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the atlantic coast  •  1928A, p. 8
june 1928

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   THIS IS THE EIGHth PAGE of documents for the first HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the month of June.  

     The page opens with Major Utley's perspicacious 5-page "Estimate of the Situation and Plan" (1 June) summarizing how the Marines see the military situation & their various options, which can be fruitfully read alongside his 14 June "Resume of the Situation".  We also glimpse some of the brutality of the counterinsurgency campaign, for instance in Cpl. Cole's June 3 radiogram from La Luz describing the shooting of two "bandits ... trying to escape after capture," both of whom "refused to talk."  The rough-and-ready racial-ethnic categories being imposed by the invading Marines also appear in the interstices of various reports, e.g. Capt. Tebbs' June 13 description of a "trusted scout" as a "Spic" (presumably a racial epithet for "Spanish" or Western Nicaraguan).  More details continue to emerge about the EDSN raid on the mining districts, as in the official report of the police commissioner in Siuna (in the June 14 message from Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada) & the June 18 message from Lt. Hall.  Meanwhile Capt. Edson continues to write his family members long & lovingly detailed letters, like his 5-page June 11 missive to his mother.  There's a lot here.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, coMENius press

1.   1 June 1928.
"Estimate of the Situation and Plan," Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 1.  
"My dear General: ¶ I am enclosing a copy of my estimate of the situation and detailed plan for your information and criticism. You will note that I do not discuss plans open to me except insofar as my action to meet each bandit plan is concerned. This for the reason that my mission is so clear to deny the bandits territory, recruits, arms, ammunition and other supplies, to protect American interests, and to destroy the bandits wherever found, that it appears to be more a question of how to forestall all possible bandit plans, than the selection of one line of action on the supposition that they will definitely adopt any one plan. ¶ While Floyd was here we discussed the question of holding BOCAY, and I gathered he was not fully convinced of the necessity of doing so. I dislike to give up territory once occupied unless the supply situation compels. BOCAY appears to have been a rendezvous and supply point for the bandits and a withdrawal will have a bad effect. Tebbs’ mistaken withdrawal from TUNKY had a bad effect locally and left the way open for the subsequent return of the bandits to LA LUZ. ¶ I am not convinced that BOCAY is the limit of my activities. The first good day, after BOCAY is occupied, I intend to fly out and confer with the Captains – Linscott, Walker, and Edson – there; observe for myself the condition of their men; and issue my orders. ¶ The rainy season appears to have set in, in earnest, which will handicap us somewhat but should not immobilize us. ¶ The planes have been a godsend. They have enabled me to make personal reconnaissance of the terrain, locate my patrols and communicate with them, and increase their morale by furnishing cigarettes, etc . . . "

2.   1 June 1928.
"Estimate of the Situation and Plan," Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . My forces will shortly reach BOCAY and now hold the WANKS as far as LAKUS. The bandits appear to have withdrawn to the southwest of that place. La Luz is occupied and a combat patrol is operating to the southwest of that point. The rainy season has set in, which renders forth our operations except by river, increasingly difficult. Periodically it renders the supply of the ports established or proposed easier. ¶ There are posts at El GALLO and GRANDE BAR on the Rio Grande and at BLUEFIELDS. No bandits have appeared in this sector. ¶ My first estimates were that BOCAY was too far away to be supplied from here and that to occupy it would unduly extend my lines. Since then the rains have commenced and my forces been augmented. I now believe I can hold BOCAY and keep it supplied. To what extent I can operate further up the WANKS and BOCAY Rivers is problematical. It may be that I have reached my elastic limit in that direction. ¶ Since about 1 March there have been constant rumors of trouble brewing in Honduras. The times set varied from May to October. A revolution there, whether outwardly friendly to Sandino or not would necessitate increased watchfulness on our part along the border. This situation is being watched as closely as possible, mainly through unofficial agents who are friendly to Americans in Nicaragua, known to me. ¶ There appear to be but four plans open to the bandits. ¶ a. To withdraw to the southwest beyond reach of my patrols during the rainy season. ¶ b. To cross into Honduras. ¶ c. To break up into small bands of marauders. ¶ d. To strike south, either down the Grande River or into Chontales. ¶ If they adopt plan a, they will come within the zone of action of the 11th Regiment and I must be prepared to prevent their coming back into this area. This requires a line of garrisoned posts with active patrolling between posts, and to the westward. If the bandits adopt this plan they may be expected to run foul of the 11th Regiment patrols. So far as my reaction is concerned it is immaterial whether the bandits continue active or remain passive when they withdraw to the southwest beyond my reach . . . "

3.   1 June 1928.
"Estimate of the Situation and Plan," Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 3.  
" . . . If the bandits adopt plan b, its success is dependent upon the reception they receive in Honduras. The WANKS then becomes my front line and must be more strongly held than if they are west and south of me. This strengthening of the WANKS posts will still be necessary however if the bandits adopt some other plan but the Honduran situation gets worse. ¶ If the bandits adopt plan c, they will give considerable trouble over a large area for some time. However this will probably follow the same lines as in Haiti and Santo Domingo, requiring numerous posts and constant patrolling, but permitting the use of weaker patrols. This plan would probably be the ‘beginning of the end’, and is considered unlikely except as a last resort. ¶ If the bandits adopt plan d, they will be following their previous practice of shifting their zone of operations when driven out of one zone. They will also be moving into a zone that is more lightly held at present. It is not believed that they are familiar with the terrain in this zone except the Rio Grande basin, and their known objection to leaving home may prevent the adoption of this plan. Its advantage is that it would probably cause us the most trouble. To forestall such a move I propose to transfer the Tulsa Detachment to the Southern Sector. With one full company already there I will be able, in addition to garrisoning Grande Bar, El Gallo and Bluefields, to establish a post further up the Grande, probably in the vicinity of QEUPI on the TUMA, possibly in the vicinity of SAN PEDRO del MORTES, and place an outpost at or above RAMA. This tends to straighten out my line, does not over extend, and will render the adoption of plan d, by the bandits, much more difficult of execution and probably will prevent them attempting such a move. ¶ My plan is to deny the bandits free territory to the limit of my ability to supply posts, protect American interests, and to guard the border, by occupying the line of the Wanks as far up as BOCAY; place a post in the PIS PIS District; and at LA LUZ with a post to the westward on the MATAGALPA-WUANI Trail; place a post well up the TUMA River; and an outpost at RAMA. ¶ By keeping up patrolling (aerial and ground), between posts, and in the area covered, it is believed that the mission can be accomplished, and territory, supplies, and re-enforcements denied to the bandits. ¶ DETAILED PLAN. ¶ To make my dispositions in depth, assigning the 59th Company and the Denver Detachment to the line of the WANKS (exclusive of CAPE GRACIAS); the Galveston Detachment to the PIS PIS Section; the 60th Company to the MATAGALPA – LA LUZ Trail, with a post at LA LUZ; the 61st Company (less detachment) and the Tulsa Detachment to the RIO GRANDE and ESCONDIDO; the surplus of the 51st Company to . . . "

