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the atlantic coast  •  1928A, p. 5
APRIL 27 - MAY 6, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE FIFTH PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE FIRST HALF OF 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 10 event-filled days from April 27 to May 6.

      Still reeling from the surprise Sandinista attack on the Pis Pis & La Luz mining districts, the Marines & Guardia's counterinsurgency efforts can be seen ratcheting up several notches in these missives, scrambling to make sense of a rapidly changing military landscape.  Especially noteworthy are Major Utley's 8-page Weekly Report of Events of 29 April, which offers a detailed chronology of the Guardia's military response to the EDSN assault, and Eastern Area Intelligence Officer Lt. W. C. Hall's 6-page Weekly Report of Events of May 6, which carries the story forward another week.  Lt. Ranck's report of May 1 also offers a concise & useful summary of events.  M. B. Huston's letter to Gen. Lejeune of April 30 includes valuable information on the mining districts.  We glimpse many hints & clues about the attitudes of local peoples in the interstices of the radiograms & other messages — e.g., Capt. Edson's descriptions of captured Indians who lied (2 May) and of hired Indian boatmen who deserted with their boats (May 5).  Major Sage's intelligence reports from Bluefields are also valuable, e.g. his astute April 28 summary of political sentiments in the Atlantic Coast:  "There is an undercurrent of feeling here sympathetic to the Sandinista forces. . . . The Creoles are not disposed toward Sandino . . . the Mosquitos . . . are more or less indifferent to events," leaving the only "sympathetic" demographic the Spanish-speaking Western Nicaraguans.

      These initial descriptions of the EDSN's weeks-long offensive across the mining district are in keeping with what we've seen before in these pages, evincing patterns that will be largely reproduced in future raids. While most of the Coast remains quiescent, the Bocay Valley & Upper Coco are becoming the new geographic center of the movement.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

27 April 1928 (0810).

Radiogram from Albert Fagot, Cape Gracias, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "NOTE FOR MAJOR UTLEY FROM MR FAGOT CAPE GRACIAS. ¶ MAJOR UTLEY COMMANDER US MARINES PTOCABEZAS ¶ RUMORS THAT CAPTAIN EDSON FORCES WERE ROUTED AT WASPOOK BY REBELS. FAGOT ¶ RECD PM UW AT 0810-27-ma"

27 April 1928.

Letter from USMC Major General Commandant J. Lejeune to Mr. M. B. Huston, Vice-President, The Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Philadelphia, PA  (RG127/38/18).   "My Dear Mr. Huston:- ¶ I greatly appreciate your offer of April 26, 1928, to furnish us maps and data relative to the Pispis Mining District of Nicaragua. I should be very glad if you would furnish us with all maps of this district from which we will have photostatic copies made thereafter returning the maps to you. ¶ We should also like to have any data that you think would be of interest, and we will return such data also, if you desire, after making typewritten copies. Thanking you very much for your offer, I am, ¶ Yours very sincerely, ¶ MAJOR GENERAL COMMANDANT."

28 April 1928 (1053).

Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "EXPERIENCE HERE SHOWS IT IS NOT REPEAT NOT DESIRABLE TO DIVIDE SMALL ISOLATED DETACHMENTS INTO WIDELY SEPARATED GROUPS PARAGRAPH INFORM ME MORE FULLY AS TO YOUR PLANS AS THEY DEVELOP AND GIVE ME ALL INFORMATION BEARING ON YOUR PROBLEM STOP STATE DEPARTMENT IS PRESSING LEGATION FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING PRISONERS HELD BY OUTLAWS COMMA SEND ME AT ONCE ANY SUCH INFORMATION RECEIVED STOP NATURALLY SITUATION CONFRONTING YOU IS CAUSING ANXIETY IN DEPARTMENTS OF NAVY AND STATE STOP COMMANDING GENERAL IS CONFIDENT VOMKNY WILL ACT WITH ENERGY COMMA PROMPTNESS AND DISCRETION COMMA AND REPORT FREQUENTLY AND IN DETAIL STOP FELAND 1053"

28 April 1928 (1113).

Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "IT IS BELIEVED THAT OUTLAWS ARE SHORT OF AMMUNITION COMMA THAT THEIR RECENT ACTIVITIES WERE IN PART TO REPLENISH SAME AND IN THIS RESPECT THAT THEY HAVE FAILED STOP COMMANDING GENERAL EMPHASIZES IMPORTANCE OF DENYING OUTLAWS AMMUNITION STOP FELAND 1113"  

28 April 1928 (1902).

Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "8628 AVIATORS LANDED ON SAND BAR IN COCO RIVER AT WASPUC AND TALKED TO EDSON EVERYTHING SATISFACTORY REPEAT SATISFACTORY NO CONTACT SCHMIDT 1902"

28 April 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.   "(A) General State of Territory Occupied.  ¶  Unsettled.  The recent movements of a group of bandits in the vicinity of Tunky and the Pis Pis mines has created considerable unrest.  The foreigners here and in the vicinity with capital invested on this coast feel that more protection should be afforded them than is available at present.  There is an undercurrent of feeling here sympathetic to the Sandinista forces. No outward sign of this feeling is in evidence but nevertheless it exists.  The Creoles are not disposed toward Sandino, they are for the continuance of present conditions and realize that any break down of business activities in this area means money out of their pockets.  As far as the Mosquitos are concerned they are more or less indifferent to events, if a band appears and forces them to join they will follow along without argument and if not bothered they will go about their regular routine of eating and sleeping with enough labor at times to obtain certain necessities.  The recent happenings in the La Luz mining area has definitely stopped recruiting.  Until conditions adjust themselves it is doubtful if over a few more men will be obtained on this coast as the sentiment appears to be against enlisting in an organization that may be called on to fight Sandino. ¶  (B) Attitude of the Civil Population toward the Guardia.  ¶  Favorable, except that the men who would be qualified for enlistment in the Guardia are going to await developments before taking on.  ¶  (C) Economic Conditions.  ¶  Favorable for laborers.  Business interests are more or less concerned over bandits.  ¶  (D) Police Operations, Civil  ¶  Routine arrests, no serious crimes.  ¶  (E) Friction between the Civil Population and the Guardia.  ¶  None.  ¶  (F) Military Operations, Guardia.  ¶  None.  ¶  (G) Political Situation.  ¶  Quiet.  There has been some talk of the Conservatives boycotting the coming election, none of the leading politicians have expressed themselves on this subject but they are undoubtedly cognizant of the facts.  ¶  Miscellaneous.  ¶  Range instruction completed during the week.  A final course of close and extended order drill will be given the men during the coming week and the police of Bluefields taken over.  ¶  A. B. Sage.  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander."

28 April 1928.

Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Philadelphia, to S. W. Morgan, Division of  Latin American Affairs, US Department of State (USDS 317.1157 Bonanza Mine Co / 5).   "Dear Sir:  ¶  Your favor of the 23rd received, I thank you for your prompt attention.  Please inform me the situation of our mines and the Americans who operate it there.  Newspaper reports indicate that you are distributing news, but none came here.  I shall appreciate anything you may send of the situation and shall treat it with confidence if you so indicate.  ¶  Our mining operation has been continuously interfered with the last two years, due to the lack of protection by either the Conservatives, Liberals or the United States Government to whom we have plead in vain for some semblance of attention to our repeated requests.  ¶  We feel we have a right to ask for and to receive protection of our American employees and of our property and our operation.  We now ask that you send to the mines, and keep at the mines, marines sufficient in numbers and clothed with ample authority to in every way effect and maintain uninterrupted peace.  Your favorable reply will oblige,  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  Benj. C. Warnick,  ¶  President, Bonanza Mines Company."

28 April 1928.

Memorandum for Commanding General, Major Ross E. Rowell, Managua, p. 1.   "1. Major Utley gave me the following information relative to his plans and dispositions:  ¶  (a) Captain Edson is at present on the Coco River with forty men.  He has an outpost at Sang-Sang, and a connecting post at Saklin.  His main force is at the junction of the Waspook and Coco Rivers.  His mission is to block those points to enemy movements.  Lieutenant Carroll left Puerto Cabezas yesterday with a radio set and 20 men to re-enforce Edson.  ¶  (b) No late information relative to enemy dispositions was available.  A runner who left the Pis Pis Area at daybreak 25 April 1928 reported that the outlaws were still in the vicinity of the Neptune Mine and had not visited Tunky. Information was considered reliable.  ¶  (c) Roughly, the following trails enter the Pis Pis Area:  ¶  (1) Tuma-Casuli-Wuani-La Lus Mine-Eden Mine.  ¶  (2) Saklin (on Coco River) in South West direction to Neptune Mine.  ¶  (3) Bocay to San Pedro.  (Exact location now known.)  ¶  (4) San Pedro to Waspook along the Waspook River.  ¶  (5) From Puerto Cabezas, across headwaters of Cucalaya River to San Luis, on headwaters of Rio Oconguas.  ¶  (6) From Puerto Cabezas West via Browns Camp (on large scale map) and due West to Neptune Mine.  ¶  (7) From Prinzapoka up river by that name to La Luz Mine.  ¶  (d) Upon the arrival of the U.S.S. CLEVELAND, Major Utley plans as follows:  ¶  (1)  Rose with U.S.S. GALVESTON Detachment proceeds to vicinity of La Luz Mine to block enemy exit to South and South West.  (Tuma River direction) . . . "

28 April 1928.

Memorandum for Commanding General, Major Ross E. Rowell, Managua, p. 2.   " . . . (2) The small company on the U.S.S. CLEVELAND proceeds to San Luis (on headquarters of Oconguas River) to block Eastern exits.  ¶  (3) The 59th Company will attack the outlaws in the Pis Pis Area by either the Waspook River route (via Waspook) or up the Prinzapolka River (via La Luz) depending upon information as to the relative practicability of the two routes.  ¶  The supply problem is simple for all routes except the one to San Luis which is very difficult.  ¶  (e) The above Plan will cover all exits except the trail to Bocay.  ¶  ROSS E. ROWELL  ¶  Major U.S. Marine Corps.”

