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the atlantic coast  •  1932A, p. 1
Jan 1 - Feb 4, 1932

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE FIRST PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1932 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing documents dated in the 35 days from January 1 to February 4.

     Licking their wounds & regrouping after a series of lucrative raids, inconclusive skirmishes, and at least one costly defeat, the rebels mark the new year’s opening weeks by suspending their campaigns in the Coast and retreating back into their camps in the deep interior of the Tuma, Bocay & Upper Coco valleys.  Details about the events of late 1931 continue trickling out of the Guardia’s intelligence-dissemination apparatus, as we see in this page’s first document, a report on the EDSN’s deadly mid-December raid on Siuna & Wuani mining districts (Jan 1).  Col. Leech’s summary of events for December 1931 briskly synopsizes the year’s major military events in the Eastern Area, which include 14 military contacts & an estimated 60 rebels killed & 18 wounded, compared to 3 Guardia killed & 7 wounded (Jan 8).  Seeking to prevent yet another repeat of the rebels’ periodic plundering raids on Siuna & Wuani, in mid-January the Guardia establish a small permanent post at Wuani (Jan 12 & 15).  Around the same time a small group of rebels raids Brown’s Camp (in the logging zone along the railway west Puerto Cabezas, report of 21 Jan), followed at month’s end by a raid on Tunky and, soon after, yet another on Neptune Mine (McAffee reports of 2 Feb), followed by a small indecisive action against the Kisalaya garrison (4 Feb).

     But by early February the tables seem to be turning,
with the rebels’ plundering offensives turning defensive & the Guardia embarking on a series of aggressive offensives in the deep interior.  Emblematic of the war’s shifting dynamics on the Coast’s northwestern frontier is Lt. Gray’s relentless pursuit of the rebels who raided Neptune Mine on 1 Feb.  Completely surprising a "large  group" of about 75 plunder-laden Sandinistas encamped on the mouth of the Río Biltigne as it flows into the Waspuk, on Feb 2 & 3 Gray’s 12-man patrol decisively routs the rebels, killing six, in "the most severe blow the bandits have been struck on this coast” & resulting in “the largest recovery of stolen loot in the history of the Guardia" — including a “mass of papers,” a good number penned by Sandino, that include many of the EDSN documents presented here (Feb 4).

     Other notable documents
below include Moravian Church Brother C. Conrad Shrimer’s revealing discussion of the shady financial activities of Brother Schramm & his wife on the Rio Coco & at Musawas (Jan 18); Bishop Guido Grossman’s pointed critiques of the politically retrograde actions of the Catholic Church on the Coast from the mid-19th century to the present (Jan 6); and the Managua daily Diario Moderno's summary of Senator Juan Cajina Mora's speech before the National Assembly, decrying the "bandit" camps & gangs from Puerto Cabezas inland to the mining districts & beyond, and calling for "good measures" to protect lives & properties & restore "confidence," "order," "constitutionalism" & "work" to the nation as a whole (Jan 13).


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1 January 1932.
Extracts from GN-2 Report Covering December 1931.    
[NOTEThese excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 40-page intelligence report covering the entire country, except the p. 27 extract from Col. Leech's Record of Events for the Eastern Area for Nov. 1931. The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]   LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS.  ¶  (A) SANDINO: . . . One Juano Gonzalez, a prisoner and formerly Colindres’ cook, states that . . . some black (negro) bandits are among Sandino’s supporters. . . .  ¶   [p. 3]    (C) PEDRON ALTAMIRANO: . . . Reported to have sacked SUIBANC WAUNI (Dept of Prinzapolka) with group of 400 on December 20. Salgado, Gonzalez and Rivera reported with him.  This group reported at Tungla (Dept of Prinzapolka) on December 24. . . .  ¶  (E) CARLOS SALGADO: Reported with Pedron Altamirano on December 20 at SUIBANC WAUNI . . .  [p. 6]    ¶  (T) MARCIAL RIVERA: . . . Reported with Pedron Altamirano at SUIBANC WAUNI . . . on Dec. 20. [NOTE: Of the 24 rebel jefes surveyed in this section, these are the only references to the Eastern Area] . . .  ¶  UNITS IN CONTACT.  ¶  . . .   [p. 7]   DECEMBER 6: Kisalaya (Eastern Area) patrol had contact one mile south of Kisalaya.  [NOTE:  Of the 17 contacts in December, only one was in the Eastern Area]  ¶  . . .   [p. 8]   STRENGTH AND MOVEMENTS:  ¶  . . .   [p. 9]   Large group reported at fork of Pis Pis and Waspook Rivers (Dept of Cabo Gracias a Dios) on December 24.  ¶  . . . The following extract from Record of Events for November of the Eastern Area is quoted:  ¶  5. INTELLIGENCE:  ¶  (a) Decided conditions of unrest.  ¶  (b) From constant and presumably reliable information there is now a group of bandits from 200 to 300 on the Wanks River scattered from Waspook to Tilba Falls, the larger part of the group is based at Sousa Plantation.  The outfit is apparently well armed, equipped and organized.  The Leader of this group is believed to be either Rivera, Simeon Escobar or Gonzales.  Approximately two weeks ago a large detachment of from 50 to 100 from this group moved up the Waspook River, destination and intentions unknown.  The Jefe is believed to be Chavarria.  I believe this group has one of three objects in view.  ¶   1. To come down the Pis Pis trail through Kukalaya to the Commissaries in the Vance District; or  ¶  2. To go due south into the Mining districts; or  ¶  3. To turn west and join a large bandit group under Altamirano which is located somewhere between Casa Viejas and Bocay.  ¶  There is still a group of from 50 to 75 remaining in the vicinity of Cruta and Caratasca Lagoon north of the Cape. They might have intentions of raiding the Cape but their main object is to handle the smuggled supplies and ammunition that are being constantly landed in that area by schooners.   [NOTE:  This report, said to be extracted from the Intelligence section of the Eastern Area Record of Events for November 1931, does not correspond to the Intelligence section of the Eastern Area Record of Events for November 1931 that is published elsewhere on this page.  I cannot explain the discrepancy, and can only speculate that either a supplementary report was issued superseding the foregoing report, or the GN-2 compilers got the date wrong.]  ¶    [p. 10]   MOVEMENTS:  ¶  [NOTE: Of the 28 items in this section, none concern the Eastern Area.] . . .   [p. 13]   ENEMY SUPPLY AND EQUIPMENT.  ¶  . . . Information received late in the month reports a shipment of arms and ammunition received by the bandits via the Patuca River, after having been landed in the vicinity of Laguna de Caracasca, Honduras, on the Atlantic side.  ¶ . . .   [p. 25]   MISCELLANEOUS.  ¶  . . . The situation in Kisalaya (Dept of Cabo Gracias E.A.) is much better than originally reported according to latest report from Area Commander, Eastern Area (Dec 7).  ¶ . . .   [p. 26]   Constant reports are coming to Cabo Gracias a Dios (EA) by Indians that there is a band of fifty to seventy five bandits situated in the area of Caratasca Lagoon, mouth of the Patuca River and Honduranian Cruta. It is claimed these bandits are there to look after arms and ammunition being smuggled into the Lagoon and thence up the Patuca River to Sandino’s Headquarters.  The Indians on the Upper Coco River state freely that Sandino is constantly transporting arms and ammunition up the Patuca River.  ¶  . . . "

1 January 1932.
Intelligence Report on Bandit Activities, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas.    
"... Subject: Intelligence Report on Bandit Activities.  ¶  Enclosures: 1. Receipt to Sebastian Ismael by Abram Rivera for Property Taken at Siuna.  ¶  1. Transmitted herewith is a receipt to Sebastian Ismael by Abram Rivera for property taken from him at Siuna on 14 December 1931.  The Anderon has arrived here from Prinzapolka on 30 December 1931 bringing Sebastian Ismael and Mr. Stantin from Siuna.  ¶  2. Questioning elicited the following information:  ¶  Early in the morning of 14 December 1931 Irias at head of about 100 men attacked the Siuna Mine and caught everyone by complete surprise.   He remained around Siuna for a number of days burning the houses and holding various people in custody.  Looting and robbery were his main suits.  ¶  On Wednesday the 16th Pedron Altamirano joined him in Siuna with about 200 more. As soon as Pedron appeared he began his butchering of the people held, killing Charlie Hasslan [Haslam] and about five natives.  All the shopkeepers were stripped of their stock and given receipts for value received.  A receipt held by Sebastian Ismael for five hundred dollars is held here.  The Comandante of Siuna escaped and came up on the "Anderson" with a German by the name of Stantin.  ¶  On Friday the 18th the whole outfit left Siuna on the trail leading to the Electric Light Plant of Neptune Mine but their progress has been slow due to the sickness of the men in ranks and soreness of feet.  Pedron spoke of returning a widow of one of the dead to Matagalpa but that may simply have been a ruse to get her to accompany the bandits on the trail more easily.  There was also talk of burning Neptune Mine and Puerto Cabezas in the near future.  ¶  All the bandits are equipped with a rifle and a machette and two hand bombs.  The rifles are of all classes and calibers.  75% of the band were Indians from Segovia and the Upper Coco, not to be used as machete men but as actual fighting men.  Pedron has 3 riot gns, 2 TSMG's, and 2 BAR's.  Irias has 1 TSMG. Each man has about 40 rounds of ammunition.  ¶  Jefes recognized by Stantin who employed most of them at the San Albino Mines were Pedron, Irias, Gonzalez, Palma, and Abram Riviera.  Another Jefe who went to Wuani was Julio Castro.  ¶  There are in Siuna these people who are known to be giving aid to the bandits and are supplying them with all necessary information:  Pedro Moncada, a cook by the name of Celestino, and a wanton by the name of Bertha.  ¶  /s/ A. O. Inman"

