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the atlantic coast thru 1927, p. 4
july 13 - sept 8, 1927

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE FOURTH PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE PERIOD THROUGH 1927 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 58 days from July 13 to September 8.

     The after-effects of the civil war continue rippling throughout the region. Cabo Gracias a Dios businessman Albert Fagot's lawyer in Bluefields, Leónidas Segundo Mena, writes of being imprisoned for 59 days in August-September 1926 by the Conservative Chamorro-Díaz regime, and his predicament of not being able to represent his client's interests because of his imprisonment without trial or hearing. Albert Fagot, it turns out, was in the midst of a lawsuit against one Señor Ibarra dating back to the early 1920s. These facts shed considerable light on the pre-1927 life of Albert Fagot, who later became a key cultural intermediary between the Marines and the Miskitu along the Río Coco. The Aug. 5 letter from H. E. Fagot of Puerto Cabezas adds another piece to the puzzle. Meanwhile the business of the USA continues to be business, as Consul McConnico's 12-page report of July 13, "Trade Promotion Work at Bluefields" makes plain. There are many fascinating documents here, including George Napoleons' from the Neptune Mine (8 Aug); Henry Spears' to the department's jefe político and the US consul (17 Aug); and C. L. Veitch's letter describing a series of fires at Bragmans Bluff and labor conditions there and elsewhere in the region (Aug 27). Kendall's intelligence reports are also well worth reading (8 Sept).

     As before, there is an enormous amount going on here, and aside from rumors, none of it has to do with Sandino.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"TRADE EXPANSION.  ¶  The commercial and other work of the Bluefields Consulate is entirely under the control of the Consul. When trade inquiries and other letters are received they are classified by him and delivered to the clerk for record, after which they are returned to him for consideration.  He either dictates replies to the clerk, or in some instances, writes the reply for the clerk to copy.  His sources of information are based upon inquiries submitted to leading merchants and importers; upon the records of the consulate, reports of the Collector of Customs at El Bluff and the Collector General of Customs at Managua, and the Nicaragua Customer Tariff.  All correspondence, including trade letters, is signed by the Consul, there being no other officer to whom such authority could be delegated, the office force consisting of a consul and a clerk.  ¶  According . . . "

2.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . According to the records of the consulate, 24 American salesman visited the consulate during the last calendar year, and to date.  They constituted practically all of such representatives calling at Bluefields, some of them twice a year.  Most of them were quite familiar with the district, having made trips to this section repeatedly.  Their main purpose was to ascertain facts as to the political and economic situation . ¶  No Forms No. 244-Revised were issued during the calendar year or to date.  There is but little traveling done by business men of this section.  Those, who have gone, had a definite object in view; that is, to meet some business man of New Orleans in regard to a particular business matter.  ¶  Sixty-eight World Trade Directory Reports were submitted during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1927.  Efforts are made to keep them up to date by consulting the concerns upon whom reports are made, and by seeking information from the local bank and other reliable firms.  ¶  Reports concerning concrete results of trade extension work have been forwarded to the Department annually at the end of each fiscal year.  ¶  No American importers maintain main or branch offices in the district, but seven American exporters maintain branch offices.  Five of them are mahogany companies; two, banana companies.  The two banana companies operate commissaries and import large quantities of merchandise and food products.  ¶  Six American firms of Bluefields represent 35 American exporters; and three other firms, six more American exporters.  Some firms also have the exclusive representation of certain American exporters, thus preventing local competitors from handling goods of similar brand.  ¶  No foreign . . . "

3.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
 " . . . No foreign manufactures maintain offices in the district.  One local commission house (R. Fransen and Company, Belgian) represents a number of European manufacturers.  This firm also represents several American exporters.  ¶  The practice of importers in the district is to purchase American merchandise on direct orders. Sometime the orders are placed through local commission houses, especially for food stuffs, and at times through traveling representatives.  ¶  No reports were submitted from this office during the last calendar year dealing with openings for American trade.  There were no opportunities for promoting trade.  Conditions were chaotic owing to hostilities and warlike activities most of the time.  There was a strong demand for rifles, cannon, and other munitions of war, and the demand could have served as a real opening for the sale of such manufacture had not statecraft dictated measures prohibiting such imports.  ¶  Foreign competition with American goods, except in a few particulars, is not very keen in this district.  English threads and teas are sold almost exclusively, and preference is given to the floor grades of English dress goods (cotton and silk), cassimeres, linens, Victoria lawns, and nainsooks.  English sweet biscuits, tinned and bottled preserves and meats are demanded in quantities.  ¶  German blankets, hosiery, and enameled ware, Italian hats and cottonades, French dress goods (cotton and silk), ribbons, hosiery, and fancy foodstuffs in tins are preferred to similar American products.  The average consumer contends that, for the price demanded, the foreign products mentioned are superior in quality or grade to those supplied by American exporters.  ¶  Fully 85 per cent. . . . "

4.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.  
" . . . Fully 85 percent of the imports into the district are of American origin or manufacture.  The district produces no manufactured goods; nor food products in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of the population.  It is compelled, therefore, to import all varieties of manufactured goods and most of the food products from abroad, the greater proportion from the United States.  The annual and quarterly reports, and those on concrete results of trade extension contain sections relating to imports from other countries and the preference given to them, especially the supplemental annual reports based upon the annual reports of the Collector General of Customs.  ¶  No countries enjoy preferential customer treatment in the district over the United States.  France at one time did, but the preferential rate no longer obtains.  Under a treaty with Honduras, certain Honduran products enjoy a preferential rate, but the imports from Honduras are negligible, not affecting the larger exporting countries.  The Department was no doubt informed years ago of the preferential rate enjoyed by Hondurans.  ¶  The local customs tariff is for the specific purpose of collecting revenue.  There are no domestic industries to be protected.  ¶  There is no prejudice in the district against American goods or American business methods.  The fact that the only steamer connection of the district is with the United States tends to direct all trade to the United States.  Importers realize that their orders can be filled more quickly, and readily prefer American products that meet with a ready demand.  Certain products, mentioned above, are imported from Europe owing to the local demand. In obtaining European products owing to the fact that there is no direct steamer service, delays are frequent.  ¶  The . . . "

5.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 5.  
" . . . The principal imports from the United States are: Food products; staple cotton goods; machinery for saw mills, railways, sugar mills, mines and other classes of machinery and electrical appliances; paints and varnishes; oils, gasoline and kerosene; hardware and cutlery; drugs and chemicals; shoes and leather goods; paper and paper products.  These constitute approximately 85 percent of the imports into the district and are valued at $2,000,000 annually.  ¶  The exports from the district, all of which are absorbed by the United States are: Mahogany, cedar, bananas, gold and alloys, coconuts, rubber, turtles, silver, valued at approximately $3,000,000 annually.  ¶  BANKING . . . "

