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the atlantic coast  •  1929A, p. 2
Feb 1 - MARCH 10, 1929

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE FIRST HALF OF 1929 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 38 days from February 1 to March 10.

     Especially noteworthy here are the 16-page letter from Bluefields medical doctor J. L. Marchand to the editor of The Nation in New York denouncing the Marines’ arrogance & penchant for torture and other unsavory practices (4 Feb.). The radiograms on General Manual María Girón Ruano’s capture also merit attention (on Giron’s statement before his execution by a kangaroo bush trial, see the TOP 100 PAGE 27). The Bluefields Weekly continues to decry the banana tax — and describes Sandino as being "on the warpath" & in decidedly unflattering terms — while the various intelligence reports, memoranda, and reports bespeak mainly the Marines' concern with locally-rooted unrest unrelated to the EDSN.  As the 12 February Periodic Intelligence Report notes, “A report received of Sandino recruiting among laborers of farms on RIO GRANDE RIVER was investigated and it appears that most of farm laborers lost within last month have gone to PANAMA looking for more lucrative work.”  Captain Peard’s Feb. 13 “Resume of Achievements of Guardia Nacional” offers a crisp summary of the “organization and establishment of the Area of the East” (starting a year earlier on 28 Feb. 28), along with some interesting details on Marine perceptions of local people’s reception of the Guardia.  The 28 February radiogram on the 80 mahogany cutters leaving Waspuk for the Patuca River zone in Honduras is apparently the first time the name of Adolfo Cockburn surfaces in Marine-Guardia records.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1 February 1929 (1702).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas. 
 "TWENTY FAMILIES FORMERLY HIDING IN MOUNTAINS NEAR GUIGUILI HAVE BEEN GRANTED PERMISSION TO BUILD HOUSES NEAR POTECA STOP ALL MEN DESIRE WORK AND ARE AVAILABLE AS BOATMEN IF NECESSARY TO FORWARD RATIONS ABOVE HERE STOP STATE MOVE HERE FOR FEAR OF BANDITS STOP 1702"

1 February 1929.
Letter from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Señor Julio Monterey, Pal Punta, Nicaragua.
"Dear Senor Monterey: Your letter to Captain M. Rose, U.S. Marine Corps has been forwarded to me. After investigating this matter I find from our records that all claims submitted by you have been paid and that there is nothing outstanding at the present time. ... Both Captain Rose and Captain Matteson have spoken of you in very complimentary terms, having stated that you have always co-operated with them in every way possible. I wish therefore to thank you for your past services and to commend you for your active co-operation with the Marine Corps in Nicaragua. ..."

4 February 1929 (1303).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"FOLLOWING RECEIVED FROM BRIGADE QUOTE 1103 HANNEKEN CAPTURED GENERAL JIRON ALONE TODAY STOP PROMISED HIM LIBERTY IF HE WOULD GUIDE MARINES SO THEY CAN GET SANDINO STOP HANNEKEN PROCEEDS WITH TWENTY ONE MEN TONIGHT TO ATTACK SANDINO WHO IS LOCATED BETWEEN MURRA OAKLAND AND CONGOJAS AS ART UNDER MY 8604 1302 CONFIRMS STOP 1303"

1.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 1.  
"Dear Mr. Willard: ¶ I am addressing you personally for several reasons, some of which will probably become apparent. In the first place, I am a citizen of the United States of a family not unknown in Western Pennsylvania – you will find me registered in the American Medical Directory – and a long time resident of the East Coast of Nicaragua where I have practiced my profession among its naturals, the Costenos, for a number of years. ¶ How I ever missed making the acquaintance of The Nation during the last two years is beyond me, but such is the case; for, as the independent scrivener of our small colony of mostly fettered Americans, to say nothing of the inarticulate naturals, I have striven to miss no opportunity to put in a word, at times a myriad, where we have thought it would do some good for the cause of decency. ¶ Latterly, through the thoughtful interest of a friend in the diplomatic service of our government, who has a knowledge of this question that has proved a handicap to him in this service, my perhaps excusable ignorance of what The Nation really stands for has been dissipated. I have received several issues of your publication, among them that of December 12, 1928, containing the editorial ‘Hope for Nicaragua?’ – the question mark being aptly put. ¶ This . . . "

2.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 2.  
" . . . [section missing] partly as follows: 'We can stand the general rottenness, the strafing and the double-crossing of the native Costenos; we are more or less used to it. But we cannot stand for the deliberate murder and brutal torture of the prisoners from among them - and such periodicals as The Nation have been understating rather than overstating these activities" . . . But, when the Secretary . . . writes to the Chairman . . . that he feels that ‘there is no foundation in fact for the allegations set forth since such acts would be contrary to policy, to the indoctrination of the enlisted men by their officers and to the general principles of the service.’ there must certainly be something damned rotten some place between here, where our actualistic policy is being so persistently carried out, and there, where our verbal policy is still being so sanctimoniously proclaimed.’ ¶ ‘The Secretary should be informed that the enlisted men, and in particular those of the navy proper, are mostly upstanding gentlemen, but that their officers, those who are detailed for active short duty, are, to use the words of a very wise old petty officer, the scum of the two services, that they are mostly morons who really do indoctrinate the enlisted men in accordance with our verbal policy, but who then order some of them to act in direct opposition to the indoctrination. We have seen it going on for all but two years; and it is growing worse instead of better, so that . . .

3.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 3.  
" . . . that even the enlisted men are now openly talking about it.’ ¶ And we began to get action, of a kind, days before the departmental promises of an inquiry reached us. The first thing noticeable was the cessation of all authentic talk among the natives about prisoners being given the third degree, as the marines call the institution; then a captain of marines arrived who outranked the culprit captain, although the latter still had very great influence in the conduct of affairs, especially where intimidation is concerned – he even tried the game on me in the office of the governor of this department – and the, wonder of all wonders, our Brigade Commander, at Managua, came out, through Wells, the propagandist of the despoilers, with a sickening statement as to how carefully he himself had indoctrinated his officers a la verbal policy – all quite in the approved style with which we are so very well acquainted – and preparations quietly began for the investigation which we did not ask for, and, to be perfectly candid, did not expect. ¶ The next move in this notorious case of the East Coast is mentioned in the beginning of a letter to the Chairman under date of May 18th: ‘On Saturday evening, May 13th, the culprit captain left by the regular steamer for New Orleans, and the community breathed a profound sigh of relief and thankfulness. He, it is being said by official spokesmen, has been given a thirty day leave of absence. Some of his former non-coms are of . . . "

4.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 4.  
" . . . of the opinion that it will be a very long thirty days, that he ‘smelled’ an impending investigation of his activities and ‘ducked’ – so much for the Secretary’s promised inquiry; it simply isn’t done!’ ¶ And the next in the second following, dated June 30th: ‘By this morning’s steamer from New Orleans the culprit captain arrived once more in Bluefields. The secretary promised you that he would order an investigation in this case. None has taken place; and this is the only possible place where an investigation of this man would be possible. We did not ask particularly for an investigation; the community asked, through me, for the removal of this man from this littoral. He is a menace; and already the tranquility which began with his departure early last month is disturbed . . . Besides, many Liberals will fear to vote with him here.’ ¶ ‘A captain with two of his officers, also of the marines, were court-martialed recently at Leon and found guilty of atrocities. The naturals of Somatillo, where the crimes occurred, had the guts to accuse these officers and to testify against them in a body. Such a procedure would be impossible here; but there are sufficient professional men of standing, with two or three others, whose testimony would convict the culprit-captain as readily as the former was convicted. We American citizens want this man out of here. He is a menace to . . . "

