan Gregorio Colindres on his incursion into the departments of Leon and Chinandega and left him at Sabana Grande near Jicaro. He stated that this group returned with two pack loads of Springfield rifles and ammunition, that about 50 men joined them but later deserted in the vicinity of San Juan de Limay and San Francisco de Cuajiniquilapa. That this group on their return passed through La Pavona near Yalí and from there to San Juan de Telpaneca. ¶ He stated that in the contact with the Guardia Sandino barely escaped capture and that Rafael Altamirano was in the advance guard which fought with the Guardia and two of his sons were killed but he escaped unhurt; during this contact Sandino was in the house of Altamirano about two hundred yards from the scene of the encounter. The Altamirano family have always been in the complete confidence of Sandino. The woman which the Guardia took prisoner to Jicaro knows exactly where Sandino is, as the messenger said Sandino has a zone in the mountains which he never leaves and this woman knows the place well. He stated that this group crossed over onto the Guiguili trail but are near the point where they were surprised. ¶ He stated that Carlos Salgado has left on a mission to Leon and Chinandega where there will be a general uprising but he did not say who was at the head of it, and Salgado is going to join this revolutionary movement. ¶ COPY FURNISHED: Hqtrs USMC, Comsperon, 2nd Brig. Managua."

38.  January 7, 1932.  Major A. R. Harris, San José.  "Government Supervision of Nicaraguan Criminals," report on press report in La Tribuna, San José.     "COSTA RICA ¶ POPULATION AND SOCIAL ¶ No. 2700 – Public Order and Safety. ¶ Government Supervision of Nicaraguan Criminals. ¶ The following report in the La Tribuna of San José, Costa Rica of January 6, 1932, would seem to indicate that the Government is checking up on Nicaraguans crossing the border:- ¶ “The jefe político of Tilarán, don José Joaquín Ortiz, visited the President yesterday asking for certain public necessities for that locality. In the first place he asked for telegraph communication with San Rafael de los Guatuzos, a port of entrance and exit of criminals, coming from and going to Nicaragua; the authorities of that frontier town having had no less than fifty communications for the capture of criminals who have passed through there and these communications were received weeks after the criminals has passed through. The President has accepted the suggestion of Señor Ortiz and possibly a radio station will be established in San Rafael. ¶ Report No. 23 ¶ San José, January 7, 1932 ¶ A. R. Harris, ¶ Major, G.S. ¶ M.A."

39.  January 6, 1932.  Major A. R. Harris, San José.  "Activities of Salomón de la Selva."     "NICARAGUA ¶ POPULATION & SOCIAL ¶ No. 2900-c – Propaganda of Foreign Origin. ¶ Activities of Salomon de la Selva. ¶ The accompanying “Public Letter” is forwarded for the files of G-2. It probably contains nothing not already known to G-2, but I can find no record of its having been forwarded when it appeared last Spring. ¶ Salomon de la Selva is a Nicaraguan refugeé. He is violently anti-Moncada and quite anti-American. Although often drunk, he is the best reporter in Costa Rica. He is a reporter for the Diarío de Costa Rica. ¶ He is constantly doing everything in his power to put Moncada and the Marines in a bad light. As an example: In yesterday’s paper he published an interview with the Secretary of Foreign Relations, Señor Pacheco. There were various matters touched on,- but of course Nicaragua was included as follows:- ¶ “We asked Lic. Pacheco what he thought of the passage in the message to Congress made by President Moncada of Nicaragua in the middle of last month, in which he referred to having thought of declaring war on the country which, in his judgment, gave such strong help to the Sandino movement. Also, in his message Señor Moncada declared that he was prevented from taking such a step by the Central American Pacts and the Briand-Kellogg Pact. It is assumed that he must refer to some Central American Nation, otherwise it would have been foolish to mention the Washington Pacts. ¶ “The Lic. Pacheco responded that these declarations of which we spoke seemed strange to him and that as yet he had no knowledge of the Presidential Message to which we referred. ¶ “Owing to the unusual importance of the Washington Pacts, any declaration made by President Moncada to the Congress of his country must be a question of profound interest to all the signatories of those Pacts. On what Nation in Central America would President Moncada have wished to declare War?” ¶ Both Salomon de la Selva and Señor Pacheco knew that President Moncada was referring to Honduras,- but it will be noticed that in this interview, Selva makes it appear that Moncada might be threatening Costa Rica. He tries to stir up trouble by all available means. ¶ Report No. 21 ¶ San José, January 6, 1932 ¶ A. R. Harris, ¶ Major, G.S. ¶ M.A."