4 January 1932.
Intelligence Report, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"... Subject:  Intelligence Report.  ¶  Enclosures:  (1) Statement of Ramon Rodriguez (Guardia agent) taken down by Lieut. Stephenson at Kisalaya.  ¶  1. The Department Commander questioned the above mentioned man (mosquito indian) but could gain very little more information.  He was sent up the river over one month ago and made his escape from the Bandits about the 24th. of December.  Air reconnaissance, made by the undersigned on the 31st. of December, leads me to believe that a great part of Rodriguezs' statement is true.  There were no signs of life, boats or inhabited houses until we reached the second village below Waspook--marked "Buk Buk" on the Pefley Map, from there to Sang Sang every village had an excessive number of boats--a great many of them filled with fruits, scraps of clothing and cooking utensils.  Each village showed signs of recent activity and a greater number of cooking utensils on the decks of the houses than should normally be necessary but not a man, woman or child was seen.  ¶  2.  Kisalaya also reports that on the night of 1 January 1932 a bomb was exploded in the vincinity of Laimus and an answering report to the south of Kisalaya.  Patrols from there have been covering the trails to the north and south daily.  Fresh tracks leading both east and west have been found on the trail near Laimus on 3 January.  From the appearance of the tin can covering it could not have been left for more than a week.  Patrols from the Line and air reconnaissance have failed to find any trace of bandits between Puerto Cabezas and Coco River.  ¶  /s/ O. A. Inman"

4 January 1932.
Intelligence Report, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"Statement of Ramon Rodriguez, a resident of Wasla, sent by the Guardia Nacional on a mission of espionage and in a search for Company animals taken by bandits from Louisiana Farm," 3 Jan. 1932.

1.     6 January 1932.
Letter from Guido Grossman, Moravian Church, Germany, to Brother Shrimer, Nicaragua, p. 1.  
"My dear Brother Shimer:- ¶ Many thanks for your favour of Dec. 5th. , which came to hand a few days ago. It was written on the 5th. Of Dec. but started on its journey from the post office, according to the date on the stamp only on the 11th. Of December. It met me in a poor condition [sic] for I am suffering for six weeks already from a very painful “neuritis”, but I am improving day by day, and I hope that I may be able to go out for a short walk soon. The weather is very unfavorable, all the time rain and wind, instead of snow and ice. Only about a week the children were able to use their sleighs. ¶ Now to your communication. With great interest I have been reading the letter of Sr. Gutierrez C., also the clipping of some newspaper in which a speech of the bishop of Rome delivered before an audience in Bilwi, in which he lamented over the poor people of the Atlantic Coast, not being able to speak Spanish, because the Moravians had not taught them so to do. No doubt the audience was of the conservative order. The Bishop as usual, blames the Moravian missionaries that we have neglected to nationalize the coast, and of course, if we had done it, then he would have found something else to pick at us [sic]. ¶ What has the Catholic church done in that respect? They are on the coast since 1889! They have taken away the building of municipal schools in Bluefields, but have never been able to do proper school work, they have mixed in all kind of bad and unclean politics, that even some of their priests had to run away! Where is there progress of nationalizing the coast? No, Rome hates us and they will use all opportunities to speak against us, because we teach no Spanish, but that is only firework! The real truth is: we preach the GOSPEL, therefore they hate us! What has the Church of Rome done to the Indians in Central and South America? Someone has called these people “the poorest creatures on God’s earth,” The church of Rome has this on its asset. The C. Church has nowhere nationalized, but only Romanized the people! ¶ But of course it is of no use to talk about this, Rome will never admit this and they will always find a certain class of people in each country, who will follow them and admire them as the only true uplifting power. So also in Nicaragua. Rome through the capuchins invaded the coast (in) 1916 with the only purpose, as the Bishop announced it in Managua in his sermon: “we go to the coast to counteract the immoral and evil influence of the Moravian Missionaries.” The attack was to come, I have written time and again about this danger, that we have to be on the look out and see that they do not find us unprepared. They have kept back with their forward movement on the Atlantic Coast, for reasons unknown, and if they start now with it, they have selected indeed a time where we are weak. It shows plainly how they watch us! But now dear Brother Shimer I do not understand how in face of this attack you can advocate for leaving: Haulover, Karawala and Sandy Bay without a missionary. What will our people think of us, if we leave them at such a time alone, without any support, we just expose them to the propaganda of Rome, and you can rest assured that those capuchins will use the sweetest tone in their propaganda to make it palatable for the Indians, that they are right and we are wrong ! ¶ As remedy against this announcement of the propaganda you think to employ this Sr. Gutierrez. I really fail to see how this can help us? I am very sorry, dear Brother Shimer, but I do not understand the meaning of your sentence: “unless we do something in the Spanish tongue, I am afraid we will loose [sic] many of our people”. I personally just the opposite! [sic] We should speak louder in English and louder in Miskito to our people of the power of the cross, and we should lift higher up in English and Miskito the high and . . . "

2.     6 January 1932.
Letter from Guido Grossman, Moravian Church, Germany, to Brother Shrimer, Nicaragua, p. 2.  
". . . noble ideal of the Evangelical Christian Church. Sr. Gutierrez cannot stop the advance of the Church of Rome, if they choose to launch it at this time, we are too weak to take the offensive, no I think we have rather to strengthen our own congregation and defend that what we have. What will Sr. Gutierrez do when they occupy Haulover and Sandy Bay and Karawala? We neither can do much when they take possession of Yulu or Pearl Lagoon, but there we would be on the spot, and we can at least there do our duty and advise our people on the hand of the Word of god, what to do. ¶ Let us just be quite clear and I think it does us good when we call to remembrance what has passed on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. We regret that we have not been able to do more in Spanish, yet after all it was not our business, I am sure of that. Also I am certain of that: if the Government of Nicaragua would not have closed our school in 1900, when we were preparing to put our schools on the governmental plan, we would have been able to show better progress in that line. Dear Bro. Shimer the need of Spanish has been seen by us in former years, but various reasons have prevented the carrying out. First of all let us look at the Government, it was determined to eliminate our schools altogether. And what have they done? With much ado they opened the “Colegio” the light is coming to the Atlantic Coast now”, but what have they done,, after a few years of working with great expenses, they had to close the “colegio. They had a few Miskito boys in the “colegio” they turned out to be rascals. Only one of them, after he became converted, if I rightly remember through the aid of our Bro. Danneberger, became a decent man and a useful member of our church. After the declaration of the “libertad de Ensenanza” (in ) 1910 we were unable to establish our schools again,, as the General Synod (of) 1909 had decided that our province should retrench its activity on account of the financial trouble. Then came the war. But in spite of that, with the aid of Bishop Hamilton we were permitted to call Bro. Cruikshank into the field. He was willing to bring the President and the Minister of Public Instruction, all kind of promises we were made, but not one was kept, and as we ourselves could not think of putting the plan through without any aid of the government we had to drop out plan. And what had the Government done? It showed us very little interest (in) the need of the people on the coast. When in 1923 the American Consul asked me how many schools the government entertains on the Atlantic Coast, and I told him: one he jumped from chair and said you must be mistaken, for there are 32 on the payroll. That was the conservative Government, the same people who applaused [sic] the catholic Bishop when he stated that the Moravians are to be blamed that the coast people do not speak Spanish (by the way there are many people of the coast who speak a better Spanish than some of the officials) and that we have neglected our duty to nationalize the coast. ¶ It is not our duty to nationalize this coast, it was the duty of the government, but it has failed to do so, in the contrary, especially the conservatives have done everything to destroy through their unjust and unfair dealing with the coast, what we have done in reconciling the coast with the interior. And the doings on the Wankgs-Musawas-Tuburus—whereby the hatred towards the “Spaniards” has been inflamed anew, are not perhaps the conservatives at the bottom? No instead of applausing [sic] a man who blames us for something what they themselves should have done, they should sit in sack cloth and ashes. ¶ Again I admit that we could have done more in teaching Spanish, but on the other hand whilst we were handicapped in our school work, and were not able to meet the requirement of the Government. In our real mission we have been endeavored to discharge our duty. In spite of retrenchment and being undermanned and financial trouble the Lord had opened doors to enter in to preach the Gospel, and He has given us natives who were willing to enter in faith and the Lord has given us everywhere a great harvest. Just study the statistics of the last 15 years and they show you, that the Lord has blessed our efforts to evangelize the Atlantic Coast. . . ."