5.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 5.  
" . . . to our own safety.’ ¶ This letter reached the Chairman at his home in the Middle West, and his reply was immediate, July 12th. He stated that he would take the matter up further with Washington by letter, but that, as it was difficult to deal with this Department, he would possibly be unable to make progress until his return to the capital in September – but he was mistaken, action, of a kind, was stated by the end of the month: ¶ ‘Dear Mr. Marchand: ¶ Cap. Madison vino esta manana a mi oficina y mi dijo que era encargado de investigar el case de Benito Vargas. Yo lo vere a ud. A last 4 o 5 p.m. hoy. ¶ Afo, ¶ Sandoval. ¶ Julio 31/’28.’ ¶ Onofre Sandoval, LL.D., the leading lawyer of this littoral, had an interest in the victim, Venito Vargus. He had been his former commander during active hostilities, and it was really against him that the marine activities, of which the torturing of the latter formed the principal part, were directed – a matter of alleged hidden arms and ammunition. He was it later proved, as the most important of the only two native professional gentlemen, out of a probably half-dozen, who had the courage of their convictions, who had not been thoroughly cowed; and he had charge of the case of Vargas.  Sandoval . . . "

6.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 6.  
" . . . [line missing]  ‘I am glad that you realize that this election is a ‘big job’ – it is worse. They have given General McCoy one of the meanest jobs imaginable; and he is going to be, indeed is being right now, obstructed more by certain Americans, among them several marine officers, to a much greater extent than by the Nicaraguans themselves!’ ¶ In a closely following letter I took up the Cumberland plan and discussed it in its relation to the real Nicaraguan question, which, as I have stated, The Nation’s ‘Hope for Nicaragua?’ fails to do – I hope to take this up later with you – good and all as the editorial is. I also went into the probable questions to be brought up for the purpose of throwing the elections to the Conservatives, especially in this district, also, and naturally, intimately associated with the real question, from which I quote the following: ¶ ‘And lastly, if it is intended by the powers that be, New York for choice, that General McCoy is to be permitted to do what our state department says he is to do, why has the ranking officer of our marine forces on this littoral, Costeno in sentiment but now aligned with the Liberal party, been stationed at Puerto Cabezas, while at Bluefields, the capital of the region, where the ‘Liberal’ governor, with all the powers to the former office taken away from him, is supposed to direct the affairs of the East Coast, was stationed a mere captain of marines who, with a few choice satellites . . . "

7.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 7.  
" . . . satellites, did all in his power, openly and above board, to give the lie to the Stimson agreements, and especially the ‘free and fair election’ part of them, and in so doing resorted to, among other despicable acts, actual murder and mayhem upon the defenseless ‘Liberal’ inhabitants to keep the community in the proper state of fearful submission – and he got away with it ‘since’, to quote on high in Washington officialdom, ‘such acts would be contrary to policy, to the indoctrination of the enlisted men by their officers and to the general principles of the service.’ We know all about the indoctrination of the enlisted men; but what we want to know is, who in the hell is indoctrinating the officers! That is not Hayti, nor yet Santo Domingo.’ ¶ ‘As I said in my previous letter, they have given General McCoy a mean job; and while he is busy at it let him beware lest, through him and without his knowledge, the skirts of our army be smirched with the same filth as are those of our navy and marine services; for long and intimate acquaintance with officers of these latter two has convinced us that many of them cannot be believed under oath, when it comes to their activities here, and that they are past-masters at the game of double-cross, when it comes to officers of even another American service . . . 'As . . . "

8.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 8.  
" . . . ‘As I before stated, the East Coast is the crux of the whole damnable American-concocted mess; and, even if any sort the Liberal ticket wins, which is probably even now with any sort of fairness, but the Coast is not given a square deal – and so far it has been hornswoggled and double-crossed from soup to nuts – and especially, if the Conservative ticket should win here, which would be inconceivable under any other supervision than that of our marine officers, there will be hell to pay. General McCoy should be thoroughly conversant with the Miskito Convention treaty – between Nicaragua and the Miskito Coast, 1895, and still in force, and the English law pertaining to those Nicaraguans of so-called dual nationality. If the general was not made thoroughly acquainted with this treaty at the department of state – and it is dollars to doughnuts that it was not even whispered to him – he should, metaphorically speaking, smash somebody’s face. I have the very best of reasons for believing that it is going to be through a further flagrant disregard of this treaty and a deliberate misinterpretation of this law that efforts will be made to prevent the Creoles and some of the Negroes from voting, although all of these people who were born in Nicaragua, whether of dual nationality or not, are entitled to the franchise.’ ¶ 'General . . . "

9.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 9.  
" . . . ‘General McCoy will indeed do well to keep in very close touch with the East Coast. It is loaded with dynamite. Everybody in the Interior, and especially those who know that such is the case, will tell him the contrary, even our state department will do that. The general needs a dammed good man here, right here in Bluefields, the capital; and, as I said in my first letter, not one marine officer against whom there exists even the least suspicion of having resorted to the ‘third degree’ should be allowed to even remain here.’ This letter was written on August 22nd. ¶ On August 30th I received a visit from Capt. Clyde Matteson of the marine corps who informed me that he had been authorized to make an investigation of some charges made ‘by some natives’ against Captain Kendall and asked if he could depend upon me as a witness, stating that Doctor Sandoval had informed him that I knew something about the matter! My reply was that it depended altogether upon whether it was to be a white-wash or a real investigation and, possibly, upon whether the native witnesses, if any were forthcoming, were to be convincingly assured of receiving protection or not. The captain was at first inclined to become indignant over my skeptical attitude, but after we had a heart-to-heart talk of a half hour or so, he doing very little of the talking, and practically only to convince me, which he did, that the miscarriage of justice of a former notorious investigation which he conducted was due . . . "

10.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 10.  
" . . . due [section missing]. ¶ It appears that Captain Matteson had received orders a month previously direct from Washington to conduct an impartial inquiry into the conduct of Captain Kendall, but that he had been ordered away by his superiors here on other and, presumably, more important duties at that very time. I gave him to understand that I was probably responsible for his orders and that I would possibly be the only witness available as the prospective native witnesses all seemed to be so completely cowed that they would not know anything about the matter when called upon; but that I was perfectly willing to go through with it if he was. ¶ We had a quite difficult time trying to convince the natives that they would receive the full protection of the Secretary of the Navy were they to simply testify to the truth, the captain aiding us materially in this work; and about half were convinced. Several refused for the ostensible reason that by testifying against an American Moncada’s chance for election would be jeopardized, others simply thought that we were lying, especially Captain Matteson who wore the marine uniform. On October 2nd I wrote the following in a letter for the attention of General McCoy: ¶ ‘To quote some of the Moncadistas, Liberalism is manifesting itself strongly here on the East Coast in the registration. So far it seems to be running fully four to one . . . "

11.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 11.  
" . . . one [section missing] considerable skepticism, that it is about the same way in almost all parts of the interior. The investigation of the conduct of Kendall was completed in due time. I have reasons for saying that the evidence against him was damning and unshaken. What will be the outcome we do not know, not do we much care. His wings have been clipped; but how he is tolerated in any capacity here on the scene of his beastliness is beyond the comprehension of everybody but, it would seem, the class of naval and marine officers delegated for this work.’ ¶ In practically every other particular General McCoy conducted the election campaign on the East Coast, if not in compliance, at least in accordance, with the recommendations of the older American residents; but Kendall stayed on until the bitter end – and it was bitter, indeed, for the former ‘bully of Bluefields,’ as he had been wont to boast, to remain among his once abject subjects in the mean capacity of a mere election clerk of the ‘damned good man’ that the general sent to Bluefields, and not to Puerto Cabezas, the run the election from the capital. As to the ‘prompt action’ to be taken against ‘those responsible,’ promised by Secretary Wilbur – Quien sabe! to use a common local expression. We have heard of none; and we generally do hear of such things but, perhaps, it were better thus – you know, we do not dare hold real investigations, at least those touching the East Cost and carried to their logical conclusion. Like revolutions. . . "