4.   1 June 1928.
"Estimate of the Situation and Plan," Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 4.  
" . . . CAPE GRACIAS, BLUEFIELDS and PUERTO CABEZAS to be regarded as Rear Areas, where men can obtain recreation, refit, and recuperate. Each organization to maintain the garrisons in its sector at prescribed strength, furnishing replacement from the men in the rear area. ¶ Re-enforcements required in any sector to come from the organization concerned to be furnished from the rear elements of that organization. This will permit operations on the WANKS to be westward from LA LUZ by one company (the 60th), and one detachment (Galveston); and further permit the force on the WANKS to be augmented by one detachment (Galveston) or that on the MATAGALPA-WAUNI Trail by one detachment (Denver). ¶ To supply the 59th Company, Denver Detachment, and Galveston Detachment through the supply dump established at WASPUC, this dump and CAPE GRACIAS to be supplied from PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ To supply the 60th Company via LA LUZ. To supply the 51st Company and Tulsa Detachment from BLUEFIELDS. ¶ Evacuation from the 59th Company, Denver Detachment, and Galveston Detachment, to be via WASPUC and CAPE GRACIAS, to PUERTO CABEZAS; from the 60th Company via PRINZAPOLKA to PUERTO CABEZAS; from the 51st Company and Tulsa Detachments to BLUEFIELDS. ¶ To establish radio stations at WASPUC, LA LUZ, and BOCAY, utilize the commercial installations with marine personnel at El GALLO and GRANDE BAR, and the commercial station at CAPE GRACIAS. ¶ To maintain radio stations at PUERTO CABEZAS and BLUEFIELDS. ¶ To communicate with RAMA from BLUEFIELDS by existing telephone lines. ¶ To continue to construct light field radio sets for patrol use. ¶ To consider as reserve the commercial station at BLUEFIELDS and the Lumber Company station at PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ Command Post to be at PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ [Handwritten note at bottom of page] – Dear Oliver:- ¶ I sent a copy of this to the General by regular mail and am holding this in the air mail on the off chance something comes over. It will probably be obsolete before it reaches you. Notwithstanding appearances I do not consider my plan a straddle. HHU"

5.   1 June 1928.
"Estimate of the Situation and Plan," Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 5.  
" . . . The replacements arrived in due course. I hold them as a casual company to facilitate administration and permit sorting them out, until today. I have kept the transfers from the other companies at a minimum, but those I have requested are men experienced in the work to which they are being assigned. The few men not required to bring the companies to strength are being assigned to the 51st Company, which will serve as a pool, and also because it appears that this company will lose personnel due to transfer to the United States more rapidly than the other companies. ¶ The morale of the 51st Company has been lowered somewhat in the past due to lack of promotions to fill vacancies in the authorized compliment of the company. The reason given was that the fifth regiment, as a whole, then had its complement. It would seem that the authorized complements of companies that are on detached service so to speak, ought not be decreased by averages in the rest of the regiment. I hope that it will be possible to increase the complement of non-commissioned officers of the 51st Company by the number assigned to the Area Headquarters Platoon. This number was arrived at by adding the number selected for the necessary duties. ¶ Very respectfully, ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commander, Eastern Area."

2 June 1928.
The Bluefields Weekly, "Quarterly Report of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua."  
"Through the courtesy of Major Sage, head of the National Guard of this section of the country, we have been favored with a copy of the first quarterly report of the organization in Nicaragua. ¶ It is indeed a comprehensive information of the activities and deportment of the men comprising this most valuable institution and of the benefits already derived by the Nation from it. ¶ A complete account of all the engagements in which the National Guard took part in pursuing Sandino since the beginning of this year to March 31, is given. Some of the exploits being equal in daring to those read of in the Mexican trouble with the famous Pancho Villa. ¶ It is distressing to note that among the various information of valor and sacrifice the report brings also this one of treason, in the Somotillo attack, January 8: ¶ 'The following nine enlisted men of the Guardia stationed at Somotillo mutinied against their loyal comrades and joined the bandits in the attack against the barracks and innocent townspeople. ¶ The sorrow of all honorable Nicaraugans accompany these unfortunate men in their lives of misfortune. These cowardly men can never escape from the fact that they voluntarily enlisted in the Guardia Nacional and of their own free will took its oath of loyalty to that organization. They will always remember that when their comrades and their country needed them, they turned traitors and joined the enemy in spreading death and destruction to a peaceful little community. ¶ The knowledge that through treachery, their loving families and trusting friends have suffered shame and humiliation will remain with them until they are laid away in the ignoble graves that await them and which several have already [---ed]. ¶ Nicaragua rememers the following named men as traitors to their country, their comrades and their families: ¶ Corporal Manuel Chaverry ¶ Private Miguel Centeno ¶ Private Manuel Matute ¶ Private Luis Valle ¶ Private Luis Peralta ¶ Private Ramiro Noguera ¶ Private Juan Nota[ime] ¶ The following named members of the Guardia were commended for acts of valor in connection with this engagement. Their devotion to duty and heroism in this desperate [shootout] has won the admiration of the entire [Coast and Nation] ¶ Cadet George H. Adams, G.N.¶ Cadet [Roy A. Nesmerelda], G.N. ¶ Private Francisco Espinoza, N. 69, G.N. ¶ Private Adrian Zavala N. 131, G.N. ¶ Private Jose Zapata, N. 253, G.N. ¶ Private Casimiro Paredes, N. [21], G.N. ¶ Referring to the capture of arms of differenty types and class, during the period [11-20] February, the report says: ¶ 'The Government of Nicaragua has insured law, controlling the [illegible] ¶ The Guardia Nacional is going to do everything within its power to support the Government of Nicaragua in having the laws obeyed. Only by this course can we hope to make this country a place where the honest, law abiding citizens can enjoy peace and happiness. ¶ Two Notorious Criminals ¶ 'On 18 February, 1928 a Guardia Nacional and U.S. Marine Corps Patrol commanded by Captain Lewis B. Reagan, U.S.M.C. (Cadet Joseph L. Blanchard, G.N. commanded the Guardia troops), visited Las Manos, Nueva Segovia, Nicaragua, and received the following Nicaraguan outlaws who were turned over to the Guardia Nacional by the Honduran authorities: ¶ Anastacio Hernandez, Bandit Leader. Jose F. Torres, Bandit Jefe.' ¶ 'Notes on Las Manos Patrol: ¶ Hernandez was the leader of the Hernandez Band of outlaws that committed horrible murders and other cxrimes in Northern Nicaragua during the past several months. Torres was his first chief. Hernandez and Torres are confined in the prison in Ocotal. ¶ The entire Guardia Nacional appreciates the capture of these two notorious criminals by the Honduran authorities and will always do everything within their power to assist Honduras in maintaining law and order along the Honduras-Nicaraguan Border.' ¶ Guardia Nacional Takes Over City Police Duties of Managua ¶ On 16 March, 1928, the Third Company of the Guardia Nacional took over the city police duties of the city of Managua. Colonel Archibald Young, G.N. was appointed chief of Police of Managua City and made the initial organization of the police activities of the city. The Third Company is quartered at the Momotombo Grounds in the former National Museum.' ¶ Speaking of the marksmanship of members of the Guardia the report has the following: ¶ 'It has been demonstrated on the Managua range that many of the Guard are natural rifle shots, and iwth careful schooling and attention to details these men can be developed into 'Expert Riflemen.' The high score of the Guardia to date is: Raso Ernesto M. Martinez, No. 645, G.N., sore [221] points. Martinez next of kin is his mother, Regina Medina, of Chinandega. ¶ During the above period fifty-five Guardia on duty as Prison Guards qualified in shooting the Winchester Riot Shotgun on the Managua Range.' ¶ On March 31, 1928, the Jefe Director of the Guardia Nacional addressed the following message to all members of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, ¶ 'As the Guardia Nacional extends its work throughout the Republic it appears from time to time that certain public officials have the impression that the Guardia Nacional is not a part of the Government but is a force outside of the Government which is seeking to censure the officials. This is not a fact. ¶ The Guardia Nacional is endeavoring to inforce the laws of the Republic regardless of party feeling. In this endeavor the Guardia has been charged by one member of the party or another with belonging to the other side. THe Guardia has been charged with persecuting members of an opposite party. ¶ The Guardia investigates all such charges that are brought to its attention. None of them, as yet, have been proved by the evidence obtainable. ¶ It should be clear to the officers of the Guardia, however, that in a country where the National Police Force can be often used for party purposes in preferences to a joint enforcement of laws there will be many who will believe that the Guaardia is operating along these lines of party feeling. ¶ It therefore behooves all officers and men of the Guardia to exercise the strictest adherence to justice, to enforce the laws without undue force. If the Guardia persists in this policy, it will eventually obtain and maintain the respect and good will of the people of Nicaragua. ¶ The Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua belongs to the people of Nicaragua and is a part of their Government. It is not operating independently of the Government but it is operating with a consistent endeavor to act with justice within the limitations of its powers. It does not belong to any party.' ¶ Finally, the report concludes with a list of the various members of the Guardia who obtained promotion for their acts of bravery and dedication to duty during the several engagements in which they took part, since the campaign against Sandino started. ¶ The report is interesting in every detail."