6.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 6.  
" . . . BANKING INSTITUTIONS.  ¶  The one banking institution of the district, a branch of Banco Nacional de Nicaragua with headquarters at Managua, is located at Bluefields.  It buys and sells exchange on New York and New Orleans at one-fourth of one percent, and makes collections for one-half of one percent.  The rate of interest usually demanded is 12 percent, but higher rates varying from 18 to 24 percent are demanded by individuals.  According to the estimate of the local bank, 200,000 cordobas and 100,000 American dollars are in circulation in the district.”  (Annual Report for 1926, Page 6, forwarded to the Department on March 26, 1917.)  ¶  The growing importance of Puerto Cabezas as a port and as a center for the importation and distribution of merchandise and the exportation of bananas and pine lumber warrants the establishment of a banking institution there.  The large circulation of American currency in the district is due to the fact that the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company at that port finds it necessary to import American currency to carry on its operations, there being no banking facilities in that section of the district.  ¶  The banking facilities at Bluefields are sufficient, and trade conditions do not warrant the establishment of another institution.  ¶  Information as to the lack of banking facilities at Puerto Cabezas was given in the following reports: Annual Report for 1925, forwarded March 31, 1926; Quarterly Report for March, 1926, forwarded April 13, 1926; and Quarterly Report for June, 1926, forwarded July 10, 1926.  ¶  There are no local laws or regulations discriminating against American Banks.  As a matter of fact Banco Nacional de Nicaragua is dominated by American interests.  ¶  TRANSPORTATION . . . "

7.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 7.  
" . . . TRANSPORTATION.  ¶  The Cuyamel Fruit Company maintains a weekly service between New Orleans and Bluefields, its ships sailing at Cienfuegos, Cuba, on their southbound trips.  Through this company practically all of the imports into Bluefields are transported.  ¶  The Standard Fruit Company maintains a 15-day service between New Orleans and Puerto Cabezas, transporting such merchandise at is demanded at that port.  ¶  These two companies are the only ones connecting the Bluefields Consular District with the outside world.  They maintain their services primarily to return with cargoes of bananas to the United States, engaging in freight and passenger service from New Orleans as a mere side issue.  Their ships are of Nicaraguan and Honduran registry.  ¶  The Munson line provided ships during the last mahogany season ended June 20, 1927, as such periods as demands were made for exporting mahogany and cedar logs. About 30 of this company’s ships called during the season, nine of them being of American registry, the others, English, Norwegian and Danish registry.  This was rather unusual, for ships of American registry do not usually sail at ports of eastern Nicaragua.  Small coastal vessels of Panama and Honduras registry connect the Bluefields district with ports of Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama.  ¶  It is not likely that an opportunity will be afforded for an increase of American participation in such transportation, when such companies as the Cuyamel Fruit Company, the Standard Fruit Company, and the Munson Line deliberately make use of ships of registry other than American.  There are no foreign shipping combinations hostile to American participation in the carrying trade, but it appears that there is a concerted demand on the part of American interests controlling the export trade of the district to employ ships of foreign registry, possibly because the operations costs are less.  ¶  The American . . .

8.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 8.  
"The American ships, as well as the other ships of the Munson Line, arrived from such American ports as New York, Philadelphia, New Orleans, always in ballast, and returned with cargoes of mahogany and cedar to New York, New Orleans, and Philadelphia.  During the past fiscal year the American proportion was about one third, usually it is nothing.  ¶  CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE . . . "

9.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 9.  
" . . . CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE.  ¶  There are no chambers of commerce, boards of trade, or similar organizations in the district.  ¶  TRADE AND . . . "

10.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 10.  
" . . . TRADE AND STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS AND CATALOGUES.  ¶  American Trade and statistical newspapers, review, and catalogues are received and kept on file in a separate room of the consulate, and are available to visitors.  They are, however, seldom consulted, possibly five times within the past three years.  The publications are made readily available to visitors for reference by being classified and segregated.  Old issues are given to persons who may ask for them; merchants and others.  ¶  PREPARATION OF . . . "

11.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 11.  
" . . . PREPARATION OF REPORTS.  ¶  In the preparation of reports and trade letters information is obtained from individuals and organizations.  For instance the Cuyamel Fruit Company’s manager is consulted in reference to sections pertaining to banana cultivation and exports; the managers of the mahogany companies, when information is desired regarding the mahogany industry.  The same applies to gold mining and the production of coconuts, the managers of such concerns always being consulted.  The only publications relied upon are the reports of the Collector General of Customs, there being no local publications supplying statistical information of commercial value or weight.  When statistics and excerpts from reports of the Collector General of Customs are used they are accompanied with full and interpretative comments.  ¶  TRADE COMPLAINTS . . . "

12.   13 July 1927.
"Trade Promotion Work At Bluefields" (No. 181), Report by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 12.  
" . . . TRADE COMPLAINTS.  ¶  During the past calendar year, and to date, no complaints have been received at the consulate from any of the foreign merchants of Bluefields against American firms.  No complaints have been submitted to the Department.  ¶  During the past calendar year, and to date, three complaints have been brought to the attention of the consulate by American firms against foreign merchants. In one case, through the efforts of the consulate, the claim was adjusted; another case is being litigated; and a third was an outlawed claim which no lawyer of Bluefields would undertake to collect.  ¶  The consulate has therefore had but limited opportunity in using its services in the amicable settlement of trade disputes; and cannot assert that its efforts have resulted in increased prestige to American trade in the district."

1.   1 August 1927.
Letter from Leónidas Segundo Mena, Abogado, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Señor Consul de los Estados Unidos de Norte America  ¶  Ciudad  ¶  Muy señor Mio:  ¶  Con instrucciones de mi mandante don Albert Fagot, de quien soy apoderado generalísimo, me permite exponer a Ud lo siguiente, para que sea trasmitido al señor Ministro de los Estados Unidos en Managua, a fin de que este algo funcionario conozca la queja – que ante él, hace, por falta de justicia en los tribunales comunes de Nicaragua, respecto a un juicio que le promovió por suma de pesos córdobas, el señor Carlos Hernalde Ibarra, en el lugar de su domicilio, la Comarca de Cabo Gracias a Dios. Ante el señor Juez de Distrito de ese lugar, el señor Ibarra, demandó por suma de pesos córdobas a don Alberto Fagot, representante que fue de la Sociedad “The Albert Fagot & Co.”  Cuya demanda fue iniciada el año de 1925.  Fallado el juicio llegó por apelación de Fagot a la Corte de Apelaciones de Bluefields el 27 de febrero de 1926 --- Me presentó dentro del termino legal a ese Tribunal de Apelaciones, como apoderado del señor Fagot, mejoré el recurso, y presenté mi escrito expresando agravios, que contestó la parte contraria, quedando asi el juicio en estado de sentencia.  En el mes de agosto de 1926, me pusieron en prisión é incomunicado, y asi, no me fue posible atender en ninguna forma mis asuntos, en cuenta, el de Mister Fagot.  Estuve 59 dias preso en Bluefields, durante los cuales, no me dieron permiso ni para asistir a la gravedad de una de mis chiquitas, pero ni una sola vez. Estando en prisión, me sacaron por la fuerza de Blue-- . . . "