40.  January 1932.  Salomón de la Selva, "Open Letter to Senator Borah with regard to the recent Honduras-Nicaragua Boundary Treaty Scandal," Imprenta "La Tribuna," San José de Costa Rica, p. 1.     "SALOMON DE LA SELVA ¶ Open Letter To Senator Borah ¶ With regard to the recent Honduras-Nicaragua Boundary Treaty Scandal ¶ Carta Abierta al Senador Borah ¶ Respecto del reciente escándalo del Tratado de Limites entre Honduras y Nicaragua . . . "

41.  January 1932.  Salomón de la Selva, "Open Letter to Senator Borah with regard to the recent Honduras-Nicaragua Boundary Treaty Scandal," Imprenta "La Tribuna," San José de Costa Rica, p. 2.     "SALOMON DE LA SELVA. – CARTA ABIERTA AL SENADOR BORAH ¶ ORIGINAL ¶ San José de Costa Rica, C. A. ¶ February 21, 1931. ¶ To the Hon. William E. Borah, ¶ Senator of the United States, ¶ Senate Office Building, ¶ Washington, D. C. ¶ My dear Senator; ¶ La Noticia, a Managua, Nicaragua, daily, published on February 12 of this year, certain statements made in the course of an interview by the Hon. Matthew Elting Hanna, United States Minister to Nicaragua; it is my duty to inform the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate, of which you are the chairman, with regard to these statements. Enclosed please find a clipping containing the interview in full. ¶ I translate Mr. Hanna’s statements in part, as follows: ¶ “Our (La Noticia) representative asked Mr. Hanna what was his opinion with respect to the Boundary Treaty with Honduras, and he (Mr. Hanna) expressed himself in the following manner: ¶ “My opinion is that the Treaty is magnificent (excellent). It would be a great achievement for President Moncada if he succeeds in having it passed (ratified). It will be of great benefit to Nicaragua”. ¶ “Our representative interrupted him: ¶ “—But the people of Nicaragua as a whole reject that Treaty because it wounds (cuts into) our territory. ¶ “Mr. Hanna replied: ¶ “—I am not surprised that the Treaty should have opposition because at this time, the great benefits that it will bring to Nicaragua are not seen. The beneficial consequences will come later, and then they” (the opposition, that is, “the people of Nicaragua as a whole”) “will understand that the step which this Government (of Nicaragua) is trying to take is magnificent. ¶ “Also the Treaty would contribute to the pacification of the North” (the Sandino region) “because the commission of engineers that will mark out the boundary will have to be protected in its work by forces of Honduras and Nicaragua in order to avoid an attack from the brigands” (forces of the Army of Liberation commanded by Gen. Sandino). “Besides, that boundary dispute should be settled in a friendly manner in order to avoid later on a conflict between the two countries”. ¶ A LOS NICARAGÜENSES ¶ Acabamos de saber por periódicos de Managua que nos han llegado hoy, la viril y magnifica actitud de los estudiantes de Derecho ante el crimen que constituye la entrega a Honduras del territorio en litigio cuando bien se podria arreglar co: el pais hermano la partición equitativa de dicho territorio, ya que el laudo del Rey de España nos quita algo que siempre ha sido nuestro y que no fue sometido al arbitraje. ¶ Queremos declarar a ese soberbio grupo de estudiantes, a la juventud toda y al pueblo entero de Nicaragua, que estamos en posesión del negocio secreto que esa traición encierra, secreto que hemos guardado respetando la confidencia amistosa en que lo supimos, pero que estamos dispuestos a revelar ante el peligro de la desmembración estúpida de nuestra Patria, ya que la Patria está por sobre la amistad y por sobre todo. ¶ Una compañia extranjera (yanqui) está interesada en explotar los pinares de la Mosquitia en el territorio en disputa. Esta compañia obtuvo una concesión del Gobierno del Nicaragua, concesión que fue cancelada por dicha compañia debido a las protestas de Honduras. Pero los hombres del actual Gobierno nicaragüense, por la vergonzosa suma de setenta y cinco mil dólares—que aquí hacen el papel de los treinta dineros de Judas—que dicha compañia