2 June 1928.
Radiogram from Capt. Cook, Kalasanka, 5 hours from Bocay, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8602 Arrived KALASANAKA ten thirty yesterday stop trail ends here but believe one can be cut in three days comma it is five hours by boat to BOCAY stop trail from here taken by JIRON supposed to lead to JINOTEGA with branch trail from it to WANKS river comma distance and time to cover unknown stop when JIRON passed through here there was an American with him comma probably MARSHALL comma who appeared to be in good health and well treated stop presence in band explained to marines by bandits by the story that American had wife in interior and was under their protection while travelling to join her stop JIRON left some pack animals here which we will corral today stop several empty shells PA 27 ammunition picked up here comma fired by JIRON’s band stop rumor here that MARCOS AGUERRO died eleven days ago and was buried in BOCAY comma his men going up into interior via WANKS stop also contradictory rumor that AGUERRO and band are coming to BOCAY Sunday stop LINSCOTT comma EDSON comma and eight (8) enlisted left zero seven hundred this date via boat for BOCAY stop rumors will be verified and report made at a later date stop this patrol expected to return evening of third June stop patrols are out in all directions to locate trails stop patrols of six (6) men out over back trail to BODEGA DE KULI to bring two bateaux down river to this place colon expected return evening of third June stop CAPTAIN LINSCOTT heard rumor that SANDINO ordered all his chiefs to meet him in province of JINOTEGA the last of May or first of June comma not verified stop LINSCOTT considers abandoning mules stop it is EDSON’s intention to keep all mules even if necessary to cut trails stop request permission to wave either on BOCAY or follow JIRON as information dictates stop suggest that BOCAY be used as a base and five (5) months supplies or as much as practicable be sent there stop health of troops good stop three days rations on hand but will make these last weeks or ten (10 days stop COOK 0900"

3 June 1928.
Radiogram from Corporal George Cole, Commanding Officer, La Luz Mines, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"A rebel General by the name of Arroliga is reported to be about two hours hiking above Wani, which, considering the trail, should be about four to six miles. This report is believed to be true as it was furnished by Wing, a chinese here, and a guide. ¶ Arroliga has six men with him and is reported to be recruiting men to join him in attempt to capture the base here at La Luz mines, as soon as the pack train leaves for Captain Rose with supplies, word being furnished that only two men would be left here. This is true as only Gunnery Sergeant Conwill and a cook was left here to guard the supply base. I was left here by Captain Howard after crash and whoever made the report to Arroliga did not know I was to remain here. ¶ Two bandits have been killed here the last ten days trying to escape after capture, one here at the La Luz mines and one at the Ampaco Bodego, where the supplies are landed from the boats for here, no information was secured from either of them, as both refused to talk. ¶ Captain Rose has been away from here since midnight, twenty-second of May, 1928. As far as we know Captain Rose is now at Hiyas, this being the town where he was at when he sent his pack train back for supplies. ¶ I have made this report because the information may be important and believed to be true as the natives say the bandit killed here yesterday was sent in here to secure information for Arroliga. Five men of the pack train have gone to Wani to investigate the report, will send further reports as warranted."

3 June 1928.
Intelligence Report, Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Reference: Daily reports covering this period. ¶ Maps: Ham Map of Nicaragua. ¶ (A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ The past week has been very quiet and the condition of this area might be called peaceful. ¶ The natives are reported to be coming out of hiding and returning to their homes in the mining areas, and people are going inland from the coast, some taking their families. ¶ The area seems to be returning to its normal condition, doubtless caused by the feeling of safety inspired by our patrols in the interior. ¶ (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS MARINES. ¶ From the reports that the natives are returning to their homes, and that people are returning to the areas which they left on the approach of the bandits, it is assumed that the civil population have confidence that the marines will protect them."

4 June 1928.
Drop message from Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, to Captain Rose, on patrol near La Luz mine.   
"1. A. Sandino and Jiron with combined forces of from one hundred to two hundred men (estimated) are reported as moving towards POTECA on WANKS RIVER. No other large groups of bandits have been reported in the EASTERN AREA. ¶ Arroliga with about six men is operating in the vicinity of LA LUZ MINE, and it is reported that he is recruiting for the purpose of attacking your supply base at LA LUZ. ¶ b. The Wanks River is held by a line of patrols as far as BOCAY, with a patrol up the WASPUC River. ¶ LINSCOTT, WALKER, and EDSON are now at BOCAY. ¶ There are no troops within supporting distance of you. ¶ 2. There is being dropped with this message a list of questions and answers from the NCO in charge at LA LUZ; and an order regarding your supplies. ¶ 3. If the terrain permits, make report by pick up message giving your estimate of the situation, and your plans. ¶ W. C. HALL, ¶ By direction"

4 June 1928  (2000).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"604 DAILY REPORT STOP LIAISON FLIGHT TO LA LUZ COMA BOCAY COMA WASPUC STOP PICKED UP MESSAGES AT LA LUZ COMA LANDED AT BOCAY AND WASPUC STOP WALKER AND EDSON IN BOCAY COMA LINSCOTT APPROACHING BOCAY PROBABLY ARRIVE FIFTH STOP REPORT FROM BOCAY INDICATE AGUERRO DIED AT BOCAY MAY TWENTY SECOND COLON SANDINO AND JIRON JOINED FORCES NEAR CASCA AND MOVED TO WANKS RIVER BETWEEN BOCAY AND POTECA ARRIVING ABOUT JUNE SECOND OR THIRD NOW MOVING UP RIVER STOP REPORTS FROM LA LUZ INDICATE ROSE OPERATING VICINITY HIJAS COMA ARROGILA [ARROLIGA] OPERATING VICINITY LA LUZ WITH SIX MEN AND ATTEMPTING TO RECRUIT MORE STOP WALKER REPORTS LAKUS AREA PLENTIFULLY SUPPLIED WITH ARMS AND AMMUNITION WITH INDICATIONS OF BANDITS HIDING IN BUSH COLON MULLER FAMILY WELL AND BEING AFFORDED PROTECTION STOP ALL REPORTS INDICATE NATIVES AND INDIANS SHOW FEAR OF MARINES STOP THERE ARE TWO ENGLISHMEN IN BOCAY STOP 2000"