2.   1 August 1927.
Letter from Leónidas Segundo Mena, Abogado, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . fields, embareandome inesperadamente, en dos minutos, sin ropa y sin despedirme siquiera de mi familia.  Ya ausente yo, fallaron el asunto de mi representado señor Fagot, en su centra, el dia 30 de Noviembre de 1926, a las diez de la mañana, y por gestiones continuadas de la contra-parte señor Ibarra, que andaba en ese entonces como uno de los jefes militares del Gobierno de don Adolfo Diaz, en el vapor el “Leon del Mar”.  Me notificaron por esquela en mi oficina que estaba cerrada; pero al tener noticias de esa esquela en mi esposa, se le comunicó a mi hermano, el señor Notario Publico don Julio C. Mena, (de filiacion conservadora) quien inmediatemente y dentro del termino legal, interpuso como agente oficiosos de don Alberto Fagot, recurso de casacion contra el fallo, expresando los motivos por que se presentaba como agente oficioso; pues yo estaba ausente, y el señor Fagot reside en el Cabo de Gracias a Dios. Viende la justicia del hecho, ésta Corte de Apelaciones admitió el recurso, y envié los autos ante la Corte Suprema de Justicia, la cual no le dio entrada al recurso, por decir: que habiendo apoderado constituido en los autos, no era el caso de agencia oficiosa, negandose asi, a conocer del asunto fallado contra el señor Fagot.  ¶  Ahora, la Agencia oficiosa, esta permitida en nuestros leyes, para casos urgentes y que paren perjuicios a uno de las partes; y sino cabe en el caso presento? cuando entonces tendra cabida?  Yo, estaba ausente, pues el Gobierno de don Adolfo Diaz me sacó por la fuerza de esto lugar.  Y don Alberto recide en el Cabo de Gracias.- Debido a este, y observando mi hermano el Notario don Julio C. Mena el perjuicio que le venia a don Alberto, si no se pedia casacion ante la Suprema, obtó por presentarse como agente oficioso conforme lo prescribe la ley; y aunque aqui le tuvieron como tal- La Corte Suprema lo rechaza y devuelve el juicio para que se ejecute la sen- . . . "

3.   1 August 1927.
Letter from Leónidas Segundo Mena, Abogado, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . -tencia contra Fagot,-  Lo cual, equivale que a este señor le saquen su dinero del bolsillo, porque no se lo hace justicia, y se lo obliga, por la fuerza de los hechos apuntados a pagar; sin admitirle su completa defensa.  ¶  Creo justo que el señor Ministro interponga su valiosa influencia a favor de don Alberto Fagot, porque no se le ha hecho justicia, y de hecho se obliga a cumplir con una sentencia que tenia recurso de casacion; y le fue negado, no obstante de haberlo puesto en debida forma y tiempo.  ¶  Cumplo asi las instrucciones de mi mandante, y me suscribe con todo respeto y consideracion, del señor Consul, muy atentamenta S.S.  ¶  (signed) Leónidas S. Mena"

5 August 1927.
Letter from H. E. Fagot, Puerto Cabezas, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
"Please be advised that I was born 22nt. day of July 1881 in New Iberia La. U. S. A. and resided in the United State up to the year 1909. I am therefore an American. And whereas it seems that I have not had due proction (sic) in this Country as an American, I wish to state that, on the 19th. day of July 1927, three thieves entered my store and stole from me upwards of $3600.00 and that the thieves have confest to the Comandante of this Port, having stollen my money, however it seems that no sever measures have been used on the part of the authorities to compell the thieves to return the stollen money as I have prosecuted the parties, and they are going to be sent to Bluefields for trial, would be greately oblige to you if you would kindly take such steps, as to compell them to return the money.  ¶  I am sure that if they are being turned over to the American Comander, he will use sever measures to compell them to return the money.  ¶  Thanking you in advance, mean while beg to remain,  ¶  Yours very truly.  ¶  (signed) H. E. Fagot"

8 August 1927.
Letter from George A. Napoleon, Neptune Mine, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
"Dear Sir:  ¶  Mr Warnick left here July 9th for the States. His reason for going he told me was to procure the necessary supplies and foodstuff which Mr. Springer refused to send.  Mr Springer has a contract (see mining code-Aviador) to furnish mine with foodstuff and supplies.  ¶  Mr Warnick left me in full charge of the mine and its affairs.  He instructed me to send bullion to Mr Springer and to pay Mr Springer's account.  Mr Springer has now sent Mr Skaling to take over this property and affairs without sending me a court order, or the courtesy of a letter, neither has he sent money to liquidate the labourers.  Mr Skaling has brought two thousand dollars to pay for work that laborers will do for him after he has received the property from me.  When Mr Warnick left here he instructed me to get what foodstuff and supplies I could around here and if money did not come in I was to settle with gold.  ¶  Mr Skaling came here with Mr Springer's brother in law who is to act as Police Inspector and forcibly if necessary take over the mine and turn it over to Skaling.  Skaling states that Mr Springer has been appointed receiver by Court but he has no documents with which to prove it here.  ¶  I will deliver the mine and affairs of Bonanza Mines Company to him if forced to by the Police Inspector, under written protest, or upon him presenting me with proper papers.  I am bringing this to your attention so as to protect myself from all responsibilities.  ¶  There is a Chinese merchant in Tunky who came in yesterday to find out what was going on.  He had been notified to do so but Juan Pong of Sun Hing Long, Bluefields, they are one of the largest creditors of the Company and although Mr Springer had stated to others that he had been appointed “Interventor” by creditors (Juan Fong) knew nothing about it.  ¶  I cannot understand if Mr Springer is acting under his Aviador's contract, as Power of Attorney of the Company, or for some other interest. ¶  As this is American property I would like for you to look into the matter so as to avoid as much litigation as possible, and I do not want to be the goat.  Trusting you will give the matter your consideration I am,  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  (signed) George A. Napoleon"

10 August 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to C. Eberhardt, US Minister, Managua.  
"I am transmitting herewith a copy of a complaint received at this consulate on August 1, 1927, from Dr. Leonidas S. Mena, attorney for Mr. Albert Fagot, an American citizen residing at Cape Gracias, Nicaragua.  ¶  Mr. Fagot's son, Hugh, also called at the consulate with the lawyer to explain his father's case.  ¶  As will be noted by a perusal of the lawyer's statement Mr. Fagot has been denied justice in the courts of Nicaragua, and respectfully requests that representation be made in order that justice may be obtained.  ¶  If this is a case of which you can take cognizance your efforts in behalf of Mr. Fagot will be much appreciated."

14 August 1927.
Letter from George A. Napoleon, Neptune Mine, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
"Dear Sir:  ¶  Kindly have enclosed letter mailed to Mr. Warnick, I have not yet made the turn over of the mine to Mr Skaling who Springer sent, I would appreciate your advise regarding the matter. Springer's account has been materially reduced with shipments of bullion, No. 137, 138, 139.  His account to June 30 was $16.000. bricks No. 137, 138, 139 should produce $15,000.  He no doubt will charge all that he is now sending to Skaling on the account which will increase it again, but as he refused to send us supplies he has no right under his Aviador's contract.  These are only pointers I am giving you as I consider your advise in the matter will be valuable to me.  ¶  Thanking you in advance I am,  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  George A Napoleon"

15 August 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Wo Hing & Comnpany, Cukra Hill, Nicaragua, p. 1.  
"Gentlemen:  ¶  Your claim against the Nicaraguan Government for the destruction of property during the recent revolution was taken to Managua last week by Mr. Juan Pong.  ¶  Mr. Pong will present it to the Claims Commission which is now sitting and upon his return will inform you whether the Commission approved or disapproved it, or what other requirements may be necessary to complete your claim.  ¶  Yours very respectfully,  ¶  A. J. McConnico.  ¶  American Consul."

15 August 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Wo Hing & Comnpany, Cukra Hill, Nicaragua, p. 2.  
"Personal effects and property of TIO WONG, a Chinese citizen, which were taken forcibly by the Liberal troops at Bilway, Nicaragua, near Puerto Cabezas, on January 26, 1926.  ¶  Cash $323.00  ¶  3 Suits Clothes $85.00  ¶  6 Shirts $16.00  ¶  Blankets and bedding $15.00  ¶  1 Pair Shoes (new) $7.00  ¶  1 Trunk $12.00  ¶  1 Watch $8.00  ¶  1 Gold Ring $16.00  ¶  $482.00  ¶  (Signed) TIO WONG."