3.     6 January 1932.
Letter from Guido Grossman, Moravian Church, Germany, to Brother Shrimer, Nicaragua, p. 3.  
". . . That was our duty to us by God. Our Brethren and Sisters at home do not give their money for nationalizing this coast of Nicaragua. But that we should bring them the Gospel. ¶ Furthermore in regard to Sr. Gutierrez I do not know what to think of him. He is evidently very fickle in his aims and plans. Last year he almost became a “Salvation-army-man”. He had gone so far already that Brigadier Joy has taken the ticket for their passage to Jamaica. In the last moment he withdrew. Now again he is in correspondence with the “Misiones Medicas” Mexico to study medicine, as you will see from the letter which I enclose. At the same time he offers his service to us! What does he mean? Does he wish to burden us with his work, and then leave us and go to study medicine? Or does he expect, when he is employed in our service, that we will take some responsibilities over against his wife and child, whilst he is away to study medicine which would mean 6 years I do not know, yet it puzzles me, that he has these two irons in the fire at the same time! ¶ In case he does study medicine, what are we then to do with the Spanish Congregations, which he has handed over to us? According to my feeling it would be out of place to engage a special Spanish worker for these Spanish congregations at a time where we have to leave our own people, who have the first claim on us unprotected against the attack of the Romans. Again I beg to emphasize that I personally do not see how the commencement of Spanish work at the present time can help us, and how this can prevent us from loosing [sic] many of our people. ¶ In regard to Palmer’s I read what you write to Bro. Danneberger. I agree with you that he should be sent away from Bluefields. I would give him a call to Karawala. I do not think that Sandy Bay would be the place for him. The Sandy Bay people are too independent for Palmer, he would have trouble with them. But Karawala would do for him at least for the present. Anyhow I think when the attack of the Romans should come, he might stand the battle and help his people to counteract the enticement of Rome. But if he goes to Karawala and his family remains in Bluefields there will be, I am afraid a continually going to and from between these two Ports. ¶ I am glad to say that Sr. Wolff is improving. When are the Hamiltons coming to Bluefields? May the Lord bring them safely into their work. ¶ Now my dear Brother Shimer, may the Lord guide you in all your work, so that His will be done, then let us not be afraid. He will be with us. With my best wishes, ¶ Very sincerely yours, ¶ [signed] Guido Grossman"

8 January 1932.
Extract from Record of Events, Dept. of Northern Bluefields for December 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas.

1.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.   
"... E.  Intelligence.  ¶  1. The general state of the territory occupied is satisfactory.  The coastal cities continue their industries in freedom and without molestation from bandit sources.  During the period a large bandit column passed SOUTHWEST to NORTH through the NEPTUNE-LA LUZ-PIS PIS mining regions, killing four natives and burning a few buildings in the isolated and ungarrisoned towns of WUANI and SIUNA.  A small group of bandits appeared near KISALAYA, and were routed by Lieutenant STEPHENSON'S patrol, with a loss of four (4) bandits killed.  At the end of the period, report of bandit activity within striking distance of Guardia Stations, was negative.  ¶  2. Military Situation:  With inclusion of the November 29th contact of NEPTUNE guardia-civicos with the CHAVARRIA group at SULUN, and Lieutenant STEPHENSON'S action near KISALAYA, bandits in the Eastern Area suffered two positive defeats in the period.  It has been assumed for several months that a bandit concentration camp exists at BOCAY.  Direct bandit information from a mortally wounded outlaw at KISALAYA indicates intermittant bandit occupation of settlements on the COCO RIVER, as far down EAST, as WASPOOK.  Direct information from a dying bandit at SULUN indicates, in fairly reliable degree that a bandit concentration camp now functions at AWAS-BILA (PEFLEY MAP).  It is apparent that NEPTUNE MINE was to have been attacked by the CHAVARRIA group during December.  The SULUN action was a disastrous and effective blow for CHAVARRIA force, and probably prevented an attack on NEPTUNE MINE.  A refugee from WUANI and SIUNA bandit raids, heard the outlaws at SIUNA relate that their losses at SULUN were not less than fifteen (15).  It is reported, from bandit source, that CHAVARRIA was at SULUN and among the first to shove off in pitpans in the action.  The two crowded pitpans were completely destroyed by BAR fire, and several ("plenty") of bodies were afterward reported seen in the river and on the river banks by the Indians.  Raso Gumercindo ALANIZ, #3084, G.N., delivered all Browning Automatic Rifle fire at SULUN.  Lieutenant RODRIGUEZ and civico leader ADRIAN PINEDA believe that CHAVARRIA was killed in this action.  It is noted that this bandit jefe's name was not among those reported among the several who raided SIUNA and WUANI, about three weeks subsequent. ..."

2.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.

3.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 3.

4.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 4.

5.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 5.

6.     8 January 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, December 1931,
Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 6.

9 January 1932.
Extract of Letter Received by Capt. Inman at Puerto Cabezas, from Unknown.

12 January 1932.
Intelligence Report, Department of Northern Bluefields Commander Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.   
"DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICAGUA ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA¶ JANUARY 12, 1932. ¶ From; Department Commander. ¶ To: Area Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Intelligence report. ¶ 1. The following is an extract of a letter received by me from Mr. Flanary, Manager of the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company:= ¶ “ I quote herewith extract from report made by our Mr. H. E. Donalson in connection with banana inspection trip made during the past week up the Prinzapolka River, “Lieut. Curcey went up the river yesterday with thirty men. He told me that he will establish his post at Wuani on the Prinzapolka, but intended to take out patrols to several points where the bandits are reported to have camps. He will have a radio and will be over the Guardia at the Neptune Mine. ¶ People on the river who have come out from Siuna report that Altamirano split his column, sent part of them to Bocay, and he, with the rest of his troop went to the camp previously established by Salgado and Caracas at “Casa Vieja”, on the Hule Creek. The girl Caracas took with him from Siuna some time ago has returned to the river, and say she has been in Sandino’s fort and headquarters at El Chipote. She is one of those who say that “Pedron’s” orders, when he left headquarters, were not to return until he had destroyed Puerto Cabezas. The reports are that the bandits are well armed, but vary as to the ammunition they may have.” ¶ 2. There is also a persistent rumor in Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, and on the Coco River that General Caracas has been executed by Sandino because he (Caracas) had put some people to death against Sandino wish.” ¶ (Signed) O. A. Inman ¶ First Endorsement. ¶ Headquarters Eastern Area, G.N., Bluefields, Nic., 16 January 1932 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional. ¶ 1. FORWARDED. ¶ (SIGNED) L. L. LEECH"

 

13 January 1932.
Extract of letter from Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, p. 1.

 

13 January 1932.
Extract of letter from Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, p. 2.

13 January 1932.
Text of speech by Senator Juan Cajina Mora, "The Mines of Wany [Wuani], Siuna and Pis-Pis are Seized By the Bandits - Having Their Headquarters, Within the Departments of Jinotega, Matagalpa and Bluefields," Diario Moderno (Managua), English trans.   
"DIARIO MODERNO . Jan. 13, 1932.-- ¶ THE MINES OF WANY, SIUNA AND PIS – PIS ARE SEIZED BY THE BANDITS.--- ¶ Having their headquarters, within the Department of Jinotega, Matagalpa and Bluefields. ¶ EXPOSITION OF JUAN CAJINA MORA, SENATOR/= ¶ In the chamber of Senators in a session held yesterday the Senator Juan Cajina Mora, made the sensational exposition which textually says: ¶ “Honorable Chamber of Senators: As the situation at the Atlantic Coast is every day more deplorable, owing to circumstances that we all know, aggravated by the lack of exportation of Banana, the only industry lately exploitable, I want you to know that since a year or more the north part of that region, has been scourged by banditry.” ¶ “ The mines of Wany, Siuna and Pis-Pis are seized by the Bandits same is a great part of Puerto Cabezas region and Comarca del Cabo”. ¶ “ No one ignore in the Atlantic Coast that the point within the Departments of Jinotega, Matagalpa and Bluefields, the Bandits have their camping places, their General Headquarters; they also hang around near Puerto Cabezas where they live as they please, sure that nobody will molest them, doing irruptions around those desolated places, inspiring terror every where they pass destroying the properties and the national richness. ¶ “The only place where there is a force that united to a good number of civilians hey have punished the group of Bandits of Pedrón is at the mine named Bonanza, but other towns are constantly robbed. ¶ “ Near the properties of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Co., exist a group of bandits mastering that region. ¶ “ At Rio Grande, Rama Cuicuinita, where they kidnapped the miner S. Alberto Valle and also a merchant , a new group of bandits, demonstrating that anarchism is everywhere, and the necessity of elaborate good measures to stop it, and restore confidence and order which is so necessary to the Republic by the ways of constitutionalism and work.” ¶ “In my exposition you will see honorable Chamber, the deplorable of our situation, is it true that so far I have said is nothing new for you, but the destruction of properties is so big, specially to the foreign companies at San Albino, Santo Domingo, La Luz and Los Angeles, Bonanza, Bragman Bluff Lumber Co., and others, which is great danger to the independence of our country when the claims come to demand for the payments, I want you to know that our principal duty is to the good name of our country keep it independent, I want you to take note that a senator representing the Atlantic Coast has given the alarm in this Chamber. ¶ “ In the mines of Wany, Siuna and San Pedro de Pis-Pis, once restored the order, 1000 men may find work, and in the other parts of the Coast a great number of men would gain for them and their families, helping this to pass the situation in which we are.” ¶ Managua 12 Jan, 1932. ¶ (s) J. Cajina Mora."