7 June 1928.
Letter from Buckley, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"My Dear Utley: ¶ I understand that there will be a plane to Puerto Cabezas in the near future – perhaps tomorrow – therefore this note. ¶ I’ll tell you what it is about. Some time ago we asked Headquarters to send us 300 sets of books from the Institute for instruction in Spanish of personnel selected for duty with the Board of Elections. At the time the request was made we asked that 60 sets of the Spanish course be sent to you and the remainder here. At that time your extensive campaign into the wilds of Nicaragua was not foreseen. Now it seems improbable that you will be asked for any men for election duty and such being the case, you will not need the books. We are much in need of them here and if you do not contemplate using them please send them over if you have them buy return trip, of the plane if possible . . . "

7 June 1928.
Letter from Buckley, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . we have been notified that these books were shipped but have not located them as yet. They may have been sent all in one bunch or some may have been sent to you as requested. If you have any now or receive them later we can use all that you do not need. ¶ This is a h—l of a war according to my way of thinking. There is material for a large addition to the ‘Small Wars’ course at the school. ¶ Your birds certainly have cut loose from their regular base in a most unusual fashion. I suppose they live native style. ¶ Red Floyd tells me that you have a comparatively nice town. I never have been there but I was in Bluefields once – that is plenty. ¶ You have us beaten for mail service and quick communication with the U.S. ¶ You know I was snatched out of the Scouting Fleet at [?], just a week before we were to start north for the summer, and ordered down here. Consequently, I am a bit [?] but I’ll tell you all about it when I see you again which occasion I hope will not be down here. ¶ Sincerely, ¶ Buckley"

10 June 1928.
Operations Report and Weekly Report of Events, 3-9 June, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Reference: Daily reports covering same period. ¶ Maps: Ham Map Nicaragua. ¶ Moravian Mission Map. ¶ 1. DISPOSITION OF OUR FORCES. ¶ a. FRONT LINE. ¶ WASPUC – Lieutenant Cunningham and one section 59th Company. ¶ AWAWAS – Lieutenant Carroll with one section 59th Company. ¶ BOCAY – Captain Walker and Lieutenant Taft with 48 enlisted from 59th Company and Galveston detachment. ¶ BOCAY – Captain Linscott with 32 enlisted, 60th Company. ¶ NEAR SLATO de PIS PIS – Lieutenant ROSS with reconnaissance patrol (estimated). ¶ LA LUZ and WAUNI – Approximately – four men from 60th Co. (Rose’s supply base). ¶ NEAR HIYAS VILLAGE. – Captain Rose with one platoon, 60th Co., Estimated. ¶ El GALLO – Captain Matteson with one platoon, 51st Company. ¶ ENROUTE BLUEFIELDS from RAMA – Lieutenant Crawford and one section, 51st Company. ¶ b. OTHER SUPPORTING AND ADJACENT TROOPS. ¶ WAWA CENTRAL OUTPOST NCO and 8 men, 51st. Co. ¶ RIO GRANDE BAR OUTPOST – NCO and 7 men, 51st Co. ¶ BLUEFIELDS – Headquarters, Southern Sector. ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS – Headquarters, Northern Sector, Aviation Detachment Puerto Cabezas Rear echelons, all companies and detachments, northern sector. ¶ PENA BLANCA – PASO REAL DE CUA – COCAO Area – several columns from 11th Regiment."

10 June 1928.
Operations Report and Weekly Report of Events, 3-9 June, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
". . . 2. WEATHER AND VISIBILITY ¶ Bad for both ground troops and air forces. ¶ 3. OUR OPERATIONS FOR PERIOD. ¶ a. CONTACTS. ¶ None reported. ¶ b. GROUND TROOPS. ¶ Our patrols have all advanced to the points indicated without being able to make contact with the outlaws. ¶ All organized groups of bandits have retreated before the patrol, and the Eastern Area is now clear of any organized group of bandits. ¶ Copy of Field Order No. 2 is attached and a drop message to Captain Rose, marked ‘A’ and ‘B’ respectively. ¶ c. AIR FORCES. ¶ The liaison and supply flights have continued. On June 4, a suspicious collection of boats and lean-tos on the COCO River about 50 miles above BOCAY were bombed. Report reached BOCAY later that these boats and lean-tos were being used by SANDINO’S men. ¶ 4. COMBAT EFFICIENCY. ¶ The Area Commander flew to BOCAY for a conference with Linscott, Walker and Edson and reports that the morale and efficiency of the troops is excellent. The only requests made to him were for permission to continue the advance. ¶ 5. RESULTS OF OPERATIONS. ¶ The Eastern Area is not being disturbed by outlaws. Our advance is now checked, due in part to difficulty of supplying advance patrols, and due to the fact that the 11th Regiment patrols are about to withdraw. The forces in the Eastern Area occupy now, or shortly will occupy, the general line WASPUC – WANKS RIVER – BOCAY – PIS PIS AREA – CONCEPTION AEA – QUNPI – RAMA, with the mission of denying all territory east of that line to the outlaw forces. ¶ W. C. HALL, ¶ 1st. Lieut., USMC Operating Off."

10 June 1928.
Intelligence Report, 3-9 June, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Reference: Daily reports same date. ¶ Maps: Ham Map of Nicaragua. ¶ Moravian Mission Map. ¶ (A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ With the exception of a small outlaw band under ARROLIGA in the mining area, there have been no reports received indicating the presence of bandits or outlaws in the Eastern Area. ¶ (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS MARINES. ¶ In the Bocay area the Indians are apparently frightened at the approach of our patrols, and the men hide in the bush. However, they are responding to friendly overtures and are our mainstay in that area for guides, boatmen, etc. ¶ The Nicaraguans in the same area are reported as ‘pro-Sandino’ and no aid is expected from them; at the most we may expect neutrality. ¶ (C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. ¶ The Bragman Bluff Lumber Company is reducing their payroll and laying off large numbers of their employees. About three hundred negroes are being discharged at this time, and no provision being made for them. There is no other place in the vicinity of Puerto Cabezas where they can obtain employment. No trouble has taken place yet, and the situation is being watched. ¶ (D) POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ Normal. The Commandants are being assisted in their work by our forces, and given assistance when it appears to be needed. ¶ [Missing section] None reported. ¶ (F) POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ Nothing to report. A LIBERAL meeting will be held in PUERTO CABEZAS, Sunday, June 10, which will be covered. ¶ W. C. HALL, ¶ 1st Lieut., U.S.M.C."