12.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 12.  
" . . . revolutions [section missing] in the East Coast do not amount to a damn – look at the former by Stinson and the latter by Cumberland! There is a reason; but even you hypothesists who do not understand the question have recognized these two farcical plays for what they really were. Have you also recognized the much lauded ‘free and fair election’ for what it really was? ¶ Donald J. Kendall, Captain U.S.M.C., a free man but a noticeably worried one, finally left for Washington under the wing of a major of marines, who, no doubt, will ostensibly for the good of the service, see that it is quietly exonerated – but there is another side to the question. There are a score and more Costenos of the Liberal persuasion at least here who, most of them bearing plainly discernible scars of their former beastly treatment by Kendall and his gang, still shudder while speaking with reluctance of the unendurable physical torturings they underwent at the hands of our ‘protectors,’ in which an ‘electric chair largely figured; but there is one thing that they simply will not mention to any one not of their breed; the Sadistic practices of their tormentors – only one other case being widely known here, that brought out in the local courts, and published in local sheet, when some half-dozen prisoners, who had ‘confessed’ to our marines, were almost instantly pronounced ‘not guilty’ by their trial jury and acquitted by the judge.  ¶  As . . . "

13.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 13.  
" . . . As [section missing] particular area, since his sadistic treatment at the hands of Kendall in February, 1928, when I first examined him, he has developed into what may here be designated a myxoedematous eunuch – consult you medical friends – not to mention other local body blemishes and organ dysfunctions. Javier Escobar – who repudiated before a former judge a ‘confession’ wrung from him as a marine prisoner by inhuman tortures, as he plainly stated, and who then lived less than a half hour afterwards, a victim of la ley fuga in plain sight of the entire community, causing one of the most flagrant cases of naval whitewashing extant – were very much better off! And these things are known and discussed from the Rio Grande to Cape Horn – Mr. Hoover’s good-will tour, indeed! ¶ Mr. Villard, I have gleaned from my personal knowledge and from my correspondence the latter with meticulous care and, I hope, not injudiciously some of the points which mostly constitute our reasons for believing that a congressional investigation in this case would prove futile – and none have better reasons for wanting to see this apparently perplexing question definitely settled than we independent American residents. I call your attention to the fact that our Chairman, whom you, of course, recognize – my first intention was to name no names – lately swung over with the majority of his colleagues who were and are in favor of the continuance of our forces here, until at least after the . . . "

14.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 14.  
" . . . the [section missing] censured for this. As we look at it, he simply no longer holds a purely hypothetical view of the matter. I call your attention also to the fact that, although the elections just passed were probably the greatest of all the jokes connected with this mess, General Frank R. McCoy left here with the deserved enconiums of all – the first instance of the kind during our years of questionable relations with this poor little republic – and I have given you the probably reasons for these phenomena. ¶ Since 1894, by deplorable connivance, and from 1909, by criminal example, we have been ‘raising’ two generations of Nicaraguan politicians the height of whose ambition is loot; and the practice of this doctrine here is, not without reasons, considered as being purely ‘American.’ Until we have educated another generation or two to a political conception of a somewhat different order, to leave Nicaragua to its own devices we are not only begging the question of our grave responsibility but inviting further, inevitable and much greater trouble. Let us first be honestly imperialistic before we condemn that ancient and honorable institution. ¶ There is a solution of this question which seems to those of us who have had intimate acquaintances for years among both Nicaraguan and American politicians, and have, upon so many occasions, been face to face with our intervening. . . "

15.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 15.  
" . . . intervening [section missing] to be simplicity itself. This plan has three virtues: it has never been tried, by us; it would remove the bone of contention from the grasp of the politicians, thus leaving them practically with nothing to fight over, and it would need no ‘standing army’ to carry it through, which should be a desideration to you ‘anti-imperialists.’ ¶ We have heretofore, for the last two years, directed all our energies in drastic criticism of our so-called policy; we have not begun a campaign for a constructive rehabilitation, a plan based upon no theoretical conception, but upon the hard and unassailable facts too many of which it has been our policy to keep from our press – indeed, from the great majority of our legislators. We, of course, have taken due notice of our promised ‘new era,’ but we have had a surfeit of promises; and, to finally quote a message from one of the several letters written for the attention of General McCoy: ¶ ‘Once of the chief things which makes us think that we can expect nothing else after election than what we have had since 1912 is the truly magnificent way in which our writer in Nicaragua – for instance, Harold N. Denny – lie about the financial end of this mess, make our interested bankers out to be worthy of halos, the personnel of our state department to be imbued with the highest altruism and the officers of our intervening forces to be suckling doves. . . . "

16.   4 February 1929.
Letter from Dr. J. L. Marchand, Bluefields, to Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation, New York City, p. 16.  
" . . . doves. [section missing] residents think that we had at last thought seriously of trying to be honest in the matter; but, as it is made out, we are so damned perfect that we make ourself ridiculous. ’ ¶ We need help; so do the people of Nicaragua. If you think it worth my while - I am a very much occupied man – I shall take up the Nicaragua question with you, or with that one of your associates you may designate, as we view it, just as I am doing, and no doubt, shall do, with a few others. I hope that you will read the foregoing rather long letter, and reread it, in the spirit in which it is written. ¶ Very sincerely yours, ¶ J. L. Marchand"

5 February 1929 (1515).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca.
  "8605 YOUR JIG STOP MY 8604 1303 SHOULD READ HANNEKEN PROCEEDS WITH TWENTY ONE MEN TONIGHT TO ATTACK SANDINO WHO IS LOCATED BETWEEN MURRA OAKLAND AND CONGOJAS A S A R T O 1515"

5 February 1929 (1830).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Commander Southern Sector Bluefields.  
"FOLLOWING FROM POTECA QUOTE MSG MAJOR UTLEY STOP DROP MESSAGE TODAY STATES JIRON DOES NOT KNOW TRAILS AND CANNOT LEAD HANNEKEN TO SANDINOS CAMP STOP GUIDES ARE BEING OBTAINED AND NORTHERN AREA PATROLS ARE MOVING FROM SANTA CRUZ COMA QUILALI COMA SAN ALBINO COMA JICARO AND JALAPA INTO THE AREA MURRA DASH CONGOJAS RIVER DASH GUIGUILI RIVER DASH CHIPOTE STOP POLLOCKS ROUTE NORTH AND COVERS HEADWATERS OF TAMIS RIVER WHILE EDSON PROCEEDS UP GUIGUILI RIVER AND TURNS NORTH INTO AREA BELIEVED TO CONTAIN MAIN BODY OF BANDITS AS SHOWN BY RECENT REPORTS AND EDSONS LAST PATROL STOP EDSON DESIRED ME TO REMAIN IN COMMAND AT POTECA UNTIL HIS RETURN SIGNED HALL 1830"

8 February 1929 (1305).
Radiogram from CO Marines Matagalpa to CO 5th Regiment Managua (info Utley & Edson).  
"FOLLOWING FROM JINOTEGA 0508 REQUEST C O POTECA BE ADVISED THAT RUPERTO HERNANDEZ LADISLAO MORA NOW REPORTED HERE THERE BY MARINES WERE MEMBERS OF THE BANDIT CONNECTED WITH THE SAN MARCOS AFFAIR JEFE POLITICO HERE WISHES THEM BROUGHT TO JINOTEGA 1305"