1.   17 August 1927.
Letter of Henry Spears, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, with copy & cover letter to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Dear Sir:  ¶  I enclose herewith copy of letter I am sending to the Jefe Politico, General Juan J. Estrada, which is self explanatory, with the exception that I give you a little more information as to the parties referred to in that communication.  ¶  Bordas, was appointed Governor of Cape Gracias in November, 1925, by General Emiliano Chamorro, after he had overthrown the government.  He having a sawmill in partnership with a German by the name of John Asmussen, he forced Indians who I had cutting logs from my lands, and for which they had received advance amounting to over $3,000.00, to bring the logs down to himself and Asmussen making it impossible for me to get hold of my property or collect my accounts, until after peace was established, at which time, I, with the authorities and Mr. Bordas, made an inspection of his lumber yard, and there found quite a lot of lumber with my registered brand on it.  I also have declarations from the Indians themselves stating that they sold my logs to Asmussen.  I at once embargoed (secuestrado) the logs, and was appointed the receiver (depositario) for the logs and lumber, amounting to some 400,000 feet, and after the arrival of the present Governor, he has permission Asmussen, without my knowledge or consent, to ship out considerably over 30,000 feet of this lumber, thereby doing nothing less than stealing my property the second time. I am, legally, held responsible for the entire amount on the yard and also that which has been shipped.  Bordas and Asmussen, both of whom are mixed up in family with the indians and understand their language, also having a member of mixed breeds who are ready to serve them, have made it their business to intercept the indians who are now trying to deliver logs to me to pay my accounts and advising them that all they have to do is to deny their accounts to the Governor and he will force me to turn the logs loose, which he has already done.  The indians being unable to write, it is the custom throughout the entire country to give them credit or advance for work they agree to perform without any documents of any nature.  I have worked mahogany camps and managed mahogany companies for the past 14 years, investing many millions through Mexico and all Central America and know their customs well, all of which can be verified by any mahogany man in this country.  The Governor to have a subterfuge behind which to hide, asked me for accounts or other documentary evidence to prove my account, and not being able to give this, forced me to deliver the logs back to the indians.  ¶  I have had this matter up through Lt. Connette here, and he has assured me that he had referred it to the Commander, but this being over a week ago, and not having received any news, I have decided to put the matter before the authorities and your good offices, hoping for some relief.  This is positive, I expect to return to the Cape about next Tuesday, the 23rd instant, and feel sure that if the Governor has not received instructions in this matter that he is going to try to permit further abuses and insults and robberies, and will be met with the proper material to defend my family, myself and my property.  It is impossible that I stand by and look on such malicious, criminal and cruel abuses and insults.  ¶  In the first place, the Governor is nothing but a very low type of drunkard, this can be proven by inquiring of any reliable person in Bluefields.  I will not . . . "

2.   17 August 1927.
Letter of Henry Spears, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, with copy & cover letter to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . go into detail over these matters, but you can investigate and find out that it is not wise to live in the same community with this class of person.  Instead of protecting, he is trying to kill.  If he remains there, I will be forced to abandon my business, for the moment at least . ¶  I may mention here, that the lands I control are not in my name, but are in the name of people who I represent, and are in perfect order and in conditions with the law.  ¶  Dr. Onofre Sandoval, who has been my lawyer for the past ten years will be glad to give you any information on this subject.  I am writing to him to look into this matter to try and save me further losses.  During the revolution, I have receipts for several hundred dollars that they took from my store, both sides, no doubt, by necessity, but nevertheless, is represents a big loss to me in my business.  I am preparing these receipts to present them to see if it is possible to recover a part of the amount, at least.  ¶  Trusting that you will see the influence of your good offices to give me some relief in this matter, I am, Very truly yours, . . ."

3.   17 August 1927.
Letter of Henry Spears, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, with copy & cover letter to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
"My dear Doctor:  ¶  I am writing Mr. McConnico, American Consul, also General Estrada about the abuses and insults that I have been forced to accept from the new Governor, Salavarri.  I have also mentioned to Mr. McConnico that you would be glad to explain the entire situation to him relative to the lands I represent, also as to the confessions, etc. in my matter against Asmussen.  ¶  Salaverri has permitted Asmussen to ship out several cargoes of pine lumber, even after I was appointed depositario of the lumber and logs secuesrados, even without my knowledge or consent, and I certainly would appreciate it if you would see both the Consul and General Estrada about this matter with a view of having some changes made for the benefit of the public in general.  ¶  Salaverri has committed many crimes against me, even to the extent of entering my private home, by force, breaking through the gates, shooting at some of the crew of my schooners, being drunk and raising a scandal in general. Is openly against me and my interests, illegally and criminally, and for the protection of my family, self and property, I feel sure that something should be done.  I have asked the American Consul to consult with the reliable people of Bluefields in order to get the facts as to the personal character of this young man they have appointed as Governor of the Cape.  ¶  I expect to sail from here about Tuesday for the Cape, and if you can assist me, I will certainly appreciate if very much.  ¶  With kindest regards, and assuring you of my appreciation, I am,  ¶  Sincerely yours, . . . "

4.   17 August 1927.
Letter of Henry Spears, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, with copy & cover letter to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.  
"Dear Sir:  ¶  The motive of this letter is to advise you of conditions that actually exist in Cape Gracias, at which place I have a business.  ¶  Governor Antonio Salaverri, who was presently sent to the Cape, has committed many crimes against myself and my interests, a part of which consists of the following:  ¶  The second day after his arrival there, at which time I was here in Puerto Cabezas looking after some business, he sent two armed policemen up to my sawmill, just above the Cape, knowing that there was no one except my daughter about 17 years of age, and who cannot speak Spanish, and a little native girl who works at the house, present when they arrived, Mrs. Spears with the baby being down at the Cape on an errand.  These two policemen went on a raft of my pine logs and started to measure them without even having the courtesy to inquire at the house if anyone was there to represent the premises.  My daughter asked them their business and was informed that they were there to measure my logs, she asked them to not interfere with the logs, but to wait until I returned from Puerto Cabezas, their answer what that they had instructions from the Governor to measure the logs, she insisted that they should not touch the logs, and finally when one of them stuck out his tongue at my daughter she presented a rifle and demanded they leave, one of them reached for his pistol at which time she drew this rifle and demanded that he do not touch his pistol, they finally left.  The Governor afterwards came up with several other men, none of whom were armed that could be seen, except the Governor had a pistol under his shirt, and after trying to measure the logs, they were finally convinced that it would not be allowed and they too returned to the Cape.  Mrs. Spears at once wired the Commander at Puerto Cabezas for protection against these abuses, and the Destroyer 314 went to the Cape and instructed the Governor not to send anyone to my mill until I returned.  ¶  I later returned to the Cape and was requested to come to the Gobernacion and was informed that an indian had made a complaint against me, which was, of course, a conspiracy among the enemies of mine.  I showed that the indian had owed me $11.70 since January 1925, which had been advanced him to cut logs for me.  His brother delivered the logs to me, had me measure them and one of his indian women, at his request, placed my hammer brand on the logs, but after consulting with certain enemies at the Cape, he would not receive the money for the logs, nor acknowledge the account of his brother, the owner of the logs.  The Governor accepted his denial against my word and ordered the logs removed from my mill, which was done under protest.  ¶  On Monday, August 6th, he refused to sign papers for the Schooner WINFIELD for no reason whatever, resulting in my holding the schooner over there for another day on account of my knowledge of his refusal only came to me when the schooner was being towed out and I had to have it returned with a tow boat to my wharf at my store and residence down at the Cape Bar.  The schooner being anchored about 12 feet from my wharf on account of shallow water in the river, the crew used the schooner’s [doing] as a means of going on my private wharf . . . "