28 April 1928.
"The La Luz Affair," Bluefields Weekly.   "Copy of a communication addressed by the Bluefields agent for the La Luz and Los Angeles Mining Company, to Honorable S. J. Fletcher, United States consul at Bluefields, in regard to the occupation and robbing of the La Luz mine by forces of the rebel Sandino, under direct command of one General Giron, said to be a Guatemalan."  ¶  "Bluefields, Nic., April 23, 1928 ¶ Hon. S. J. Fletcher, Consul of the United States of America, Bluefields. ¶ Honorable Sir:-- ¶ We beg to call your attention to the following: ¶ The La Luz and Los Angeles Mining Co., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, U.S.A., whose principal office is located at No. 511 Fifth Ave., in the city of New York, State of New York, operates in the Siuna District in Nicaragua the La Luz Mine, where this corporation has invested about Seven Hundred and Fifty Thousand Dollars ($750,000 00). ¶ This morning April 23rd, we received a letter written by Mr. A. H. Brown, Chief Accountant of the La Luz Mine, dated April 15th inst. which was sent by special messenger to our branch manager at Prinzapolka, and where it reached on April 19th reading as follows: ¶ "I send the bearer, Wing Long, to advise you as follows: On the evening of the 12th inst. some 200 armed men of the Sandino forces arrived at the La Luz Mines and took complete possession of everything, inclusive of all employees; that night and next day 13th General Giron and staff tok all monies, gold amalgam, merchandise and live stock, as well as the acting superintendant, G. B. Marshall. They left on the evening of the 13th. for the Neptune Mine--they said, on their way to Puerto Cabezas. They stated that they would return and do worse damage. ¶ This evening a runner arrived from the overland route to Matagalpa and reported a force of about 200 armed Sandino men on the way over here, they are killing all the people on the way, men, women and children, and burning houses right and left; at the rate they are travelling they can arrive at this place (La Luz Mine) tomorrow, hence this urgent message for aid. No boats arriving at Amparo, I send this overland with some difficulty as all males, etc. were taken away. Please advise Mr. Amphlett immediately and warn him unsafe to come up river now; it is advisable to send aid immediately. ¶ Kindly advise the Bluefields Mercantile Company, at earliest opportunity so that they may advise our New York office of this matter without loss of time and also report to authorities at Bluefields, as the matter is extremely urgent. I trust that you will see your best efforts in this matter. (Signed) A. H. Brown. ¶ Postscript - "Send this original letter to the Bluefields Mercantile Co." ¶ Our Branch Manager at Prinzapolka, despatched at once our gasoline launch the "Aida" to Puerto Cabezas and gave details to Mr. John F. Martin, former superintedent of the La Luz Mine, now residing at Puerto Cabezas, making him to take up the matter with the proper parties there, so that the help asked for might be given at the earliest possible moment. ¶ He (our branch manager) also informed us, that that American marine force that was sent some days ago to the Bonanza Mine returned April 19th, and left for Puerto Cabezas. A few days previously, all the principal employees of the Bonanza Mine, came to Prinzapolka, saying that a force of Sandino was nearby, and they thought it proper to leave the mine in time. Mr. Amphlett, the superintendent of the La Luz Mine, was in Prinzapolka, and had left on the 15th inst. on a motor boat. It was expected that he might return, should he receive any information of the trouble at the mine, while on his journey, otherwise it is possible, he will enconter with trouble. ¶ The messenger that brought the letter Mr. A. H. Brown, chief accountant at the mine wrote, which is copied hereto, did not meet Mr. Amphlett on his way coming down. ¶ We filed today with the Nicaraguan Authorities, a protest, as per copy attached and earnestly request your good offices to see that through the American marine forces in Nicaragua, protection will be given to the La Luz y Los Angeles Mining Company's properties and the lives of their employees, and that the protest filed with the American authorities will receive due consideration. ¶ Thanking you in anticipation, We Are, Honorable Sir, Very Truly Yours, ¶ BLUEFIELDS MERCANTILE CO. ¶ F. Jung, Manager, Agents for La Luz y Los Angeles Mining Company."

1.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "Map used:  MAPA COMMERICAL REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA, Scale 4 3/8” – 30 mi.  ¶  Location of outposts:  WAWA CENTRAL, SACHLIN, WASPUC, SANG SANG and AWAWAS RAPIDS.  ¶  Location of main body:  PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  Patrols sent out to:  17th:  WANKS RIVER PATROL established outpost at SANG SANG.  ¶  22nd.  WANKS RIVER PATROL established outpost at foot of AWAWAS Rapids.  ¶  27th.  At 0900 a patrol of 21 men under 2nd Lieut. CARROLL left to reinforce WANKS RIVER patrol via motor launch NORTH STAR to CAPE GRACIAS with orders to proceed up river by any boats available.  ¶  Duty performed:  Reconnaissance, preservation of order and search for arms and ammunition.  The prevention of recruiting by bandits and forestalling their procuring supplies.  ¶  Condition of trails:  Bad.  (Water routes used whenever possible.)  ¶  Ammunition on hand:  Rifle: 32,300; M.G.: 2,250; Pistol: 13,000.  ¶  Rations on hand: 7 days, less fresh vegetables which are received weekly (not included in above, rations issued to patrol of 61 men to May 27, 1928).  ¶  Health of troops:  Good. ¶  Orders received: Brigade Order #17; Brigade Administrative Orders #10, #11.  ¶  Messages received:  22nd: Radio from EL GALLO:  ‘The one hundred and fifty arrived WUANI about 16th.  Took prisoner at LA LUZ killed JIMMY HASLAM and burned commissary at WAHASLA.  Report from TUNGLA.’  ¶  23rd.  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘All information relative looting of TOLA DEEGO Mining Co. and capture of all employees of company including the Assistant Superintendent GEORGE S. MARSHALL.  Report extent of verification and sources of information.  Report promptly all developments of bandit situation in your area.’ . . . "

2.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . 23rd:  Radio from SECBRIG: ‘U.S.S. CLEVELAND bringing to your area following marines:  Seven officers including Captain ROSE and two hundred men, one doctor and four corpsmen.  Request your recommendation as to disposition.  Keep BRIGADE fully informed and continue mission as assigned in my 8621-1613.  For technical reasons reconnaissance from western NICARAGUA is unpredictable. I am endeavoring to get latest type of AMPHIBIAN planes and planning to base some at PUERTO CABEZAS.’  ¶  23rd:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘CO22-1535, eight officers and one hundred fifty two enlisted with equipment and ammunition embarking this date. In addition following special supplies for aviation to be landed and held at PUERTO CABEZAS:  12 cases bombs, 10 boxes special ammunition for machine guns, 40 drums gasoline, 1 drum oil.  It is requested that Supply Officer, 15th Naval District furnish sixty days rations for two hundred men.  No repeat no rations begin sent with detachment.’  ¶  23rd:  Radio from EL GALLO:  ‘KENDALLS 8622-1500.  Judging from similarity on numbers in my patrol place dates bulls khaki clad soldiers and fact that we had two pack animals returning by MACANTACA Creek is probably source of his information.  BRYAN up and down RIO GRANDE about four days per week telephones up and down RIO are O.K.  LIAISON with SAN PEDRO and TUNGLA O.K.  My written report enroute to you which may explain some of above message everything O.K. here.’  ¶  24th:  Radio from EL GALLO:  ‘Reported from TUNGLA by MENA, was there 17th.  TUNKI abandoned AMPHLETT enroute CABEZAS via PRINZAPOLKA with safe, murdering, robbing and arson at mines. General GIRON, a GUATAMALAN with hundred and fifty men perpetrated crimes.  URBINA returned from TUNGLA via ALAMICAUBAN and MAKANTAK Creek.  No men or disturbance between here and PRINZAPOLKA says that twenty-five marines left TUNKI on 16th.  Rumor that fifty men may come down RIO GRANDE.’  ¶  24th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Give me at once your best information as to whether any American or Foreign officials or employees are prisoners of outlaws with full particulars.’  ¶  25th:  Extracts from Radio from CO BLUEFIELDS:  ‘Have issued rifles to commandants at RAMA and GUADALUPE with instructions to close river and maintain order informing me immediately any developments in their areas.  Have ordered RIO GRANDE BAR to match routes up rivers and watch beach to PRINZAPOLKA, prevent smuggling arms and ammunition and radio information on bandit movements received there.’ . . . "

3.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   " . . . 25th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Three planes today reconnoitered PIS PIS Area from JALAPA.  Following places appeared normal:  POTECA River, COCO River, BOCAY River, AULI River, TUNKUN River, SAN PEDRO BONANZA Mine, BODEGA, CONSTANCIA, OIRANDA, EDEN, YAPUWA, ULMUCWAS and BURIMAS.  All mines appeared to be in hands of caretakers.  Villages appear to have only usual number of people.  No signs of outlaws noted.  Very small amount of cultivated land.  Area extremely hazardous for flying.’  ¶  25th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Comsperson informed BRIGADE will keep two ships on east coast for present to patrol all streams and provide boats for marines in sufficient numbers to attack everywhere ever found.’  ¶  26th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Rumor here that GIRON with one hundred fifty men went down PRINZAPOLKA River.’  ¶  26th:  Message from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  ‘Established outpost SANG SANG 17th.  Patrols seven enlisted and EDSON started AWASBILA afternoon same date.  Capsized half mile above here.  Personnel O.K. lost one bar, two rifles, two hundred rations, one case, rifle, and two hundred pistol ammunition, four packs complete and all clothing of men in patrol.  Motor slightly damaged, bateau lost.  Rumors force expected AWASBILA in two days.  Boat, men and chow retaken up river.  Patrol expected to leave overland AWASBILA this PM.  Expedite shipment arms clothing lost and additional rations.  Recommend entire DENVER Detachment this river.’  ¶  26th:  Message from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  ‘Established marine camp at WASPUC 1500, 14th.  Outpost eight men at SANG SANG this date.  Reports here band under ALEMAN advance guard to clear trail for force about two hundred coming down river soon.  Ordered by SANDINO ambush marines and collect all arms and ammunition.  Patrol going up WASPUC and AWAWAS about 19th.’  ¶  26th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘American Legation informs that newspapers at home state GEORGE MARSHALL has been murdered by bandits.  Submit immediately all facts known to you.  Continue inquiries and reports. Urgent.’  ¶  27th:  Radio from CO BLUEFIELDS:  ‘Have placed motor canoe as picket boat in ESCONDIDO off mouth SLOOP HOUSE Creek, mission closing the waterways.  Am extremely short personnel.  Not desirable further weaken marines BLUEFIELDS account necessity protecting American lives and property in view hostile attitude natives caused by bandit successes. Have no availables for action outside BLUEFIELDS if necessity arises request return to this district of 51st Co.  Detail at PUERTO CABEZAS when reenforcements arrive there.  If trouble comes this locality expect it from forces moving from PEARL LAGOON through hidden trails constructed and used by Liberals during revolution.  Rumors concerning bandit movements across RIO . . . "