les tiene ofrecidos a ellos personalmente para sus bolsillos particulares, ceden a Honduras el suelo nuestro, con la precisa condición de respetar los compromisos que haya contraído Nicaragua, que no son otros que dicha concesión. ¶ Acusamos al señor José Maria Moncada de recibir parte de esos setenta y cinco mil dólares por llevar a cabo esa negociación en su carácter de Presidente de la República de Nicaragua. ¶ Acusamos al Dr. Julián Irias de haber estado a sueldo de esa compañia para hacer gestiones al respecto, y de ser otro de los que recibirán parte del botin de los setenta y cinco mil dólares por consumar la negociación en su carácter de Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Nicaragua. ¶ Acusamos al Dr. Félix Esteban Guandique de parcial e in teresado, puesto que él es el abogado que ha dirigido y activado esas gestiones, apoderado de la compañia y participe también en el botín. ¶ Podemos aducir pruebas concluyentes que respaldan nuestras acusaciones. Conocemos todas las gestiones del Dr. Guandique en Nueva Orleans y los pormenores el la immunda negociación. ¶ No disponemos de más tiempo por el momento para entrar en pormenores. Está al cerrarse la valija del correo aéreo y queremos que estas lineas lleguen cuanto antes a Nicaragua. Pero excitamos a nuestros compatriotas, a ese valiente grupo estudiantil, a los obreros, y a todos aquellos que aún sienten vibrar en su corazón el amor a la patria, para que, sobreponiéndose a todo partidarismo insano, eleven sus voces de protesta ante tamaña infamia. ¶ Ya no se trata del entreguismo a cambio de poder sino de la venta descarada e impúdica. ¶ Desvergonzadamente se propala que Nicaragua cede lo que en derecho no cedería nunca, obligada a ello por la promesa dada por Honduras de ayudar a debelar el invicto movimiento libertador del General Sandino. Esta especie constituye de por sí otra intamia que hay que desnudar. El móvil verdadero de la sucia negociación es lo que aquí dejamos dicho: los setenta y cinco mil dólares de la compañia yanqui para los degradados vendepatria que a tan bajo precio se están cotizando en la almoneda de las esteras oficiales de Nicaragua. ¶ En próximo lolleto que publicaremos cuanto antes, conocerá el pueblo de Nicaragua toda esta negociación ignominiosa. ¶ SALOMON DE LA SELVA. ¶ A ORTEGA DIAZ. ¶ San José de Costa Rica a 13 de febrero de 1931. ¶ TRADUCCION ¶ San José de Costa Rica, C. A., a 21 de febrero de 1931. ¶ Al Hon. William E. Borah, Senador de los Estados Unidos, ¶ Edificios de las Oficinas del Sendado. ¶ Washington, D. C. ¶ Mi querido Senador: ¶ La Noticia, diario de Managua, Nicaragua, publicó el 12 de febrero de este año ciertas declaraciones, hechas en el curso de una entrevista, del Hon. Mr. Matthew Elting Hanna, Ministro de los Estados Unidos en Nicaragua; es mi deber informar a la Comisión de Relaciones Exteriores del Senado de los Estados Unidos, que usted preside, con respecto a esas declaraciones. Adjunto sirvase hallar un recorte que contiene [unreadable] entrevista entera. Traduzco las declaraciones de Mr. Hanna en parte, como sigue: ¶ “Nuestro representante” (de La Noticia) “preguntó a Mr. Hanna cuál era su opinión respecto al Convenio de limites con Honduras y se produjo: (Mr. Hanna) “de la siguiente manera: ¶ “—Mi opinión es que el Convenio es magnifico. Sería un gran triunfo del Presidente General Moncada si logra que sea aprobado. Será de grandes beneficios para Nicaragua”. ¶ “Nuestro representante le interrumpió: ¶ “—Pero el pueblo de Nicaragua en conjunto rechaza ese Convenio, señor Ministro, por lesionar nuestro territorio. ¶ “Mr. Hanna repuso: ¶ “—No me sorprende que tenga oposición el Convenio porque al momento no se ven los grandes beneficios que traerá para Nicaragua. Las consecuencias benéficas vendrán más tarde y entonces comprenderán” (los oposicionistas, esto es, “el pueblo de Nicaragua en conjunto”) “que es magnifico el paso que trata de dar este Gobireno. ¶ “También el Convenio contribuirá a la pacificación del Norte” (la región de Sandino) “porque la comisión de ingenieros que demarcará la ireatera tendrá que ser protegida en su labor por fuerzas de Honduras y Nicaragua para evitar un ataque de los bandoleros” (fuerzas del Ejército Libertador que manda el Gen. Sandino). “Además, esa disputa de fronteras debe arreglarse amistosamente para evitar unás tarde un conflicto entre ambos paises . . . "

