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EAST coast DOCS  •  1929A, p. 1
january 1929

E A S T    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +













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   THIS IS THE FIRST PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1929 on Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast region, housing materials dated during the month of January.

     By way of context, the year 1929 dawns with Sandino’s arch-nemesis Gen. José María Moncada’s inauguration as president, after what were widely considered the freest and fairest elections in Nicaraguan history up to that time.  The Liberal Moncada’s election undermines a key rationale of Sandino’s nationalist rebellion — armed protest against a government run by Conservative lackeys propped up by the USA — and sparks a wave of desertions from Sandino’s cause (e.g., see the cases of EDSN surgeon Dr. Domingo Mairena Hernández, TOP 100 PAGE 26; Rogelio Mangas, deserter from Pedrón, TOP 100 PAGE 29; and EDSN Sgt. Major Alejandro Molina, TOP 100 PAGE 38).  By mid-year Sandino will leave Nicaragua for a year-long sojourn to Mexico to seek international assistance for his flagging rebellion.

     The documents below reflect the Caribbean Coast’s marginal position in the Sandino rebellion during this period.  Among the most noteworthy are the numerous complaints against the banana tax in The Bluefields Weekly; the rustic hand-written 7 January petition from the Miskitu Community Tungla asking for Marine Corps assistance against “rebels and out lawed people”; and the mid-January radiograms indicating that the EDSN forces remained far to the west in the sparsely-populated zones of Poteca, the Bocay Valley, Garrobo, and Paso Real de Cua.  Also revealing is the 17 January complaint against two Marines, Sgt. Dougald K. McGregor and Cpl. Buddie L. Booth, regarding an incident in Puerto Cabezas the previous November.  The reports from the Moravian mission stations also merit attention, as do the other reports, letters, & memoranda, only a handful of which have anything to do with Sandino.


1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1 January 1929.
Report of the Year 1928, Sangsangsta Station, Moravian Church.  
"The year under review – 1928 – has been a year of much interruption.  The work in the congregation has been much disturbed by the political rumors of war and of other foolish stories, which Indian produced in their minds.  According to the fashion of the Miskitu people, many were hiding in the bush, and neglected their church attention very much.  Especially during the Passion week the people from up the River, Asang, Auasbila, Krassa etc. stayed away from the services.  And the reason was being afraid, that they would have to work for the Marines, and that then the Liberals “would cut off their heads”, as the rumors said.  From the upper River had only 12 members come to Sangta for the Passion Week, and from down the River, Wirrapani, only 14 had appeared whilst the rest of them had all kinds of excuses.  It is remarkable that the old race fear is still in the people, and fear only kept them away from serving God.  The fear of the Indians also grew stronger by the visit of our former Commandante Marcus, who came to Sangsangta with about 30 men March 29th, when the Parsen just returned from his tour with the two visitors, Bishop Mueller and Bishop Grossmann.  When the Parsen was still below Sangsangta, he gave three blasts on his bamboo horn in order to notify his people, that he is returning home again.  And suddenly somebody stopped us.  The Parsen did not know what was up and he asked Rosindo, his captain, behind him, what was the matter and why our boat stopped, for the Parsen was under a cover made out of leaves and therefore he could not see what was going on outside.  Rosindo told the Parsen, that a police tells we must wait.  Then the Parsen moved forward and looked outside and behold there was standing Marcus, our former Magistrate of Sangsangta with a red cloth around his hat and some other men adorned likewise with such red colors, stood outside.  Then Marcus and two other American-Latinos came to our batteau and climber in and went with us to the Sangsangta landing.  Marcus was watching behind Banana trees, waiting for the Parsen to find out whether he would bring Americans along in his boat.  But fortunately the Parsen was alone, coming home from Musawas. In connection to this episode, the Parsenmaia has to report.  But when the three blasts of our bamboo horn were given, then suddenly a number of men, dressed in red and machetes in their hands, some had rifles and other guns, from where the sound of the three blasts were heard.  The Parsenmaia told them that the Parsen is coming and no Americanos, but the rushing people would not listen.  Then the Parsenmaia told still Marchus that they should be foolish and shoot for the Parsen is coming home and giving signals to his people, according to the country fashion.  Then Marcus, the headman, with two of his men met us, when we were near Sangsangta.  He told the Parsenmaia, that if there would have been American in the batteau of the Parsen, he would have given orders to shoot them.  Fortunately, there was only the Parsen alone in his batteau.  The Captain Edson and his men had just left the Wangks River about one week ago.  ¶  The same Marcus and his gang went to Abraham Martinez, took out about $ 500,00 worth of goods and then they took from Anita Mueller about $ 150,00 and in a hurry they left Sangsangta for going up the River, in order to raid Mr. Jose Lliset and Auasbila.  ¶  This same Marcus had told the Indians, that they should not assist the Marines, and if they do it, they would suffer for it, for those people who assist the Marines, heads would be shortened.  That was the reason why the Indians were hiding from the Marines when they were asking for men to help them paddling etc.  The Indians were rather hiding in the bush than get into trouble with the bandits.  This all brought an interruption in the congregational work.  Put also by the absence of the Parsen’s family was away from the Station from April 30th to June 12th for the Conference in Bluefields, and the Parsenmaia was with the children in Puerto Cabezas for getting her teeth fixed.  Then the Parsen was away again in Wasla for Evangelistic School from August 9th to September 17th.  During the time in August the Parsenmaia was in San Carlos until the end of August, then she returned to Sangsangta.  ¶  The work up the River was also interrupted by the Marines among whom was a hald crazy man by the name of Carrol, a lieutenant who was molesting the girls and old women, according to the report of some Kiplapini Indians, and therefore several of the women in Auawas, Ausabila, and Kiplapini went over to Honduras, in order to hide away from the Marines."

3 January 1929 (1800).
Radiogram from (Capt. J. J. Burks?), CO Northern Sector of Eastern Area, Bocay, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8601 Your 9628 Dash 1610 True conditions this vicinity among Natives as follows: Shortages exists certain articles.  Food such as beans, rice, beef, and fowls said due to Sandinista activities last spring. This vicinity said to have been stripped these articles that time by the bandits.  Appears to be abundance simple food, bananas and other fruits, fish and game.  Seem to be few calls for other articles food at local cantina here though most men working and have money.  No evidence anything resembling state starvation and season for gardening close.  Amount sickness said to be average and none due to malnutrition. 1800."

4 January 1929.
Disorders in the vicinity of Cape Gracias, Capt. R. B. DeWitt, Puerto Cabezas, to NCO in charge, Cape Gracias, with endorsements, p. 1.  
"1. Until otherwise directed you will not patrol north of the Wanks River into what is referred to as “the disputed territory.”  ¶  2. Periodic patrols in the nature of a visiting patrol, by two or three men to nearby villages are considered desirable and should be made as the occasion offers.  The objects of these patrols are to be carefully explained to the patrol leader and are: to observe conditions in the village; by our presence and manifest ability to reach the various villages to discourage or prevent disorders; show the residents that we are taking an interest in the entire sector and to establish friendly relations with the inhabitants.  This last is the most important."

4 January 1929.
Disorders in the vicinity of Cape Gracias, Capt. R. B. DeWitt, Puerto Cabezas, to NCO in charge, Cape Gracias, p. 2 
 (3rd Endorsement, 9 Jan., Tom E. Thrasher, Jr. by direction of Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Major A. B. Sage, Area CO Bluefields, and 4th Endorsement, 19 Jan., Sage to Jefe Director).  
"1. Returned.  From personal observation of conditions existing in the vicinity of Cabo Gracias I am of the opinion that the territory in question is in a very peaceful state and that disorder and disturbances on part of the Indian population are very infrequent.  ¶  2. It is considered desirable that the Guardia Nacional extend their activities to this place at the earliest practicable date and it is planned to do so as soon as the required personnel for duty there becomes available.  ¶  3. At the present time however the strength of the Guardia at Puerto Cabezas is being increased with a view toward taking over control of Wawa Bar, Wawa Boom, and Wawa Central.  Follow this movement the town of Prinzapolka will be garrisoned and if the necessary personnel can be recruited it is planned to send a detail to Cabo Gracias."