5.   17 August 1927.
Letter of Henry Spears, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, with copy & cover letter to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 5.  
" . . . from the schooner.  The wharf leading from the sidewalk is fenced in and has a gate which is kept locked to prevent persons from entering my private home.  This night there was a negro dance given at the cantina of a negro Nathan Cole, his place being in close proximity to my house. The Governor along with several others attended the dance, became drunk and abusive, after the crew on the schooner Winfield left and entered my wharf, locked the gate and went aboard the schooner to sleep.  The Governor was making a great scandal in the street, cursing, and flourishing his pistol, telling everybody that they had better go to sleep.  One of the crew on board said something to someone about the scandal, without knowing who was actually doing it, the result was that the Governor called out from the sidewalk in front of my gate that he was the Governor and he did not want to hear another word out of any D------ S-- of a B-----, he then without further words, fired his pistol at the boat, the bullet passing through the gate post, where the hole still remains, after which he broke through my gate by force, tearing down the boards, and on board of the schooner, found one of the crew in the cabin, and began beating him over the head with his pistol, (blood still being on the floor of the cabin, and in the doorway) then forced the negro to go ashore, a regular stream of blood dropping along my private wharf, took him to jail, locked him up, left him there with the result that in the morning the negro had lost so much blood, he could hardly walk.  He finally called the negro from the jail to see how badly he was hurt, and told him to go, without placing any fine on him, which shows clearly that the negro had not committed any crime to justify such treatment. His head above his left eye was broken for about 2 inches, (the skin, of course) his left cheek bursted, his fingers on one hand brusted, evidently by trying to protect his head from the assault of the Governor, his arms bruised considerably.  ¶  He signed my papers that morning and sent them to me by the Customs Broker, and I have not seen him since.  ¶  He has given instructions to permit lumber shipped out by Mr. Asmussen, which lumber had been secuestred by me and I am still depositario for the lumber and this is a criminal act on the part of the authority.  The fact, as it stands today is as follows: After finding my lumber, with my registered brand on the ends of the pieces in the possession of Asmussen and Bordas (in their lumberyard) Mr. Bordas admitted it was mine; that he had bought it from some indians. His confession is a part of the documents now in the hands of the local Judge at the Cape.  The District Judge, Sr. Diaz has been at the Cape several days when I left there for this place on a business matter, and up to that time the Local Judge, who I understand is the father of the Governor, had not delivered to him the documents or papers in the matter of this secuestration, and after I left I received a cable from Mrs. Spears, which reads as follows: “Asmussen shipping your lumber”, showing that they were just waiting until my departure to commit this robbery.  I have never been advised that the secuestration has been raised, and know of no such act, and can only come to the conclusion that the Governor is permitting Asmussen to ship out my lumber illegally, and which in effect, is nothing more than robbery.  ¶  I am sending a copy of this complaint to the American Consul in Bluefields, and feel sure that you will give me some relief or guarantee for not only my property, but for the life of myself and family.  At this moment, I have none, all of which is shown by the above statement, which I can verify at any time you feel disposed to send a representative to investigate.  ¶  Assuring you that I deeply regret to find it compulsory to make this complaint, I am,  ¶  Very truly yours, . . . "

22 August 1927.
Statement of US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, re recent civil war & 3 merchant ships inabilty to load logs in Bluefields harbor from Sept. 10-20, 1926.  
"I, A. J. McConnico, Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua, do hereby certify that during the bombardment of El Bluff, Nicaragua, by the Liberal forces from September 10, to 20, 1926, three merchant ships arrived and anchored off the port with the object of taking cargoes of mahogany and cedar, but that they could not enter nor take any cargo and were therefore compelled to depart for other ports.  ¶  I further certify that I afterwards learned that one of the three ships was the S. S. MUNARDAN of the Munson Line; that it arrived on September 11, 1926, for the purpose of taking a cargo of mahogany and cedar for the Nicaragua Mahogany Company, the company’s logs then being in the lagoon ready for shipment; but, as stated, owing to actual hostilities the ship could not be entered and no logs could be loaded, so finally on September 16, 1926, the ship departed for another port.  ¶  IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of this consulate, this the 22nd day of August, 1927.  ¶  A. J. McConnico, ¶  Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua."

23 August 1927.
Statement of US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, re death of Vernon L. Childs, US citizen, in Bluefields, 6 Sept. 1927.  
"I, A. J. McConnico, Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua, and Executor of the Estate of VERNON L. CRILLS, do hereby certify:  ¶  That Vernon L. Crills, an American citizen, died in Bluefields, Nicaragua, on September 6, 1927;  ¶  That for several years prior to his death he had been engaged in the mercantile business on the Escondido River and its tributaries, using the gasoline houseboat LA OLA as his storehouse, thus carrying his goods and wares to his customers;  ¶  That the LA OLA was seized by Liberal forces on September 11, 1926, at a point called Loma de Nico on the Escondido River, as the boat was returning to Bluefields from its usual trip, and all the merchandise was confiscated and used, as evidenced by the accompanying vouchers signed by K. DUARTE, the Commanding Officer of the Liberal forces; that said houseboat was recovered by the American naval force on September 14, 1926, without the merchandise.  ¶  IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of this consulate, this the 23rd day of August, 1927.  ¶  A. J. McConnico,  ¶  Consul of the United States of America and Executor of the Estate."

25 August 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Mr. George A. Napoleon, c/o Bonanza Mines Company, Neptune Mine.  
"Sir:  ¶  Receipt is acknowledged of your letter of August 6, 1927, relating to Mr. Benjamin C. Warnick’s departure for the United States and Mr. Skaling’s arrival at the mine and his assumption of duties as manager at the instance of Mr. Henry F. Springer.  ¶  You are fully protected under the law by delivering the management of Mr. Skaling under protest. Mr. Skaling’s assumption of duties as manager, is, as I understand it, in conformity with the law for he has been delegated by Mr. Henry F. Springer who has a lien against the products of the mine to operate it until full payment is received.  ¶  Of course this is a matter which will have to be adjusted by the Court and one of which the Legation cannot take cognizance in its present stage.  ¶  Very respectfully yours,  ¶  A. J. McConnico, ¶  American Consul."