15 January 1932.
Report of Trip to Wuani, Lt. L. Curcey, Wuani Detachment, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
(Note: report is erroneously dated 15 Dec. 1931, but the text makes clear that its correct date is 15 Jan. 1932)

15 January 1932.
Report of Trip to Wuani, Lt. L. Curcey, Wuani Detachment, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.

16 January 1932.
Report of Wuani Detachment en route to Wuani, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.

18 January 1932.
Letter from C. Conrad Shrimer, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"Dear Bro. Gapp, ¶ Brother Schramm and his family arrived Saturday last about five o’clock in the afternoon. Because of the smaller children and the excessive weight of the travelers we went to meet them in a motor boat and brought them to the Mission wharf from whence we took them to the house I rented for their stay here. ¶ It is difficult for me to answer your letter of the 7th instant asking for a full and frank report on the Schramm activities on the Wangks, for I am no in possession of the necessary data for such a report. If you would consult Brother Bishop, or Kenneth Hamilton when he comes to Bethlehem, you would be able to get some real information, as you would also from all the missionaries on the upper coast, for it is in that district particularly that the discussion and “talk” was carried on among the people. I am sending a copy of this letter also to Brother Danneberger with the request that he write direct to you and send me a copy of his letter. Coming into contact with the Indians from the Wangks as he does at Puerto Cabezas he can give you also reliable information. ¶ So far as his financial activities or indiscretions are concerned, these perhaps do not affect so much his position over against the people. When he went on furlo in 1924, I believe that was the year, he sold to the Musawas congregation an organ, knowing full well that nobody there could play it. This was long before Brother Bregenzer took charge. The organ stood there without use and what finally became of it I do not know. Both times when they went on furlo (since the present Mrs. Schramm is in the family) they loaded up the evangelists with debts which the other missionaries were asked to collect for them. But this has not been done this second time, that is, the missionaries are not collecting the money due the Schramms. The evangelists had no need for much of the stuff they bought but were in some cases persuaded to take the stuff against their better judgment. ¶ Some of us felt strongly that the Schramms had sold some of the old clothes that were given to them by friends in the States when they returned from their last furlo, but Brother Grossmann never pushed his investigation to a conclusion because he did not want any unpleasantness. ¶ I do know that they had deposit accounts for themselves and their children on my books. The largest account was in the name of Mrs. Schramm as he always said “It’s my wife’s money”, and she handled the station finances. One year transfers were made to her account and charged against the station, this direction having been given to me by Brother Schramm. But the end of that year showed Brother Schramm owing the mission a large sum, and without any authorization I charged back this debt against her deposit account, which perhaps I should not have done without first notifying her. But this action of mine caused considerable comment made to the other missionaries, (not to me direct), and in a very short time all the money which sister Schramm had on deposit with me was withdrawn and sent to Wachovia, where it . . . "

18 January 1932.
Letter from C. Conrad Shrimer, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.  
" . . . is being handled direct between the bank and their customer. ¶ The last year they were at Sangsangta they sent money out of the country, presumably to Wachovia, at the rate of almost $100 per month. This was not done thru me, as they evidently had lost confidence in me. Of course they were saving this money at the station as they had a regular ranch of all sorts of animals, and business was done with the Marines or anyone else whenever opportunity offered. ¶ Brother Schramm were employed in Nicaragua it would have to be on the lower coast, for he certainly could not go back to the Wangks or anywhere north of Puerto Cabezas, as his influence would be nil. ¶ Frankly, the financial depression and need for retrenchment was made the excuse-not the reason- for the solution of a difficult problem. ¶ This is not a satisfactory reply to your letter but I know the other missionaries will be able to supplement the rather meager information I have given you. ¶ Fraternally yours, ¶ [signed] C. Conrad Shimer ¶ Treasurer"

19 January 1932.
Patrol Report, Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Kisalaya, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.   
"DISTRICT OF KISALAYA, ¶ DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS, ¶ KISALAYA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 19 January 1932 ¶ From: Lieut. E. J. Surprenant, G.N. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Via: The Department Commander Department of Northern Bluefields, Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Patrol Report of. ¶ References: (a) Verbal orders of the Department Commander, Department of Northern Bluefields. (b) Verbal orders of the District Commander, Kisalaya. ¶ 1. In accordance with reference (b) cleared Kisalaya with eight guardias for the purpose of reconnoitering Lecus Area and to take these guardias into Puerto Cabezas to be exchanged as they had completed their tour of duty at Kisalaya. ¶ 2. Cleared Kisalaya at 1200, 12 January in pitpan and arrived Ulwas (353-154) at 1700. Cleared Ulwas at 1800 and arrived Lecus River (340-154) at 0500, 13 January. Patrolled area. All quiet. Proceeded and arrived Louisiana Farm 1100 and from there into Puerto Cabezas by motor car. Arrived Puerto Cabezas 1900. ¶ 3. Cleared Puerto Cabezas with 9 guardias at 1230, 16 January, in accordance with reference (a) to investigate bandit reports at Louisiana Farm and to work with the Moss Farm Garrison. ¶ 4. Arrived at Louisiana Farm at 1900, 16 January, and gained information that bandits intended to raid this commissary so laid ambush. As it is next to impossible to do anything on the lines without half the population knowing of it, I believe that some spies notified the bandits of our presence so they postponed their raid. Cleared Louisiana Farm at 0500, 17 January, 1932, arrived Moss Garrison at 0530. ¶ 5. Cleared Moss Garrison in accordance with reference (a) with Lt. Gaitan and 19 guardias proceeded over the De Antonio trail and at 0800, 17 January, at (337-159) planes flew over and drop orders to investigate Lecus area. Arrived Cuyutigni (337-154) where evidence showed large group bandits had camped. Proceeded to Lecus River where Lt. Gaitán and ten guardias returned to Moss Garrison. Laid ambush at Lecus River. All quiet. Cleared Lecus River at 0600, 18 January and proceeded to Kisalaya. On the trail to Kisalaya there were two large bandit camps. One about half way between Kisalaya and Lecus River and the other on a small trail leading from Laimus and running into the Kisalaya trail. At both of these camps they had eaten nothing but raw bananas and this was also their diet at Cuyutigni. There were about 75 to 80 camped in these camps on the Kisalaya trail. It is believed that other groups came down on the Laimus trail. Arrived at Kisalaya at 1400, 18 January 1932. ¶ (signed) E. J. SUPRENANT ¶ 1st Endorsement. Department of Northern Bluefields ¶ Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua ¶ Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, 17 February 1932. ¶ From: Department Commander. ¶ To: Area Commander, Area of the East , Bluefields, Nicaragua ¶ (signed) (---)"

20 January 1932.
Intelligence.  Capt. L. Curcey, Wuani, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.   
"WUANI , GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ 20 JANUARY 1932. ¶ From commander Guardia, Wuani. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Intelligence. ¶ 1. December 13, 1931, Bandit jefe Pedro A. Irías with about 90 men entered Wuani at about 11:00 PM, left a detail of 15 men and continued thru to Siuna whereby he entered that place at or about 4:30 AM, December 14, stayed there with his troops until December 19, killing and sacking stores. ¶ 2. December 13, Abraham Rivera and Irías met at Siuna Road. Rivera going with Wuani with 75 men and two days later Pedro Altamirano entered Siuna on Cuicuina trail, stayed at Siuna that night and headed for Wuani the next day with 150 men, where they stayed for about 3 days and then left Wuani December 19-1931 on Matagalpa trail for the interior. From information all these groups are poorly armed. I should say only about 2/3 of them with rifles, shotguns and breach loaders and the rest with machetes. They have very little ammunition. ¶ 3. It is my belief that there are only in the neighborhood of about 200 bandits operating in this area. ¶ 4. Several of Siuna’s inhabitants have just returned and state that the Bandits carried them off to carry loot as far as CC-18-5th Regt. Special Map. That they were not fed on the trip. Very evident headed for their main camp, at Bocay. ¶ 5. No one has come from Neptune Detachment and therefore could not get word to your office as to our welfare and activities. ¶ 6. The people of town along with Guardia are cleaning town and working on fortification of same against Bandit attacks. It will take some time to put in shape. ¶ 7. Health of Detachment excellent. ¶ L. CURCEY (A SEAL) (official copy) ¶ 1st endorsement. ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. 26 February, 1932. ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The jefe Director, Guardia Nacional. Managua, Nic., ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ (signed) L. L.LEECH"

1.     20 January 1932.
Report on activities in the Dept of Northern Bluefields and Movement of Patrols since 15 Jan 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.