5 January 1929.
"The Banana Tax," The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"Last week when our spirit was buoyant with hopes of reconstruction from the reasonable and favorable expectation of seeing a new Nicaragua rise phoenix-like from the ashes of the ruin in which the leaders of Conservatism have willfully buried this county—but not themselves, because they have waxed fat with big bank accounts in their favor, and large coffee plantations—we were startled by a radio from the Interior stating that a bill was passed in the House of Deputies to levy a tax of two cents on each bunch of banana on board ship for export, -- but rejected by the Senate. ¶ Once in a conversation with a conscientious and very intelligent Nicaraguan, he said the people of the Interior treat the Coast as how Spain treated Nicaragua as a colony. We do not know how Spain used to exploit this country by shipping out its riches, but we do know that we are exploited by tax, tax and more tax. The people of the Interior seem to think the Coast is a detached colony. ¶ Now we are catering for foreign capital to come and cultivate our Atlantic coast lands. Nicaraguans are not going to cultivate them. They possess them from Columbus discovered this country and have done nothing. ¶ It is pitying to hear everybody saying: the United Fruit Company is coming. We are not trying to be sacrilegious, but the second coming of Christ is not as much a gratifying hope of deliverance as the coming of the United Fruit is to the people of the Cast. They speak of this company’s coming as if their heart is yearning to see the Coast blossom overnight and relieve them from hard times. How much justifiable they are for this hope we do not know, but we do know how they feel. ¶ Then if democracy is a government for the people—which should mean for their wishes—then it is but just that to give a guarantee to prospective capital and an incentive to the Cuyamel Fruit Company and the American Fruit Company this hideous gorgon—the banana ax—that makes unexpected appearance in Congress every now and then, at the bidding of some political juggler, should be beheaded once for all by a master stroke from President Moncada. ¶ The best way to kill this hideous banana tax is to get Congress to pledge in a formal way than bananas produced in Nicaragua shall be exempted from tax for a period, at least, ten years. ¶ The Atlantic littoral as a business proposition, to a great extent, is only good for bananas, because there is no market for any other agricultural product on a large scale, except bananas. Our people must have work and only bananas keep the bulk of our population employed. ¶ With a little horse sense reflection it is self-evident that bananas are already over taxed, because it is on them that our general trade depends. We are groaning under the burden of the high cost of living which places the industry at a disadvantage—both to master and servant. A flourishing people means a flourishing Custom House; and for the people to flourish they must have work. This is practical politics. So if Congress cannot help the banana industry then it should not hamper it with tax. Tax will frighten prospective capital to other countries. ¶ At present we are tariff poor and land poor, hence our hard times; and yet Congress wants us to feel it a little harder. Is this a venting of Congressmen’s spleen on us for revenge? ¶ The planter paying a capital tax. Does not this money come from his bananas? The articles which he consumes pay no less then (sic) forty per cent duty. Does not this come from the sale of his fruit. Then why more tax? We want to hear a once for all amen that bananas shall not be taxed, otherwise our dreams are disturbed about the Coast’s coming prosperity."

5 January 1929.
"The Banana Tax," The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.

7 January 1929.
Petition, Stephen Boudien, Miskitu Community Tungla, to Commander in Chief of the U.S.M.C., Nicaragua.  
"Dear Commander in Chief of the U.S.M.C. ¶ Sir ¶ We of this Canton Tungla beg to inform you of our State and situation about this place. It seems our Government has throwed us away here. I think or we think that since there is a business movement around these places, it should be no more than whrite that there should be some kind of Protection, should be sent here for fear of Rebels and outlawed people, as there is a lot of Liquor sold around here, or even a Commission of the Government part should pass here every once in a while. We rites to you as we know that the U.S.M.C. is here to keep peace and order in the country. So we waits that you will try to do something for us, or please inform the one that can do something for us here. Also we rites you as our first station that should look at us if we have to look further for this please inform us. And still we hope to get good informations from you. ¶ Remaining yours and Obedient, ¶ Head of the Community Mosquitos Tungla ¶ Stephen Boudien"

10 January 1929.
Report, Sgt. Albert E. Simmonds, Prinzapolka, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, re Tungla petition.   
"Sir, ¶ The enclosed letter was sent to me from Tungla, 120 miles from Prinzapolka. I have questioned several people here in regards to this subject and it seems that there are a number of people up the river who are carrying revolvers and seem to have considerable ammunition. It will take from five to ten days to get up the river and look over this situation, may I have permission to leave this post in charge of Pat Jensen and make this trip myself. I have this to recommend my request, I have a suspicion to a certain party who is bringing in communication in very small quantities and up to date have not been able to catch him. ¶ Obediently waiting your orders, ¶ Albert C. Simmons"

11 January 1929.
Letter from A. E. Webster, Bocay, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca.  
"Dear Capt. Edson:- ¶ I sent you a short note yesterday on one of your Ration Boats, and also sent you four men of the eight asked for. Today am sending you six men more along with your men Juan Tinorio and Cortez, Viz - NORATO, SERBULO, PATRIOCIO, YONICIO, BERNADINO, PATRIC. The four later are young Sumu boys, but they are obedient and wiry little fellows, and I believe for your small boats up there they will do all right. ¶ Sorry I could not get them to go for the 1st of January as asked for but, on account of Xmas and New Year they don’t like to leave their homes. ¶ Please do not think that on holding up former Boat crews, that I was inconvenienced, but you know the character of these people, and in each case had to make them believe that you were at fault and not myself, so as to always get off your next Boat to the danger zone, as it takes some red tape and lies to get them to go up there. ¶ Before closing please let me congratulate you as a friend of what I have heard and read of your achievements since we saw each other last and with best wishes for a Prosperous New Year from both Thompson and myself, ¶ beg to remain ¶ Yours very truly ¶ A. E. Webster ¶ P. S. If some of the boys don’t prove satisfactory, weed them out and send them down on your ration boats, and I will replace them with others. ¶ Vale."

12 January 1929.
"Our Bananas Are Taxed," The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"We had thought that the very brilliant and strong opposition of Senator Hooker and Senator Sandoval had defeated this ruinous bill for a tax of two cents per count bunch as export tax on bananas, but behold we are again startled to hear that it has passed in congress and is now or soon to be a law of this country. ¶ In our last issue we inferred that bananas are already indirectly overtaxed, because what foreign articles the planter and his servants consume pay a very high duty. ¶ Nearly the whole sum which the Custom House collects from a population of about 30,000 comes from the evolutions of the banana industry. ¶ The excise tax collected on aguardiente and tobacco comes from the same evolutions of the banana industry. And we think the excise tax on these two articles is higher than in any other part of the world. The business of the Coast depends on bananas. This is no poetry. ¶ In Nicaragua the banana business is a poor business. If it were not so the ships which ply in trade here would not be sailing out with only short cargoes, two ships a week, and yet the Coast has been trying to produce bananas for over forty years, over a wide territory, and so many planters trying to produce two thirds of our production-the Cuyamel Fruit Company producing the other third. This does not take into consideration Bragman Bluff’s output. ¶ The general run of planters are planting bananas only to eke out a living, because they cannot find another business. ¶ The Cuyamel Fruit Company is planting bananas because what the planters produce for sale cannot load its ships. ¶ The American Fruit Company is going out with small cargoes because large cargoes cannot be obtained here. ¶ Any man who can think will out that the banana business here is a very poor business, to be more emphatic, it is a bad business. ¶ Let us adduce facts. The Bluefields S.S. Company had to quit planting bananas because it could not succeed in producing them at a profit, owing to the destructive banana disease. This company’s Shanguinola plantation went up like smoke, it was a failure. ¶ The United fruit Company planted bananas on a large scale at Lomo Mico. They did not last as long as a drop of water on a hot stove. The Cukra concern planted bananas and had to quit the business. ¶ The Atlantic Fruit Company had to quit planting bananas and active business in Nicaragua because it could not produced bananas at a profit. It lost big money at Kuringwas and at Dos Bocas. ¶ Ask the people of Lyons, France, about banana business in Nicaragua, and valueless stocks will be shown as a reply. ¶ What became of Winnipeg Plantation? Buried in this burial ground for capital. ¶ What became of Mr. Glass’ venture; it suffered the fate of the rest of banana ventures here. ¶ We have seen farmers of other nationalities planting bananas here, and they, like the bulk of our own people, go broke. We have seen Chinese farmers, past masters of economy, and they went broke; we have seen American farmers, the embodiment of energy, inventiveness and business sense, they also went broke; and those that are not broke are now willing to sell out at a loss. We have also seen Canadians, Japanese, Danes, Norwegians, and Jamaicans planting bananas here, they too went broke. This means that is a bad business and therefore should not be taxed. ¶ Too often we hear the talk that the planters waste their money gambling and drinking—this is all bunk. It is the actions of the farmers’ laborers ascribed to the farmer. The laborer can afford to have a good time, but his master cannot afford it. When Christmas comes very few planters can afford to enjoy a good Christmas dinner. ¶ Go to the bank and find out how many banana planters have a bank account there. They cannot save money, because they are not earning it—the business is no good. ¶ Where are the transactions that are made by the buying and selling of banana plantations? They are as scarce as a hen’s teeth. To be more accurate: very few and seldom. This then proves that a banana farm is a white elephants which can be killed, but not easily sold. ¶ Then speaking generally,--of course excluding a few situated favorably on the river’s bank—is the planting of bananas here a profitable business which can bear direct taxation without dire retroactive consequences to the farmer? No; and again no. ¶ The average planter is now underfed. We know it. His famer is the victim of Panama disease. Wild hogs eat his yucca and coco. Tiger catches his live stock. A host of predacious (sic) wild animals prey on his poultry: These adverse circumstances are the secret why the planter has to buy from the store foreign articles for his support and the running of his banana plantation. This is no pessimistic mournful dirge, but unfortunate facts as we know them. He is the one who will pay the tax—the producer; not the buyer. ¶ The tax . . ."