9 February 1929.
"To Place Export Tax on Bananas," The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"The undersigned Chief clerk of the Honourable Senate certifies that this is a true copy of the 7th Clause of the minutes of the 8th Session celebrated on Wednesday night at 7o’clock, twenty sixth of December, 1928, which literally says: ¶ “the clause:--the opinion of the committee which received for study an initiative from the Honourable House of Deputies to place a tax of two cents on every bunch of bananas exported from the country was read in second debate. Said bill was rejected in the in the first debate in the Session celebrated December 26, 1928.—Taken into consideration, for discussion Senator Sandoval took the floor and denouncing the bill he said that it was unjust, that on the Atlantic Coast the planters aid a high price and although not directly but indirectly there was always a ax which they paid. All the necessities of daily life whether food or clothing on the Atlantic Coast have to be imported from the U.S. and sometimes from Europe, naturally enough the working man has to pay the duties with which the merchants are charged at the Customs. The planter, on account of the topography of the Coast where it rains the entire year, has to use stronger shoes and clothing which he has to change two or three times a day on account of the rains; he has to use mosquito bar; and his food must be varied and better. Whereas in whatever part of the interior f the Republic all the food products are obtained from their own soil, they have six months summer, they use one pair of trousers and one shirt; for breakfast they have plantain and beans, for dinner they beans and plantain. With this I want to demonstrate, gentlemen, that the planter has his additional ax in the business which he exploits and that the planter of the Coast pays logically much more than any other section of the Republic. Senator Sandoval concluded asking that the bill under discussion be rejected because of its oppressiveness and injustice to the industry and planters of the Atlantic Coast. Senator Hooker supported Senator Sandoval’s speech and spoke lengthily illustrating to the Honourable House the different banana prices.—Senator Castellon (Hildebrand) defender of the project supported the bill saying amongst other things that he could not see any reason why the bananas should not be taxed, all the other products of the country, such as coffee, sugar, tobacco, etc. have an export tax; that if there were no taxes the Government would soon disappear for the State lives and has to , by the taxes, which the national industries pay, he concluded asking that the bill be approved. Senator Collado supported what Senator Castellon (Hildebrando) said, and thereby supported the bill.—Senator Lopez Irias pronounced against the bill, he spoke on this industry showing the difference between the Republic of Nicaragua and that of Honduras in relation to the facilities which the latter named has to take out its products and to carry the provisions which the business and planters need; it is not so in Nicaragua where the means of communication with the Coast is almost null. The President, Senator Cuadra (J. D.) defended the bill. Senator Callejas manifested that he was commissioned to reorganize the Atlantic Coast after the glorious incorporation and that he encountered turtle fishing and being national property he taxed it, that he found a sawmill of national property which was not paying a tax and he taxed it with three dollars for every 1000 ft. of lumber sawed, and so on successively, he went on taxing, each industry that belonged to the Nation. He never thought of taxing bananas as it is the strength of the greater part of the Nicaraguans. He concluded denouncing the bill. Senator Sandoval added to the above arguments the following: he said, that this tax would be doubly unjust to the natives of Nicaragua on the Coast the majority of whom are banana planters; we have for example one of the strongest Companies of the Coast as is the BRAGMANS BLUFF LUMBER COMPANY which would not pay at tax for the exportation of banana in reason of their contract which exempts such taxes; there are the creoles who also would not have to pay this tax, protected by the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty. Consequently this oppressive tax would only fall upon the native sons of the country. The Bill was declared sufficiently discussed and voted down in the final debate. At the request of the interested party I extend the present certificate in the Secretary Office of the Honorable Senate in Managua, at three o’clock p.m. the tenth of January nineteen hundred and twenty nine. ¶ CHIEF CLERK of the Honourable Senate House. ¶ The undersigned Chief clerk of the Honourable Senate House certifies that this is a true copy of the 3rd. clause of the Act of the 20th Session celebrated at 8o’clock a.m. on the eight of January nineteen hundred and twenty-nine, which literally says:-- ¶ The opinion of the committee which received for study an initiative from the Honourable House of Deputies to place a tax of two cents on every bunch of bananas exported from the country was read in second debate. Said bill was rejected in the first debate in the Session celebrated December 26, 1928.-- Taken into consideration, for discussion Senator Sandoval took the floor and said.—First, I have to protest against the procedure of the Senate for it is unconstitutional to submit a bill of law which was rejected in first debate for a second discussion. Although, it is true that all projects of law should be submitted to two debates, that is to form law, but when the bill is rejected it should not be submitted for a second debate except at the following legislature. In respect to the banana tax I do not agree with it because the Republic after the disastrous war is not a condition to support more taxes—especially the one on the only banana region which is the Atlantic Coast—the almost exclusive region of the murderous struggle—because according to the financier Mr. Cumberland, Nicaragua is thriving to the point where taxes are not necessary to assist its most positive necessities not even for the construction of a railway for the Atlantic. According to the Political Constitution the tax would not be extended to all; in accordance with Harrison-Altamirano Treaty the ancient inhabitants of the Mosquito Reserve are exempt from all direct taxes upon their persons, property or business, and as a great part of the planters are exempted only the Nicaraguans and not the creoles would be affected. Apropos of this the British Government felt authorized in the case of Mrs. Crowdell, a hotel proprietress, when a Municipal tax was collected from her at Bluefields, to protect herself according to the Treaty and when the Municipality embargoes and sold at auction a house of hers the British Consul at Bluefields reclaimed said house which was given back. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Nicaragua amongst other arguments, said that there was not equality amongst Nicaraguan citizens according to the procedure but he was answered by the representative of His Majesty, that Nicaragua could abolish the direct taxes in the Ancient Mosquito Reserve to re-establish equality.—I am certain that if the banana-tax passes, gentlemen, Representatives, it will not stand for the Creoles and Indians because they will appeal to the before mentioned Treaty. ¶ Also there are other persons who are exempt from taxes over all the fruit they may produce simply because they have so agreed with the Government of this Republic; there are others the Bragmans Bluff Lumber co., Dr. Casteazoro and Messr. Tijerinos. The first of Bragmans Bluff Lumber co., although their contract is for pines, got a clause inserted exempting them from all exportation taxes over their products, and as they have now gone in for agriculture it is possible that this clause wil be extended to cover the banana tax.—referring to the second Casteazoro and Messrs. Tijerino who have contracts for several years which insure them against taxes; it is clear and evident that unusual interest shown outside of the house by persons who have no connection whatever with the Government or with the tax debated, to the point of insinuating to various Senators the convenience of such a tax, is due as I am certain, to a desire to give more value to the Tijerino concession, it is simple to understand that if the banana has an exportation tax, and the Tijerino contract has a guarantee of exemption this latter will be enabled to obtain a good price in his speculation.—Gentlemen Representatives, I have read in “La Prensa” an article of Mr. Adan Cardenas which declares stimulating [sic] that bananas are not taxed while all the other national products are. This is indefensible because the banana pays its taxes indirectly abound is a growing industry, it may be true, that in past years about eight ships loaded with bananas left Bluefields weekly, but now only four half loaded ones leave in the same time, on account of the cyclones, the revolution and the Panama disease..—this industry for the present is just beginning; the 300,000 bunches of bananas which are exported monthly do not signify much in comparison with the millions which Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala export. I know that powerful companies such as the United Fruit Company are desirous of establishing in Nicaragua but I am certain, likewise, that they will abandon their intentions when they know than an oppressive ax hangs over the exportation of bananas. Consequently I beg that the Honourable Senators of which this Houses is formed may vote against this project for the benefit of our country.—Senator Hooker taking the floor spoke lengthily demonstrating by statistics that the Atlantic Coast paid eighteen Dollars and forty-five against Three Dollars and seventy-two cents which the rest of the Republic paid per capita. Demonstrating and manifesting by this that the Coast is sufficiently taxed. He said that it is frequently heard that the complete nationalization of the Atlantic Coast is necessary but he noticed with regret that every time the Government remembered said Coast it was to apply more burden in the form of taxes. He dwelled on the fact, in his discourse that the banana tax would be a direct tax because each planter would be compelled to pay the tax with exceptions of the Indians and Creoles who are favoured in this particular by the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty; therefore the tax would fall over the Nicaraguans commonly called Spaniards by the people of the Coast; and he concluded saying that the opinion was firm that the application of such a tax would favour the Tijerino Contract which according to the terms is free from all export tax on their products natural or manufactured . . ."