2.     20 January 1932.
Report on activities in the Dept of Northern Bluefields and Movement of Patrols since 15 Jan 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.

3.     20 January 1932.
Report on activities in the Dept of Northern Bluefields and Movement of Patrols since 15 Jan 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.

4.     20 January 1932.
Report on activities in the Dept of Northern Bluefields and Movement of Patrols since 15 Jan 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4.

21 January 1932 (2100).
Radiogram from Comsperon to Commander 2nd Brigade USMC, Managua. 
"... RAID AT BROWNS CAMP WAS APPARENTLY ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO SECURE PROVISIONS PERIOD RAIDING FORCE WAS ABOUT ONE HUNDRED MEN WHO WERE ACCORDING TO NATIVES VERY RAGGED AND HALF STARVED BUT WERE HOWEVER MODERATELY WELL ARMED PERIOD GUARDIA WHICH HAD NO WARNING OF PRESENCE OF BANDITS WAS PREPARED FOR ATTACK PERIOD BANDITS SCATTERED QUICKLY AS SOON AS THEY ENCOUNTERED RESISTANCE PERIOD GUARDIA HAS SITUATION WELL IN HAND AND AS A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE IS BRINGING TWENTY ADDITIONAL MEN FROM BLUEFIELD 2100 ..."

25 January 1932.
Patrol Report,  Capt. Ralph D. McAfee, Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.   
"DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA ¶ BLUEFIELDS – NICARGUA ¶ JANUARY 25, 1932 ¶ From: Captain Ralph D. McAfee, GN – Department of Southern Bluefields. ¶ To: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Patrol report. ¶ 1. On information that a small group of bandits had cut power line between Great Falls and Neptune Mine, the following patrol cleared Neptune Mine at 0930, 23 January 1932: ¶ Captain Ralph D. McAfee.; 2nd Lt. Juan B. Rodríguez ; Cabo Martínez Carlos #1849; Raso Cuaresma Emilio #4772; Raso Regnabarrios Ingram #2428 ; Raso Sanchez Felix O. #4791; Raso Villalobos Ricardo #4808; Raso Alaniz Lanza #3084; Raso Avila Domingo #4438; Raso Chavarría Faustino #3742; Raso Alfredo Emilio #2272 ; ¶ Armament of patrol – 1 B.A.R., 1 T.S.M.G. , 1 rifle with grenade Discharger, 6 rifles Krag, 1 Pistol 45, 1 pistol 38. ¶ 2. Patrol kept to right of power line, looking for tracks of bandits or signs of passage but none were found. Arrived at Big Falls (110.4 – 300.95) about 1700. One man had been seen running by a member of the patrol but he was not molested although ordered to halt. He was unarmed except (for) his cutacha. It was found that a short circuit caused by a fallen limb had been mistaken for a cut line. This short also caused sparks which had been mistaken for flashlights. On 24 of January cleared Big Falls patrolling the other side coming back to Neptune Mines. There were no bandit indications. ¶ 3. The roads or trails were very muddy and it rained all the time going and coming. Returned to Neptune Mine about 1500. ¶ (signed) RALPH D. MCAFEE"

1 February 1932.
Extracts from GN-2 Report Covering the Month of January 1932.  
 [NOTEThese excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 31-page intelligence report covering the entire country, except the following, which are included in chronological sequence in these East Coast pages: 

(1) 31.12.27 - Juan Camilo Torres, Prinzapolka, letter to sister (pp. 7-8)
(2) 32.01.08 - Extract from Record of Events, Dept. Northern Bluefields, Capt. Inman  (p. 9)
(3) 32.01.09 - Extract from letter received by Inman at Puerto Cabezas  (p. 16)
(4) 32.01.13 - Extract from letter from Capt. Inman to Col. Leech  (p. 9)
(5) 32.01.16 - Report of Wuani Detachment en route to Wuani, Col. Leech  (p. 11)
(6) 32.01.20 - Report on Activities in Dept Northern Bluefields & Movements of Patrols since 15 January 1932, Col. Leech  (pp. 19-22)

The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]   LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS:  ¶  . . . (B) PEDRON ALTAMIRANO: Reported still operating in the Eastern Area December 14 and participated in attack on Siuna Mine (Prinzapolka) on that date.  Reported Jan 4 at Carretera [Jinotega Dept] . . .  ¶   [p. 2]   (G) SIMEON GONZALES: Reported operating on Dec 14 in Eastern Area and participated in attack on Suina Mine that date. Reported in contact with Lieutenant Levonski Jan 18 at Brown’s Camp (Eastern Area).  ¶  . . .  [p. 3]   (P) ABRAHAM RIVERA: Reported operating in Eastern Area December 14 and as having participated in attack on Suina Mine on that date.  ¶  (Q) PALMA: Reported operating in Eastern Area and participated in attack on Siuna Mine December 14.  ¶  (R) PEDRO IRIAS: Operating in Eastern Area with Pedron and participated in attack on Siuna Mine Dec. 14.  Reported Jan 4 with his group near Embocaderos [Jinotega]  . . .  ¶  (T) PERFECTO CHAVARRIA: Reported, Jan 5, to be still operating in Eastern Area in vicinity of Puerto Cabezas.  Reported to have been killed in contact with guardia patrol from Neptune Mine on November 19.  [NOTE:  Of the 20 jefes surveyed in this section, the foregoing six were reported active in the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .  UNITS IN CONTACT.  ¶  . . .   [p. 4]   January 18: Lieut Levonski and guardia patrol of 20 enlisted from Puerto Cabezas had contact with a group of 100 bandits, jefe unknown, at Browns Camp.  One known bandit killed.  No guardia casualties. . . .  [NOTE:  Of the 5 items in this category, one was in the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   STRENGTH AND MOVEMENTS.  ¶  . . .   [p. 6]   Reports Jan 26 indicate main group of bandits operating in Eastern Area has moved northward toward Kisalaya.  [NOTE:  Of the 31 items in this category, one was in the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 7]   ENEMY OPERATIONS.  ¶  . . . Reported that five bandit columns were closing in on Puerto Cabezas, Jan 19. Jefes of columns reported to include Pedron Altamirano, Simeon Gonzalez, Pedro Irias. . . . Jan 30 Gonzales, Castro, Rivera group has been reported in the Cuculaya area, Eastern Area. They proceeded to Tunkey on the Banbana River and then returned to Cucalaya area.  ¶  . . .   [p. 10]   OUR OPERATIONS.  ¶  . . .   [p. 12]   Two amphibian planes were sent to Puerto Cabezas and based there during the month to enable better cooperation with the Eastern Area.  A marine detachment of nine men was also sent there to act as station guard and maintenance force.  ¶  A detachment of one line officer, one medical officer and twenty enlisted was dispatched, via schooner, from Bluefields for Puerto Cabezas on January 19 to reinforce that place due to seriousness of situation in Northern Bluefields.  ¶   . . .   [p. 26]   PEDRON ALTAMIRANO had General Humberto Caracas shot for shouting “Vivas” for Sacasa. In November, near San Pedro del Norte, Sandino sent a letter to the Sandinista paper “PATRIA” of San Salvador, saying that Caracas and 10 men were shot for treason for cheering for Juan Bautista Sacasa.  ¶  In 1927 Caracas was one of Pres. Moncada’s Generals.  Caracas is from Rivas.  One of his brothers is a taxi chauffer in Managua.  ¶  . . .   [p. 27]   ENEMY INTENTIONS.  ¶  . . . Sandino is reported to have received a new shipment of arms and ammunition by way of Cabo Gracias a Dios sufficient to carry out his intended offensive.  ¶  Many reports to the effect bandits intend to make a determined effort against Puerto Cabezas this month Jan 21.  ¶  . . .   [p. 29]   SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE TO INCLUDE 23 JANUARY 1932:  ¶  . . .   [p. 30]   EASTERN AREA:  ¶  The group operating near Brown’s Camp has disappeared for the time.  This group seems to have confined its activity mostly to an attempt to raid Brown’s Camp and collect provisions.  ¶  . . . . CONCLUSIONS:  ¶  . . . (3) The group in the Eastern Area will continue to opeate between the Rio Kukalaya and the Rio Hueso in the hopes of raiding stores and forcing contributions. . . ."