12 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.  
". . . We beg to remind the President that the Coast with about 30,000 inhabitants paid, in 1927, $962,203.58 in Custom Dues, while the Interior with about 600,000 inhabitants paid only, in comparison, $2,155.887.42. This therefore proves that, with the excise taxes on tobacco and aguardiente and capital tax on farms, the banana industry is already indirectly overtaxed."

14 January 1929 (1700).
Radiogram from CO Northern Sector, Bocay, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca.  

14 January 1929.
Letter from USMC Major General Comandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   
"My Dear Major Utley:  ¶  This letter will introduce Mr. M. B. Huston, Vice-President of the Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, who is visiting with the eastern district of Nicaragua in connection with some of the mining interests of the Company located in the Pis Pis mining district and along the Banbana River.  ¶  The Tonopah Mining Company has furnished us with maps of Eastern Nicaragua which have proven very useful, and has otherwise cooperated in furnishing information regarding conditions there.  ¶  I would appreciate any courtesies you may be able to show Mr. Huston during his stay in Nicaragua.  ¶  With kind regards and best wishes, I am,  ¶  Very Sincerely yours,  ¶  Major General Commandant."

14 January 1929.
Letter from USMC Major General Comandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., to Mr. M. B. Huston, Vice-President, Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Philadelphia PA.   

16 January 1929 (1400).
Radiogram from CO Marines, Garrobo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  

17 January 1929 (1130).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  

17 January 1929 (1230).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.   

1.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
""Reference: (a) Letter, JD.GN., 3-TJM-14-dated 27 December, 1928. ¶ Enclosures: (8) Statements of witnesses. ¶ 1. Investigation into the subject matter of reference (a) was made at Puerto Cabezas on January 9, 1929. ¶ 2. The one specific charge set forth in the letter quoted in reference (b) relates to a native being tied to a horse and dragged to jail. The two names mentioned are, Sergeant Dougald K. McGregor and Corporal Buddie L. Booth, who were both during the times mentioned, September, October and November 1928, performing duty as Military Police and attached to the Marine Barracks, Puerto Cabezas. During the period mentioned there was an officer of the Guardia Nacional stationed at Puerto Cabezas, Cadet Clyde R. Darrah, GN., who was performing duty as Commandante. There were no enlisted men of the Guardia Nacional at Cabezas until November 8, 1928, when three men joined from Cruta, Nic. ¶ 3. Upon arrival at Cabezas information was sent out to Macario Estrada and other signers to present themselves at the Commandancia. Of all the witnesses examined the following were the only ones to definitely state their presence as eye witnesses to the abuses mentioned. Their statements were taken down under oath. ¶ 4. For the information of the Jefe Director their testimony is briefed as follows: ¶ ‘CASTRILLO, David, witnessed Sgt. McGregor taking a man to jail tied to a horse, also Cpl. Booth using the same methods. ¶ ‘ESTRADA, Macario, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike a man with a bottle, breaking his nose. ¶ ‘MC DONALD, William, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike Emiliano Acevedo, tie him with a rope, drag him alongside of a horse. ¶ ‘MENDOZA, Manuel, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike a man with a bottle, breaking his nose. Witnessed Cpl. Booth strike Edgardo Robsetto while mounted on a horse. ¶ ‘MONGALO, Francisco, witnessed Sgt. McGregor mistreat Felipe Donair and two negroes, names unknown. ¶ ‘MORA, Ramiro, states he was struck by Sgt. McGregor, saw Cpl. Booth strike a man (Columbian) name known, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike Emiliano Acevedo and tie him to a horse by the neck. ¶ ‘MORA, Octaviano, states he was struck by Cpl. Booth, witnessed Cpl. Booth strike a man (Columbian) name unknown, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike Emilian Acevedo, tie him to a horse and drag him along the ground. ¶ ‘SANDINO, Jose, witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike a man with a bottle, breaking his nose. ¶ 5. The only two persons named above who were present and who claim to have been abused were the brothers Mora. The other native . . . "

2.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . named in a majority of the cases, Emiliano Acevedo, left Cabezas about December 1, 1928, for Prinzapolka and his present whereabouts are unknown. The man struck with a bottle, the man (Columbian), Felipe Donair and Edgardo Robesetto, have not been seen in the vicinity of Cabezas for some time. ¶ 6. There is no record of any report of the abuses set forth in the statements of the witnesses being made to the Sub-Division Commander at Puerto Cabezas nor were any reports made to this office by any of the persons named. ¶ 7. The authority of the undersigned not extending to the examination of the two Marines mentioned no steps were taken to investigate the matter from this angle. During the period however, over which the abuses were stated as having taken place, the natives were being registered for the coming elections and as several of the assaults were stated as having taken place on November 4, 1928, Election Day, it appears strange that some report was not made at the time to the Election Commission or to some other authority. ¶ 9. It is apparent however, from the Statements of the witnesses, that they entertain a personal prejudice against the two Marines named and the degree to which this feeling has affected their statements should be given consideration. ¶ /s/ A. B. SAGE . . . "

3.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.  
Statement of Octaviano Mora, translation from the Spanish original, Puerto Cabezas, Jan. 9, 1929.   " . . . (m) (sheet (1) being Spanish original of this) ¶ Puerto Cabezas, January 9, 1929 ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF OCTAVIANO MORA ¶ About 7:00 p.m., on the night of the 5th of Nov., 1928, I was playing cards in Antonio Bones’ Cantina when I heard a fight between negroes in one of the rooms of the same house the Cantina is in. I stop playing cards and walked toward the room where the fight was taking place, when I was surprised by a blow that the marine Booth gave me and incontinent took out a gray whip that he uses and struck me twice with it, that left me a permanent scar one on the side where the hair begins, a little above the forehead, which is visible and the other on the chin visible, after striking me so without I giving any cause he searched me and as he did not find anything on me he kicked me outside the house on the street. Some days before I witnessed the same marine Booth go to Sagundo Moreno’s house about 6:00 p.m., accompanied by a negro, and told Moreno that if he did not pay the negro what he owed him, he was going to take him to jail and as Moreno said that he would not pay him because he had no money and to do as he pleased, he beat him to his desire. I also witnessed Booth go in a Barber Shop a Sunday about 4:00 p.m., and search a Colombian negro, whose name I do not know, as he did not find anything on him, he put on a glove and struck him a blow on the face knocking him down without being able to say a word. About 4 days later after I was beaten up, I also witnessed Sgt. McGregor strike Emiliano Acevedo in the following manner; Acevedo saw his woman Amalia de Acevedo was in his house, maybe he had scolded her, he was going home somewhat displeased, for which she screamed, appearing Mc. at the moment and striking Acevedo on the face and incontinent he took out his gray whip which they call black jack and struck Acevedo on the back of the ear with it. Acevedo fell down without a word, he then took out a rope and tied him with one end the other and he tied to the saddle and he arrange to drag him and maybe carry him so on the street, but at the moment Acevedo’s woman cried out asking for mercy, for her husband and what Mc did was jeer her and drag Acevedo to the bush and leave him there where he was without moving for an hour, the neighborhood was afraid to go near him for fear of irritating Mc. This happened about 3:00 p.m. and the neighborhood of Old Bilway witnessed it, among who were Antonia Bone and Bravo’s family. I state this under oath and I sign for constancy. ¶ /s/ Octaviano Mora . . . "