27 August 1927.  

Letter from C. L. Veitch, Manager, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Puerto Cabezas, to Standard Fruit Foreign Dept, New Orleans, p. 1.    "Gentlemen:  ¶  On Tuesday morning at 1 A.M., fire was discovered in one of our laborers baracones in the Spanish section.  This building was completely burned down and at that time we were under the impression that it was an accidental fire.  ¶  On Thursday morning at 2 A.M., fire was discovered on the inside of our rough lumber shed.  Only the quick response of our fire department, particularly the crew handling the foamite tank, saved our lumber shed.  An investigation shortly after the fire developed the fact that this was set, as the end of the lumber pile was saturated with kerosene, as a one gallon can containing a small quantity of kerosene, was found near this pile of lumber.  ¶  We immediately started investigating but as yet have not been able to find out any definite information but we have since received numerous rumors that the first fire, which we thought was accidental, was also intentional.  ¶  During the entire day Thursday we heard various rumors to the effect that there would be a third fire in all probability as Friday night, in celebration of the first anniversary of the battle of Puerto Cabezas.  We also received advice that this third fire was to be a signal of a general walk out of all of our laborers in the port We immediately got into communication with the U.S.S. TULSA at Bluefields and they arrived in port on Friday morning at 9:30.  ¶  Special guards from our American employees were placed on patrol duty Thursday night and Friday night.  Both nights were very quiet and no peculiar actions or movements of any one were noted but we are very much of the opinion that only the arrival of the TULSA in port Friday morning, saved us from further trouble on Friday night. . . . "

27 August 1927.  

Letter from C. L. Veitch, Manager, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Puerto Cabezas, to Standard Fruit Foreign Dept, New Orleans, p. 2.    " . . . Late Friday afternoon we received information from Father Grossman, who is in charge of the Moravian Mission at the place and a very good friend of the company’s, that two Indians, whom he had every reason to believe, had just arrived in port with the information that Sandino's army or a part of same were now located back of our Aubreyerri Farm or at the end of the old Aubreyerri Trail, waiting for Sandino and a few of his picked men to arrive, these latter having gone through the mining district in Pis Pis.  He also stated that information had been secretly passed through our farms to the effect that they were ready to recruit men and that there would be plenty of guns, ammunition and money to pay them.  ¶  We immediately got in touch with our Vava office and advised them to send out runners as far as the Aubreyerri Trail and see if there was any truth in this information and to also keep a very close watch as to the arrival of auspicious characters or new men on any of our farms and to keep us constantly advised.  ¶  During the cutting of the cargo for the S.S. KOSMOS we experienced some small strikes and passive resistance from our fruit cutters on Vava Farm, Aubreyerri Farm and Yulu Farm.  During the cutting for the S.S. VAVA these three farms worked without any trouble but we had a strike and passive resistance on Tungla, Limos and Vakiwas.  The reason given by the fruit cutters was the reduction we had made in the price of cutting but it may be possible that this was also encouraged by these rumors of Sandino coming this way with his army.  ¶  The TULSA is still in port and will probably remain here for several days, until more definite information can be obtained relative to the last rumors of Sandino.  ¶  We do not expect any trouble in port while the TULSA remains here but in all probability we will have some little difficulty should they return to Bluefields.  ¶  We are taking every precaution we possible can and all principal buildings and departments are now being watched by American employees during the entire night.  ¶  We will keep you fully advised as to any further developments.  ¶  Yours truly,  ¶  (Signed) C. L. Veitch  ¶  Manager."

29 August 1927.
Message from Munroe [Dana Munro ?], US Legation, Managua, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.   
"(True reading of Code Message received from the American Legation, Managua, September 29, 1927.)  ¶  AmConsul, Bluefields, September 29, 10 A.M.  ¶  Your September 28, 3 P.M.  Please report by mail regarding the facts upon which the suit against Fagot was based and also the date of the Supreme Court decision against him with any other information throwing light on the case.  ¶  MUNROE."

31 August 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Mr. George A. Napoleon, c/o Bonanza Mines Company, Neptune Mine.  
 "Sir:  ¶  Receipt is acknowledged of your letter of August 14, 1927, relating to the present difficulties of the Bonanza Mines Company.  ¶  As stated to you in my previous letter, it is my understanding, under the law that Mr. Henry F. Springer has the right to take possession of the mine and operate it until he receives payment in full for the supplies furnished to the Company.  ¶  Of course this is a matter that must be determined by the Laws of Nicaragua and it is not likely that the Legation will intervene until all resources at law has been exhausted.  ¶  The letter which you enclosed has been forwarded to Mr. Warnick.  ¶  Very respectfully yours,  ¶  A. J. McConnico,  ¶  American Consul."

2 September 1927.  

Letter from Jacobo Zelaya to P. Castilla, Manager, Standard Fruit Ceiba, Honduras.     "Dear Sir:  ¶  I have just overheard the conversation of a Spaniard who has just arrived from Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, who said among other things: that on that Coast the Nicaraguans were ready to rise against Americans and foreigners who are there on account of the bad treatment they receive from the latter, for they are not given light, water and other things which will be the cause of the uprising; that they have arms ready for the fight, some of which arms they took out of the river when the Yankees threw them there.  They are now fishing them out and hiding them in the woods by means of the Indians; that they are in communication with Sandino and a short while ago the presence of a small American warship prevented them from rising, that they are only waiting to be left alone to rise and throw themselves against the American marines and kill all the Americans they find and sack all the Company has there and then take to the mountains.  ¶  I am not giving you this news in expectancy of anything, but so you may know it and endeavor to investigate the truth and prevent anything unfortunate.  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  Jacobo Zelaya"

5 September 1927. 

Special weekly East Nicaraguan Coast information bulletin for the week ending 3 September, 1927, L. B. Green, USS Rochester, Special Services Squadron, Balboa, Canal Zone.    "1. The following report of information, messages and despatches are herewith quoted for your information:  ¶  BLUEFIELDS: No reports of any disturbances during elections.  Two squads under one N.C.O. sent to RAMA to preserve order at polling places.  ¶  John L. Medley, pvt., U.S.M.C., to be tried by general court martial on U.S.S. Cleveland: I DRUNKENESS; II CONDUCT TO THE PREJUDICE OF GOOD ORDER AND DISCIPLINE.  ¶  PRINSAPOLKA: No reports of any disturbances during elections.  One squad under one N.C.O. ordered to this town from detachment at PUERTO CABEZAS to preserve order during elections.  ¶  RIO GRANDE: Area all quiet.  ¶  EL GALLO: Area all quiet.  ¶  PUERTO CABEZAS:  ¶  Lieutenant Connette’s force augmented by (11) eleven marines from U.S.S. TULSA on 31 August.  This detachment was retuned aboard TULSA on 4 September.  It is reported that there is serious labor agitation in this town.  Two fires of incendiary origin occurred on property of Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company.  Efforts are being made to substantiate report that SANDINO is headed down RIO WAWA.  ¶  2. No personality reports are being enclosed with this week’s report.  ¶  L. B. GREEN, 2d, by direction."

1.   8 September 1927. 

Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.   "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the sub-headings as specified in the reference:  ¶  a. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED.  ¶  The Department of Bluefields is gradually returning to normal.  The animosity engendered by the revolution between the two political parties is decreasing.  ¶  The Department of Bluefields and the Territories of San Juan del Norte and Cabo de Gracias are in a generally peaceful state.  The presence of Sandino with a band of about 25 men was rumored in the vicinity of PIS PIS mines about two weeks ago but has not been confirmed as yet.  His presence was also rumored in the vicinity of La Cruz on Rio Grande about 10 days ago but it has also been impossible to confirm this.  Natives in the vicinity of Kukra Hill [Cukra Hill] and La Cruz on the Rio Grande are believed to be in possession of some arms but it has been impossible thus far to locate the deposits.  ¶  ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS FORCES.  ¶  The attitude of the conservative part of the population has always been favorable towards the force.  The Liberal element had up to the last month been unfavorably disposed towards the force as they held the force responsible for robbing them from the fruits of what they regarded as certain victory.  Of late the attitude of the Conservatives seem to be turning against the force as they realize that they will not get any of the immediate improvements that they expected such as good roads and schools, sanitation, and the Nicaraguan Canal.  On the other hand the Liberals are more . . . "

2.   8 September 1927. 

Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.   " . . . favorably disposed than before as they realize that the presence of the force here is all that they have to insure them a fair national election and the chance of getting in power that way.  ¶  c. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.  ¶  Economic conditions are improving throughout the district except in the place where the Indians are compelled to rely on their shotguns for their meat ration.  In such places the restrictions on sale of shotguns and ammunition is working a severe hardship on these people who rely on their shotguns to give them their meat supply as well as localities where persons need shotguns to protect their domestic animals and themselves in fact, from the depreciations of predatory animals such as the jaguars and serpents with which most localities in this district abound.  ¶  d. ATTITUDE OF PRESS.  ¶  The attitude of the press is tolerant both as regards the Liberal and Conservative native press, for the same reasons as set forth for the attitude of the civil population towards the forces. Formerly the Conservative press was actively in favor of the force and the Liberal press opposed.  Several negro race papers printed in English such as the “Crisis” are widely read by the negroes here and they are against the force.  ¶  e. FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION.  ¶  There is little friction between troops and the civil population.  The attitude of the civilians is tolerant in general.  Two regrettable incidents have occurred here lately, one in which a Marine and a Native Policeman both were drunk on guard, and during an altercation over the bottle of aguardiente the Marines rifle was accidently discharged and the native was wounded.  It has apparently caused very little discussion or hard feeling.  The majority of the population seem to blame the native policeman and he himself in his statement requested that the Marine not be punished as they both had been drinking.  In the other case a Marine shot and slightly wounded a negro liberal who was attempting to escape arrest.  No criticism or protest have been received and the majority of the negroes even blame the negro for trying to escape.  ¶  f. POLICE OPERATIONS.  ¶  The command is assisting the native police to police the towns where stationed.  In Puerto Cabezas where the Chief of Police is a Liberal and his force Liberal likewise, as are practically all the natives, very little help is required from the Marines except during the frequent fights in the native town where due to their lack of arms the native police have to call on the Marines for assistance.  In Bluefields, the native police and Chief of Police are Spaniards from the interior, and the population is predominantly negro liberals.  The native police being unarmed except by clubs are of little use . . . "

3.   8 September 1927. 

Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.    " . . . and practically all of the policing of the town devolves on the Marines.  ¶  g. MILITARY OPERATIONS.  ¶  The military operations consists of patrols sent out from time to time when information is received of the presence of hidden arms, and of patrols sent out when information is received of rumored armed parties.  ¶  h. POLITICAL SITUATION.  ¶  The election for a representative to Congress from the district of Siquia occurred Sunday September 4, with apparently a Conservative victory although the ballots will not be officially counted by the Departmental Council of Elections until Sunday September 11th.  Both parties are now looking forward in Bluefields to the coming municipal elections which occur about October 15th.  ¶  CONSERVATIVES.  ¶  The Conservative for Mayor is Dr. Jose Dolores Arana [José Dolores Araña], former Jefe Politico.  The Conservatives are working quietly but actively for his election and he should bring out the best vote of which any member of his party is capable here.  ¶  LIBERALS.  ¶  The Liberal nominee for Mayor, selected in the primaries is General Eliseo Duarte.  He is not well liked by all his party.  He is of a violent and vengative [sic; vengeful] nature, and a nominee not calculated to maintain his party in an harmonious accord. General Daniel Mena about two weeks ago was also placed in nomination by the Liberals by means of a petition.  This gives the Liberals two Candidates and if it produces a split in their ranks as it is believed will occur the Conservatives have some chance, which they would not otherwise do of winning the election.  ¶  Donald J. Kendall."

1.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.    "1. The facts revealed from the investigation I have made show that the shooting was justifiable and Private Bettis was therefore released from arrest and restored to duty.  ¶  2. From the investigation which I have made I believe the following facts to have transpired:  ¶  Private William C. Bettis, U.S. Marine Corps, while on patrol in the city of Bluefields, Nicaragua, was passing in front of the Bluefields Mercantile Company store at about 3:00 a.m. September 1, 1927, when a colored woman reported to him that she had been beaten up by a colored man.  Her face was badly bruised and marked up by the blows she had received. She gave a description of the man and indicated the direction in which he had gone.  Private Bettis loaded a clip in the magazine of his rifle and went out in the direction she had indicated in search of the criminal.  At a dance in the negro district he saw a man on the porch of the dance hall fitting the description of the negro, and the man was telling some other negroes about having had a fight with a woman.  Private Bettis believing he was the man he was searching for put him under arrest.  The negro, Edwin Timpson, asked permission to go inside the hall and leave a glass which he had in his hand before going with Bettis.  Bettis gave him this permission and following him into the hall where Timpson put down the glass.  Bettis was following him as he went out through the door.  As soon as Timpson got out on the porch he made a break and ran. Bettis called to him twice . . . "

2.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.    " . . . to halt but Timpson kept on going and just before he got to a corner where he could have dodged out of sight Bettis fired on him causing a flesh wound in the left side.  Timpson kept on running and went down to the shore of the lagoon where he laid until Bettis stopped searching for him to report having fired at the man.  Then Timpson returned to his home and called a civilian Doctor, Dr. Brayshaw. Bettis reported to the Corporal of the Guard by telephone near the scene of the shooting at about 3:20 a.m. The Corporal of the Guard called the Sergeant of the Guard who reported the case to the Commanding Officer and went out to the scene of the shooting and together with Private Bettis searched for the man until about 4:10 a.m. when Bettis was relieved from post, and placed under arrest by the Commanding Officer pending an investigation.  At about 6:30 a.m. Corporal Robinson, the Sergeant of the Guard, while inspecting sentries heard a woman shrieking and went to the house to investigate, finding that she was the mother of the Edwin Timpson that had been shot.  He was informed by other persons in the house as to the location of Timpson and going there found that he had been treated by Doctor Brayshaw. Doctor Brayshaw stated that the man was not seriously wounded.  The man who was shot, Edwin Timpson, was not the man who was reported to Private Bettis for beating the negro woman.  He was however guilty of a more serious charge, attempted rape, which combined with the knowledge that the Marines carried their rifles unloaded was the reason he ran and failed to stop when ordered to halt.  ¶  Donald J. Kendall  ¶  HEADQUARTERS FIFTH REGIMENT SECOND BRIGADE MARINE CORPS  ¶  MANAGUA, NICARAGUA, 16 September 1927.  ¶  Approved and filed.  ¶  B. S. BERRY."