1.     1 February 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, January 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ CUARTEL GENERAL, AREA DEL ESTE ¶ 1 February 1932 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua. ¶ Subject: Record of Events, Eastern Area, JANUARY 1932. ¶ Reference: General Order, No. 140 – 1929. ¶ Subject: Record of events, Eastern Area, JANUARY 1932. ¶ 3. Contacts: ¶ PLACE : BROWNS CAMP, ¶ PATROL COMDR. Lt. LEVONSKI ¶ DATE Jan. 18th ¶ RESULTS One (1) bandit killed. One repeating rifle captured. ¶ D. POLICE OPERATIONS. 1. See Departmental Reports. ¶ 2. General Police Conditions. Satisfactory. On January 14, 1932, a band of ten robbers chopped entrances into two Chinese stores at MUELLE REAL on the RIO SIQUIA, fired a few pistol shots and robbed the stores of some $1000.00 worth of general merchandise. The District Commander, Lieutenant CASPERONIS, immediately dispatched guardia in pursuit, covering the various trails and settlements in the vicinity, and within twenty-four hours effected the capture of four of the robbers, and located and returned to owners about $800.00 worth of the stolen goods, including $1000 in cash. The prompt and efficient action of the District Commander of Rama, in this case, has done much to increase the prestige and authority of the Guardia in the vicinities of the ESCONDIDO, SIQUIA and MICO RIVERS. ¶ E. INTELLIGENCE. ¶ 1. General State of Territory Occupied . In the northern half of the Area acute apprehension prevails on account of the attempted raid of the BROWNS CAMP commissary by the GONZALES group in the middle of the month. It has since been learned that this group was desperately in need of food, to the point of starvation, and that they were not well armed. Their prisoners who escaped and returned stated that they struck down and devoured a cow, raw, almost before it expired, and that the entire group were startled into hiding at the sharp sound of breaking of a tree limb. Altho the detailed reports from their devastation of TUNKY have not been received, it can be believed that this action was one of raid and loot, solely. At the present time, the GONZALES, CASTRO, RIVERA group are reported as enroute from TUNKY back to the KUKALAYA DISTRICT of Northern Bluefields. Three spies appeared in the vicinity of and inside the town of RIO GRANDE BAR, during the period, asking such revealing questions as to the number, the disposition, and supports of the Guardia post, as well as the number of Chinese stores in RIO GRANDE BAR. This spy work is considered as a possible forerunner of a raid on either PRINZAPOLKA or RIO GRANDE BAR, from the NORTH. ¶ -4- [...]"

2.     1 February 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, January 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Eastern Area, JANUARY 1932. ¶ 2. Military Situation: Guardia post and Guardia patrols have been strengthened all along the railroad line from PUERTO CABEZAS to MOSS FARM. It is believed that the burning of the several houses and the killing of two workmen, (natives) there, together with the attempted raid on the BROWN’S CAMP commissary, were opening moves in a plan to wipe out the entire railroad. Reoccurrence of these raiding tactics are expected in the near future. A report has been received via runner to NEPTUNE and radio to BLUEFIELDS, that the WUANI detachment established post under quiet conditions, and were heartily welcomed by the citizens of that town. ¶ 3. Economic Conditions: Commencing with January 27, 1932, the United Fruit Company’s steamship schedule contemplates only one sailing per two weeks between NEW ORLEANS and BLUEFIELDS, instead of the old, regular weekly schedule. The lagging banana market in the United Sates is given as the reason for this action. The banana handlers and workers on the power barges and tugs made an ineffective threat to strike when informed of the consequent curtailment of labor hours, but no serious developments have resulted thus far. Business in general throughout the Area is slow. ¶ 4. No friction between Guardia and civil population has been reported in the period. The press continues to be friendly and cooperative with the Guardia. During the period a new, weekly newspaper made its appearance in Bluefields. It is called “EL 2 DE MAYO”, and is edited and managed by General José Alejandro Pasos y Romero, Liberal. ¶ 5. Political Situation. Quiet. The RIGOBERTO CABEZAS Liberal, political club, mentioned in report for November, 1931, held three, well attended meetings in the local theatre. The new, weekly newspaper, mentioned above, is almost purely an organ of the Liberal party. ¶ 6. Weather. The month has been stormy, with frequent gusts of high wind and rain. The unusual amount of rainfall in January is an extraordinary occurrence in the experience of the natives of the East Coast, and is practically unknown. The almost continuous fall of rain in January is believed to have had a surprise, adverse effect on the bandit depredations in the Puerto Cabezas vicinity. -5- [...]"

3.     1 February 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, January 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Eastern Area, JANUARY 1932. ¶ 7. Condition of telephone and telegraph communications. Civilian system, Tropical Radio Telegraph Company – Excellent. Kisalaya Guardia – Good. Neptune Mine – Good. Interruption for several days in the Neptune-Bluefields service was caused by bandits cutting down one or two telegraph poles that supported the power line. ¶ 8. Condition of Roads and Trails. Very poor. ¶ F. CONFISCATION OF ARMS. See Departmental Reports. ¶ G. TRAINING. During the past month the regular training schedule was seriously interfered with on account of bandit activity in the Department of Northern Bluefields, and the necessity for sending reinforcements from Bluefields to Puerto Cabezas. Regular drill periods, however, have been maintained. ¶ H. MISCELLANEOUS. During the absence of the Bluefields detachment of one officer and twenty enlisted, for temporary duty in Puerto Cabezas, seventy-five cívicos were called into active duty, on guard at the approach trails into Bluefields, and one outpost of twelve cívicos were stationed about six miles WEST of Bluefields on the main trail. The Bluefields cívicos are a very excellent type of emergency soldier, and most of them have fought in previous, revolutionary actions. They are eager for service, and performed guard duty for a period of three days in most satisfactory manner. ¶ The inspections by the Area Commander and the Area Surgeon of the Department of Northern Bluefields were hampered considerably by the increased amount of patrolling and action in the field of troops from the Ninth Company. The close inspection of the patrols, KIPLA FARM, and the storerooms and buildings in PUERTO CABEZAS, were most satisfactory, the morale of the troops in the field was good, and the clothing and equipment of men is fair to satisfactory shape. Clothing is being shipped to Puerto Cabezas, at the present time. ¶ CIVICOS: Puerto Cabezas – 50; Bluefields – 75; La Cruz – 12; Neptune Mine – 76; Rama – Being reorganized. ¶ British Consul Edmund Owen Rees, Bluefields, died. Jan. 27, ¶ (Signed) L. L. LEECH"

2 February 1932.
Patrol Report, Capt. Ralph D. McAfee, Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA ¶ BLUEFIELDS – NICARAGUA FEBRUARY 2, 1932. ¶ From: Ralph D. McAfee, Captain GN de NIC ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Patrol report. ¶ 1. A patrol consisting of: Ralph D. McAfee, Captain; Adrián Somarriba, 2nd Lt.; T. E. Cody 2nd Lt. (Radio); Martínez Carlos Cabo #1849; Cuaresma Hernandez Raso#4772; Narciso Fernandez Raso #4745; Alemán Francisco Raso #4807; Avila Domingo Raso #4438; Regnabarrios Ingram Raso #2428; Sánchez Félix O. Raso 34791; Villalobos Ricardo Raso #4808; 2 Cívicos, guides and Muleros; 2 pack animals. ¶ Armament of patrol: 1 B.A.R., 1 Rifle Springfield, 7 rifles Krag, 2 Pistols 45, 1 Revolver 38. ¶ Cleared Neptune Mine at 0800 for Wuaní 26 January 1932. ¶ 1200 passed through El Limón. 0430 camped at Juanón (100.9-290.9) – a deserted cattle farm. The trail was bad and it rained constantly. ¶ 27 January 0800 cleared Juanón. Traveled six hours over the mountain leading into El Dorado. There are no houses between Juanón and El Dorado. El Dorado is part of the La Luz Mining District. The valley is about eight miles long. ¶ 0300 camped in lower El Dorado. ¶ 28 January: 0700 cleared El Dorado. 0800 came to Siuna, Wuaní road, which is very bad but has been opened since Lieutenant Curcey came to Wuaní. ¶ 1100 arrived Wuaní. ¶ 29 January: Held inspection. Measured field for aviation landing, field which was found entirely too small for [...]"