4.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 4.  
Statement of Mr. Macario Estrada R., translation from the Spanish original, Puerto Cabezas, ca. Jan. 9, 1929.   " . . . (k) (sheet (j) being Spanish original of this) ¶ TRANSLATION ¶ STATEMENT OF MR. MACARIO ESTRADA R. ¶ All that he can say about the case, because he is questioned in the following: on the first day of the passed inscription I was in front of a place where the inscription table was, about 10:00 a.m., I saw a young man walking on the street with a bottle of water in his hand, he was called by a Sgt. of the American Force in this place to investigate maybe, if what was in the bottle was liquor, and when he found out that it was water, he struck the lad a blow, breaking his nose, from the blow he fell to the ground. I do not know the lads name. I do not see why Sgt. McGregor struck him, he did not give any reason, to strike him such a blow knocking him to the ground and breaking his nose; the lad was taken to the Hospital by Mr. Jose de Jesus Sandino for treatment. Furthermore in another occasion while I was getting home, or in other words, about 12:00 p.m., on the 4th of Nov. 1928, I saw the Sgt. talking to a colored woman, and as I did not notice him as I passed, he called me three times in a loud tone of voice, and until the 3rd time I look back, he said to me in a coarse voice, why did you not tell me goodbye? I told him that I did not think it necessary, McGregor took out his revolver but he did not discharge it, then for prudence I went in a house and got out through the other side to avoid him seeing me. I can say too that said Sgt. more than once had struck iniquitously many Nicaraguans without a cause, to such an extreme as to sling them with a rope by the neck with a rope and tie the same to the tail of a mule that he use to ride and start off running, forcing the prisoner to run at the same speed as the mule. I can name Mr. Francisci Gonzalez, who was one of the offenders in that form. I also recall Mr. David Castrillo, Mrs. Helena de Lopez and Haydes Zapata, to make sure of what I have said, and as proof to indicate the Sgt. behavior that he have had with American citizens, in this place. I do not omit manifesting that for those reasons and to save my co-National, from the coarse and iniquitous maltreatment for McGregor’s part and his companion Booth I made the protest that was sent to the American Minister residing in Managua and invited in a reserved manner such Nicaraguans to sign, in order to obtain McGregor’s relieve as Sgt. of guard, and I say this reserved for I was afraid that Mc. in knowing this, he would hit me in the form that he accustoms and with arm entirely prohibited by the laws of Nicaragua. In faith of what I had said I sign – Tested – No Vale -----. ¶ Macario Estrada R . . . "

5.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 5.  
Statement of Ramiro Mora, translation from the Spanish original, Puerto Cabezas, ca. Jan. 9, 1929.   " . . . (i) (sheet (h) being Spanish original of this) ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF RAMIRO MORA ¶ After 7:00 p.m., more or less of the 5th day of Nov 1928, I was informed that my brother Octaviane was struck by a marine in Antonio Bone’s Cantina, for which I went to the aforementioned Cantina to get information but that the time Sgt. McGregor came up and without saying a word he struck me with his and then with a black jack on the head, that left me a permanent scar, and made me spit blood. About a month, more or less, on a Sunday, in a creole’s Barber shop situation on Old Bilway, I saw a marine named Booth strike a colored man with a glove (the man was a Colombian), whose name I do not know, after searching him, not finding even a penknife, without a cause. About four or five days after striking me, I witnesses Sgt. Mc strike Acevedo he also struck him with the black jack, left him without breath, he tied him by the neck then to the saddle, with the intentions to haul him through the streets maybe, but shortly after beginning such inhuman and savage intention, Acevedo’s wife begged for mercy, desisting Mc. from his intentions, jeering her, then loosened him, and dragged to some bush that was on one side, telling her that that was his bed. Acevedo was left without able to say a word for an hour, more or less, and none of the neighbors could aid him for fear that they would also be maltreated by the said Mc. such was the horror that mentioned Sgt. inspired among the neighborhood. I state the aforesaid statement under oath and I sign for constancy. ¶ RAMIRO MORA . . . "

6.    17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 6. 
 Statements of Mr. Daniel William McDonald and Manuel Mendoza, both translated from the Spanish, Puerto Cabezas, Jan. 9-10, 1929.   " . . . Puerto Cabezas, 10 January, 1929. ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF MR. DANIEL WILLIAM McDONALD ¶ During the first days of Nov. 1928, about 4:00 p.m., I was in the BILWAY TRADING CO. CANTINA in company with several friends, in the interior and saw Sgt. McGregor go to the front part of a house in back of the CANTINA and I saw him hit a man namely Emiliano Acevedo who fell to the ground as if he was dead, without saying a word; Mc. left and returned shortly, tied Acevedo with a rope by the neck, fastened the other end to his horse and dragged him from where he was lying for 8 yards, more or less, but then loosened him at the request of some woman who were crying for mercy, half an hour later he returned and I asked him what had happened and he answered, saying that he had hit a Spaniard (as the Nicaraguans are called) and that if he was dead, it was nothing, he would make a report, and if he was still alive he would go to the Hospital. I sign the aforesaid statement under oath of a constancy. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, January 9, 1929 ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF MANUEL MENDOZA. ¶ I signed a complaint that was sent to the American Minister residing in Managua against the American Sgt. McGregor and his companion by name Booth, because I witnessed three cases in which both struck indecorous and iniquitously several nationals, the first case I witnessed was on the first day after the passed inscriptions, a young man was walking on the street with a bottle of water in his hand that was snatched from him by McGregor, who after finding out that it was water struck the lad a blow on the nose and broke his nose, and made him roll. The second case was on the 11th day of Nov., I witnessed Booth whipping from right to left, driving his horse that he was on, on the people that was present. The other case that I witnessed was on the night of the 4th of Nov., when Booth had a man by name Edgardo Robleto running, driving his horse on him and whipping him, without opposition on Edgardo Robleto’s part, furthermore by references I know that broke Mr. Edmundo Sandoval’s head and that Mc. iniquitously struck Felipe Donaire, both without any cause. I state the afore case under oath and I sign for constancy. ¶ /s/ Manuel Mendoza . . . "

7.   17 January 1929.
Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, with Statements of Witnesses, Area Commander Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 7.  
Statements of Mr. David Castrillo, Doctor Francisco S. Mongalo, and Mr. José de Jesús Sandino, all translated from the Spanish, Puerto Cabezas, Jan. 9-10, 1929.  " . . . (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF MR. DAVID CASTRILLO. ¶ About three months, more or less, I witnessed Sgt. McGregor, taking a man to jail, whose name I do not know, tied by the throat; he was on a horse running and forcing him to keep up with the horse. Bedsides I have witnessed in several occasions the mentioned Sgt. and a marine namely Booth, whenever they bring anyone to jail they use to do it running the horse on them and whipping them with a whip or with the reins, forcing them to run; everybody that lives on the main street of Bilway can give a statement of time. The afore is stated by me under oath and I sign it for constancy. ---- Enmanded ---- Coming ---- Coming ---- Vale ---- ¶ /s/ David Castrillo ¶ Puerto Cabezas, January 9, 1929 ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF DOCTOR FRANCISCO S. MONGALO ¶ In three occasions I have witnessed Sgt. McGregor maltreating inhumanly Co-Nationals, once Mr. Felipe Donair and two times more two little negroes creoles, whose name I do not know, the three times he was mounted on a horse, that he was driving on the prisoner and whipping them to let them run briefly on the streets, in other words at the same speed as the horse, so the man get less lashes. I find this procedure illegal and inhuman. I state this under oath and I sign it for constancy. ¶ /s/ FRANCISCO S. MONGALO. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, January 9, 1929. ¶ (TRANSLATION) ¶ STATEMENT OF MR. JOSE DE JESUS SANDINO ¶ I signed a statement against Sgt. McGregor and Booth, because the first day of the last inscriptions a young man whose name I do not know was carrying 2 bottles of water in the hand and Sgt. Mc. took them from him, because the young man was smiling while he was examining the bottles of water. Mc. struck him a heavy blow breaking his nose and hitting him to the ground; the lad was conducted to the Hospital of the Bragman’s Bluff Co., by me, by orders of Dr. Luis P. Acevedo, Chief of the Liberal Propaganda. I state the afore statement under oath and I sign it for constancy."