4.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.   " . . . GRANDE to KURINGWAS believed unfounded at present, but traced back to occupant of next officer to SANDOVAL’s and latter undoubtedly in communication with bandit although unable this.’  ¶  27th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Captain HART at TUMA reports unconfirmed rumors that bandits have been passing over trail ten miles north of PENA BLANCA entering PIS PIS trail near CARVA about thirty miles from TUMA.  Believe MAUCANDACA Planes northwest of EL GALLO should be watched.’  ¶  27th: Radio from SECREBRIG:  ‘What information have you in reference to Mr. HEAD, manager of BONANZA?’  ¶  27th Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Mrs. FIDELING DE CASTRO on way to east coast.  Suspected of carrying despatches inside of book cover.  Should be watched.’  ¶  27th:  Radio from Mr. FAGOT, CAPE GRACIAS:  ‘Rumors that Captain EDSON forces were routed at WASPUC by rebels.’  ¶  27th : Message from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  ‘Patrol six men left WASPUC 19th PIS PIS.  No reports.  Rumors marines withdrawn SAN PEDRO to TUNKI approach band my No. 26.  Probably TEBBS.  WASPUC secure.  Will block HONDURAS trail AWAWAS and attempt gain contact TILBA.  Additional men requested urgently needed lines extended two hundred miles.’  ¶  27th:  Message from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  ‘Rumors hundred twenty-five armed men NEPTUNE Mine, no rations.  Four days from WASPUC.  Not confirmed.  Outpost established foot AWAWAS rapids control trails and WANKS from BOCAY.  No contact with forces up river but believe some above TILBA to hold river open. No word from TEBBS.’  ¶  28th:  Radio from SECBRIC:  ‘It is believed that outlaws are short of ammunition, that their recent activities were in part to replenish same and in this respect that they have failed.  Commanding General emphasized importance of denying outlaws ammunition.’  ¶  28th:  Radio from USS CLEVELAND:  ‘Your 8628-1200.  The Marine Guard from the GALVESTON did not join CLEVELAND at the CANAL ZONE but are coming up on the GALVESTON which arrives probably Monday.  A patrol will be arranged from the 60th Company with Lieutenant WHALING, 52 Marines and 1 hospital corpsman. ROSE 1830.’  ¶  28th:  Radio from SECBRIG:  ‘Aviators landed on sand bar in COCO River at WASPUC and talked to EDSON.  Everything satisfactory repeat satisfactory.  No contact.’ . . . "

5.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.     " . . . 22nd:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘TEBBS reports as follows:  ‘Arrived TUNKI 2100, 11th.  13th with five men left TUNKI for BONANZA Mine camped on TUNKI River within two hours march of mines.  Trails vile.  Day break 14th overtaken by runner with message from Eastern area giving information that two hundred bandits were headed for Pis Pis.  No one present knew trails mentioned in message.  Dropped down river and joined remainder of patrol at TUNKI.  Sent message to Major UTLEY by runner. 15th took twelve men and headed for JINOTEGA-PIS PIS trail to intercept the bandits.  At 1430 runner from NCO at TUNKI overtook us with message from Mr. HEAD, Manager of BONANZA Mine stating SANDINO was expected there that night.  They had taken a trail from LIMON unknown to me.  Turned back to TUNKI arriving 1900 and took position.  By this time those who had cared to leave mines had arrived in TUNKI. 16th, men were in no condition to take trail remained in TUNKI sent runner to Maj. UTLEY and scout to mine.  Scout returned from mine at 1100, 17th with information that SANDINO with about five hundred men some mounted some on foot were at BONANZA Mine the evening of 16th, that two hundred left 0600 the 17th for BRAGMAN’s and others were preparing to follow. Information later confirmed through different sources. No guides or pack animals there.  18th, left TUNKI via BAMBANA River for PRINZAPOLKA arriving 0930, 20th.  Shown letter from A.H. BROWN to L. ELIZONDO Company stating two hundred bandits had arrived on 12th at LA LUZ Mine.  The mine stripped, they left on evening of 13th for NEPTUNE MINE on way to PUERTO CABEZAS taking assistant manager.  Evening of 15th they received information that two hundred eighty armed men on way to mine killing and burning.  Arrived PUERTO CABEZAS 1620.’ (20th)  ¶  23rd:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Your 8623-1022 AMPHLETT, Manager, LA LUZ Mine here today.  Went to mine after bandits left for NEPTUNE Mine.  His employees informed him one hundred fifty mounted bandits well armed but short ammunition with two machine guns, one Lewis, one another make on tripod, with plenty of food arrived LA LUZ Mine 12th from WANI looking for AMPHLETT.  Took all money, gold amalgam, supplies, eleven mules and saddle equipment giving receipt for authorized seizure.  Considerable looking Commander General GIRON, GUATAMALAN; SANCHEZ, believed to the MEXICAN; Capt. ALTERMARANO [ATLAMIRANO], notorious HONDURAN revolutionist.  Not over fifty NICARAGUANS in band.  Many very young.  Had written orders from SANDINO to make raid.  Refused to state where he was but one stated expected to meet him over here.  Took MARSHALL, Ass’t Manager with them as prisoner.  No further news of him.  Went to NEPTUNE Mine evening 12th.  Claimed to going to PUERTO CABEZAS and would return later.  Apparently took no other prisoners but obtained some recruits.’  ¶  23rd:  Radio to CO BLUEFIELDS:  ‘Probably four hundred bandits PIS PIS Area.  Prepare brig for native military prisoners.  Take steps prevent smuggling arms and ammunition, watch ESCONDIDO and routes leading north.  Keep radio working. Get cipher disk for GALLO.’ . . . "

6.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.   " . . . Messages sent:  ¶  23rd:  Radio to EL GALLO:  ‘About four hundred bandits entrenching in NEPTUNE – LONE STAR Mines.  Our mission to prevent them recruiting and obtaining supplies until we receive reenforcements.  You will deny GRANDE RIVER to bandits.  Your sector extends to PRINZAPOLKA RIVER.’  ¶  24th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Your 8623-1233 recommend entire force disembark here. All information indicates two bands each one hundred fifty strong mounted, well armed, short ammunition, two machine guns, united in area NEPTUNE MINE – LONE STAR MINE where they are entrenching and working mine.  Best estimate band numbers four hundred. General GIRON, GUATAMALAN; General PLATE [PLATA], NICARAGUAN; Colonel SANCHEZ, probably Mexican; Captain ALTERMARANO, HONDURAN, prominent officers present.  Indians state other bands coming down WANKS and WASPUC to PIS PIS.  Can northern block exit up WASPUC down KULLI CREEK or parallel trail to east, to BOCAY RIVER.  EDSON blocks exit to north, TEBBS on trail, MATTESON holds GALLO and scouts towards LA LUZ.’  ¶  24th:  Radio to EL GALLO:  ‘Your 8624-0800 AMPHLETT was in LA LUZ after bandits left and is now here.  Reports you received much exaggerated.  Chiefs are GIRON, GUATAMALAN; SANCHEZ, probably MEXICAN; PLATE [PLATA] NICARAGUAN; ALTERMARANO, notorious HONDURAN.  Keep sharp lookout to north and west.’  ¶  24th:  Extracts from radio sent to BLUEFIELDS:  ‘Three military native prisoners … Prisoners are suspected of aiding bandits although residing within our lines and will be held as military prisoners not repeat not subject to local law.  Question them closely as to their knowledge of recruiting agenda here besides themselves, hidden arms, and plans of bandits.  If they give valuable information that proves reliable they may be released if they leave the country.’  ¶  25th:  Radio to SECBRIG: ‘Your 8624-1702 my 8623-2000 best information is that MARSHALL, only repeat only foreign prisoner.  Bandits wanted AMPHLETT but he was out.  Message received at LA LUZ next day from MARSHALL.  No news since.  Certain foreign concerns and people seem to have made exaggerated reports to States.’  ¶  25th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Your 8622-2101, 8623-1233 my 8623-1840 KENDALL reports suitable location three hours by boat from BLUEFIELDS.  Hire of labor necessary to prepare location.  Is field desired as emergency landing?  Recommend amphibian planes only to given mission at BLUEFIELDS.’  ¶  26th:  Message to Wanks River Patrol:  ‘We receive two hundred reenforcements.  Balance your detachment moves to SACHLIN via GRACIAS 30th.  Your mission prevent bandits crossing border via Waspuc or trail to ULWAS, determine if main advance can be made from your positions, determine if GALVESTON Detachment can occupy BOCAY via GRACIAS and WANKS  Radio being sent.  Report result your investigation promptly.  Distributes detail sent to SACHLIN at discretion.’ . . . "

7.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.   " . . . 26th:  Message to WAWA CENTRAL OUTPOST:  ‘Reported from unreliable source that there has been a fight at WASPUC.  Keep a sharp lookout and be prepared for attack.  Try to get news from SACHLIN.’  ¶  27th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Not repeat not verified report from native sources that WANKS PATROL had fight at WASPUC.  CARROLL with twenty-one enlisted enroute WASPUC via WANKS RIVER 0922.  Will request serial reconnaissance by ROWELL on arrival.’  ¶  27th:  Radio to EL GALLO:  ‘Following natives from LA LUZ Mine said to be in GALLO or LA CRUZ; PABLO MANSANZRES, MARGARITO BEO, JUAN AYALA, HEMAN EJILDO BLANCO.  Wanted as bandits taking active part in looting of LA LUZ.  Arrest and confine as military prisoners.’  ¶  27th:  Radio to El GALLO:  ‘Captain HART at TUMA reports unconfirmed rumors that bandits have been passing over trail ten miles north of PENA BLANCO entering PIS PIS trail near CARVA about thirty miles from TUMA.  Believe MAUCANTACA Plains northwest of EL GALLO should be watched.’  ¶ 27th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Runner from SACHLIN left there 1500, 26th with report all quiet there.  EDSON at WASPUC 23rd had WASPUC and ULWAS trail blocked reports WASPUC secure.  CARROLL leaves CAPE GRACIAS up WANKS at 2200 today.’  ¶  28th:  Radio to BLUEFIELDS:  ‘JOSE BIDEARRE six feet dark completed, NICARAGUAN, small moustache always well dressed and walks with hump in his shoulders about forty yrs. old, travels with man about 35 real black, small moustache, stocky build, also well dressed.  Has early information bandit actions and movements.  Left for BLUEFIELDS on FERNANDEZ at 1830, 26th.  Watch them.’  ¶  28th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘Unverified rumors not repeat not believed here EDSON patrol six men under COOK had contact recently near WASPUC.  Urgently request serial reconnaissance over mouth of WASPUC River to make contact with EDSON outpost there.’  ¶  28th:  Radio to SECBRIG:  ‘EDSON with DENVER Detachment two Lewis guns total three officers sixty enlisted blocks mouth of WASPUC and trail from mines to HONDURAS via ULWAS, and ascertains condition of river and trails south of WANKS towards PIS PIS.  ROSE with GALVESTON Detachment from vicinity of LA LUZ Mine blocks trail over which bandits come.  16th Company in vicinity of SAN LOUIS west of EDEN Mine blocks exits to east provided report expected tomorrow from ENGLESON demonstrates supply of this column practical.  Again urge desirability of blocking BOCAY River from west at mouth of KULI.  Believe supply too difficult and line too extended to attempt from here.  If trail and WASPUC River reported practicable will attack from north with 59th and DENVER Detachment and drive bandits away from HONDRUAS.  This line easiest to supply.  If this route impossible will attack with 59th GALVESTON Detachment from mouth, only other practicable route of supply.  TULSA Detachment . . . "