9 February 1929.
"To Place Export Tax on Bananas," The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.

12 February 1929.
Periodic Intelligence Report, 20 January-9 February, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Map: Map of Nicaragua by Clifford D. Ham, 1924, scale 1/500 00 ¶ 1. LOCATION OF HOSTILE ELEMENTS. ¶ On 4 February, EDSON at POTECA reported that from native reports and signs such on last patrol, he believed Sandino and Madriage with possible concentration of bandits northeast of OCONGUAS; north of GUIGUILI RIVER. ¶ On the same date, Brigade advised that Sandino was located between MURRA, OAKLAND and CONGOJAS. ¶ Patrol, operating in CHONTALES area on information received from Brigade that bandits had been seen at SANTA ISABEL, reports no signs of bandits found. ¶ On 8 February, EDSON had contact with bandits on high ground eight miles northwest of BENTILLO, seven miles south of OCONGUAS on OCONGUAS-SAN BARTOLA trail. Band thought to be Sandino although camp of Altamirano was found four miles south. Strength of band estimated at sixty to eighty. After contact bandits withdrew along high ground to south probably to BENTILLO Area although may cross to south of COCO. ¶ All other sectors quiet. ¶ 2. POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ The new Jefe Politico, Department of Bluefields, Gilberto Lacayo, took office 1 February, 1929. ¶ 3. MISCELLANEOUS ¶ A report received of Sandino recruiting among labors of farms on RIO GRANDE RIVER was investigated and it appears that most of farm laborers lost within last month have gone to PANAMA looking for more lucrative work. ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commander, Eastern Area, ¶ Nicaragua."

1.   13 February 1929.
Resume of Achievements of Guardia Nacional on East Coast, Captain R. W. Peard, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Reference: (a) Your radio 11007 February 1929. ¶ 1. ORGANIZATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AREA OF THE EAST, GUARDIA NACIONAL. ¶ In response to repeated demands on the part of the civil population on the east Coast it was decided in the later part of January 1928 to establish a Force of the Guardia Nacional on the Atlantic Coast with Headquarters at Bluefields. It was decided that no enlisted men would be sent from the interior and that the force would be recruited on the East Coast. On February 28, 1928, the following officers arrived at Bluefields from the interior with orders to establish initially the Area of the East and the Division of Southern Bluefields: Major A. B. Sage, Lieutenant J. H. Smith, Cadets W. J. Stone and L. J. Bowersox, line officers and Cadets G. C. Gilpin and L. Petersen, Medical Officers. Area, equipment and clothing sufficient to fit out the detail of the one hundred men accompanied these officers. Headquarters were established in Bluefields, but it was decided that until recruits could be enlisted, placed under training and instructed in police duties, no move would be made to take over the police activities. The officers were sent on various reconnaissance missions, a barracks was obtained at El Bluff for use as a recruit depot, and enlistments were started. The first man was enlisted on 13 March 1928 and the police of El Bluff taken over on that date. Training has been progressive at El Bluff, the men are put through close and extended order, fire the target practice course and then ready to be sent to Bluefields for police duty. Following are the dates on which civil police were relieved at the places now under control of the Guadia. ¶ El Bluff, 13 March 1928. ¶ Bluefields, 3 May 1928. ¶ [Rama?] 11 June 1928, outpost established at Guadalupe 15 July 1928. ¶ Laguna de Perlas, 17 August 1928. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, 27 September 1928, outpost at Wawa Central established 29 June 1928. ¶ San Juan del Norte, 14 September 1928. ¶ Rio Grande Bar, 15 November 1928 ¶ La Luz, 13 November 1928, outpost to Tumarin established. ¶ In addition to the above regular posts there was established at Cruta, Nic. (Disputed Territory), a post of one officer and four men from September 11, 1928, to November 5, 1928, during the registration and election. There was also a post established at Sarapiqui (San Juan del Norte River) from September 15, 1928, to November 5, 1928. ¶ 2. IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL AND SANITARY CONDITIONS THROUGHOUT THE AREA. ¶ It is a truism to state that at every town in which the Guardia have arrived and established themselves, the conditions have improved. This is a matter of common knowledge on this Coast. The public, the press, even the offenders arrested for violation of the laws, have so testified. When the Guardia arrived at Rama there were no street lights, and grass was growing in the street . . . "

2.   13 February 1929.
Resume of Achievements of Guardia Nacional on East Coast, Captain R. W. Peard, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . cattle were being slaughtered in the most convenient places. Inside of one month the change in the appearance of the town was so great that a person would not recognize Rama as the same place. Lights were installed, sidewalks repaired, the Commandancia repaired, painted with the regulation blue ad while colors, a slaughter house installed and the inhabitants unanimous in their praise of the Guardia. It is a matter of fact that whenever the Guardia has arrive at a Commandancia that white wash and paint follow and as this is done the village population follow suit. Conditions on this coast are absolutely different than in the interior. Living on or near the rivers as the greater part of the population do so, with no communication other than word of mouth, with water transportation the means of travel, each community is separate to itself. The Guardia Nacional has been fortunate in this respect in that the floating population is very small and they are able to familiarize themselves with the inhabitants, to assist them in every way possible and to make their lot a better and more contended one by making a point of personal contact with the citizens. Wherever the Guardia has established themselves the Medical Officers on duty have made at least one monthly inspection. By this means they have been able on many occasions to render needed medical assistance, and to point out the remedy for certain bad sanitary conditions. ¶ 3. RELATIONS WITH PUBLIC OFFICIALS. ¶ From the very first arrival of the Guardia here the civil officials have been alert and eager to cooperate. With the exception of the police officials who were relieved and who naturally felt or more less antagonistic, there has not been a case of a public official who has opposed, privately or publicly the efforts of the Guardia. The Jefe Politico, General Estrada, and his successor, Señor Lacayo, have both not only personally issued instructions to the government officials under their charge to cooperate with the Guardia officers but have made it a point to see that the officials so instructed have done so. The judicial authorities throughout the Area have been very cordial in their relations and have assisted the Guardia in the preparation of cases brought before the law. ¶ 4. SUPPRESSION OF LAWLESSNESS AND SMUGGLING. ¶ There are two large employers of labor here. The Cuyamel Fruit Company and the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company. On the days that the laborers are paid there had been, before the arrival of the Guardia, numerous cases of assaults and cuttings, and other disorders. Cooperation with the officials of the company has enabled the Guardia to be present on boats and other places, and as a result, when the men are paid and before they could accumulate sufficient liquor and become troublesome, they were either sent home or confined. Pay days now pass off without incident. There was not nor has been any group of notorious criminals on this coast and the disorder has been more in the nature of disagreements between individuals. The establishment of a post at San Juan del Norte has undoubtedly prevented considerable smuggling from Coast Rica into Nicaragua. It has been impossible to stop persons passing along the beach and by requiring all masters of vessels to report at the various commandancias before departure and a check of the ships passengers and cargo has made the matter of smuggling a minor matter. The most difficulty has been with the illicit traffic in guaro along the river. It is a fact, however, that while the Guardia Nacional were in control of the Hacienda Guards in this Area, the sales of the Agente Fiscales, who deal in the authorized augardiante, greatly increased. This is indicative of the fact that the sales of unlawful liquor decreased . . . "

3.   13 February 1929.
Resume of Achievements of Guardia Nacional on East Coast, Captain R. W. Peard, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . 5. COMBAT REPORTS ¶ The Guardia in this area has not engaged in any combats with the bandit forces. The patrols have been purely police and although numerous arrests have been made they have been for violations of police laws. ¶ H. W. Peard."