1.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"AN IMPRACTICAL THEORY ¶ From time to time, in some way, the smoldering fires of feudalism between the Coast and the Interior are fanned by some ignorant enthusiasts. Sometimes they are fanned by the Coast by a tribal selfishness, asserting that no government official should be sent from the Interior to occupy government positions on the Coast. Why not? Are not the people of the Interior Nicaraguans? ¶ But we admit that during the Conservative administration of the government a lot of carpet-bagger officials were purposely sent here to make money, and to make it any way; so some of them made it on short order by high handed graft. The public knows them, therefore it is not as necessary to be personal by citing their names. ¶ What should be exacted by the people of the Coast, in regard to officials appointed from the Interior, is that whenever any is to be sent from there the appointee should be a man with a sense of honor and dignity as complements to his competency. ¶ The Interior fans the fire by directly depriving the Coast by taking away all the surplus revenues instead of spending some here for tangible civic improvements, and by levying an export tax on bananas,--unprofitable business from which the people make their livelihood with much hardship; and the interest by which the politicians of the Interior want to further fan the fire is the fantastic idea of trying to suppress the English schools here, expecting that by so doing they will quickly nationalize the Creole of the Coast. ¶ To nationalize the Coast by the suppression of the English schools in an impractical theory engendered in the mind of an ignorant enthusiast. ¶ It is too late to check the English language in this part of Nicaragua. A child first learns its mother’s tongue, and coupled with the fact that the Nicaraguan canal will be American property-Americans speak English—it is a physical impossibility to suppress English in Nicaragua. ¶ We take pleasure to suggest that Spanish should be a compulsory subject, taught (by) qualified professors, in our denominational schools of foreign tongue. It is to the advantage of the child, the future citizen, that it speaks the language of the country’s courts of law, apart from the fact that to be proficient in two languages is a scholarly embellishment."

2.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.  
" . . . The full text proceeds: ¶ On December 2, 1924, new agreements were signed , with the approval of the Department of State, between the bankers and Nicaragua. As late as November 1914 the bankers had refused to extend further loans to Nicaragua because of their fear that the maximum credit point had already been reached. The Government, however, enacted legislation creating a direct tax upon capital, and the bondholders under the Ethelburga loan agreed to a temporary suspension of payments pursuant to the agreement of March 1912. Nicaragua released the bankers from the obligation to loan $500,000 for railway extension and the bankers therefore postponed for a period of four months (26) the payment on the Treasury bills maturing under the October 1913 loan. In granting these extensions it was understood that the bankers would be reimbursed from the canal treaty funds when received. The bankers extended an option previously given to resell 51 per cent of the railway shares to the Nicaraguan Government at the original purchase price of $1,000,000 plus 6 per cent interest, until April 1, 1915; the bankers agreed that the National bank of Nicaragua might place in circulation an additional 1,000,000 cordobas to be used exclusively for loans on products for exportation; the National Bank was authorized to pay its deposits with its own notes ; and finally, an additional currency issue of $500,000 was authorized for the payment of the budgetary obligations of the Government, including salaries, these notes to be guaranteed by a first charge on the proceeds from the tax on capital. The entire arrangement was subject to change should the Bryan Chamorro treaty (27) be ratified and Nicaragua receive the $3,000,000 payment under the treaty. It was anticipated that the treaty would be ratified during the period on the suspension of the bond and Treasury bill payments. ¶ 24.--See Foreign Relations of the United States, 1913, pp. 1061 et seq. ¶ 25.—Ibid, 1914,pp. 944 et seq. ¶ 26.—This was subsequently extended to January 1, 1917. ¶ 27.—Six different treaties were negotiated between the United states and Nicaragua regarding an interoceanic canal during the nineteenth century. (To be continued)."

3.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 3.  
"FROM OUR DETROIT CORRESPONDENT ¶ The earnestness with which the president and the president elect of Nicaragua urged Mr. Hoover to make an early start on the Nicaragua canal is a hopeful sign. A decade and a half ago the United States obtained by treaty “The exclusive proprietary rights necessary and convenient for the construction operation and maintenance of an interoceanic canal” construction across Nicaragua. The treaty left the details of construction, operation and maintenance to be agreed upon by the government of the two contracting nations. This would make it possible for a Nicaraguan or North American government unfriendly to the Canal to delay its construction indefinitely. The assurances volunteered by president Diaz and president-elect Moncada remove al fear of objections to the Canal being raised during their administrations, and it can certainly be accepted as a fact that Mr. Hoover gave the same positive assurance the incoming administration, of which he will be the head will be very friendly to the canal. Whether the time has come for the United States to parallel the Panama Canal with another Isthmian ditch is a matter of opinion. Unquestionably it will have to do so eventually. The annual report of the governor of the Canal zone shows that the 1928 transits were 18% above those of 1927, and that the Panama Canal is now being used to 45 or 50 per cent of its present capacity. Governor Walker believes that this capacity can be enlarged by constructing another flight of locks and developing a supplementary water supply. When this has been done the utmost capacity of the Panama Canal will have been reached. As it will probably take ten or twelve years to complete a Canal across Nicaragua, there are some experts who think that work on it cannot be begun too soon. That is a question which Mr. Hoover’s engineering and economic training fit him to answer; and very likely he will address himself to the study of it early in his administration. The abroad hint given by President Diaz and president-elect Moncada presumably will not be forgotten when he sees an auspicious time for opening negotiations regarding details of the project. . . ."

4.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 4.

5.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 5.  
"SALE ULTRA VIRES ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua, January 17, 1929. ¶ My dear sir, ¶ As President of the Foreign Building commission. The fifty acres of land at the Bluff which you purchased from the government of Nicaragua and for which was paid seven thousand dollars ($7,000) to erect thereon a building to be used for the American Consulate is located near the entrance in Bluefields Lagoon and is Ultra Vires as said transaction is in violation of the land laws of Nicaragua. ¶ Agrarian Law. Chapter 1.—First section Art. 2.—The ownership of the Nation over unappropriated lands is transmissible by conditional title (título oneroso) or gratuitous to Nicaraguans or foreigners, as long as such lands are not destined for new towns, roads, ports, arsenals, parks, gardens or any other objects of public utility. ¶ There cannot be appropriated:  Lands comprised in a zone of two kilometers of latitude along the shores of both oceans; and the side of lakes and navigable river in a latitude of eight hundred metres; and the islands in territorial waters and lakes; but the reserved zone on the southeast side of lake Nicaragua, from the Las Lajas River to the Tule, and on each side of the San Juan River, shall be three thousand five hundred metres. Neither can be appropriated lands comprised in a zone of five kilometers in width along the frontier line with the Republic of Honduras. ¶ The contemplated location is nearly a mile from the Custom House at the Bluff and would require the construction of a road to go to the Consulate. ¶ The site is better adapted for military use, as in case of political disturbance, it commands the entrance to the harbor. ¶ I understand that the house will be concrete—which any sensible person knows is not appropriate for this country of rain and humidity. ¶ Cement costs here eight dollars ($8.00) a barrel and is used only for pavements and blocks as foundation of buildings. ¶ There are just two buildings of cement in Bluefields, and during the rainy season—from May to December—downpours within same prevails. ¶ You got mixed up on this question while you were at Managua—as there and in the other towns of the Interior the dwellings are constructed from adobe-and are free from dampness. ¶ I was just wondering if the price of the land and cost of construction come from your personal funds if you would be so extravagant in buying fifty acres of land and so generous in the size and cost of the building. ¶ When Congress appropriates one million dollars a year for the use of the Foreign Building Commission they naturally expect the members thereof to exercise reasonable business care and methods in the purchase of land and cost of construction of buildings—Did you ever give a thought to the fact that with the Consulate at the Bluff where will the vice-Consul and Consular clerks reside? ¶ Copies of this are forwarded to the other members of the Committee. ¶ Sincerely. ¶ M. J. CLANCY"

6.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 6.  
"CHANGE OF COMMANDER OF THE EAST ¶ On Saturday last Major Roger Beard arrived on the motor schooner Linda S. from Colon. He is successor of Major A.B. Sage who is relieved as Area Commander. Area of the East, Guardia Nacional. ¶ In the near future Major Sage will leave Bluefields. We know the arduous tasks he endured to organize, with recruits previously pampered by the ease of the tropics, the Guardia Nacional in this Area. He goes with the very best wishes of The Bluefields Weekly."