8.   29 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 8.   " . . . reinforced holds PUERTO CABEZAS.  MATTESON at GALLO with thirty-five enlisted blocks GRANDE and watches routes from PRINZAPOLKA. KENDALL with thirty men at and around BLUEFIELDS. GALVESTON Detachment moves within twelve hours of arrival. 60th shortly thereafter.  Movements to avoid ambush and account shallow water.  Planes on reconnaissance and bombing missions.  Field radios at WASPUC and LA LUZ.  Best information indicates MARSHALL taken prison for technical supervision mining operations.  Native scouts unreliable and most Americans afraid to openly act as scouts or guides account future living conditions.  KENDALL reports signs unrest in BLUEFIELDS and Guardia taking over police soon raises problem probable action old police.  Request COMSPERON be requested station one ship off BUEFLEILDS for moral effect.  More than one here of no more value than one.  Will make same recommendation personally upon arrival of COMSPERON.’  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps.  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

29 April 1928.

Intelligence Report, Eastern Area, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "(A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED:  ¶  a. Conditions in Eastern Area:  Situation tense, especially in the WANKS River and PIS PIS sections where bandit groups are in force. ¶  b. Puerto Cabezas:  No bandits in vicinity.  Gun runners who have been smuggling arms in the farming district have been broken up during the past week.  Fourteen have been apprehended and it is believed the band is completely broken up.  ¶  c. Bluefields:  Considerable signs of unrest.  Patrols being sent out frequently to curb smuggling of arms and ammunition.  ¶  d. El Gallo:  Very quiet on the surface.  ¶  (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD MARINES.  ¶  Spanish tolerant; Indians and Jamaicans very friendly.  ¶  (C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.  ¶  The economic condition continues good.  ¶  (D) POLICE OPERATIONS.  ¶  Routine.  ¶  (E) FRICTION BETWEEN MARINES AND CIVIL POPULATION.  ¶  None reported.  ¶  (F) MILITARY OPERATIONS.  ¶  a. No units in contact.  ¶  b. 22nd: WANKS River Patrol established outpost at foot of AWAWAS Rapids.  ¶  c. 22nd: Captain Tebb’s patrol returned from reconnaissance duty around BROWN’S CAMP – No contact . . . "

29 April 1928.

Intelligence Report, Eastern Area, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . d. Captain Edson with two other officers and Marine Detachment, U.S.S. DENVER, blocks mouth of WASPUC and trails to HONDURAS via WANKS, and ascertains conditions of river and trails south of WANKS toward PIS PIS.  ¶  e. 26th:  Unconfirmed reports received that WANKS River Patrol was routed by bandit forces.  Reenforcements were immediately dispatched to their relief.  Like rumors were again current on the 27th.  28th:  Air reconnaissance made, and reported that no contact with bandits by WANKS Patrol.  ¶  f. Captain Matteson with thirty-five enlisted men hold El GALLO, block RIO GRANDE and watches routes from PRINZAPOLKA.  ¶  g. Captain Kendall with thirty enlisted men hold BLUEFIELDS and vicinity.  ¶  h.  Reliable information indicates that two bands each one hundred fifty strong, mounted, well armed, short ammunition, with two machine guns, united in area NEPTUNE Mine – LONE STAR Mine, where they are entrenching and working mine. Prominent officers reported present are:  General GIRON, Guatemalan; General PLATA, Nicaraguan; Colonel SANCHEZ, probably Mexican; Captain ALTERMANO, notorious Honduran revolutionist.  ¶  i. Native Indians state other bands, number not known, coming down WANKS and WASPUC to PIS PIS.  ¶  j. 26th:  Information from Brigade that GIRON with one hundred and fifty men went down PRINZAPOLKA River.  Patrols sent out but no contact made.  ¶  k. Reliable information from LA LUZ:  One hundred fifty bandits hit WANI 11th, LA LUZ Mine 12th.  All mounted, well armed but short ammunition. Had two machine guns – one LEWIS, one another make on tripod.  Food plentiful.  Boasted that they were going to PUERTO CABEZAS.  Took all money, gold amalgam, supplies, eleven mules and saddle equipment.  Considerable looting. General GIRON signed receipt for what he took, about $4,800, which will cover about one half of the total. It does cover most of the authorized requisitions, but not the looting by the individuals.  ¶  l. General GIRON was commissioned by SANDINO and had written orders to make raid.  He had a stamp “REPUBLICA SANDINO” with a Nicaraguan standing with a machete in one hand and holding marine’s head in the other.  ¶  m. Not more than one third were Nicaraguans, many very young, refused to state where SANDINO was but one stated that they expected to meet him over here.  ¶  n. SUMA Indians came through BOCAY district and said they were leaving home because there were a lot of soldiers coming down WANKS to WASPUC and up WASPUC to PIS PIS.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps.  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

29 April 1928.

"Dos Voces de Alarma a Los Obreros - Los que van a Bragman's Bluff," La Noticia, Managua.  
"Señor Ministro de Fomento.- Managua. ¶ Urge hacer saber, para conocimiento de los que vienen a los trabajos de la Bragman Bluff Lumber Company en Puerto Cabezas, que esta solo necesita hacheros y macheteros y que es inútil venga otra clase de gente porque tan pronto como la Compañía comprende que no sirven para los trabajos a que los destina, le da de baja y se ven en graves dificultades por carecer de medios con que regresarse, teniendo que recorrer [?] la larga distancia que separa esta ciudad de Puerto Cabezas.¶ Después que llegan a esta ciudad sin recursos y enfermos, tienen que asilarse en el Hospital o pasan serias dificultades para conseguir la manera de conducirse a sus lugares, poniendo en graves apuros a esta autoridad que tampoco dispone de medios con que ayudarlos. ¶ Con muestras de la mas distinguida consideración, aprovecho esta ocasión para suscribirme del Sr. Ministro, su muy atento y S.S. ¶ Juan J. Estrada.- Jefe Político de Bluefields."

29 April 1928.

Letter from A. C. Sandino to Manager of the Mines, Los Angeles & La Luz (trans., in the hands of Mr. Harry J. Amphlett).   [NOTE:  For a copy of the Spanish original, see 26 May 1928, below.]   "Dear Sir:-  ¶  I have the honor to inform you that your mines have been reduced to ashes by this command and shows more plainly our protest against the invasion of our territory by your Government, without more justification than brute force.  ¶  As long as the U.S. Government does not recall its pirates from our territory we will not be responsible for the North Americans residing in Nicaragua.  ¶  To begin with I wish to state that the people of North America do not believe the atrocities committed by Calvin Coolidge’s government in Nicaragua; but I am convinced that the North Americans in general back up Coolidge’s stand in my country and it is because of all this North Americans that fall into our hands will surely be finished.  ¶  The losses you have sustained in these mines you can be paid for by the U.S. Government or Mr. Coolidge who is really responsible for the horrible and deplorable situation which at the present time covers all of Nicaragua.  If you have any sense you will see that the aforementioned is an effective measure (burning the mines).  ¶  The reason that Coolidge gives for intervening in Nicaragua is that he is protecting American lives and property and also foreigners living in the country, which is a big lie.  ¶  The Nicaraguans are respectable people and nothing in our history has happened like what is going on at the present time, and this is the result of the foolish policy of your government in our country.  ¶  The best resolution that your country could adopt in its conflict with Nicaragua is to withdraw its forces from our territory allowing the Nicaraguans to reestablish our National Government.  ¶  It depends on your government whether they will be on good or bad terms with our national government.  And you people, the capitalists, will be respected and esteemed by us, only when you treat us as your equals, but not in the manner that you are employing now.  Believing you are our masters and overseers of our lives and interests.  ¶  I remain your servant,  ¶  Signed:  A.C. Sandino  ¶  Seal:  For country and liberty.  ¶  The original is in the hands of Mr. Harry J. Amphlett, manager of the mines, the “Los Angeles” and “La Luz”.  At the present time he is in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua."

1.   30 April 1928.

Letter from M. B. Huston, Vice-President, The Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Philadelphia PA, to Major General John A. Lejeune, USMC, Washington D.C., p. 1.  (RG127/38/20).    "Dear Sir:  ¶  Replying to your letter of April 27th, in regard to maps and data covering the Pispis mining district of Nicaragua.  I am enclosing blueprint of a map, showing the relation of the Pispis District to the east coast. The map shows the Port of Prinzapulka, which is located some sixty miles north of the Port of Bluefields.  Insofar as the inked part of this map is concerned, I can certify as to its accuracy.  The work has all drawn by ourselves, and consists of compass surveys of the various rivers and mines.  ¶  Unfortunately, the map did not include the Port of Puerto Cabezas or La Luz Mine.  I have sketched these on the map with red pencil in their approximate position in relation to the balance of the map.  As indicated on the map, there was a Mahogany Railroad operating at the time this map was made, along the Kukulaya River, but as above indicated on the map this road was later torn up and abandoned.  ¶  I am enclosing another map showing a detailed topographic survey of the area immediately adjacent to the Eden Mine.  I presume this map is in too much detail to be of service, but I am enclosing it for what it may be worth.  ¶  As to other data covering the area, this is mostly the result of my personal experience, and may be taken for what it is worth.  I was in charge of the Eden Mine for about six years, during which time we had a rather large staff of Americans at the property, and moved a great deal of material from Bluefields to the mine, over the rivers shown on the map.  In moving materials we used seagoing schooners from Bluefields to Prinzapulka.  Schooners of over 5 or 6 ft. draft could not be used, because of a bar of more or less that depth at the mouth of the Prinzapulka River.  This bar usually has this indicated depth, but for a few days at the beginning of the rainy season, it usually shallows up considerably and is impassable for a short time.  From Prinzapulka our supplies went up the Prinzapulka River for about 30 miles to the mouth of the Banbana River, and then up the Banbana River 110 miles to Tunky, which point is indicated on the map.  For this total distance of 140 miles . . . "

2.   30 April 1928.