42.  January 1932.  Salomón de la Selva, "Open Letter to Senator Borah with regard to the recent Honduras-Nicaragua Boundary Treaty Scandal," Imprenta "La Tribuna," San José de Costa Rica, p. 3.     " . . . SALOMÓN DE LA SELVA. – CARTA ABIERTA AL SENADOR BORAH ¶ You will please observe that Mr. Hanna’s advocacy of the Treaty is based on three reasons: First, it will be of great benefit to Nicaragua. Second, it would contribute to the pacification of the Northern part of Nicaragua. Third, it would settle the boundary dispute in a friendly manner. ¶ Taking the third reason first, Mr. Hanna is absolutely in the wrong. The people of Nicaragua would forevermore resent the high handed manner of settling that dispute which the said Treaty contemplates. It would not be far-fetched to say that the ratification of that Treaty by the Nicaraguan Congress and the consequent cession to Honduras of a fifth part of the territory of Nicaragua would have created in the psychology of Nicaraguans an “Alsace-Lorraine complex,” which might have led future generations to possible war. ¶ Mr. Hanna’s second reason is nothing short of despicable. It means goading the Government of Honduras to undertake the pacification of that part of Nicaragua in which the efforts of thousands of United States marines have so significantly failed. Again, this intervention that was sought of Honduras altough [although] in the guise of cooperation with the Government of Nicaragua, would have created an enmity between the two peopples [peoples] not easily blotted away. The vast majority of the Nicaraguan people believe that Gen. Sandino is in the right. They would not, without profound resentment, see the forces of Honduras fighting the forces of Gen. Sandino. Nor do I believe that the people of Honduras would tolerate such a crime; rather, what Mr. Hanna sees as a good measure, is to my mind a dangerous step to take, for it might involve the Government [of] Honduras, a country fortunately at peace, into a war with its own population such as the war between the Moncada Government and the people of Nicaragua as represented by the army of Gen. Sandino. ¶ But what of Mr. Hanna’s first reason? What benefits can Nicaragua possibly derive from losing a fifth part more or less of its territory? ¶ I have today received mail from Nicaragua posted there last night. My information is that up to this date Mr. Hanna has not disclaimed, denied or corrected any of the statements attributed to him by La Noticia, a paper, by the way; of rabid anti-Sandino partisanship. Mr. Hanna’s quoted interview has given the impression that your great Government, for which he is the authorized spokesman in Nicaragua, is of the opinion that he has expressed, all the more so as Mr. Hanna, when he gave that interview, had very recently returned from consultation over Nicaraguan affairs with President Hoover and Secretary of State Stimson in Washington. ¶ On February 13th, inmediately [immediately] upon learning of Mr. Hanna’s statements, Mr. Adolfo Ortega Díaz (exiled Nicaraguan newspaper editor) and I saw fit to address a memorial to the people of Nicaragua making the following accusation: ¶ 1.—That a United States company, the Louisiana Nicaragua Lumber Co., was back of the negotiation of that boundary Treaty seeking to secure from Honduras a valuable concession in the disputed territory. This concession had been granted by the Nicaraguan Government but could not be made valid because of Honduras opposition while the dispute remained unsettled. ¶ 2.—That Dr. Julián Irías, Minister of Foreign Relations of Nicaragua and Nicaraguan negotiator of the Treaty, had been in the pay of the Louisiana Nicaragua Lumber Co. expressly to negotiate said Treaty. ¶ 3.