11 June 1928 (2000).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 1.  
"604 DAILY REPORT STOP LIAISON FLIGHT TO LA LUZ COMA BOCAY COMA WASPUC STOP PICKED UP MESSAGES AT LA LUZ COMA LANDED AT BOCAY AND WASPUC STOP WALKER AND EDSON IN BOCAY COMA LINSCOTT APPROACHING BOCAY PROBABLY ARRIVE FIFTH STOP REPORT FROM BOCAY INDICATE AGUERRO DIED AT BOCAY MAY TWENTY SECOND COLON SANDINO AND JIRON JOINED FORCES NEAR CASCA AND MOVED TO WANKS RIVER BETWEEN BOCAY AND POTECA ARRIVING ABOUT JUNE SECOND OR THIRD NOW MOVING UP RIVER STOP REPORTS FROM LA LUZ INDICATE ROSE OPERATING VICINITY HIJAS COMA ARROGILA [ARROLIGA] OPERATING VICINITY LA LUZ WITH SIX MEN AND ATTEMPTING TO RECRUIT MORE STOP WALKER REPORTS LAKUS AREA PLENTIFULLY SUPPLIED WITH ARMS AND AMMUNITION WITH INDICATIONS OF BANDITS HIDING IN BUSH COLON MULLER FAMILY WELL AND BEING AFFORDED PROTECTION STOP ALL REPORTS INDICATE NATIVES AND INDIANS SHOW FEAR OF MARINES STOP THERE ARE TWO ENGLISHMEN IN BOCAY STOP 2000"

11 June 1928.
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, p. 2. 
"COMMUNICATIONS AND SUPPLY PRINCIPAL PROBLEMS REQUIRE FURTHER STUDY STOP SEPARATE REPORT WILL BE RENDERED SHORTLY STOP UTLEY"

1.   11 June 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Mother, p. 1.  
"Dear Mother:- ¶ Your letter of May 14th reached me by air mail several days ago and although for the first part of the week I have had little enough to do my leisure time has not been devoted to letter writing. For the first time since landing at Puerto Cabezas – in fact, since joining the Denver, I am sitting around more or less twiddling my thumbs. ¶ We reached Bocay on the second of June. At least some of us did for I came ahead with a few men to take possession of it and keep anyone else from beating us to it. The men were twenty miles away moving by pack trains of forty mules. We gave up our boats at Musawas and put all our rations on mule pack and by cutting part of our trail through the woods, we reached a place called Calasanki on the first of June, eight days after leaving Musawas. At Calasanki the trail for Bocay suddenly stopped, so as I said before, some of us came in by foot while the others stayed with the mules. We have some Indians cutting trail and the mules should reach here tomorrow night. ¶ Friday noon, Major Utley arrived from Puerto Cabezas by plane. Two other captains were here too – Captain Linscott who is a mighty fine fellow, and Captain Walker. A couple of days before the plane arrived, we had received a message from the . . . "

 

2.   11 June 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Mother, p. 2.  
" . . . major which seemed to indicate that I and my men were to stay here at Bocay during the next six months, or during the rainy season. We were all glad of it for it is not at all a bad place to stay and with a little work fixing it up and plenty of rations for the wet months, it would in no time be made into a very comfortable camp. However, when the Major came, he gave us new information and orders. The day before, he had received radio orders for my transfer to the Rochester. Now instead of staying here in Bocay, the Denver Detachment is to go back to Puerto Cabezas. There I will turn my men and property over to Ralph DeWitt – the same one who used to live in Chester, you know and whose people now live in Newfane [NY]. Thus I am going to Balboa, Canal Zone on the first government ship and then on another ship to Corinto, Nicaragua. Corinto is on the west coast. There I report at Managua for duty as commanding officer of the Marine detachment of the USS Rochester. The latest information I have is that the Rochester Marines are somewhere around Matagalpa which is almost as far inland from Corinto as Bocay is from Cape Gracias or Puerto Cabezas. We are leaving here tomorrow at daylight and if all goes well we will arrive in Puerto Cabezas about Sunday. So the letter is being written to you now to be mailed as soon as we reach the coast. I do not expect to have time to write on the trip down, for we breakfast at daylight each morning – get under way by six and . . . "

3.   11 June 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Mother, p. 3.  
" . . . except for six hours halt at noon, we move until nearly dark at night. We should make Waspuc, some 200 miles downriver, in three days, and if the gasoline boat I expect is there, we will be in Cape Gracias the next night. It is then only a half days journey to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ It will be rather good to get into civilization once more, even though it is but a short time. If I were staying on this coast, I would much prefer to remain here in the bush to going in to the Port for a couple of weeks or so and then back out again. This is not the best place in the world to live, by any means, but when one is more or less stabilized, it is not too bad, either. Here we have a good house to live in, a good galley, and enough food to keep us. The place is fenced, too, so that the hogs and pigs are not running under the table or around our bed as in most Indian houses. ¶ I am wondering how everything is at home – where you are and the plans you have. If you decide to move, and need any help financing the change, I am always ready to help. One advantage of this life in the country is that . . . "

4.   11 June 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Mother, p. 4.  
" . . . it permits one to get some slight start on the right side of the books since there is so little one can spend money for out here. ¶ There will be a letter in the mail with this one addressed to [?]. I am sorry to hear about the school work for I am quite sure I could secure him a chance for Annapolis, but he would have to compete with many others. That is one place where no one cares or worries about one – he either makes good on his own initiative or out he goes. You need not worry about him, for he has lived long enough with you and had never to go far wrong. You two could never have a person living near you or with you who would not have learned to follow the right path more than the wrong. We will make mistakes, but if the ground work is good, I do not think there is ever much to be afraid of. ¶ Tonight it is raining as usual. The wet season is here to stay. If the morning is good, the evening and night brings rain – and if it is good at night – the morning is bad. Some days I expect, both day and night will bring rain and that will not be so . . . "

5.   11 June 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Mother, p. 5.  
" . . . placement. The rivers here are very sensitive to the rain. It rains so hard that only a small portion of the water soaks into the ground – the remainder going into the rivers. Today since noon, the Wanks River has risen some four feet. By midnight I expect it will have reached its peak and from there on will go down again, and by day after tomorrow be as low as it was this morning. ¶ Tomorrow we get up a four thirty so here is a good night to you and Dad and Grandpa. Lots and lots of love to all of you Mother o' mine until the next bit of a letter. ¶ Merritt ¶ New address beginning upon receipt of this letter:- ¶ Captain Edson ¶ U.S. Marine Corps ¶ USS Rochester ¶ c/o Postmaster, New York"

12 June 1928.
Report from Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bocay, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"1. Sergeant Mosier arrived at 1430 yesterday with the eight hundred and sixty (860) rations (money value). This means much more than that in actual days subsistence. He brought four Fifty-ninth Company men to remain here, making a total of seven here pending Captain WALKER’s return. ¶ Captain EDSON with his entire detachment less Private CARROLL, Fifty-first Company, radio operator, cleared at 6:30 a.m., today enroute to WASPUC. ¶ Still have MARINES and natives out cutting trail to bring mules down from KALASONIKI. Effected them tomorrow, but heavy rains and swollen creeks may delay them two days. All quiet here, Indians returning from bush, and quite friendly. Have commenced barracks for housing of command here. Will require one hundred dollars ($100.00) additional funds. EDSON had none and I assumed bills for his attachment."