Letter from M. B. Huston, Vice-President, The Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Philadelphia PA, to Major General John A. Lejeune, USMC, Washington D.C., p. 2.  (RG127/38/20).   " . . . we used shallow draft gasoline tow-boats, towing barges which carried anywhere from five to fifteen tons of freight to the barge.  The gasoline boats and barges of this type have no trouble on this route, with the exception of one rapid at the place marked on the map as Walpatara Falls.  This is more of a rapids than falls, and we were always able to haul the barges through this one stretch of rough water by means of a winch at the top of the rapids.  ¶  All of our gasoline boats have been sold, and I understand they have been moved to other rivers on the east coast, but I am inclined to think that they could be found and used again, if necessary.  Also most of the barge equipment is apparently useless by this time, but we still have several barges at Prinzapulka that could apparently be repaired and made serviceable.  ¶  We were never able to use gasoline boats above Tunky.  At this point, we leave the Banbana River, and go up the Tunky River for 17 miles to the point indicated on the map as Miranda.  This river is small and full of rapids, so that all of our freight went over this division in small boats, using three or four Indians each, and carrying about 1500 lbs. to the boat.  ¶  From Miranda to the Eden Mine is about a distance of eight miles.  This was covered by a small railroad, which we constructed.  I understand that this road is now in very bad repair, but a short time ago they were still able to push small cars over the line.  ¶  We kept rain gauge records at Eden over about eight years of time, during which the average yearly rain fall averaged from 120 inches to 140 inches per year.  The heaviest rain fall is, of course, during the rainy season which is now commencing.  Under these conditions, you will of course, realize that the country is very dense tropical jungle, and one that is very hard to travel, except by water routes.  The principal trails of the Pispis District are indicated on the map.  During the wet season they are very muddy, but pack mules or oxen can always get through.  ¶  As indicated above, we had an average of about 20 Americans at the property during the six years that I was there, and had very little trouble from sickness, but it must be said that it is a severe fever country, and I think a great deal of care should be taken in this regard.  We found the most important consideration to be, that the men . . . "

3.   30 April 1928.

Letter from M. B. Huston, Vice-President, The Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Philadelphia PA, to Major General John A. Lejeune, USMC, Washington D.C., p. 3.  (RG127/38/20)    " . . . should always sleep on the boats until they arrived at Tunky, and that each should be well covered with mosquito bar.  In fact, with fresh men in the tropics, we found that a good protection from mosquitos was the most important item.  Once you arrive at the Eden in the mining district, the country is somewhat more open, and a few decent clearings can be made for camp sites.  Also, there is at the Eden several buildings, including one large staff house, which could be made to properly house at least fifty men.  ¶  If there is any other information that would be of aid, I would be glad to be of assistance, and if you consider that a personal interview would be of any value, I would be glad to come to Washington.  ¶  Very truly yours,  ¶  M. B. HUSTON.  ¶  Vice President."

1 May 1928.

Report on Destruction in the Neptune Mine Area, 2nd Lt. James M. Ranck, Jr., USMC.   "The Neptune Mine was visited by a body of bandits, variously reported as being between 50 and 100 men, commanded by General Giron.  Upon the approach of this body the employees of the mine hid the more valuable property and then took to the bush.  All the employees affected their escape with the exception of Mr. Fred Delf, the smelting foreman.  The band came in about the 12th of April and remained for four days, operating the mine.  Mr. Delf was compelled, at the point of the pistol, to reduce the ore and refine it during this period.  On the 17th the band withdrew blowing up the “ball-mill” upon their withdrawal.  ¶  After the first appearance of the complete band, they retired to a headquarters in the vicinity of the Lone star Mine and the above operations were carried on by small detachments sent out by the main body.  ¶  The band looted the commissary of the Mining Company and after taking what they desired, invited the inhabitants of the town in to help themselves.  It seems as though there were about five of the towns people, who helped the mine employees hide stuff then informed the bandits where the stuff had been hidden.  ¶  The mine tunnel was not demolished in any way.  The explosion destroyed the “ball-mill”, threw the stamp mill out of line and wrecked the mill house, causing damage estimated at $150,000.  ¶  The mine is to resume production about the first of June, reducing their ore by the use of cyanide, a much slower and more expensive method than the stamp and ball mill.  ¶  A Marine Patrol under Captain H. D. Linscott passed through the Neptune area on the 14th of May enroute to San Pedro de Pis Pis.  The natives were very suspicious of the Marines, having been told by the bandits of alleged Marine depredations.  This is true throughout the area in which the bandits have operated.  In San Pedro the natives took to the bush upon our approach and remained for several days.  Some of the braver ones brought in foodstuffs and after finding that the Marines paid money for what they had to offer and apparently did them no harm the rest of the inhabitants appeared.  ¶  The condition of the natives is poor.  The area about the mines has been well stripped of beef and all vegetable foodstuffs by the bandits.  There is no money as the mines pay for services in commissary credits.  The mine commissary charges very high prices for what they carry, such as twenty cents a pound for rice and beans.  Many natives applied at Patrol Headquarters for passes, expressing a desire to move to the coast area, and thinking that a pass was necessary.  ¶  Another condition of the native is fear.  They will not inform the Marines of bandit activities for fear of reprisals after the withdrawal of the Marine forces.  A specific incident: Luis Arroliga and a band of ten men operated within ten miles of the Patrol at San Pedro for three days without any information reaching the patrol.  His actions were discovered by a scouting patrol and after a considerable chase the band dispersed and Arroliga went on to the headwaters of the Bambana River.  ¶  JAMES M. RANCK, JR.,  ¶  2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corp"

1 May 1928.

Letter from Major Oliver Floyd, Managua, to Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal, p. 1.   “My dear Colonel:  ¶  General Feland has asked me to write to you today as a result of a conference which he had with his staff.  ¶  As to Bandits:--  ¶  On April 30, Utley at PUERTO CABEZAS radioed:- ‘UNVERIFIED RUMORS RECEIVED HERE LA LUZ MINE SACKED TWENTY SEVENTH. BANDITS EN ROUTE CASA VINEJA.  ¶  Note:- CASA VIEJA is about three (3) inches on Ham Map Northwest of LA LUX Mine.  ¶  La LUX (as given on Ham Map) is frequently referred to as LA LUZ.  ¶  On April 30, Capt. Kendall at BLUEFIELDS radioed as follows:--  MRS. UBIETA FROM PRINZAPOLKA ARRIVED HERE TODAY STATES THAT AN INDIAN CAME FROM TUNKY LAST WEEK AND SAID BANDITS HAD LEFT MINES FOR CASAS VIEJAS ON WAY TO BOCAY.  ¶  As to East Coast Troops:--  ¶  Captain Rose with one (1) other officer and 53 men left PUERTO CABEZAS for LA LUZ via PRINZAPOLKA (town) at 0150, April 30.  ¶  Copies of the following dispatches for PUERTO CABEZAS (Maj. Utley) to the Brigade Commander have been furnished you:  ¶  8627-2000 (April 27, 1928);  ¶  8629-1200 (April 29, 1928).  ¶  Attention is invited to the Report of Air Mission, May 1, 1928.  The boats noted therein at BOCAY may be indicative of outlaws presence or intentions OR NOT.  ¶  I note from your recent letter to General Feland that you are thinking along the very lines that I am writing, vis.: that the outlaw “gang” recently in the PIS PIS Area may probably be headed for the valley of the RIO COCO in eastern Nueva Segovia or in that region in general east of QUILALI.  ¶  The General suggests that you be prepared to send patrols . . . ”

1 May 1928.

Letter from Major Oliver Floyd, Managua, to Col. R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal, p. 2.   " . . . from JALAPA to ambush outlaws in the vicinity of the mouth of the POTECA River, and that patrols form QUILALI should be prepared to operate along the COCO from CUA to GUIGUILI.  ¶  In fact, it is probable that such activities from JALAPA and from QUILALI would be productive of results.  I AM SURE THAT THE GENERAL DESIRES THAT YOU KEEP THIS IN MIND AND BE PREPARED FOR SAME.  ¶  Personally, I feel that the General is thinking so strongly about requiring you to get out the patrols mentioned from JALAPA and QUILALI, as previously stated, that my suggestion is that you give the strength of detachments at those places (JALAPA and QUILALI) and the supply problem serious consideration.  ¶  There is a possibility that a base for supplies might be required further east.  ¶  Sincerely yours,  ¶  O. FLOYD."

2 May 1928.

Radiogram from Capt. Rose, Bluefields, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 1.   "My dear Colonel: ¶ The following is a copy of a dispatch which we received today from BLUEFIELDS: ¶FROM: COMMANDING OFFICER, BLUEFIELDS. ¶ TO: COMMANDING GENERAL, MANAGUA. ¶ 8602 FOLLOWING RECEIVED FROM CAPTAIN ROSE QUOTE ELEVEN NAUGHT ONE MR JOHNSON INTERCEPTED AT PRINZAPOLKA FROM LA LUZ MINE REPORTS BAND OF SIXTY BANDITS DYNAMITED AND DESTROYED MILL AT LA LUZ MINE APRIL TWENTY FOURTH LED BY JOSE AROLIGA AND CICILIO GUTTIERES COMMA BAND LEFT HEADED FOR BOCAY COMMA RELIABLE NATIVE JUST ARRIVED FROM PIS PIS REPORTS MILL AT PIS PIS DYNAMITED AND DESTROYED APRIL SEVENTEENTH BY BAND OF ABOUT FIFTY COMMA THEY LEFT EIGHTEENTH HEADED FOR LA LUZ MINE COMMA UNRELIABLE REPORT THAT GEORGE MARSHALL HAS BEEN TAKEN INTO INTERIOR TO SANDINO PERIOD BOATS AND CREWS NOT READY ON MY ARRIVAL HERE COMMA AM ROUNDING UP SAME AND EXPECT TO LEAVE AFTERNOON MAY FIRST WITH ENTIRE PATROL COMMA SERGEANT JAMES S BENTON SIXTIETH COMPANY TRANSFERRED TO BLUEFIELDS SICK PERIOD MY RADIO TRANSMITTOR WILL NOT WORK COMMA IF SAME CAN BE REPAIRED WILL WORK ON REGULAR SCHEDULE COMMA WILL STAND BY TO RECEIVE EACH NIGHT AT SEVEN MAY SECOND PERIOD ROSE 0830 UNQUOTE 0800"