—That, besides paying large amounts of money (graft, that is to say) in order to create a “favorable atmosphere” for the Treaty, the Louisiana Nicaragua Lumber Co. had agreed to pay in Nicaragua, through the Nicaraguan lawyer Dr. Félix Esteban Guandique, the sum of $75,000 (seventy five thousand dollars) which it knew was loot to be divided among President Moncada, Minister Irías, said Guandique and other Nicaraguan parties. ¶ These disclosures, attested to by Mr. Ortega Díaz’s signature and mine, were no strict secret. Many who knew of these matters were not in a position, however, to make them public. First, they had no evidence with which to substantiate their charges; many things may be known to be true which, neverthless [nevertheless], for lack of evidence, cannot be proven so before a tribunal. Secondly, the Moncada regime is a cruel despotism and to cross a despot maintained in power by the forces of the United States is no light risk for a Nicaraguan citizen to run. Those of us who have been exiled from Nicaragua, those that have been thrust in prison, and the relatives of those who have been executed, know the bitterness of it not in ourselves only but in the grief and tribulation of our dearest ones. For these reasons none dared to speak out the truth in Nicaragua. Mr. Ortega Díaz and I undertook the fulfilment of […] ¶ Se servirá observar que el alegato de Mr. Hanna a favor del Tratado se basa en tres razones: Primera, será de grandes beneficios para Nicaragua. Segunda, contribuirá a la pacificación del Norte de Nicaragua. Tercera, arreglaría amistosamente la disputa de fronteras. ¶ Si primero tomamos la tercera razón, Mr. Hanna está absolutamente equivocado. El pueblo de Nicaragua se resentiría para siempre de la arbitraria manera que el Tratado implica de arreglar esa disputa. No sería exagerado decir que la ratificación de ese Tratado por el Congreso de Nicaragua y la consecuente cesión a Honduras de una quinta parte del territorio de Nicaragua hubiera creado en la psicologia de los nicaragüenses un “complejo de Alsacia-Lorena” que podría llevar a las generaciones futuras a la guerra. ¶ La segunda razón de Mr. Hanna no es nada menos que despreciable. Significa azuzar al Gobierno de Honduras a que emprenda la pacificación de la parte de Nicaragua en donde los esfuerzos de millares de marinos de los Estados Unidos han fracasado tan significativamente. Por otra parte, esa pretendida intervención de Honduras, aun cuando se disfrazara de cooperación con el Gobierno de Nicaragua, hubiera creado una enemistad entre los dos pueblos que no fácilmente se hubiera borrado. La vasta mayoría del pueblo nicaragüense cree que el General Sandino tiene la razón. No verían sin hondo resentimiento a fuerzas de Honduras atacar a las fuerzas del General Sandino. Ni creo que el pueblo de Honduras toleraría semejante crimen; más bien, lo que Mr. Hanna ve como buena medida, es, a mi juicio, peligroso paso a dar, porque podría envolver al Gobierno de Honduras, país que felizmente goza de paz, en una guerra con su propia población como la guerra entre el Gobierno de Moncada y el pueblo de Nicaragua representado por el ejército del General Sandino. ¶ Pero, ¿y la primera razón de Mr. Hanna? ¿Qué beneficios puede Nicaragua posiblemente derivar de la pérdida de una quinta parte más o menos de su territorio? ¶ Hoy he recibido correspondencia de Nicaragua puesta al correo auoche. Mi información es de que hasta fecha de ayer Mr. Hanna no ha desmentido, negado ni corregido ninguna de las declaraciones que le atribuye La Noticia, periódico, dicho sea de paso, de rabioso partidarismo antisandinista. La entrevista de Mr. Hanna que he citado ha dado la impresión de que su gran Gobierno de usted, del que él es portavoz autorizado en Nicaragua, es de la opinión que él ha expresado, tanto más así como que Mr. Hanna, cuando dió la entrevista, acababa de regresar de consultar acerca de asuntos de Nicaragua con el Presidente Hoover y el Secretario de Estado Stimson en Washington. ¶ El 13 de febrero, inmediatamente que supimos de las declaraciones de Mr. Hanna, don Adolfo Ortega Díaz