14 June 1928 (0800).
Radiogram from Capt. Tebbs, Pis Pis patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"From: C.O. Pis Pis Patrol. Eden Mine. ¶ To: Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua. ¶ 8614 Following received from G. A. Napoleon, Manager of Neptune Mine quote Yesterday afternoon Ramon Lajos of Limon was over here. He told me that four days ago, one of Arroliga's troops was in Limon, and told a woman friend of his to get out of town as any time after the 15th of the present month they would be coming to this district. I am sending this by messenger as I want to keep you informed of all rumors going around unquote. Numerous runners in this area of late Stop Will move patrol to Neptune tomorrow and if rumors do not appear serious after investigation I will start for Waspuc as soon as boats are available stop 0800 Tebbs"

13 June 1928 (0845).
Radiogram from Capt. Tebbs, Pis Pis patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"From: C.O Pis Pis Patrol. ¶ To: Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua ¶ 8613 Hope to be able to get underway for Waspuc tomorrow stop Am expecting boats any day now at Big Falls Stop All reports sent by sick men by supply route Stop The report of Hanson's is the second I have received about bandits in that vicinity Stop I sent trusted scout to investigate (Spic) but was unable to locate any the first time Stop ¶ TEBBS 0845"

14 June 1928.
A Resume of the Situation from about March 28, 1928 to May 13, 1928, author unknown (probably Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas), p. 1.  
"About 28 March, bandits in several columns left Eastern Segovia. A small band of about twenty raided Sang Sang and Awasbila on 5-6 April. The other columns under Giron and Altimarano went south, skirted Jinotega, moved east and about 3 April reached the area Tuma-Coyalar. Another column under Sanchez came from the west and joined the others in the same area or possibly farther east. This band stayed in that area for several days and reports received and deductions made seem to indicate that they were attempting to move south or southeast with the idea of getting into the rich coffee area or of moving to the general vicinity of Matiguas or Muy Muy. It is believed that energetic patrolling at that particular time prevented them from moving the way they wished. ¶ During the stay apparently additional instructions were received for them to proceed east to the mining area. From about 11-16 April they were in the La Luz-Pis Pis area. La Luz was visited the 12th and the Neptune Mine of the Pis Pis group was visited about the 17th. ¶ Reports received indicate that the employees of the mines had opportunity to escape, if they had so desired. A few stayed and were captured. As far as is known Mr. Marshall is the only one at present missing and it is assumed that he is a captive of the force which visited that area. After taking what they could in the way of money, merchandise and animals, and after doing some damage, this group estimated from 150 to 175 bandits moved northwest to the general vicinity of Casas Viejas. Another group of about 60 bandits under Irias moved into the mining area from the west about the 26th and from reports received (unconfirmed) did some additional damage to the mines. This group either stayed in that general vicinity or moved out and then moved back in. Probable they were waiting for boats for about the 1st they did attempt to go down the Waspuc and were met by Captain Edson’s patrol. They were driven back south, were met again and driven farther back south. These two contacts were on 4 and 6 April. At present this group has been forced to the west up the Guabul River. ¶ It is believed that this series of operations were conducted by the bandits primarily for the purpose of intercepting or receiving a supply of ammunition, and that their mission failed. ¶ At present it is believed the main bandit strength is northwest of the Pis Pis mining area. ¶ Ground troops are now in the vicinity of La Luz and the Neptune Mines and authentic reports on bandits depredations in that area are expected daily. All reports received are from other than military sources except Aviation reconnaissance reports, which are not considered accurate enough to make an authoritative report. ¶ The situation in other areas is very satisfactory and well in hand. A few small bands are at large but they are rapidly disintegrating. We are giving them no rest and continue to harass them at every opportunity. . . . "

14 June 1928.
A Resume of the Situation from about March 28, 1928 to May 13, 1928, author unknown (probably Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas), p. 2.  
". . . Generally speaking the situation is considered very satisfactory for the following reasons: ¶ (1) Bandits have been denied all towns of any importance, and also the important agricultural areas. ¶ (2) Their main supply bases in Eastern Segovia were almost if not entirely destroyed during the first ten days of April. Approximately 125,000 pounds of bandit supplies were destroyed during that period. ¶ (3) His main concern at present is to avoid contact with us, and his activities therefore confined to the wild, mountainous areas. ¶ (4) There is ample evidence to show that he is losing some of his men by desertions. ¶ (5) The repeated attempts of the bandits to gain access to the rich Jinotega-Matagalpa coffee areas have been easily frustrated. ¶ (6) Enemy attempts to gain a new supply of ammunition are believed to have resulted in failures. ¶ (7) Evidence is increasing and shows that Sandino is rapidly losing his prestige in this and contiguous Central American countries. ¶ (8) We are rapidly building up confidence in the native population. ¶ (9) In conclusion we believe that the bandit situation is very close to normal.  ¶  PRESENT DISPOSITIONS  ¶  Operations at present exclusive of measures being taken to round up small bands in Segovia, Northern Esteli, and Northwestern Jinotega, may be stated generally as follows: ¶ Small detachments are opterating in Eastern Segovia. ¶ Strong patrols are working north, northeast, and east of Jinotega. ¶ Patrols designed to guard the eastern approaches to the Jinotega-Matagalpa area are operating from that area to the vicinity of Matiguas-Guapotal. ¶ Patrols are operating north out of Muy Muy and east to Saiz. ¶ Patrols are operating north and northeast out of Boaco. ¶ A patrol opposite Awawas is blocking the Coco River and the trails to the north. ¶ A patrol at Waspuc (Bucbuc) is blocking the Waspuc River and serving as a base for a patrol operating up the Waspuc River. ¶ A strong patrol has gone all the way up the Waspuc River and is now working up the Duabul River. ¶ A strong patrol is now in or very close to Eden, with orders to reinforce the above mentioned patrol. ¶ A strong patrol is now in or very close to La Luz, with orders to investigate and report on bandit acts in that area, and to deny bandits entrance to that vicinity. ¶ A strong patrol is at El Gallo blocking the river and trails and operating against smugglers. ¶ At Rio Grande a small patrol is operating against smugglers and blocking the river. ¶ At Saclin on the Coco River, a small patrol is blocking the trails to the north and acting as an observation post."

14 June 1928.
Message from Jefe Político Juan J. Estrada, Bluefields, to Minister of Gobernación, Managua, with official report from Police Commander in Siuna, April 12-30.  
"Today I received from the Police Commander in Siuna the following note: ¶ ‘Alamicamba, May 30th, 1928: Mr. Jefe Politico of the Dept., of Bluefields, Sir:- I beg to send you my official report, as Police Commander of Siuna, during April 18th to 30th, 1st. ¶ On April 12th, last about 5 o’clock in the afternoon Siuna was taken by surprise by the rebel Sandino’s forces commanded by General Manuel Maria Jiron R., having left part of his forces in the La Luz and Los Angeles Mine. Immediately I was deprived on my pistol and obliged to provide with food part of the soldiers. About eleven at night in spite of their already having taken provisions and other things by force, they broke open the Chinese stores Wing Kong and Allena Chow and looted them and then started to drink. On the 13th started violating individual’s homes, pretending to look for arms, robbing all they found of any value. On the same date, after the looting, they left in the direction of the Neptune Mine, saying that 180 men were on their way without commander. On the 16h of the same month I heard of the coming of some forces and therefore was obliged to look for hiding the mountains with my family. On April 24th I had news of the arrival of a Colonel Carlos Aguero, who set on fire the La Luz and Los Angeles Mine, 25 cases of dynamite having blown up in the said mine. On the 27th of the same month General Augusto C. Sandino himself arrived there, who finished up my little store as well as some other things of my personal use. And afterwards he proceeded to loot all the Chinese stores destroying t hem, and saying that the Chinese in question had gone to get the American Marines, along with Mr. Amphlett of the La Luz Mine. As per reports I have received the commissary was destroyed as well as the Manager’s house and the warehouse in the mine. I was also informed that on the 13th April Mr. Marshall, American citizen and acting superintendent of the mine was made prisoner by the forces of General Jiron. ¶ Mr. Jefe Politico the excuse I have for not having sent this report before is that I had to cross the mountain with my family, coming out near the plains of Alamacamba. With shows of my consideration, I am yours, Narciso Choza.’ ¶ All the above I communicate to you for your information and other consequent effects. ¶ Yours, ¶ JUAN J. ESTRADA."