2 May 1928 (1430).

Radiogram from Major D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  [NOTE: This is a slightly earlier, different, and longer version of the document below, and includes a several lines about the seized engineer George Marshall that for some reason were not included in the radiogram sent to Eastern Area Commander Major H. H. Utley in Puerto Cabezas some 25 minutes later.]     "INFORMED BY JOHNSON WHO LEFT THERE TWENTY FIFTH THAT LA LUZ MINE MILL BLOWN UP WITH TWENTY FIVE CASES DYNAMITE AND BONANZA WITH ONE CASE STOP SIXTY SANDINISTAS THIRTY OF WHOM INDIANS FROM BOCAY AND COCO RIVERS ARMED WITH MUZZLE LOADING SHOT GUNS AND REST NICARAGUANS WITH FIFTEEN KRA04 AND LITTLE AMMUNITON WERE ENCAMPED AT EL DORADO TWO HOURS OUT ON TRAIL FROM LA LUZ TO PIS PIS STOP POORLY ARMED AND ONLY TEN HORSES STOP THEY CAME DOWN COCO AND UP BOCAY IN THREE BIG CANOES WHICH THEY LEFT AT CASAS VIEJAS AT MOUTH CULI CREEK ON HAMACA RIVER WHICH FLOWS INTO BOCAY RIVER STOP FROM THERE CAME OVERLAND TO PIS PIS AND JOINED GIRON THERE STOP GIRON LEFT PIS PIS 18 AND ARRIVED AT CASAS VIEJAS ENROUTE JONOTEGA 22ND STOP HIS INTENTIONS RIDE HORSEBACK DOWN BOCAY AND UP COCO RIVERS IN WATER WHICH IS LOW AND RETURN TO JINOTEGA OR TO GO OVERLAND ON HORSEBACK TO SANDINO’S CAMP IN JINOTEGA STOP(?) PROBABLY CORRECT AS HE CAPTURED ADRIAN RIVERIA OF JINOTEGA TO SHOW THEM TRAIL BACK STOP TRAIL GOES FROM CASA VIEJAS ABOUT EIGHT DAYS TRAVEL TO LLANOS [?] STOP CARRIED MARSHALL WITH THEM NOT INJURED COMPLIANCE SANDINOS ORDERS BRING IN ALL AMERICANS TO HIS CAMP STOP ABOVE CONFIRMED BY REPORT OF NATIVE WHO LEFT LIMON PIS PIS TWENTY FIFTH KENDALL 1430."

2 May 1928 (1455).

Radiogram from Major D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   “8602 INFORMED BY JOHNSON WHO LEFT THERE TWENTY FIFTH THAT LA LUZ MINE MILL BLOWN UP WITH TWENTY FIVE CASES DYNAMITE AND BONANZA WITH ON CASE STOP SIXTY SANDINISTAS THIRTY OF WHOM INDIANS FROM BOCAY AND COCO RIVERS ARMED WITH MUZZLE LOADING SHOT GUNS AND REST NICARAGUANS WITH FIFTEEN KRAGS AND LITTLE AMMUNITION WERE ENCAMPED AT EL DORADO TWO HOURS SOUTH ON TRAIL FROM LA LUZ TO PIS PIS STOP POORLY ARMED AND ONLY TEN HORSES STOP THEY CAME DOWN COCO AND UP BOCAY IN THREE BIG CANOES WHICH THEN LEFT AT CASAS VIEJA AT MOUTH CULI CREEK ON HAMACA RIVER WHICH FLOWS WITH BOCAY RIVER STOP FROM THERE CAME OVERLAND TO PIS PIS AND JOINED GIRON THERE STOP GIRON LEFT PIS PIS EIGHTEENTH AND ARRIVED AT CASA VIEJAS ENROUTE JINOTEGA TWENTY SECOND STOP HIS INTENTION RIDE HORSEBACK DOWN BOCAY AND UP COCO RIVERS IN WATER WHICH IS LOW AND RETURNED TO JINOTEGA OR TO GO OVERLAND ON HORSEBACK TO SANDINO PROBABLY CORRECT AS HE CAPTURED ADRIAN RIVERA OF JINOTEGA TO SHOW THEM TRAIL BACK STOP TRAIL GOES FROM CASAS VIEJAS ABOUT EIGHT DAYS TRAVEL TO LLANO DE CUA STOP 1455”

2 May 1928 (1933).

Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 2 (p. 1 missing).   “DESTROYED AND ABOUT TEN POUNDS OF DYNAMITE STOP CAPTURED INDIAN STATES ALL NATIVES IN THAT CAMP LEFT BOCAY AROUND JULY STOP REPORT SANDINO WITH REST OF HIS FORCE WITHDRAWN NORTHWEST TO MURRA STOP THE STORY TOLD BY HIM NOT REPEAT NOT BELIEVED AND QUESTIONING WILL BE CONTINUED STOP HOUSE AT WAMBLAN FOUND BURNED UP STOP ONE NEWLY CONSTRUCTED DYNAMITE BOMB COMMA ONE MARINE CORPS CANTEEN AND TWO LETTERS ADDRESSED TO SANDINO BUT ILLEGIBLE DUE TO RAIN FOUND HERE STOP GOOD FOOT TRAIL SUITABLE FOR PACK ANIMALS FOUND LEADING UP WAMBLAN CREEK STOP FOLLOWED FOR ONE MILE STOP NUMEROUS SMALL CAMPS BESIDES THAT FOUND NEAR TABLASCO TRAIL WERE SEEN IN THIS VICINITY BUT ALL HAVE BEEN VACATED FOR TWO TO FIVE DAYS STOP NO CONTACT WITH BANDITS SINCE FOURTEENTH STOP AS REPORTED IN MY NUMBER TWO SIXTEENTH COMMA BELIEVE THIS AREA NOW FREE OF ALL LARGE ORGANIZED BANDIT GROUPS STOP AFTER TWO DAYS REST AT POTECA WILL SEND PATROL TO GULKE CAMP AREA STOP YOUR 8614-1930 ACKNOWLEDGED SIGNED EDSON 0600 STOP TO COMMANDING GENERAL AND INFORMATION EASTERN AREA 8617 REFERENCE BRIGADE FIELD MESS GE NO TWENTY EIGHT TOTAL FIREARMS ALL KINDS CAPTURED FIFTY FOUR REPEAT FIFTY FOUR COMMA OF THIS TOTAL THIRTY FOUR REPEAT THIRTY FOUR RIFLES RETURNED TO BOCAY ARRIVED POTECA 0815 THIS DATE STOP NO EVIDENCE ANY FORCE OF BANDITS THIS PLACE STOP STRATEGICAL POSITION FOR RIVER TRAVEL AS IT ABSOLUTELY CONTROLS UP RIVER TRAFFIC STOP WILL PATROL FROM HERE IN ALL DIRECTIONS STOP PROBABLE DISPOSITION THIS COMMAND COLON ONE SECTION VICINITY ILILIQUAS COMMA ONE PLATOON LESS ONE SECTION WABLAN COMMA COMPANY LESS ONE PLATOON POTECA STOP PRESENT DISPOSITION COMPANY LESS ONE SECTION POTECA COMMA ONE SECTION MASTAWAS STOP LIEUTENANT COOK IS NOW WITH ME STOP SIGNED EDSON 0915 UNQUOTE TODAY PLANES OBSERVED FEW BOATS IN VICINITY OF GARROBO AND CASCA AND NO OTHER SIGNS COULD BE SEEN WHICH WOULD INDICATE OUTLAWS IN THIS VICINITY 1933.  ¶  OFFICIAL AND RELEASED.  ¶  O. FLOYD, MAJOR, USMC, B-3.  ¶  DISTRIBUTION: ORIGINAL TO COMM O, 5TH REGT, FOR TRANSMITTAL.  ¶  CONFIRMATION MAILED (EASTERN AREA).”

2 May 1928 (1933).

Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 3 (p. 1 missing).   "THIS COMMAND COLON ONE SECTION VICINITY ILILIQUAS COMMA ONE PLATOON LESS ONE SECTION WAMBLAN COMMA COMPANY LESS ONE PLATOON POTECA STOP PRESENT DISPOSITION COMPANY LESS ONE SECTION POTECA COMMA ONE SECTION MASTAWAS STOP LIEUTENANT COOK IS NOW WITH ME STOP SIGNED EDSON 0915 UNQUOTE TODAY PLANES OBSERVED FEW BOATS IN VICINITY OF GARROBO AND CASCA AND NO OTHER SIGNS COULD BE SEEN WHICH WOULD INDICATE OUTLAWS IN THIS VICINITY 1933."

2 May 1928. 

Report of Julio Antonio Rivera, Acting Inspector of Bonanza Mines, Agencia de Policia, Mina Bonanza, Mina Neptuno, Pis Pis.  (RG127/38/20)     "I herewith declare to whom it might concern, that on the fifteenth ultimo, military forces of Sandino arrived to this locality under the command of General Manuel M. Giron, said forces amounting to two hundred men well around.  These forces demanded from Señor Arturo Pineda, to open the Commissary, which was subsequently robbed and destroyed at their will, and those goods that were not disposed of, were thrown away and picked up by the mob that expected to take some advantage of the looting.  Same troops took away six pack mules belonging to the Company.  After remaining three days in this place before leaving they set fire to sixty boxes of dynamite that this Company had in store, and placed one box at the stone crusher, which was consequently destroyed together with its motors, separators, and small pertaining machinery.  After these troops left the place, another one hundred men arrived under the command of Colonel Marcos G. Aguerro, who finally disposed of the little provisions there were left and some few medicines that Senor Pineda had succeeded in saving from the first looters.  ¶  /s/ Julio Anto. Rivera.  ¶  Seal – Agencia de Policia.  ¶  Republic of Nicaragua, C.A.,  ¶  Mina Bonanza  ¶  After having investigated in connection with above mentioned proceedings, I herewith sign in my character of Acting Inspector of the Bonanza Mines, for the knowledge of all those who might be concerned."