17 February 1929 (1653).
Radiogram from Commander Northern Area, Ocotal, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca.  
"1116 OPERATIONS MARINES AND TWO HUNDRED VOLUNTARIOS PLANNED FOR MURRA DASH CHIPOTE AREA NEXT WEEK PERIOD UNLESS INSTRUCTED CONTRARY COVER POTECA RIVER TO CONGOJAS AND COCO RIVER TO YACALWAS BETWEEN TUESDAY ONE NINE AND THURSDAY TWO EIGHT PERIOD SANTA CRUZ PATROL GUIGUILI PERIOD ORDERS BY PLANE DROP TOMORROW 1653"

18 February 1929.
Letter from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Mr. H. Stanford London, Esquire, His British Majesty's Charge D'Affaires, Managua, p. 1.  
"My dear Mr. London: ¶ Yesterday I was visited by a delegation of Meddusa chiefs from this sector, asking my advice and assistance on behalf of their people. It had to do, of course, with the old question of the provisions of the treaty whereby the Mosquito Reservation became part of Nicaragua and the eternal complaints that Nicaragua has failed to live up to their part of the agreement. ¶ They have in mind submitting to General Poland, Mr. Eberhardt, and yourself, materials setting forth their grievances and praying for your joint or several intercession with the Nicaraguan Government in their behalf. I am not thoroughly conversant with all the details, but as far as I can learn the provisions of the treaty have not been complied with. However it is a matter which I consider outside of my bailiwick, except in an advisory capacity, and I am submitting this account of this conference to you for two reasons. ¶ I advised the chiefs that a personal submission of their case would be, in my opinion, preferable to a written memorial, and that I would endeavor to arrange for such a conference if your numerous duties at the Capital would permit your coming here and stopping either at Bluefields or Pearl Lagoon enroute so as to receive the Indians of both the northern and southern sectors. I am not at all sure to what extent your Government would desire you to move in this matter, but if at all permissible it furnishes a reason for your visiting us, which is one objective, the other being that I may have the benefit of your advice on this question, unofficially and confidentially. I noted, incidentally, that the idea of presenting the case verbally to your consul at Bluefields did not find favor, the evident desire being to lay the matter before you . . . "

18 February 1929.
Letter from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Mr. H. Stanford London, Esquire, His British Majesty's Charge D'Affaires, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . I pointed out that with a new president in Managua and one who had recently come from this coast, they might hope for an improvement, but this suggestion likewise met with no favor. ¶ If this excuse for coming out is not sufficient, come anyway. We will always be glad to see you. Mrs. Utley says to tell you to be sure to bring Mrs. London with you, and the Horowitz’s join us in best wishes. ¶ With kindest regards to yourself and Mrs. London, ¶ Sincerely, ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY."

18 February 1929 (0612).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas. 
 "REQUEST INFORMATION IF FOLLOWING NATIVES RESIDENTS COCO RIVER PARTICIPATED SAN MARCOS COLON MACARIO CALDERON COMMA ISIDORE CUNO AND NICHO LANDERO PERIOD ADVISE 0612"  [NOTE: This probably refers to the San Marcos murders of 1-2 Oct. 1928; see the TOP 100, PAGE 22 In fact none of these names appear in the final report of the incident; here Edson is probably checking up on the veracity of an informant.]

18 February 1929.
Intelligence Report, Periodic, 10-16 Feb., 1st Lt. W. J. Whaling, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Map: Map of Nicaragua by Clifford D. Ham, 1924, scale 1/500 00 ¶ 1. MILITARY OPERATIONS. ¶ The following is a report of Captain EDSON’s contact near BENTILLO on 8, February 1929: ¶ ‘8611 Edson reports as follows quote Contact twelve hundred February Eight with band estimated twenty five stop Engagement lasted fifteen minutes only stop Bandits used Browning Automatic comma rifles and dynamite bombs comma heavy firing during entire combat stop Occurred high ground eight miles northwest of BENTILLO comma seven miles south of OCONGUAS on OCONGUAS dash SAN BARTOLA trail stop Band engaged thought to be Sandino although camp of Altimirano later found and destroyed four miles south stop Total number bandits camped in vicinity estimated sixty to eighty stop Returned along high ground to south probably to BENTILLO area although may cross to south of COCO stop Marine casualties none repeat none comma native guido wounded through left knee evacuated PUERTO CABEZAS via SANTA CRUZ and BOCAY stop Bandit casualties not repeat not known stop Full details by pick up stop This patrol returned general vicinity western BENTILLO attempt regain contact stop POTECA to establish outpost two squads vicinity GUIGUILI stop unquote 0910. ¶ 2. POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ The Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua took over the policing of WAWA CENTRAL on 16 February, 1929 and Marine outpost at that place has been withdrawn. ¶ 3. POLITICAL SITUATION – MISCELLANEOUS. ¶ HONDURAS COAST situation calm but it is the general consensus of opinion that there will eventually be trouble. A projected uprising of the Blue Government turning over to the Rods failed by concentration of Blue troops and the ring leaders arrested. Causes for the uprising by Blue Government were not known. Two Blue leaders were summoned to the capital, one of whom was reported to have been appointed by Rods as Commandante at Trujillo. ¶ W. J. WHALING, ¶ 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Area Intelligence Officer."

22 February 1929 (0900).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Marines Poteca, Bocay, Garrobo.  
"FOLLOWING RECEIVED FROM CO FIFTH REGIMENT QUOTE 0521 ALTAMIRANO HAS A CAVE THAT HE HAS BEEN KNOWN TO USE THAT IS FOUR MILES WEST CACSA ON BOCAY RIVER THERE IS A TRAIL FROM CASCA DIRECTLY TO THIS CAVE ALTAMIRANO MARCHES TO GARROBO AND THEN USES BOATS SOMETIMES USES TRAIL PARALLELING THE BOCAY RIVER ON BOTH SIDES CAVE IS IN VICINITY KNOWN AS TUNA WALAN NOT SHOWN ON MAP 1110 UNQUOTE 0900"