15 June 1928.
Field Order No. 3, Capt. M. A. Edson (Bocay?) to command. 
"Map: Ham map of Nicaragua 1924. ¶ 1. A. The outlaw strength appears to be concentrated in the area BOCAY – POTECA – STA CRUZ – CERRO HIYAS. Local robbers have been threatening to operate in the mining districts. ¶ b. The WANKS and WASPUC River areas are being patrolled from the base of WASPUC VILLAGE. The CONCEPCION mining area and routes to the west are being patrolled by our forces based on LA LUZ MINE. ¶ 2. Our forces in the Eastern Area continue to advance up the WANKS River and westward from LA LUZ, denying territory to the bandits, maintaining order and protecting lives and property throughout the Eastern Area. ¶ 3. The Marine Detachment, USS Tulsa, less rear echelon, will establish an outpost in the PIS PIS mining district, exact location to be decided upon and reported by the outpost commander. Patrols from this outpost shall cover the area YAPUWA – TUNKY – ASA. Liaison shall be maintained with our patrols on both flanks. ¶ 4. Routes of supply and evacuation: PUERTO CABEZAS via PRINZAPOLKA and BAMBANA Rivers. ¶ 5. Communication by airplane liaison flights until establishment of field radio station in PIS PIS area. ¶ Command Post PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ BY ORDER OF MAJOR UTLEY, ¶ Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Executive Officer."

15 June 1928.
La Voz del Atlántico, Bluefields, "Open Letter to Mr. A. W. Hooker by Creoles of Bluefields," p. 1.  
[SUMMARY:  A vitriolic denunciation of the publisher of the Bluefields Weekly, by unidentified "Creoles of Bluefields" who accuse Hooker of "vile and malicious attempt to set the Government of Nicaragua . . . against us."]

15 June 1928.
La Voz del Atlántico, Bluefields, "Open Letter to Mr. A. W. Hooker by Creoles of Bluefields," p. 2.

15 June 1928.
Letter re Freiberg Mahogany Co. from Rep. N. Longworth, Wash. D.C., to Sec. State, Wash. D.C., p. 1.  
"I have received a letter from the Freiberg Mahogany Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, which reads in part as follows: ¶ “You probably are aware of the fact that we have been operating in Nicaragua for the last fifteen years getting out mahogany; furthermore we suffered very heavily last year on account of the revolution for which we have a very large claim (of more or less value?) against the Nicaraguan Government. ¶ “It seems, however, that one of the places we are operating in, which is on the Kukalaya River, is not very far from La Luz Mine, which was recently reported blown up by the Sandino Forces. I am quoting from a letter received from our logging superintendent, dated at Wounta, May 17th, as follows: 'The Marines take all my boats to get their men and supplies up river, and then another detachment comes marching thru camp just when we get it quieted down from the last bunch, and then on top of that, they take my provisions--the last shipment of lard to camp they took the whole blame works and let me without lard. They take my motor boat and all the pitpans and tell me my business will have to wait.’ ¶ “You realize that in the tropical countries the time for logging is of but short duration owing to the brevity of the dry season, so that every day during the dry season is of utmost value. The loss, therefore, of time that we have suffered is extremely heavy and it seems to us that we have a just and legal claim for not only the time, but loss of provisions, use of boats, etc. that we have suffered as pointed out by our representative. . . . "

15 June 1928.
Letter re Freiberg Mahogany Co. from Rep. N. Longworth, Wash. D.C., to Sec. State, Wash. D.C., p. 2.  
". . . I will be greatly obliged if you will let me know whether the Company has any recourse in this situation, and if so, the procedure they should follow in presenting their claim. ¶ If you can make any suggestions which will aid them in the future I shall appreciate it."

17 June 1928.
Intelligence Report, 10-16 June, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"FROM: 0000 10 June, 1928. ¶ TO: 2400 16 June, 1928. ¶ Reference: Daily reports same date. ¶ Maps: Ham Map of Nicaragua. ¶ Moravian Mission Map. ¶ (A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ The Eastern Area remains quiet. ¶ (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS MARINES. ¶ The Indians along the WANKS River are becoming more friendly; they require very careful treatment; otherwise they refuse to assist our patrols. ¶ (C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. ¶ The economic condition along the coast remains the same. ¶ Condition along the WANKS River is returning to normalcy. No report has been received regarding economic conditions in the CONCEPCION area, but preparations are being made at NEPTUNE MINE to re-open the mine. It is reported that laborers are being offered one dollar and sixty cents ($1.60) a day. ¶ (D) POLICE OPERATION. ¶ The Police in the vicinity of Puerto Cabezas continue to function, performing their duties fairly well. The Commandante at WAWA BAR is not satisfactory and steps are being taken to replace him. . . ."

17 June 1928.
Intelligence Report, 10-16 June, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . (E) FRICTION BETWEEN MARINES AND CIVILIANS. ¶ None reported. ¶ (F) POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ Nothing to report. ¶ MISCELLANEOUS. ¶ A special report from Captain Edson is attached regarding the WASPUC-BOCAY Area."

17 June 1928.
Special Intelligence Report, Wanks River - Waspuc River - Bocay Area, Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Maps: Ham Map of Nicaragua. ¶ Moravion Mission Map. (1919) ¶ (a) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ The area included in this report i.e.:- WASPUC - SALTO de PIS PIS - RIO HAMACA - BOCAY - AWAWAS, is now quiet. Small bands of deserters, camp followers, etc., from those bandit groups formerly in the PIS PIS AREA are still to be found along the southern boundary of this area, but they have no military significance. ¶ (b) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS MARINES. ¶ Generally friendly. Indians, Spaniards and white foreigners in this area are pro-Sandino, but no active opposition is shown to or expected by us. These people require careful treatment. All of the inhabitants along the WANKS RIVER have given aid to Sandino or other bands, either through actual coercion or constructive coercion due to living in territory heretofore virtually controlled by such forces. Propaganda spread by Aguerro against Marine forces is generally believed and can be combatted only by good treatment, an attempt to understand the people, and actual example of our forces. If properly handled, a great deal of assistance may be expected from these people as boatmen, guides, and laborers. Although little or no information is now obtained, it is firmly believed that valuable and timely information will be secured in the future if we maintain a friendly attitude towards them. Any sign of oppression, poor faith in fulfilling obligations, etc., will result only in hindering our operations and may lead to active opposition. The more intelligent inhabitants will become pro-Marine if properly handled. ¶ (c) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. ¶ Very poor. Due to bandit operations and those of our forces, crops have been neglected and in some places food is quite scarce. Around the BOCAY AREA all mahogany operations the main source of revenue, have ceased. Along the lower WANKS RIVER, the banana bit industry helped the situation considerably but that has not increased as much as was expected two months ago. At present, the transportation of Marine troops and supplies is the chief occupation along the river and the main source of revenue. . . ."

17 June 1928.
Special Intelligence Report, Wanks River - Waspuc River - Bocay Area, Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . (d) POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ None. Local Commandantes still function in SACKLIN and WASPUC. There are none in SANG SANG or BOCAY. ¶ (e) FRICTION BETWEEN MARINES AND CIVILIANS. ¶ None reported. As stated above, this phase of our operations in this area should receive particular attention by all concerned. ¶ (f) POLICE SITUATION. ¶ Unchanged. Ninety-five percent Liberal. ¶ (g) MISCELLANEOUS. ¶ None."