3 May 1928 (1400).

Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.    "WILL BE JUNCTION WASPUC AND KUABUL MORNING SIXTH STOP DISPOSITION COMMA CARROLL AND TEN (TILBA) COVERS HONDURAS TRAIL AND RIGHT FLANK COMMA SMALL GROUPS WASPUC AND SACLIN COMMA MAIN BODY MOVING PIS PIS AREA STOP IF AVAILABLE RECOMMEND ADDITIONAL FIFTY REPEAT FIFTY MEN THIS AREA STOP UNCONFIRMED RUMORS PERSIST BANDITS EXPECTED VIA TILBA STOP WHEN IS AERIAL LIASION EXPECTED STOP EDSON 1400" 

3 May 1928.

Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Philadelphia, to Sec State, Washington D.C.  (USDS 317.1157 Bonanza Mine Company / 10)   "My dear Mr. Kellogg:  ¶  Your telegram of yesterday regarding our mine situation in Nicaragua received, for which I thank you.  I shall be pleased to receive any further information you have that is available for issuance which I shall treat with confidence if you so desire.  ¶  I went into Nicaragua some years ago in the best of good faith but only after I had examined into the situations most carefully through the various departments and of records showing contracts etc.  I had from that every reason to believe that the Marines would be kept there to maintain order.  ¶  Without notice to us the Marines were withdrawn and we have been at the mercy of much annoyance and loss.  Apparently our operations has stopped and our works destroyed.  Who can we hold liable for the great loss we have suffered and what shall we do to protect our situation there.  That support if any can we expect through your department.  Your reply will be appreciated and reciprocated when in my power to do so.  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  Benj. C. Warnick,  ¶  President, Bonanza Mines Co."

1.   4 May 1928.
Finding of Facts of a Court of Inquiry … into killing & wounding of natives by Marines in Puerto Cabezas on 4 Dec 1927, Lt. H. L. Larsen, Managua, to Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"1. That on December 4, 1927, Corporal Johnson and Privates Long and Jonas were on a motor car patrol, regularly stationed as an outpost along the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company railroad, passing near Wakiwas, Nicaragua, to investigate disorders reported at that place.  ¶  2. That about 6:30 p.m., three natives attacked these Marines on the motor car near Wakiwas with machetes.  ¶  3. That Corporal Johnson and Privates Long and Jonas repelled this attack by rifle fire and that the motor boy stopped the motor car within three hundred yards of the scene of the attack.  ¶  4. That upon return of motor car to the scene of the attack that natives Rito Bonillo and Juan Jose Rodriguez were found dead, having been shot to death by this patrol.  ¶  5. That the patrol, consisting of Corporal Johnson and Privates Long and Jonas, identified Rito Bonillo and Juan Jose Rodriguez as two of the three natives who had attacked with machetes and that a machete was found near each of the two dead men . . . "

2.   4 May 1928.
Finding of Facts of a Court of Inquiry … into killing & wounding of natives by Marines in Puerto Cabezas on 4 Dec 1927, Lt. H. L. Larsen, Managua, to Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.   
" . . . 1. Referring to the above article, the following extract is quoted:  Even in places remote from the war zone, as on the Atlantic Coast, the Marine policing has been frequently carried on with high-handed brutality.  Another case is reported to me from an Indian village near Bragman Bluff, where a religious festival was taking place and many of the Indians were drunk. The Marines turned their machine guns on the crowd killing four and wounding five.  The military commandant of the place refused to conform to the Marine whitewash of the incident and resigned.  Thereupon he was brought to Bluefields and arrested, being released only upon the signing of a dictated statement.  Later, when he wished to leave for the interior of the republic, the Marines refused to let him leave.  ¶  2. It is requested that you furnish this office with all the information concerning this matter, or, if practicable, suggest means by which such facts can be determined.  If this feature of Beals’ article is not true, a specific denial is desired in a statement which also indicates that the status of the one making it was such that he was in a position to know the facts.  If this part of Beals’ story is based on some incident corresponding thereto, a statement of all the facts is desired . . . "

3.   4 May 1928.
Finding of Facts of a Court of Inquiry … into killing & wounding of natives by Marines in Puerto Cabezas on 4 Dec 1927, Lt. H. L. Larsen, Managua, to Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . 1. Forwarded.  ¶  2. Captain Kendall is at present on leave in the United States.  ¶  3. There is nothing on file in this office, pertaining to the above, on which the undersigned might base a denial.  ¶  1. The enclosure is believed to apply to the incident referred to in basic communication, as sit actually happened.  ¶  2. The name of the native commandant referred to appears to be INOCENTE CARVAJAL.  He attempted to collect statements in the case which the enclosure refers, to the effect that the Marines initiated the attack.  An interview was requested but he left Puerto Cabezas hastily for Bluefields.  ¶  3. Commander W. T. Mallison, USN, now commanding USS Tulsa has personal knowledge of a letter containing statements similar to those contained in basic quotation, which he obtained from the American consul at Bluefields.  This letter is now supposed to be on board the USS Rochester with the other correspondence regarding the several investigations made about the time in question.  ¶  4. Officers having personal knowledge of the investigation are now on board the USS Tulsa, and it is believed that Captain Donald Kendall USMC, also have some firsthand information regarding this matter.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY"

5 May 1928 (1515).

Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.    "8605 ADVANCE GUARD FOURTH PROCEEDED BEYOND SUPPORTING DISTANCE COMMA MADE CONTACT WITH BANDITS MAROBILA NINETEEN THIRTY LAST NIGHT STOP BOAT CREW DESERTED COMMA ONE RIFLE LOST STOP NO CASUALTIES STOP ARRIVED MAIN BODY THIS MORNING NO BANDITS FOUND COMMA VILLAGE DESERTED STOP ADVANCE GUARD REPORTED FORTY MEN COMMA MY OBSERVATION ABOUT TEN ONLY STOP ARMED RIFLES AND BOMBS STOP AM PROCEEDING UP WASPUC EDSON 1515" 

1.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "Map Used: Ham Map of Nicaragua, 1924.  ¶  Location of outposts: WAWA CENTRAL, SACKLIN, WASPUC, SANG SANG, AWAWAS RAPIDS, LA LUZ, and EDEN.  ¶  Location of Main Body: PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA.  ¶  7 Officers, 146 enlisted marines, 1 officer and 4 enlisted navy, disembarked from U.S.S. CLEVELAND at 1600 April 29th, from west coast of Nicaragua (LEON).  ¶  1 Officer and 51 enlisted (49 marines and 2 navy) disembarked from U.S.S. GALVESTON at 1150 April 30th.  (Marine Detachment, U.S.S. GALVESTON).  ¶  2 officers and 15 enlisted marines disembarked from USS NITRO at 1000 May 3rd.  Two amphibian planes with this detail- based at Puerto Cabezas. (Aviation Unit.)  ¶  2 enlisted marines disembarked from the U.S.S. NITRO at 1000 May 3rd, from U.S.  ¶  Patrols sent out to: April 30th: at 1050 Captain ROSE, 1st Lieut. WHALING, and 53 enlisted men (52 marines and 1 navy), departed for LA LUZ MINE via PINZAPOLKA River.  ¶  May 2nd: At 0500 Captain LINSCOTT, 2nd Lieut. RANCK, and 54 enlisted men (53 marines and 1 navy) left for EDEN, via CUCALAYA River valley.  ¶  May 4th: At 2245 Lieutenant TAFT and 40 enlisted (30 marine and 1 navy) left for WASPUC via CAPE GRACIAS, as re-enforcements for Wanks Patrol.  ¶  Duty performed: Reconnaissance, preservation of order, search for arms, ammunition, prevention of recruiting by bandits, and forestalling their procuring supplies.  Close and extended order drills, testing and firing of Thomson submachine guns and automatic rifles.  Reconnaissance and observation by planes.  ¶  Condition of trails: Bad (water routes used whenever possible).  ¶  Ammunition on hand: Rifle 83,500; Pistol 21,700; Machine Gun; 2,250; Hand Grenades 500; Rifle Grenades 200; Aviation Bombs 216.  ¶  Rations on hand: 30 days  ¶  Health of Troops: Good.  ¶  Orders received: Brigade Special Order No. 52 . . . "

2.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . Messages Received:  29th. From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Your 8629-0700 Jose Vidauvre, former conservative general and dealer in leather goods, left here Friday for interior, probably Rivas.  He left here before your message arrived.  Mrs. Fidelene de Castro, mother of Luis Castro, arrived here today enroute to Puerto Cabezas. Was searched without results, is staying at Carlos Pasos awaiting first boat to Puerto Cabezas.’  ¶  30th. From Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Request that you consider Major Utley’s recommendation that one ship be stationed at Bluefields on account of possible trouble on short at that place. FELAND.’  ¶  30th. From C.O. Bluefields: Mrs. Ubieta from Prinazapolka arrived here today states that an Indian came down from Tunky last week and said bandits left mine for CASA VEIJA on way to BOCAY.’  ¶  30th. From Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Much easier to block river and trails at BOCAY at your area, if you have sufficient men.  Presume that Galveston marines shall be landed at Puerto Cabezas on arrival there unless needed more elsewhere.’  ¶  30th. From Lieut. Carroll (Wanks Patrol): ‘Arrived here (Sacklin) at 1130 29 April and am pushing on with all hands.  Picked up Corporal Goodling and two men at Cape Gracias.  Corporal Burton here reports no rumors of engagements since 24th and he has heard from Edson since, hence rumor undoubtedly unfounded.  Recommend that provision he made to pay boaters at Cape Gracias who transport provisions here.  I am certifying a bill for Harry Carbo.  Expect to reach WASPUC Tuesday.’  ¶  30th.  From Corporal Burton, Sacklin: ‘Party of 24 men under Lieutenant Carroll stopped at Sacklin at 1130 April 29th.  Shoved off up river at 1300.  Lieut. Carroll asked me about rumors heard at Puerto Cabezas.  On 24th I heard a slight rumor that the Captain had had trouble at AWASBILO, but the party that told me knew nothing definite and he was mixed in his story.  By now you will have learned what happened from Captain Edson. Everything is quiet around this vicinity.’  ¶  1st. From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Adam Espinosa, mine liberal and mahogany contractor, left for Prinzapolka Bar 25th and reported this morning that bandits left mine about 20th with destination unknown, but probably towards WASPUC on WANKS river to go into Honduras.  His opinion bandits were looking for supplies and loot, were avoiding fight with marines and would go to Honduras to escape or join revolution there.  Talk general here among liberals that Sandino’s troops split up into small boats and he is in HONDURAS arranging to join revolution there in SALVADOR cashing in on his popularity, or in GUATAMALA CITY, via SACASA. Weight of opinion tends toward HONDURAS. Bandits . . . "