2 February 1932.
Patrol Report, Capt. Ralph D. McAfee, Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.     
"[...] consideration. Lieutenant Cody made estimate as to need in case of radio installation. ¶ At 1600 a messenger from Neptune arrived saying that Tunky had been sacked, also that 300 bandits were moving in direction of Wuani and Neptune from Jinotega. This last information was from Area Commander. ¶ 30 January: 0700 cleared Wuaní. ¶ 1700 camped in Mountain between Limones and El Dorado. ¶ 31 January: 0600 cleared camp. ¶ 0900 intercepted messenger saying that bandits might take the Tunky-Casa Vieja road passing through El Limón. (El Limón is 110.3-300.3) Harlan Pefley Map. ¶ 1500 camped at El Limón on Casa Vieja road. No result nor sign of bandits. ¶ 1 February: 0700 A messenger from Neptune reported bandits to Northeast of Neptune. Cleared immediately for Neptune arriving about 1000; upon arrival Lt .Gray cleared on patrol with all the Guardia in Neptune that were not on returning patrol. It was necessary to send Lt. Gray, because Lt. Rodriguez was sick, while Lt. Somarriba and myself had just returned. ¶ 2. The trail to Wuaní is very bad. It rained constantly; or at least three or four times a day, every day. Practically the whole patrol were without shoes on the return trip. There is no food to be procured anywhere on the trip, as bananas are scarce and there are not more than three inhabited houses between Neptune and El Dorado. ¶ (signed) RALPH D MCAFEE ¶ First Endorsement ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 18 February 1932 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: Jefe Director, Headquarters, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua ¶ 1. Forwarded. The principal reason for this patrol was inspection of the new post at Wuaní, commanded by Lieut. Curcey. Captain McAfee found the garrison well situated, defense and military positions satisfactory, morale and health of the post good. Rations furnished this post by Chinese merchants there, by special agreement, excellent. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"

2 February 1932.
Contact of Civicos, Neptune Mine.  Capt. Ralph D. McAfee, Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA 2 FEBUARY 1932 ¶ From: Ralph D. McAfee, Captain, Guardia Nacional. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Contact of civicos, Neptune Mine. ¶ 1. On report that a group of bandits that had robbed Tunkey wee in the vicinity of Big Falls (110.4-300.9) a patrol of seven civicos under command of Pedro Jarquin, (civilian) armed with Krag Rifles, encountered a group of six bandits near the Biltigni River (110-5-310.1). This group were cutting balsa wood to be used in rafts. They were surprised at this work and four of their number killed and two Muzzle loading shotguns captured. A small quantity of black powder was captured. ¶ 2 The action of these civicos who left Big Falls (Power Plant of Neptune Mine) of their own accord; acting on their own information is very commendable, especially of Pedro Jarquin who lead the patrol. This contact occurred about 1000 1 February 192. ¶ (signed) RALPH D. McAFEE ¶ 1st endorsement ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA Bluefields, Nicaragua 18 February 1932. ¶ From The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nicaragua ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ 2. The prompt action of the Civicos, under Pedro Jarquin is most commendable, and well illustrates the spirit and initiative at all times displayed by the Civicos at Neptune Mine. Mr. Springer is fortunate to have such loyal and fearless employees, and the Guardia grateful for such valuable assistance. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"

5 February 1932.
Contact of Civicos, Neptune Mine.  Capt. Ralph D. McAfee, Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.    (2 images)   
"GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ CUARTEL GENERAL, AREA DEL ESTE ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA. 5 February 1932. ¶ From: The Area commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Report of contacts. ¶ 1. The following is a copy of a radio received February 5, covering three contacts near Neptune Mine. ¶ Neptune Mine Feb 3, 1932 (received Bluefields on 5th) ¶ COMMANDER GUARDIA ¶ BLUEFIELDS ¶ CIVICOS MADE CONTACT ONE FEBRUARY FOUR BANDITS KILLED TWO SHOTGUNS CAPTURED ONE CIVICO WOUNDED PERIOD LT GRAY MADE TWO CONTACTS ABOUT 1300 AND 1600 TWO FEBRUARY FIVE COUNTED KILLED NUMBER WOUNDED NO GUARDIA CASUALTIES PERIOD CAPTURED FOUR ARMS AND AMMUNITION. DESTROYED GREAT QUANTITY LOOT. RETURNED THREE FEBRUARY DUE TO LACK OF AMMUNITION PERIOD AM CLEARING WITH FRESH PATROL 12003 ¶ MCAFEE ¶ 2. This bandit group is evidently the one under Gonzales, Rivera and Castro, who raided and burned Tunky on January 30, 1932, and retreated to the Northeast. The above, report indicates that they were traveling slow, carrying their loot, and were intercepted by the Neptune patrols. The heavy casualty list and the capture of the stolen loot, should seriously cripple the activities of this group for a time, and ease the situation in the Department of Northern Bluefields. ¶ 3. The following radio from Kisalaya indicates probable local activity in that area. ¶ PTO CABEZAS FEB 4 1932 ¶ NGOVT GUARDIA COMANDANTE ¶ BLUEFIELDS ¶ SEVERAL SHOTS FIRED INTO KISALAYA MIDNIGHT LAST NIGHT BELIEVED SMALL GROUP MARAUDERS UNDER RAFAEL BLANCA OPERATING AROUND LAIMUS HENDERSON NOW IN THAT AREA INVESTIGATING 14304. ¶ INMAN. ¶ -1-"

 

4 February 1932.
Informes from Antonio Flores Vega, Ministro de Gobernación to Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua.    
"INFORMES RECIBIDOS DICEN:  Que los bandoleros tienen su campamento general en Bocay, situado a 276 millas del Cabo Gracias a Dios.  Aquí está desde hace un año.- Los bandoleros salen de este punto sobre el río Bocay y de ahí toman el afluente Hamaca y de este caño se cruzan a las vigas del Guaní en el punto llamado Casa Vieja.  Desde este último punto ellos pueden tomar 3 caminos: uno para las minas de Pis Pis; otro por agua río abajo a Guaní; y otro al camino de Matagalpa, adelante de ellas. ... "

4 February 1932.
Report of Bandit Attack Against Guardia Garrison at Kisalaya, 2nd Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Kisalaya, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.   
"DISTRICT OF KISALAYA ¶ DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS, ¶ KISALAYA, NICARAGUA. 4 February 1932. ¶ From: the District Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Via: The Department Commander, Department of Northern Bluefields, Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Bandit attack against Guardia Garrison at Kisalaya, report of. ¶ 1. The following is a report of an attack on Kisalaya, by a bandit group estimated at ten. ¶ 2. At 0030 on the morning of 4 February 1932, the officer’s quarters were fired upon by bandits from south west and about 200 yard of this post. Officers and Guardia immediately manned their defense stations and guardias in trenches due west returned fire. ¶ 3. Bandits after firing about 25 rounds into camp dispersed in general direction of Laimus. In this attack bandits employed rifles and pistols. ¶ 4. This group was under Commandante Rafael Blanco. A patrol from this post sometime last October wounded Blanco who ran as patrol entered Laimus (Pefleys Maps, coordinates 352-141). It is my belief that Blanco intended only to make a demonstration because as soon as guardia returned fire, bandits took to bushes. ¶ 5. The conduct and discipline of all guardia was excellent. ¶ (signed) E. J. SURPRENANT ¶ 1st. Endorsement. ¶ Department of Northern Bluefields Guardia Nacional de Nic. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua 17 February 1932. ¶ From: Department Commander. ¶ To: Area Commander, Area of the East, Bluefields, Nic. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ (signed) O. A. Inman ¶ 2nd Endorsement ¶ 19 February, 1932. ¶ HEADQUARTERS, EASTERN AREA, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA. Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. G.N. ¶ To: Jefe Director, G.N. Managua. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"

 

1.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA ¶ 4 FEBRUARY 1932. ¶ From: 2nd Lt. E. T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine. ¶ To: The Department Commander of Southern Bluefields. ¶ Subject: Contact report. ¶ 1. Having information that a large group of bandits which had sacked Tunky on January 28, 1932, were cutting a road to Waspook river, I cleared with the following patrol at 1200 1 February, 1932. ¶ Lieutenant E. T. Gray. Sgt. Constine Casanova #2701, Cabo Eliseo Vargas, #2130, Raso Acdana Rodolfo #2485, Raso Emilio Alfredo #2272, Raso Alaniz Gumercindo #3084, Raso Domingo Avila #4458, Raso Chavarría Faustino #3742, Raso Chavas Rafael #4746, Raso Garzón Jesús #4809, Raso Gomez Leonardo #3283, Raso Alejandro Gorgona #3489, 2 civil guides. 2 pack animals. ¶ Patrol took a north east direction going through Eden Mines and camped in a small house near to Biltigni river, a tributary of the Waspook. 2 February cleared at 0600. Here it was necessary to cut trail to intercept the route taken by the bandits column. Cut trail until 1100 when a distinct trail of the bandits was found. This was followed for a short distance where it entered into the Biltigni River. Here the bandits had followed the river banks, crossing where necessary. The Biltigni river is small and rapid. The trail indicated a very large number of bandits. About 1200 a clearing was entered but which had not been under cultivation for some time being grown up higher than the head with weeds. Here partly constructed bandit camps were found but no bandits. We proceeded cautiously seeing fresh tracks. The banks of the river were steeper and the two guides, six guardias and the mules were letf after we cleared the first bandit camp, because they could not follow the trail. When I had proceeded about a half mile down the river, a bandit approached the river bank from the opposite side with a balsa log. (Which were used in construction of rafts). This was the first man we had seen. He was about 100 yards ahead of us. We proceeded now very slowly and quietly. The river bank had dense cover which was fortunate. Our presence was not discovered. [...]"