18 June 1928.
Damage done at La Luz by bandits, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, for and in the absence of Capt. Herbert Rose, USMC, La Luz, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"1. The following report based on my personal observation and such technical information as I was able to obtain regarding damage done at La Luz by bandits is submitted: ¶ (a) Mill dynamited and contents destroyed. Principle machinery contained in same - 3 Harding mills, 10 stamps, ice machine, 3 gasoline motors, lathe, water wheel and many tools. ¶ (b) Retort house and assay office - contents ruthlessly destroyed. Principle contents - scales, ovens, crucibles and acids. ¶ (c) Six cyanide tanks dynamited and destroyed. ¶ (d) Commissary burned and destroyed. ¶ (e) Superintendents house burned and destroyed. ¶ (f) Assistant Superintendents house burned and destroyed. ¶ 2. Everything of value in the line of food, clothing, tools, etc., that could possibly be taken was carried away by the bandits. This statement is based on many reports from inhabitants of this area. ¶ 3. The mine cars, track and water line are intact. There are remaining on the mine property eight small frame buildings and six native houses."

18 June 1928 (1435).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"8618 LIEUTENANT CONWAY REPORTS AS FOLLOWS QUOTE WAS FOLLOWING CAPTAIN HOWARD STOP HE WENT INTO STORM DIRECTLY OVER WANKS RIVER ABOUT TWELVE HUNDRED THE FOURTEENTH STOP SPENT OVER HALF HOUR LOOKING FOR HIM THEN FLEW THROUGH STORM TO THE COAST STOP RAN OUT OF GAS AT FIFTEEN FIFTEEN AND MADE FORCED LANDING TEN MILES SOUTH OF MOUTH OF PATUCA RIVER STOP LEFT NATIVE GUARDING PLANE AND PROCEEDED ON FOOT WITH MECHANIC PRIVATE CHARLES W CHAMBERS JUNIOR TO CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS SIGNED CONWAY UNQUOTE STOP 1435"

18 June 1928 (2015).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"8616 CONWAY REPORTS AS FOLLOWS COLON AT LEAST TWELVE LOADED RAFTS MOVING UP PATUCA RIVER COMA PATUCA RIVER VALLEY SPARSELY SETTLED COMA NATIVES ALONG COAST FROM PATUCA TO CAPE GRACIAS APPEARED HOSTILE AND CALL THEMSELVES NICARAGUANS STOP 2015"

27 June 1928 (1000).
Radiogram on Lt. Uriza, Eastern Area, contact with rear guard of Pedro Altamirano's forces 27 June near Piedra Luna.  
"HOT STUFF FROM THE PUBLICITY SECTION ¶ 8627 LIEUT URIZA AND CONSUELO GUARDIA PATROL HAD CONTACT AT ELEVEN HUNDRED ON TWENTY SEVEN JUNE WITH REAR GUARD OF PEDRON ALTAMIRANO NEAR PIEDRA LUNA TWO EIGHT ZERO DASH THREE ZERO SEVEN BANDIT CASUALTIES ONE KILLED AND INDICATIONS OF SEVERAL WOUNDED GUARDIA CASUALTIES ONE WOUNDED THREE GUARDIA PATROL IN PURSUIT OF BANDITS 1000"

28 June 1928.
The Bluefields Weekly.   "Our Marines Must Guard Nicaraguans" ... "Puerto Cabezas Notes"  
"According to information received, about one thousand men have been discharged as a result of a new plan adopted by the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., though it is stated this wholesale reduction of hands is due to lack of work.  A circular issued by the new manager, Mr. McKay, instructs that all jobs or employment to be given out or filled must exclusively be to sons of the soil."

28 June 1928.
Letter from Enrique Gulke, Jinotega, to Jefe Político, Jinotega.  
"Mr. Jefe Politico of the Department – City (Jinotega) ¶ ‘I, Enrique Gulcke, 48 years old, married, merchant and factory owner, German subject, and living in this City, place before your authority the following complaint: on the 31st of May, Sandinistas, well armed, commanded by Pedro Altamirano, alias called Pedron, came to my lumber cutting encampment which I have legally established about 8 miles from the mouth of the Poteca River. They took everything there was, such as merchandise, provisions, and utensils, and they threatened with death my manager, Enrique Pineda, who arrived here yesterday to give us the above report and to whom they stated that nobody, either foreigner or Nicaraguan, could cut down a tree without the express permission of General Augusto C. Sandino, because of this threat and owing to the fact that they were despieled of everything they had, Pineda and all my workers left my place, where I had stopped work since last November due to threats made by Sandino in a note he sent along with a decree dated Nov. 14 wherein he demanded forestry as well as export tax. Of course I did comply and had to stop my works, referring the note and decree, which I now have in my possession, to the Minister of Government, the high Command, and the Legation of the United States in Managua. Now I had reports about Sandino and his troops having left for the Atlantic Coast at the beginning of April and, supposing that he would never come back, I decided to start work again, as intensively as possible because the paralyzation of said work had already caused various losses to me. Taking out of lumber can be done at a reasonable cost in the dry season and only in places where it is utterly impossible to work in the rainy season because the ground turns completely into mud. Now, with what has happened to me, I have been obliged to abandon my enterprise for I don’t know how long; until I can get full guarantees. I shall present my claims for damages to the proper authorities. Jinotega, June 12, 1928. E. GULCKE."

29 June 1928.
Administrative Orders No. 4, Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas.  
"To accompany Field Order No. 4. ¶ 1. SUPPLY. ¶ a. COCO, and WANKS Patrol (less CAPE GRACIAS) from dump at WASPUC. ¶ b. PIS PIS Patrol from PUERTO CABEZAS via PRINZAPOLKA. ¶ c. PRINZAPOLKA Patrol (less PRINZAPLOKA VILLAGE) from PUERTO CABEZAS via PRINZAPOLKA. ¶ d. Troops in Southern Sector from BLUEFIELDS. ¶ e. PRINZAPOLKA (VILLAGE) and CAPE GRACIAS from PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ 2. EVACUATION. ¶ a. Northern Sector to PUERTO CABEZAS via river route. ¶ b. Southern Sector to BLUEFIELDS via river route. ¶ c. Emergency cases by air. ¶ 3. REPORTS. ¶ All patrols and posts will submit weekly, to Sector CP, for the period from 0000 Sunday to 2400 Saturday a consolidated report covering first, second, third and fourth sections. ¶ These reports to be in addition to those required by Administrative Orders Number 1. ¶ 4. SUPPLY FLOTILLA GUARDS. ¶ Supply Flotilla guards will accompany boats forward to next post only where new guards will be furnished. Guards return when boats return. ¶ BY ORDER OF MAJOR UTLEY: ¶ MERRITT A. EDSON ¶ Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Executive Director."

29 June 1928.
Damage done at La Luz by bandits, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"Subject: Damage done at La Luz by bandits. ¶ 1. Complying with your verbal instructions, the substance of Amphett's remarks were as follows:- ¶ "That it was a good thing Sandino used dynamite and did not burn the buildings. If the buildings had been burned the machinery would probably have damaged beyond repair. The explosion ruined some, but he thought the majority could be salvaged and used again." ¶ [signed] HAROLD H. UTLEY"

 

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