3.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt.W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   " . . . at Pis Pis reported to have left, stated they were to meet Sandino on this side.  Mr. Subietag, other information from Indians of WALPATARA reported believed more accurate than Espinosa.  ¶  1st.  From C.O. Bluefields: “Beniot Vargas, a native, who had been keeping hidden arms for SANDOVAL, ran army from GUADALUPE to escape investigation by native authorities there and was apprehended by us here February 18th and returned to them.  Tried to escape on way and in absence of irons was tied hand and foot.  In further efforts of free himself said to have chaffed skin off wrist and ankles.  Incident greatly magnified by Sandoval in effort divert attention from himself for retaining arms.’  ¶  2nd.  From Wanks Patrol: ‘Arrived WASPUC 1230 first.  Edson expected today.  All quiet.  Bandits have evacuated NEPTUNE.  Two mounted men reported enroute TILBA FALLS.  75 on foot with shotguns and machetes reported headed for BILWAY to disband via EDEN and TUNKY.  Total strength here 37.’  ¶  2nd. From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Following from Captain ROSE, Mr. Harry Johnson intercepted at Prinzapolka from LA LUZ MINE reports that band of 60 bandits dynamited and destroyed mill at La Luz April 24th.  Jose Aroliga and Cicilio Guttieres band left headed for BOCAY.  Reliable native just arrived from Pis Pis reports a mill at Pis Pis dynamited and destroyed April 17th by band of almost 50, they left 18th headed for La Luz, unreliable report that George Marshall has been taken interior to Sandino.  Boats and crews not ready on my arrival, am rounding up same and expect to leave afternoon May 1st with entire patrol.  Sergeant James Benton, 60th Co., transferred to Bluefields sick.  My radio transmitted will not work on regular schedules, will stand by to receive each night at 7, starting May 2nd.’  ¶  2nd.  From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Informed by Johnson who left there 25th that La Luz mine mill blown up with 25 cases dynamite and Bonanza with 1 case.  60 bandits, thirty of whom were Indians from Bocay and Coco Rivers, armed with muzzle loading shotguns, and rest Nicaraguans armed with 15 Krags and little ammunition were encamped at EL DORADO 2 hours south of trail from La Luz to Pis Pis.  Poorly armed and only 10 horses.  They came down Coco and up Bocay in three big canoes which they left at Casa Vieja at mouth CULI Creek on HAMACA River, which flows with Bocay river.  From there came overland to Pis Pis and joined Giron there.  GIRON left Pis Pis 18th and arrived at Casa Vieja enroute to JINOTEGA 22nd.  His intentions ride horseback down Bocay and up Coco Rivers in water which is low and return to Jinotega or go overland on horseback to Sandino probably correct as he captured Adrian Rivera of Jinotega to show them trail back.  Trail goes from Casa Vieja about 8 days travel to LLANOS DE CUA.  Carried MARSHALL with them, not injured, in compliance Sandino’s orders to bring in all Americans to his camp. WOPMAR CASA GUERO is command of 60 men still at . . . "

4.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt.W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.    " . . . EL DORADO 25th.  His probable intentions return Jinotega shortly same way as he came.  Above confirmed by report of native who left LIMOS PIS PIS 25th.  ¶  2nd.  From Wanks River Patrol: ‘My message 24th, have positioned journey CABEZAS pending instructions.  Your 8626-1400 received.  Carroll established Waspuc 0900 this date.  Advise date establish aviation base there.  Edson.’  ¶  3rd. From Wanks Patrol: ‘Will be junction Waspuc and Knabul morning 6th. Disposition, Carroll and 10 TILBA covers Honduras trail and right flank.  Small groups Waspuc and Sacklin, main body moving Pis Pis area.  If available recommend additional 50 repeat 50 men this area.  Unconfirmed rumors persist bandits excepted via TILBA.  When is aerial liaison expected?  Edson.’  ¶  3rd.  From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Request Cabezas detachment 51st Company be returned this district via Denver.  Conditions very unsettled and much agitation up rivers although no depredations committed yet.  Marines headed for patrols up rivers.  Believed unwise to weaken Bluefields detachment any further for that purpose.  KENDALL.’  ¶  4th.  From C.O. Marines El Gallo: ‘Two amphibian planes passed here at 1600 May 3rd up and down river.  Reliable information men returning from ALAMICANBAN May 3rd via SICSICWAS CREEK and TUNGLA trail.  No men were moving in Savanna or Prinzapolka from Alamicanban to Tungla.  He was told that a lone marine was enroute to El Gallo via Alamicanban on 30 April.  Information requested regarding such probability.  Is a landing field for airplanes desirable at El Gallo?’  ¶  5th.  From Wanks Patrol: ‘My 8603-1400 if men requested have been sent Wanks suggest my force go via WINIWAK to BODEGA to block west QUAH outlet depending situation and trails found Knabul.  Acknowledge and advise. EDSON.’  ¶  5th.  From Wanks Patrol: ‘Advance guard 4th proceeded beyond supporting distance, made contact bandits MAROBILA 1930 last night. Boat crew deserts, 1 rifle lost, no casualties.  Arrived main body this morning no bandits found.  Village deserted.  Advance guard reported 40 men, my observation about 10 only.  Armed rifles and bombs.  Am proceeding up Waspuc. EDSON.’  ¶  4th.  From Cmdr. Secbrig: ‘Complete details of recent bandit depredations in mining regions very important.  Inform Brigade as early as possible.  Please write in full to the Major General Commandant direct in personal letter, furnishing comsperon and brigade with copy.  Please keep Brigade advised of missions and observations by plane in your area.’ . . . "

5.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt.W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.   " . . . 5th.  From Cape Gracias: ‘Arrived Cape 1210 pm leave for Waspuc daybreak 6th.  All quiet this section.  Plane flew past Cape this afternoon.  TAFT.’  ¶  5th.  From Wanks Patrol (Edson): ‘CP for night ten miles north of DARA.  Impossible comply second sentence your 8604-2320.’  ¶  Messages sent: 30th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: “Prinzapoka Patrol, 2 Officers 53 enlisted, 60th Co. ROSE commanding left for La Luz via Prinzapolka at 0150.’  ¶  30th.  To C.O. Bluefields: ‘When does SAGE expect to take over police of Bluefields?  Have requested consperon station ship off Bluefields for moral effect.’  ¶  30th. To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Unverified rumor received here Luz Mine sacked 27th, bandits enroute to CASA VEIJA.’  ¶  29th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘7 officers 146 enlisted marines, 1 officer 4 enlisted Navy, disembarked CLEVELAND 1600.’  ¶  1st.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘1 officer 49 enlisted marines and 2 navy enlisted disembarked from GALVESTON 1130 30th and assigned to duty with 59th Company.’  ¶  1st. To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Lieut. Carroll 24 enlisted arrive Sacklin 1130 29th.  Expected to reach Waspuc today.’  ¶  1st.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Following received from KENDALL quote BENITO VARGAS a native who had been keeping hidden arms for Sandoval ran away from GUADALUPE to escape investigation by native authorities there and was apprehended here by us February 18th and returned to them.  Tried to escape on way and in absence of irons was tied hand and foot.  In further efforts to free himself said to have chaffed skin off wrist and ankles.  Incident greatly magnified by Sandoval in effort to divert attention from himself for illegally retaining arms.’  ¶  2nd.  To Comdr. Secbrig: Patrol of 2 officers 53 enlisted marines and 1 enlisted navy Captain LINSCOTT commanding left for KERN via CUCALAYA River Valley at 0500.’  ¶  2nd.  Broadcast to Prinzapolka Patrol: ‘Your 1101-0830 make speed necessary.  Linscott left today for KERN and SAN LUIS.  Radio working at WASPUC.  Move north from La Luz via westerly trail not via TUNKY.’ . . . "

6.   6 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt.W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.   " . . . 2nd.  To Wanks Patrol: ‘Block routes north and west at junction of Waspuc and Kuabul creek.  Do you need reenforcements for Wanks River?  Rumors here bandits moving towards you.  Disregard order investigate occupation Bocay.’  ¶  4th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Information from apparently reliable native, places CASA VIEJA midway between ULI and HAMACA rivers from which point bandits can operate down the Uli or retire down the Hamaca. If this information is correct bandits in this area are in Casa Vieja area and my patrols will soon cause them to move towards CASCA or BOCAY.’  ¶  4th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Reenforcements for Wanks Patrol, Lt. TAFT 39 marines enlisted 1 navy enlisted left for Waspuc via Cape Gracios A Dios at 2245.’  ¶  4th:  To CO Wanks Patrol: ‘Taft with 40 men leaves about 2300 for Waspuc via Cape Gracios A Dios.  Notify Sacklin to expect them.  Be on lookout for planes morning of May 5th with panels.’  ¶  5th.  To CO Wanks Patrol (Edson): ‘Where are you now?’  ¶  5th.  To Co Wanks Patrol (Edson): ‘Your 8605-1540 and 8605-1615 received.  About 200 bandits reported at Casa Vieja believed to be between head of Pis Pis and Kuli Creek on trial shown on map.  Other information places them at Bocay.  Linscott and 50 men should reach EDEN Mine 8th or 9th.  Taft moves up WANKS 6th.  Move cautiously on Bodega via Wiwinak.  Air Liaison will be provided.’  ¶  W. C. Hall,  ¶  1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Area Intelligence Officer."

6 May 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.   "General State of Territory Occupied.  ¶  Unsettled.  Reports and rumors are prevalent of the activity of the bandit forces operating in the mining area.  Two years ago the revolution started in Bluefields and the population of this area were more or less upset over reports that another outbreak would occur. Nothing developed during the week and the whole situation although tense is well taken care of here.  ¶  Attitude of the Civil Population toward the Guardia.  ¶  The taking over of the police force in the City of Bluefields was effected during the week.  A favorable impression has been created by the Guardia.  ¶  Economic Conditions.  ¶  Favorable for laborers.  Plenty of work is available for those who desire it.  ¶  Police Operations.  ¶  Routine arrests, no serious crimes.  ¶  Friction between the Civil Population and the Guardia.  ¶  None.  ¶  Military Operations, Guardia.  ¶  None, performed police and routine duties.  ¶  Political Situation.  ¶  Quiet.  Talk of the nomination of Cuadro Pasos for the presidency on the Conservative ticket.  ¶  Miscellaneous.  ¶  Completed the training of twenty one men under instruction at the Recruit Depot and took over the police force of Bluefields on May 3, 1928.  ¶  A. B. Sage,  ¶  Major Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander."

 

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