 

2.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] 2. We opened fire with the Thompson and B.A.R. at about 20 yards. The surprise of the bandits was complete and our position so close that they fled with very little resistance. They returned a feeble fire from the camp and some more from the high ground back of it, but in all the firing lasted less than five minutes. The bandits used only shotguns and rifles. ¶ 3. There were about 75 men in the camp when we attacked. We crossed the river as soon as fire had ceased. There were five dead. The amount of loot taken from Tunky was large and most of it lay here in the camp in rubber sacks. This could not be carried as our mules were worn out. Most of the articles were in rubber sacks of which they were about 100. A rough estimate is given of the content. ¶ 100 trousers; 100 shirts; 50 hats; 50 pairs shoes; 25 women dresses; 75 blankets; 20 rain coats; ¶ A great quantity of cloth in pieces. A great quantity of cooking utensils; ¶ 200 pound beans; 300 pound rice; 200 pound sugar; 300 tins canned food; 20 lbs. coffee; 5 lbs. tea. ¶ These articles were either burned or thrown in the river. The amount of Military articles were: ¶ 1 rifle Krag; 3 shotguns; 4 clips for Lugar pistol; ½ lb. powder. ¶ About 200 rounds assorted ammunition, mostly Krag Combat 1930 and 1917, which was reissued to Guardia after the second combat. ¶ 36 rounds Lugar; 6 round brass shotgun 12 and 16 gauge, Remington reloaded; 12 rounds 38 special pistol Winchester;30 Machetes; 2 pack bulls. (Killed in combat) 5 bandits killed. (Counted). Correspondence. ¶ 4. When we had destroyed everything, I returned and picked up the pack animals and guides. The guardia left behind had came up [...]"

 

3.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] 2. We opened fire with the Thompson and B.A.R. at about 20 yards. The surprise of the bandits was complete and our position so close that they fled with very little resistance. They returned a feeble fire from the camp and some more from the high ground back of it, but in all the firing lasted less than five minutes. The bandits used only shotguns and rifles. ¶ 3. There were about 75 men in the camp when we attacked. We crossed the river as soon as fire had ceased. There were five dead. The amount of loot taken from Tunky was large and most of it lay here in the camp in rubber sacks. This could not be carried as our mules were worn out. Most of the articles were in rubber sacks of which they were about 100. A rough estimate is given of the content. ¶ 100 trousers; 100 shirts; 50 hats; 50 pairs shoes; 25 women dresses; 75 blankets; 20 rain coats; ¶ A great quantity of cloth in pieces. A great quantity of cooking utensils; ¶ 200 pound beans; 300 pound rice; 200 pound sugar; 300 tins canned food; 20 lbs. coffee; 5 lbs. tea. ¶ These articles were either burned or thrown in the river. The amount of Military articles were: ¶ 1 rifle Krag; 3 shotguns; 4 clips for Lugar pistol; ½ lb. powder. ¶ About 200 rounds assorted ammunition, mostly Krag Combat 1930 and 1917, which was reissued to Guardia after the second combat. ¶ 36 rounds Lugar; 6 round brass shotgun 12 and 16 gauge, Remington reloaded; 12 rounds 38 special pistol Winchester;30 Machetes; 2 pack bulls. (Killed in combat) 5 bandits killed. (Counted). Correspondence. ¶ 4. When we had destroyed everything, I returned and picked up the pack animals and guides. The guardia left behind had came up [...]"

 

4.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4.   
Sketch of Scene of Contact of Lieut. Gray, GN, 2 February 1932.

5.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 5.  
 "[...] DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA ¶ FEBRUARY 15, 1932. ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Contact Report. Forwarded. ¶ Reference: Harlan Pefley map. ¶ 1. The contacts as reported by Lt. Gray took place at (110.6 – 310.3) Harlan Pefley, the second (110.7 – 310.2). ¶ 2. The conduct of Lt. Gray, who cleared on my orders (due to there being no other available officers my patrol and myself had just returned and were nearly exhausted. Lt. Rodriguez was sick), was of the highest order of skill and courage. I personally covered the ground where both contacts took place and the defeat of the bandits was complete in both contacts. Such additional property taken from the bandits, and destroyed by my patrol later, was due to the initial contacts of Lieutenant Gray. ¶ One additional dead bandit was found which made six killed by Lt. Gray patrol in the first contact. While no estimate was made of the wounded two Indians who being held captives, and who escaped during the contacts stated that Simon Gonzalez and Julio Castro were wounded. This is not certain by any means but is merely added as a matter of interest. ¶ 3. The Jefes were Pedro Irías, Simón Gonzalez, Perfecto Chavarría and Julio Castro, a new but blood thirsty addition to the bandit forces. ¶ 4. The complete forces of the bandits and an estimate of the goods destroyed make it certain that the bandits did not profit by their robbery of Tunky except for clothing they may have worn away. I consider this the most severe blow the bandits have been struck on this coast, as to loss of stolen property, and to my belief the largest recovery of stolen loot in the history of the Guardia. The action of Lt. Gray and the patrol deserve the highest commendation. ¶ (signed) RALPH D MCAFEE [...]"

6.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. E. T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 6.   
"[...] Second Endorsement ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 18 February 1932 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua. ¶ Subject: Contact Report, Lieut. Gray, (R), G.N. on February 2, 1932, at BILTIGNE RIVER. ¶ 1. Forwarded ¶ 2. From a study of Lieut. Gray’s report and from personal conversation with Captain McAfee, who explained satisfactorily the reason for sending Lieut. Gray, (Radio), G.N. on the patrol, too much credit cannot be given for the action of Lieut. Gray in boldly attacking first the large main camp of the bandits with only six (6) Guardia, completely surprising and routing the bandits, seizing and destroying their stolen loot of several raids, capturing a mass of papers and killing six and wounding others. ¶ 3. Being rejoined by the remainder of his patrol and having completely dispersed the main group, Lieut. Gray promptly turned back on the trail, suspecting the presence of a rear guard, and was ambushed, but fortunately without any casualties. After a spirited long range fire action the bandits scattered and vanished. ¶ 4. The manner in which Lieut. Gray led and handled his small patrol, the boldness of his attack against such a large force, and the results attained receive my admiration; he and his patrol deserve the highest commendation. Such conduct on the part of the officers and enlisted men of the Guardia Nacional and especially on the part of Lieut. Gray, who is not a line officer, and subject to combat and patrol duty, cannot fail to leave its imprint on the morale and future of the Guardia Nacional. ¶ 5. I recommend that Second Lieutenant Earle T. Gray, (Radio), Guardia Nacional, be officially commended in official orders for his conduct and splendid results. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH ¶ (APPROVED) (A SIGNATURE) [...]"

7.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. E. T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 7.   
Transmittal of untranslated bandit correspondence.  Enclosures:  (25). "... 1. Forwarded herewith are twenty-five pieces of untranslated bandit correspondence (excluding pictures and envelopes), memorandums, personal letters, and newspaper clippings.  Some of this correpondence originated from Pedro A. Irias, E. Carvajal, I. Perfecto Chavarria, R. R. Hernandez, Carlos Salgado, Coronel Candelario, and bandit sub-jefes.  2. This correspondence was captured by 2nd Lieut. Earle T. Gray, (Radio), G.N., in his contact with bandit group at BILTIGNE RIVER, on February 3, 1932.  A part of this correspondence was brought to Neptune Mine by Lieut. Gray, and a large part was returned to Neptune Mine by Captain Ralph D. McAfee during his patrol to scene of BILTIGNE RIVER contact, on February 5, 1932. /s/ "

8.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. E. T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 8.    
"Transmittal of original, signed documents and letters from A. C. Sandino, Pedro A. Irias, I. Perfecto Chavarria, and Abraham Rivera, with translations.  Enclosures:  (12). ¶ 1. Transmitted hereiwth are twelve (12) original signed documents and letters from A. C. Sandino, Pedro A. Irias, I. Perfecto Chavarria, and Abrham Rivera, with translations.  ¶  2. This correspondence is the more important of papers captured by Second Lieutenant Earle T. Gray, (R), G.N., in his contact with bandit group at BILTIGNE RIVER, on February 3, 1932. Part of this lot was returned to Neptune Mine by Lieutenant Gray, after his action, and a large part was seized by Captain Ralph D. McAfee, in his patrol to scene of contact at BILTIGENE RIVER, on February 5, 1932. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"..."

9.     4 February 1932.
Contact Report, 2nd Lt. E. T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 9.    
"Subject:  Captured bandit papers. ¶ Enclosures:  (17).  ¶  1. Enclosed herewith are more and very eluminating papers, captured from the bandits by Lt. Gray (R) GN, after his contacts on Feb 2 and 3rd, 1932.  ¶ 2. Copies and translation of some of them have been made and retained at this headquarters. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"

   
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