3.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.  Statement of Private William C. Bettis, USMC, 1 Sept. 1927.   "STATEMENT OF PRIVATE WILLIAM C. BETTIS, U.S. MARINE CORPS.  ¶  1. I called the Corporal of the Guard at about 2:45 a.m. 1 September 1927, and reported to him that the post was all secure.  I then walked down the Bluefields Mercantile Company store which was on my post and found two women sitting on a box in front of the Bluefields Mercantile Company store, and they reported to me that a man had beat one of them up.  The woman who had been beat up described a man to me and I immediately went up to a dance on the Old Bank Road looking for the man.  When I arrived at the dance I overheard a man telling some other men about a woman he had beat up. I then placed that man under arrest.  He asked permission to go in the house to put a glass down.  I gave him permission to go in and went into the house with him.  After putting the class down the man turned around and walked back to the door. I was behind him at the time at port arms.  When he reached the door he made a break and ran into the street.  I called to him to halt at the same time loading my rifle.  He did not halt and I called to him again to halt.  He kept on running and I fired at him when he was about fifty yards away.  He stumbled and kept on running. I searched for him but could not locate him.  I told some men who were standing around there (about 5 or 6 of them) to wait there until I returned. I then went down to the telephone which is on my post and called the Corporal of the Guard and reported to him what had happened.  I returned to the scene of the shooting and waited for the Sergeant of the Guard.  We searched for the man I fired at but could not locate him. He searched until about 4:10 a.m. when I was relieved off post and placed under arrest by the Commanding Officer, pending investigation of the shooting.  ¶  William C. Bettis"

4.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 4.   Statements of Corporal Hillery L. Robinson, USMC, and Private First Class Mark Loveirx, USMC, 1 Sept. 1927.   "STATEMENT OF HILLERY L. ROBINSON, CORPORAL, U.S. MARINE CORPS . ¶  1. At about 3:10 a.m. or 3:15 a.m. on 1 September 1927, when I was Acting Sergeant of the Guard, the Corporal of the Guard came to me and woke me up saying, “Private Bettis a sentry on post had shot a man.”  I then got up and notified the Commanding Officer and then went out to the scene of the shooting. Private Bettis the sentry on post and I searched all around the scene of the shooting but could not locate the man.  Private Bettis was relieved about 4:10 a.m. and placed under arrest by the Commanding Officer.  About 6:30 a.m. while I was inspecting sentries near the scene of the shooting I heard a woman shrieking, and went to her house to investigate.  I found out that she was the mother of Edwin Timpson, the man who had been shot.  From some people in her house I located the whereabouts of Edwin Timpson.  He was at the home of his brother and received information that he had had medical treatment from Doctor Brayshaw, a physician of Bluefields, Nicaragua.  I then found a witness to the shooting, Kit Hodson. I then came back to the barracks and made my report to the Commanding Officer.  ¶  Hillary L. Robinson  ¶¶  STATEMENT OF PRIVATE FIRST CLASS MARK LOVEIRX, U.S. MARINE CORPS.  ¶  1. At about 2:45 a.m. Private William C. Bettis who was the sentry on post No. 2 called me and reported that the post was secure.  At about 3:20 a.m. Pvt. Bettis called me again and told me that he had shot at a man but was uncertain about having hit him as he had ran away and could not be found. I told him to search the neighborhood of the shooting and to see if he could not find the man and report to me the results of the search.  I did not hear from him anymore.  I went over and told the Sergeant of the Guard who was asleep all that had been reported to me, and also told him that it was uncertain about the man having been hit as he could not be found. I was relieved off post about 4:10 a.m.  ¶  Mark Loveirx"

5.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 5.  Statements of Edwin Timpson and Doctor Brayshaw, Bluefields, 1 Sept. 1927.    "STATEMENT OF EDWIN TIMPSON  ¶  I had been out to urinate about 1:30 a.m. Clarencia Willson was under the house.  I did not know that she was there.  She went and told her mother that I had tried to hold her.  I left the side of the house and her mother, Paulina White, started to curse me.  I told her that before she started to curse me to find out what had happened.  She went inside to pick up a glass to hit me with.  Then I picked up a glass.  I had taken a few drinks that evening.  While I was standing there one of the Marines came up and told me to come with him as I had been beating a woman.  Then I went inside to put the glass down and the Marine was behind me.  When I reached the door I ran away.  I did not hear the Marine call, “Halt” to me.  Then the Marine fired his rifle at me.  Then I ran down to the edge of the lagoon and stayed there.  ¶  EDWIN TIMPSON  ¶¶  STATEMENT OF DOCTOR BRAYSHAW  ¶  I was called to see Edwin Timpson at about 4:00 a.m., 1 September 1927, to treat him for a gunshot wound.  He was sitting in a chair when I reached the house complaining of having been shot.  I examined him and probed the wound.  I found that he had been shot in the left side from the rear. The bullet was evidently deflected by a rib, slightly.  I dressed the wound and gave him a shot of anti-toxin.  The man is not seriously wounded, to the best of my knowledge.  ¶  M. M. BRAYSHAW, M.D."

6.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 6.  Statement of Kit Hodson, Bluefields, 1 Sept. 1927.   "STATEMENT OF KIT HODSON  ¶  About 3:00 a.m., 1 Sept. 1927, Clarencia Willson left the house to urinate.  While she was outside Edwin Timpson asked her to let him go with her.  She answered that she did not want any man with her.  She left the where she was and went under the other side of the house.  After she went under the house Edwin Timpson grabbed hold of her and tried to throw her down.  She screamed but he would not let go.  She fought him until she got away.  Then she came inside the house and told her mother what Edwin Timpson had done her.  Her mother would not believe what she said.  Her mother borrowed a flashlight and went outside to see if it was true.  She flashed the light under the house and saw Edwin Timpson dodging under the house.  She accused him of what the girl had told her and he tried to hit her.  After she had gone in the house he started to hit her and she picked up a glass.  He picked one also.  Then I came out and asked Timpson to give me the glass.  Then he wanted to know who was going to take it from him.  When he said that I turned away from him, went into the house.  On my way back out I met a Marine.  The Marine said to him, “Are you the man that had the scrap with the girl with the red garters?”  He answered, “No.”  Then the Marine told him he was under arrest and to come with him.  At the same time Timpson had the glass in his hand and asked the Marine to let him put it away.  The Marine went behind him into the house and after he put down the glass he turned to come out.  The Marine followed him.  As Timpson got to the door he started to run.  The Marine called, “Halt.”  I asked Timpson what the Hell he was running for.  At the same time the Marine called halt again and then when Timpson did not halt the Marine shot at him.  This is all I know until his brother came and told me that Edwin Timpson had been shot.  ¶  KIT HODSON"

7.   8 September 1927. 

Report of investigation of wounding of native by Marine Sentry, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 7.  Statement of Paulina White, Bluefields, 1 Sept. 1927.    "STATEMENT OF PAULINA WHITE, BLUEFIELDS, NIACARAGUA:  ¶  My grand-daughter, Clarencia Willson, went under the house about 1:45 a.m. on the 1st of September 1927, to urinate.  While she was there Edwin Timpson came under the house and grabbed her and tried to throw her down.  She screamed and fought him until he got away.  When she got back in the house she told me what had happen. I got a flashlight and went out and looked under the house.  I saw Edwin Timpson dodging around under the house.  I accused him of what my grand-daughter had told me, and told him that he was worthless trying to do anything like that.  I went back into the house and he followed me and came up to me as if he was going to hit me.  I grabbed a glass and told him that if he hit me I was going to mash the glass in his face.  He grabbed a glass also.  I sat down in the house and while sitting there I saw Edwin Timpson come back into the house with a Marine behind him.  He put the glass down and turned around to go back out.  When Timpson reached the door he started to run. The Marine called to him three time to stop.  He kept on running and then the Marine shot at him.  I did not know at the time whether the Marine hit him or not.  At about 4:00 a.m. I heard that Timpson had been shot.  That is all I know about it.  ¶  Paulina White"

 

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