25 February 1929.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Managua, to Major H.H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Dear Major: ¶ Please excuse the flowery stationery but it is all that happens to be available at this time. As Red has probably told you, we have arrived in this shining example of a thriving Latin American metropolis – the Mecca of revolutionary generals and what not. Not only did we arrive, but rumor tells us that we also took it by storm, but you will have to talk to Guymen about that. True to form, however, I could not stand up under prosperity, and yesterday had another touch of malaria, which delayed my departure for the bush until Wednesday morning. ¶ By this same mail you will probably receive a copy of Confidential Brigade Special Orders #11. One could not ask for any more indefinite orders than those. As I see them, and as the verbal instructions referred to stated, the sum and substance of such orders are – ‘Go where you please, do what you please – and return when you feel like it. If then you feel like going into the wilds again, it is alright with us, for the rest of the time here you will be foot loose and fancy free’. No restrictions were put on the movements whatsoever, no suggestions made as to where or how they should be conducted, except that Brigade be kept informed as closely as possible with the general plans and probable routes. Plan 3 (c) is the basis of the idea, and the details will be worked out as they arise. That is about all there is to the proposed patrol except that I have Brigade permission to return to Poteca in time to be ordered to the States soon after the first of April, regardless of any results obtained. As for these results, please understand and pass on to all others that there are no rash promises made. Several other Marines have been chasing these bandits around for some two years without much to show for it, so I am not saying we will do this or that in five or six weeks’ time. But that does not mean we will not try our best. ¶ It is expected that I will be ordered to rejoin my ship in New York, proceeding via commercial transportation via Puerto Cabezas and New Orleans. I hope to be able to make the ship sailing from either Bluefields or the port on April 13th. If you can get me the names of the ships leaving the two places on that date, I would appreciate it. ¶ I have been unable to dig out any dope which you probably do not already know – even if such a thing were possible. When I called upon the General, he spoke about the proposed movement of troops westward of CUVALI and GARROBO. Other than that he did not discuss the war. The call was very short, the General was quite tired, and someone else was waiting outside. As Shearer has undoubtedly passed on, the talk around the cups at Brig Hdq that afternoon seemed to indicate that the activities in the E.A. would be curtailed very considerably in the near future. The . . . "

25 February 1929.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Managua, to Major H.H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . General may give you some more dope on this. The conversation during business hours the following morning was less emphatic and rather gave me the idea that the ideas expressed the afternoon previous may have been what was desired rather than what could actually take place. However I did gather that it was hoped and expected that aviation might be withdrawn from the E.A. within a couple of months or so, and that at about the same time the forces there might be reduced to two companies scattered along the coast line. [Duly?  obscured by markings on "l"] Smith seems to think that we are over-manned – that there is no need for 600 men in the Eastern area - that there is no need for Waspuc, Bocay, etc., although he had no good reply when asked what would happen to our line of supply if they were abandoned. It is the same old stuff of no definite policy to look to or work on. I do believe that when the cut begins that it is going to start on the east side and I would suggest that that be borne in mind during the readjustment of troops in the forward areas. ¶ Please give my best regards to Mrs. Utley and I want to thank both of you again for your hospitality while I was in Puerto Cabezas last week. You will undoubtedly hear from me sometime again within the next six weeks and – (I hope) – at the end of that time when I am on my way north. ¶ Respectfully, ¶ Edson"

27 February 1929.
Complaint by Señor Macario Estrada against Sergeant Dougald K. McGregor and Corporal Buddie L. Booth, U.S. Marine Corps, 2nd Endorsement by Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"1. Returned, contacts noted. ¶ 2. From examination of the enclosed papers and from much further investigation as its possible without a transfer of the accused - one from Poteca and the other from Quelleos los Reyes – I am of the opinion that it would be exceedingly difficult to prove any specific charge against either of the Marines, and that the statements of the witnesses are, in part, biased exaggerations. ¶ 3. The two men in question while on M. P. duty were exceedingly thorough, especially during the period between the abolition of the former police force and the arrival of the enlisted men of the Guardia; when the police of Bilway and adjacent territory devolved entirely upon the Marines. ¶ 4. These men have since been [?] and convicted for undue use of force, then reduced one grade, relieved from M.P. duty and transferred to patrol in the field. ¶ 5. It is noted that a number of the alleged instances took place during the period of election and in view of the fact that one of the Assistant Departmental Chairmen was present in Puerto Cabezas throughout that period, and that every conceivable charge was brought either before him or before me, and none of these charges came to my knowledge; considerable doubt as to the veracity of the charges brought at a later date, exists in my mind. ¶ 6. It is further noted that all of the witnesses and the accusers had access to me but that they preferred the roundabout way of laying their complaints before the American Minister, and it was believed desirable from several standpoints to discourage this practice, except where direct and logical means fail. ¶ 7. In view of the above, it is recommended that no further action to taken in these cases. ¶ Harold H. UTLEY."

28 February 1929 (0730).
Radiogram from CO Marines Cape Gracias to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"SERGEANT MURPHY TWO MARINES ONE NATIVE ARRIVED ON CARLOS BOAT FROM WASPUC STOP EIGHTY NATIVES MAHOGANY CUTTERS UNDER ADOLFO COCKBURN OF SACLIN GOING UP COCO RIVER BY BARGE TO TILBA FALLS AND OVERLAND TO MAHOGANY CAMPS TO PATUCA HONDURAS HAS PASSPORTS FROM HERE STOP 0730"

2 March 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"The Fourth of March ¶ On Monday next, --just two days hence,-- the people of the United States of North America,-one hundred and twenty millions,--will acclaim their new President,--a mighty man, selected to rule over a great nation for the ensuing presidential period. ¶ Mr. Herbert Hoover, than whom, we feel justified in saying, no better choice for guiding the destiny of his great country could have been made at this time, has already begun his work of good will toward all. ¶ An American said of the immortal Nicaraguan poet, Ruben Dario: “He is not of Nicaraguan, nor of Central America, nor of Latin America,--he is of the world”. In like manner it might be said of Mr. Hoover, from his thorough knowledge of world conditions—he is not of the United States,--he is of the world. And indeed, in our opinion, it is not the United States of North America,--not continental and insular America that will alone derive benefits from the ascension of this recognized able American to the presidency of his country, but the world also will gain. ¶ With time conditions change and there is no one who would dare deny the fact that world conditions, have so wonderfully changed, bringing the nations so much into a state [illegible] America, the immortal George Washington could rise from his grave and make a survey of the world’s condition and the closely drawn relationship that exists between all the nations of the earth he would find that, while his injunction to his people to keep out of foreign entanglements, etc., might have been an inspiration in his last days, it would be utterly inappropriate and wholly inacceptable today. He would find how impossible it is for any nation of today to live wholly unto itself.” ¶ Mr. Hoover’s good will tour to Central and South America has destroyed all ideas that might formerly have existed in the minds of a part of his people as to not caring a rap for what the smaller peoples to the South of Texas thought of their international doings with regard to the weaker nations. They have learnt that in the question of international relations there is or should be no such things as a “weaker nation”. Internationally all nations stand on a par. ¶ Had the representatives of the American nations who attended the Pan-American conference at Cuba gone each to his respective home fully satisfied of the result of the Conference, probably the Hoover tour would never have been thought of. Peace and good-will must reign amongst the nations of the new world, and for this to be so mutual regard must exist and respect for each other is a paramount necessity. ¶ Mr. Hoover will assume the direction of [illegible] the joy and contentment of his people, in which all the sister nations of the Continent of Columbus will join and send forth a hearty hurrah for the man who knows how to do things."

 

2 March 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, A. W. Hooker, Editor, "Time for a Few Words: Waldo Hooker not the Slayer of Bayard Waters".  