7.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 7.  

8.    19 January 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 8.  
[page of advertisements]: "¶ BRAGMANS BLUFF LUMBER COMPANY, INCOPORATED. Oficina principal: Union Indemnity Bldg.-- NEW ORLEANS, LA. Servicio de pasajeros (De Luxe) entre New Orleans, La. Cuba, Honduras, Panama y las Indias Orientales. BANANOS. MADERAS DE PINO AMARILLO. John McKay,--Gerente. Division de Nicaragua.—Puerto Cabezas, Nic. ¶ FRENCH HOUSE. Los sobrinos de Jorge Dreyfus & Cia. Bluefields. Agency Only distributors: COLUMBIA. RETAILED IN BLUEFIELDS BY: Alfonso Navarro, Alfonso Ugarte, Ernesto Rivera, Economical Drug Store. Hugo R. Gross in Prinzapolka Bilway Trading Company in Puerto Cabezas. Ask for the new COLUMBIA VIVA TONAL . (Life Tone) Large assortment of COLUMBIA RFECORDS The latest pieces engraved by electrical method. ¶ AMERICAN FRUIT CO. DIRECT. WEEKLY FREIGHT AND PASSENGER SERVICE TO AND FROM NEW ORLEANS BLUEFIELDS Exporters and Growers of Bananas. ¶ HENRY F. SPRINGER. Wholesale & commission Merchants. Bluefields, Nicaragua. REPRESENTING; Nestle & Anglo Swiss cond. Milk & Confectionery. E. Greenfields & sons, Brooklyn. N.Y. Candies. Patron & Paint works, Brooklyn, N.Y. Paints. Friedman Shelby shoe co., St. Louis, Mo. Shoes. Kermath Manufacturing co., Detroit, Mich. Motors. Columbian enameling & Stamping co. Terre Haute, Ind. Enameled Ware. Oklahoma city Milk &Elevator co. Oklahoma city, Okla. Flour. Herbert Dickinson, Ltd., Hudderfield, England, woolen Goods. J. H. Morris co., Ltd. New Orleans, La. Wooden Ware and etc. Jos. Levy & Bros. co., New Orleans, La. Stationery. Parker Blake co. Ltd, New Orleans, La. Drugs. Liberty Oil co. , New Orleans, La. Oil Producgts. Vahies Baking Company..biscuits & crackers. Vacher-Green inc. New Orleans, Vacher Remedies. ¶ R.H. HOOKER, Bluefields, Nicargua. Manufacturer of fine furniture, Building Contgractor. UP – TO DATE EQUIPMENT BEST WORK GUARANTEED. ¶ F. MAX. BEER CUSTOMS BROKER AND FORWARDING AGENT (ESTABLISHED 1911) Bluefields Bluff Nicaragua"

21 January 1929.
Intelligence Report, Periodic, 13-19 January, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Map: Map of Nicaragua by Clifford D. Ham, 1924, scale 1/600 000. ¶ 1. LOCATION OF HOSTILE ELEMENTS. ¶ On 17 January, Brigade reported 50 bandits passing through SANTA ISABEL headed south on 16th and 8 headed for PAVVONA. ¶ On the same date Edson at GUIGUILI reported that native prisoner at SANTA CRUZ stated Altimirano near COCO River heading to join Sandino near Chipote. ¶ All other sectors reported quiet with number of natives returning to their homes increasing. ¶ 2. POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ The political situation along the northern coast of Honduras was reliably reported acute, especially in vicinity of Ceiba. It is believed, however that there will be little or no trouble if the Honduran Congress puts the Reds in power. Leaders who are now Blue seem willing to become Reds if given a good job under the new government. The Commandante at La Ceiba has 171 well armed and fairly well disciplined men. General Ferrera has a small force of Indians about 20 kilometers from San Pedro Sula. It is rumored on good authority that both Parties have been making efforts to secure gas but it is believed their efforts so far have been unsuccessful. It is also rumored that the president of Mexico has broken with General Calles and is strongly anti-American, but that Mexico is not at present supplying money to agitation leaders in Central America. The Fruit Companies are depending on the American Government for protection in case of trouble. ¶ 3. MISCELLANEOUS ¶ a. The following was received from CO Northern Sector: ¶ ‘8601 Your 8628 dash 1610 True conditions this vicinity among natives as follows shortage exists certain articles food such as beans comma corn comma rice comma beef and fowls said due to Sandinista activities last Spring stop This vicinity said to have been stripped those articles that time by bandits stop. Appears to be abundance [with] food viz bananas and other fruits fish and game stop Soon to be few calls for other articles food at local cantina here though most men working and have money stop No evidence anything resembling state starvation and season for gardening close stop. Amount sickness said to be average and none due to malnutrition stop 1800’ ¶ b. The following was received from Captain Linscott at Cuvali: ¶ ‘The wife of Juan Francisco Salgado of ALO was, last Mon., undergoing her monthly ‘illness’ when an airplane passed over her home. It being her first sight of such a monster, she was so frightened that her ‘illness’ ceased, she has not been ‘ill’ since, is now pregnant and holds the plane and pilot responsible. Another ‘immaculate” conception!’ . . . "

21 January 1929.
Intelligence Report, Periodic, 13-19 January, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . 4. It would appear that the movement into Chontales is either for the purpose of increasing the area in which the bandits can gather supplies and possible support and thereby relieve our pressure in the north, or that those bands, not finding affairs in Honduras to their liking, are seeing refuge in Costa Rica. If the latter is true, and I consider it more probable, it is a further sign of disintegration of the bandit forces. ¶ The situation in the contiguous territory of Honduras is important in that if trouble breaks out one party or the other is almost certain to seek alliance with Sandino, and we may be compelled to weaken our force to provide for the protection of American property and lives in Honduras as was the case in Haiti in 1916 when the occupation of Santo Domingo commenced. ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

22 January 1929.
Letter from H. T. Coe, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Dear Sir: ¶ I have been on the wharf in Bragmans Bluff for the past twenty-eight months and since the arrival of the first Marines I have tried my best to cooperate and work along with them to the best of my ability, but here recently on the wharf I have been having trouble with one of your dock sentries Private Musick. ¶ I understand that when there are no ships in port that no one is allowed on the wharf and I quite agree with that, but on Saturday 12th, inst. we had the S.S. Waunta also two banana bit boats vis. Schrs. Esfuerso and Star. Private Musick came to me and said that if I did not get the labors off the wharf that he himself would put them off which I fail to see that he had any right to do this as I had these men standing by to discharge these boats. Then again yesterday he came on the wharf while we were loading the S.S. Wawa with fruit and told one of my fruit inspectors to get to hell out of his way. Now this man was standing inspecting fruit and in no way interfering with the dock sentry. ¶ I am asking you to please advise Private Musick to mind his own business while on the wharf. ¶ Thanking you. ¶ I beg to remain, ¶ Yours truly, ¶ H. T. Coe Jr."

25 January 1929 (1212).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas. 

1.    26 January 1929.

"Speech of Deputy Castellon, Debating on the Banana Tax, Translation by Dr. Alfred Hooker." The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.   "I have listened attentively to the speech of Dr.Sandoval, that opposes the project law creating a tax of two cents on each bunch of fruit that is exported, imports destined to the benefit of the public schools of the Atlantic Coast and to the service of sanitation of the whole republic. ¶ I am now willing to defend the project in reference, not from having any person of particular interest in the matter, but that it leads to welfare of all. ¶ It is an established fact that taxes in general constitute the foundation that guarantees the march of any administration; and for this to be efficient in its cause the revenues must be proportionally levied and figured on a just base. ¶ Money is one of the dominant factors in government; and to be deprived of same there would be no provisions affording us the necessary means of communication, roads, railways etc. The good legislator uses his common sense in harmonizing the interest of key section of the country with the interest of the whole nation. ¶ The coffee producing centres of Managua and Carazo contribute greatly to the revenues of the nation being taxed at 1.25 cents per quintal, seemingly rather excessive. The same we must admit of the different rich nature of sources of our land, sugar, cattle, tobacco and other things cultivated. ¶  The Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua is the richest section of the republic in which for many years, the banana industry has been prosperous, millions of bunches are being exported year after year and millions of dollars go in deposit to the safes of the different corporations. ¶ The banana trade of the Coast is in the hands of foreign enterprises that cultivate large tracts of our precious lands transforming them into banana plantations. ¶ Native planters are backed up in some way or the other by these companies, providing them with funds or other facilities to advance the development of their properties, to receive some time after enormous profits in exchange of this apparent kindness to them. ¶ Let us(?) (?) also that the native planters in their minority scarcely count with their own capital to promote the industry of the fruit. The companies, shipping out bananas to the markets of the United States, get favorable (?) their dealings, allowing them thus to add occasionally heavy profits to their investments. ¶ And don’t forget that the foreigners are the consumers that stand the tax and not the Nicaraguans that sell the article. Without further consideration, let us all move in favour of our revenues. As the South and Central American countries are steadily increasing their incomes from the collections of taxes on banana exportation, and why should our government remain without the aid of an income that is just and compensated by the constant use of our lands that are daily decreasing in fertility? Our Coast needs schools and sanitation. The nationalization of the Coast would practically be impossible without money, neither would there be any possibilities for schools, roads nor facilities for trade. All our natural sources are taxed and now the banana turn has come. Neither administration nor progress can (?) away without the support that taxes afford. The products of the tax on bananas will create a fund a part of which is intended to remain on the Coast. It is a question of necessity and not an imposition taken. ¶ [Commentary by Dr. Alfred Hooker:]  Why Bite The Hand That Feeds You.  ¶ Demagogic rhetoric he influenced the mind of his parliamentary colleagues to vote on the banana tax which will in time ruin the Nicaraguan planters only, because certain foreign concessionaires are exempted from this tax, and the Creoles too, by virtue of the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty, which specifically states: the government (Nicaragua) will submit to the National Assembly a law exempting for fifty years, from the date of the ratification of this Treaty all the Mosquito Indians and the Creoles born before the year 1894, from military services, and from all direct taxation on their persons, property, possessions animals and means of subsistence. ¶ When the speech of Senator Castellon is stripped of all its verbiage it is readily detected that it was invidiously aimed at foreign capital, the hand that feeds us. ¶ In sparring for his opening he stressed the necessity for schools in an appealing manner as if the country has no appropriation for schools. This is always a large sum, but heretofore a large part goes for dummies. Now if graft is checked in this appropriation we will be able to get better schools and equipment. ¶ He speaks of money as the dominant factor for the successful administration of government. Every school boy knows this. But what about the more than one million dollars a year collected for duties and excise taxed from the Coast with a population of about 30,000 inhabitants? ¶ If Senator Castellon wanted to be equitable in respect to the Coast he would have questioned how much is spent for civic improvements after collecting such a disproportionate sum, when the rest of the country is considered. ¶ He discussed about sanitation. Is not Rockefeller, foreigner, helping us by his generous munificence? And yet our Senator directs his argument against foreign capital. Why not see that Congress refund the Municipality of Bluefields its Custom Charges and see that the funds are used for sanitation. “The Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua is the richest part of the republic”, he said. Rich with what? Swamps and jungles, yes—with plenty of mosquitoes, too. Will Senator Castellon kindly let us know which Nicaraguan from the Interior every migrated from there to here and returned o the Interior rich from honest speculation. The Coast may be a better field for the laborer, but never for the business man. He further added, “Millions of bunches of bananas are being exported year after year”. Why did he not consult a statistical record for the exact figures? In 1927 the whole country exported 2,386,191 bunches, much less than 1925. Why did not Senator Castellon question the reason the exportation decreased? Why did he not question” How is it Jamaica, a small island which can hold in Lake Granada, exported, in 1927 21 million bunches, and after over 40 years cultivation Nicaragua can only export 2 million? The answer would be the Jamaica government protects the planter and what he produces. But the Nicaraguan government tries to ruin the planter with tax when he pleads for relief after a devastating flood. ¶ Persuasively he convinced his colleagues that the foreign investors are making millions of dollars on their investments. Where did he get his data from to assert so authoritatively? ¶ We are sure that the Bluefields Division of the Cuyamel Fruit company is a drag on the Company, because there is not enough volume of business here to make money. ¶ We are sorry that for the want of space we cannot make an exhaustive criticism of the Senator’s speech, but we will hint to him:--the secret of a country’s prosperity is to put the people to work, because a rich people make a rich government. But never by tax, and more tax."

2.    26 January 1929. 

The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.  

3.    26 January 1929. 

The Bluefields Weekly, p. 3.

4.    26 January 1929. 

The Bluefields Weekly, p. 4.   "12 Negroes Honored for Achievements. ¶ Twelve awards aggregating $3,000 in cash and medals in recognition of outstanding creative work by negroes of America in the arts, education, religion and business were announced by the Harmon Foundation with the opening of the foundation’s yearly exhibit of fine arts by negroes in International House. The prizes constituted the third year series of the Harmon Foundation’s awards for distinguished achievement among negroes. ¶ Archibald J. Motley Jr. , Chicago painter, won a gold medal and $400 for the “Octoroon Girl” and other paintings. Mrs. May Howard Jackson of Washington, received the bronze award and $100 for work in sculpture, especially her plaster bust of Dean Kelly Miller of Howard University. ¶ For “power, skill and originality in both poetry and prose,” Claude McKay formerly of New York, was the recipient of a gold medal and $400 in literature because of his “Harlem Shadows”, adjudged to ”voice in tragic forms many of the deeper feelings of the modern negro”, and for his “Home to Harlem” with its pictures of certain phases of negro life”. Nela (?) Imes of 2588 Seventh Avenue, New York, received a bronze medal and $100 for literary achievement shown in her novel, “Quicksand” ¶ Award for Insurance Man. S.W. Rutherford of Washington received a gold award and $400 “for his sound management and leadership “ in business through the National Benefit Life Insurance Company, of which he is secretary and business manager. He was shown to have developed his company from a small sick benefit association with a capital stock in 1898 of $3,000 into a legal reserve life insurance company with $75,000,000 in policies in force, owned and operated exclusively by negroes and employing more than 1,500 fields workers in addition to 300 men and women in its home office. Frederick Massiah of Philadelphia received a bronze medal and $100 in business for “outstanding work in building engineering, especially concrete construction”. ¶ In religious service awards carrying gold medals and $400 each were made to the Rev. Dr. L.K. Williams of Chicago and the Rev. James S. Russell of Lawrenceville, Va. Dr. Williams…..(?) in America and with leadership of negro Baptists in this country through the National Baptist Convention, Inc. The seventy-one-year old Lawrenceville man, Archdeacon of the Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia, was praised for “outstanding work as a missionary minister and administrator in the development of church missions and a parish school in Virginia. ¶ YMCA worker Honored. ¶ The Rev. Channing Tobias of 347 Madison Avenue, new York, a secretary of the National Council of the young men’s Christian Association, received a bronze medal and $100 for work among negro men and boys in that association. ¶ Monroe N. Work of Tuskegee Institute won a gold medal and a $400 honorarium in education for ‘Scholarly research and educational publicity through his periodic compilation and publication of the Negro Year Book” and his “Bibliography of the negro in Africa and America.” John M. Gandy, president of the Virginia State College, Ettricks, Va., received the bronze award and $100 for developing his institution to “A” rating. ¶ J. Harold Brown, musical director at Attacks High School, Indianapolis, Ind. Received the bronze award for “earnestness of his work and its wide range, especially in orchestration.” No award was made for scientific work this year. ¶ Among those receiving honorable mention is Albert Alexander Smith son of the chauffeur of Ralph Pulitzer, publisher of The World. Smith now is studying in Europe. Other new Yorkers winning mention were Melvin Gray Johnson, James L. Allen and E.T. McDowell. ¶ Judges of the award were Charles A. Curran, Mrs. Meta Warrick fuller, Karl Illuva and Edward Tilton. The show will be open daily Ja. 3 to 15, from 11 AM to 9:30 PM."

26 January 1929.
Minutes of the Meetings of the Provincial Board, Bretheren Grossman, Danneberger & Shimer, Moravian Church.  
"Present: Brethren Grossmann, Danneberger and Shimer. ¶ ANNOUNCEMENTS. ¶ Superintendent Grossmann made the following announcements: ¶ Dedication of Churches: Walpatara September 19th, present Brethren Grossman and Stortz; Bilwas Karma December 9th, present Brethren Danneberger, Haglund and Grossmann; Raya Bank November 14th, present Brother Stortz; Layasiksa November 18th, present Brethren Newton and Medley Wilson; Irlaya January 6th, present Brother Stortz. ¶ Critical Visits. The superintendent took part in the dedication of the Bilwas Karma church referred to above and in January visited Dakura and Sandy Bay. ¶ G. K. Smith to Bilwi. Brother G. K. Smith arrived in Bilwi from Karata the end of October and at once took up his work as Assistant Pastor of that congregation. ¶ K. Bregenzer to Musawas. Brother Karl Bregenzer and family arrived in Musawas sometime during November. Brother Bregenzer reached the village for the first time on November 4th but made several trips for his furnishings before he took his family from Waspuk Mouth, a village on the Wangks River whither they had been brought by motor boat. ¶ PURCHASE OF JUNG HOME. ¶ Mr. F. Jung, who about five years ago built a house on leased Mission property very close to other mission buildings, is returning to Germany to remain, and in accordance with the terms of his lease has given the Mission first preference in buying the property. His letter outlining the terms follows: ¶ ‘Bluefields, Nicaragua, January 11, 1929. ¶ Rev. C. Conrad Shimer, Treasurer, ¶ Moravian Mission, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Dear Brother Shimer: ¶ Referring to our conversation re the sale of my house with the furniture, I beg to make you the following proposition: ¶ My house completed represented to me an outlay of approximately Eight Thousand Dollars ($8,000.00) although built at a time when conditions were for more favorable than at present, and under circumstances which enabled me to obtain first-class materials and labor as a considerable saving compared to present day costs. ¶ I now offer this building to the Mission for Six Thousand Dollars ($6,000.00), of which I would like to get in Cash Fifteen ¶ Signed Guido Grossman (Chairman) ¶ Conrad Shimer (Secretary)"

1.    26 January 1929.
Despatch from British Charge d'Affaires Mr. S. London, Managua, to Foreign Office, London UK, Public Record Office, p. 1.  
"Sir, ¶ With reference to my telegram No 2 of today’s date I have the honour to transmit herewith a copy and translation of the law imposing an export tax on bananas. ¶ 2. As an economic measure this law seems to be singularly ill–advised. The situation of the banana industry on the Atlantic Coast is far from flourishing and the imposition of such a tax might well lead to one or more of the banana companies abandoning the country. It is, however, not yet certain that the law will be enforced. Although Article 5 stipulates that the law is to come into force immediately on its promulgation in the official Gazette (on the 21st instant), it seems that under the Financial Plan the consent of the American bankers is necessary, and my American colleague informs me that he has referred the law to the State Department at Washington for submission to the bankers. ¶ 3. As to the particular point raised in my telegram, I enclose herewith copy of a semi-official letter which I have just received from Mr. Consul Rees (the two cuttings from ‘The Bluefields Weekly’ which are also enclosed have no direct bearing on that point). Mr. Rees, it will be observed, considers that the new tax is a ‘direct tax’ on the natives of the Coast ‘for about 70% of the bananas produced are raised by independent planters’ . . . "

2.    26 January 1929.
Despatch from British Charge d'Affaires Mr. S. London, Managua, to Foreign Office, London UK, Public Record Office, p. 2.  
" . . . By far the greatest part of the bananas exported are exported by one or other of the American Companies, the Cuyamel Fruit Company and the American Fruit Company at Bluefields and the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company (Standard Fruit) at Puerto Cabezas. It is on these exporting companies that the tax will primarily fall, and I fail to see how a tax levied on an American exporting company can be regarded as a ‘direct tax’ on the native planter from whom the company has bought its bananas. On the other hand I believe that some small quantities of bananas are occasionally exported by independent planters, and if such planter-exporters are Mosquito Indians or Creoles within the meaning of Article III (a) of the Harrison-Altimirano Treaty, then the levy of a tax on their exports might perhaps be regarded as a violation of the intention of that article. Some days ago, before I had seen the actual text of the law, I mentioned the matter in conversation with the Minister for Foreign Affairs and expressed the hope that the provisions of Article III (a) would not be overlooked. I did not, however, go into any detail, nor did I think it advisable to make any formal representations without your concurrence. ¶ 4. I am forwarding a copy of this despatch to the Majesty’s Consul at Bluefields and am asking him (see enclosure No 6) to endeavor to ascertain what proportion of the total banana exports are . . . "

3.    26 January 1929.
Despatch from British Charge d'Affaires Mr. S. London, Managua, to Foreign Office, London UK, Public Record Office, p. 3.  
" . . . exported by independent planters entitled to protection under the Treaty. I am instructing him to send a copy of his reply direct to Your Department. A copy of this dispatch is also being sent to His Majesty’s Minister at Guatemala. ¶ I have the honour to be, ¶ With the highest respect, ¶ Sir, ¶ Your most obedient, ¶ Humble Servant, ¶ Manfield Larsen"

27 January 1929 (1909).
Radiogram from CO Aviation Managua to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  

29 January 1929 (1100).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  

30 January 1929.
Statement of Captain Clyde P. Matteson, U.S.M.C., p. 1.  
"STATEMENT OF CAPTAIN CLYDE P. MATTESON, U.S.M.C. ¶ Sr. Julio Monterrey, Jues de Mesta, is an influential planter living at Pal Punta, about 25 miles above El Gallo on the Grande River, and below San Pedro. ¶ Having been educated at Baton Rouge Military Academy, he speaks English and understands the manners of our personnel. His influence has contributed tremendously to the successful control and indoctrination of the inhabitants of the upper Rio Grande Valley. Thru his acquaintance with Mercedes Reyes, Comandante at San Pedro, the obtaining of boatmen and boats was punctiliously accomplished. He used his own boats and men to perform errands, and to transport troops and supplies on the trip that established the outpost at Quepi. One of these boats was destroyed but Sr. Julio Monterrey was paid for it. The boatmen were paid for their services. He stated that he desired no remuneration. ¶ Two patrols were taken by me to this place, and he assisted me in the examination of trails leading from his place, toward San Pedro and toward Sicsicwas Creek. ¶ I believe that Sr. Monterrey was paid for all direct outlay, for the use of his men and boats, food for boatmen, which he had collected for me, receipts having been obtained and turned in to the A. Q. M. He never mentioned and even refused remuneration for his personal services, stating that the presence of the marines was sufficient for that. ¶ I recall the following incident having been related by him to me. ¶ Upon the return of a river patrol to San Pedro under 2nd Lieutenant Milo R. Carrol, U.S.M.C., a stop was made at Sr. Morrey’s [Monterrey's] home. The patrol had lost its food, equipment and outboard engine in the rapids below San Pedro. Sr. Morray [Monterrey] gave them food and shelter and the sum of eleven dollars ($11.00) as a loan to Lt. Carrol. No remuneration for these was received by him. ¶ Sr. Morrey [Monterrey] cooperated whole heartedly with the marines at all times and was ever friendly to them, but all expense to which he was put while the operations were under my supervision have been repaid to Sr. Morrey [Monterrey]. No unfilled promise to Sr. Morrey [Monterrey] was made by me. ¶ I recommend that Sr. Morrey [Monterrey] be commended for his cooperation, and that if he has any other claims for services, they be submitted in the customary manner. ¶ CLYDE P. MATTESON."

30 January 1929.
Statement of Captain Clyde P. Matteson, U.S.M.C., p. 2.  
 Statement of Sr. Julio Monterrey. 

31 January 1929 (1525).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   


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