6 March 1929 (1408).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to COs Waspuc, Bocay, Poteca, Garrobo, Cuvali, La Luz, Neptune, Bluefields.  
"8606 DURING COMING OPERATIONS RADIO STATIONS DESIRED AS FOLLOWS STOP CHRISTY AND LLOYD AT BOCAY AND WASPUC STOP LA LUZ DASH CUVALI SECTOR STATIONS AT NEPTUNE COMA LA LUZ COMA CUVALI AND WEST OF CUVALI COLON OPERATORS BISSINGER COMA LUBNAU COMA BETTIS COMA ENOCH AND HENSLER STOP POTECA SECTOR STATIONS AT POTECA AND GUIGUILI COMA OPERATORS MCCREA AND GREENBAUM COLON CARROLL REMAIN TEMPORARILY AT POTECA REPEAT POTECA UNTIL RELIEVED WHEN WILL PROCEED TO BOCAY STOP MCCREA NOW ENROUTE POTECA VIA GARROBO AND BOCAY COMA GREENBAUM NOW ENROUTE POTECA VIA PUERTO CABEZAS AND BOCAY STOP OPERATOR AND SET NOW AT GARROBO WILL ACCOMPANY MOVEMENT FORWARD TO LA FLORS SECTOR STOP FRAZACKERLY WILL ACCOMPANY SHIP DETACHMENTS TO PUERTO CABEZAS STOP NO REPEAT NO RADIO STATION CONTEMPLATED AT GARROBO STOP OFFICERS CONCERNED ISSUE NECESSARY ORDERS STOP SOUTHERN SECTOR NO CHANGE 1408"

6 March 1929.
Letter from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. R. C. Berkley, USMC, Managua.  
"Toribio Hernandez, the Nicaraguan guide who accompanied Edson and was wounded during the engagement which took place on February 8th near the Bentillo mountains was evacuated to Puerto Cabezas. It was necessary to amputate his left leg above the knee. In view of the fact that he volunteered his services, information is requested regarding what provisions, if any, the Nicaraguan Government will make for him; and what steps are necessary to initiate such action. This man has a wife and four children now living at Poteca and it is most desirable for our prestige and to cover future contingencies that some effort be made to take care of him and his family after his discharge from the hospital. This is, of course, a most important factor in gaining the good will of the Nicaraguan people and obtaining their help."

7 March 1929.
Field Order No. 9, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to command, p. 1.  
"Map Reference: Ham map of Nicaragua, 1924, 1:500000 ¶ 1. a. No change in hostile dispositions. ¶ b. Captain Edson will operate in command of a roving patrol in the CUA – GUASANERAS – BOCA DE CUA – Upper PANTASMA – GUALE – LA VIRGEN – PAVONA Sector. ¶ The detachment 51st Company has withdrawn from QUEPI and is moving to LA LUZ where it will form part of the garrison of the mining sector. ¶ Twenty (20) enlisted 60th Company are moving from the mining sector to WASPUC to form part of the garrison of WASPUC and AWAWAS. ¶ The detachment 59th Company now at MASTAWAS, reinforced by one (1) squad from BOCAY is moving to POTECA. ¶ 2. A. The 29th Company takes over the POTECA – GUIGUILI – FLORS Sector relieving the Ship’s Detachments now there. ¶ b. The detachments from the TULSA, GALVESTON, DENVER and ROCHESTER, (less 1 officer and about 25 enlisted) with men of the 51st Company attached, withdrew to PUERTO CABEZAS where the ship’s detachments joins a ship of the Special Service Squadron. ¶ c. The 60th Company takes over the WASPUC – AWAWAS Sector. ¶ 3. A. A Platoon of the 60th Company under an officer will move about two (2) days march westward on the MATAGALPA – PIS PIS trail and establish a base from which to operate against the bandits. Report location of base when established. D Day will be announced later. ¶ c. One squad 60th Company will move from CUVALI to CARROBO to form the garrison of that place. ¶ d. Two squads 60th Company move in succession from the mining sector to CUVALI; one of these squads proceeds to GARROBO to reinforce the squad there, the other squad reinforces the garrison to CUVALI. ¶ e. One squad 59th and 60th Companies moves from PUERTO CABEZAS to WASPUC to reinforce the garrison in that sector. ¶ f. Twenty nine (29) enlisted 59th Company move from the WASPUC sector to the BOCAY sector. Lieutenant CUNNINGHAM follows when relieved from present duties. ¶ g. The 59th Company will move one (1) platoon of thirty seven (37) enlisted forward from BOCAY retraining at all times the minimum garrison necessary at BOCAY. This platoon will reestablish the outpost at MASTAWAS garrisoning that place with at least one squad . . . "

7 March 1929.
Field Order No. 9, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to command, p. 2.  
" . . . 3. h. The ship’s detachments (less one officer and 25 enlisted) with the 51st Company personnel attached to the COCO Patrol will withdraw by successive waves to BOCAY. The personnel attached to ships will be transferred to PUERTO CABEZAS via WASPUC and CAPE GRACIAS in time to reach CAPE GRACIAS by noon 1 April. ¶ 4. a. Forty (40) mules with equipment are being assembled at JINOTEGA for use in this area. A patrol of the 60th Company will require those mules at a point and date to be announced later. Ten (10) will be assigned to the supply of the detachment at FLORS, the remainder to the supply of the advanced platoon 60th Company. ¶ b. See Administrative Order No. 7. ¶ 5. See Annex No. 1, COMMUNICATIONS. ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Commander, Eastern Area."

7 March 1929.
Memo to All Concerned, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Troop movements now in progress should, by the middle of March, dispose of troops at the more important outpost in the Eastern Area as follows: ¶ STATION / STRENGTH OF GARRISON (approxim.) / RADIO STATION (contemplated) ¶ WASPUC . . . 25 . . . YES ¶ AWAWAS . . . 12 . . . NO ¶ BOCAY . . . 25 . . . YES ¶ POTECA . . . 25 . . . YES ¶ GUIGUILI . . . 35 . . . NOT AT PRESENT ¶ MASTAWAS . . . 12 . . . NO ¶ GARROBO . . . 16 . . . NO ¶ LA FLORS . . . 32 . . . YES ¶ NEPTUNE . . . 15 . . . YES ¶ LA LUZ . . . 25 . . . YES ¶ CUVALI . . . 16 . . . YES ¶ YAOSCA-BIJAGUA . . . 40 . . . YES" [SIGNED: W.C. HALL]

9 March 1929.
"Sandino Still on the Warpath?" The Bluefields Weekly.  
"Two weeks ago we published a statement that Sandino, the now famous bandit and wholesale murderer of Las Segovias had been liquidated. This information we had gathered from one of the reliable dailies of the capital; but since then we have reasons to believe the report was unfounded. ¶ The great desire to have Sandino and his bloody deeds spoken of as things of the past made the confident newspaper see through the lens of an ardent wish. Now we find LA PRENSA (Conservative) telling of the appointment by the same Sandino, of his new representative accredited before the American Continent: ¶ THERE WILL BE REPRESENTATIONS BEFORE ALL THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD. ¶ “The Salvadoran Press publishes the following: “Principal Headquarters of the Army of Defence of the Sovereignty of Nicaragua. ¶ “The undersigned, General and Supreme Chief of the Army of Defence of the Sovereignty of Nicaragua, in the exercise of the faculties conferred on me by the same Army, considering that Senor Froylan Turcios presented his resignation as General Representative of our Army in the continent, which resignation has been accepted on the 7th. Of the present month. ¶ DECREES: ¶ Let said continental representation be placed in charge of the COMMITTEE HANDS OFF NICARAGUA, with its seat in Mexico, D. F. empowering said committee to make the designation which it may deem necessary in the world in general, but always in a collective character in the same manner as it has been conferred on said Committee in order to avoid a monopoly of the information proceeding from our principal Headquarters, which is urgent for our cause that the same be known throughout the civilized world. ¶ Given at El Chipoton, Nicaragua, C.A. January 18, 1929 and the 17th Year of ANTI-IMPERIALISTIC STRUGGLE, in Nicaragua. ¶ Patria and Liberty. ¶ A.C. Sandino (signed and sealed)"

10 March 1929 (1530).
Radiogram from Commander Southern Sector Bluefields to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"FOLLOWING INFORMATION FROM AMERICAN PRISONER CAPTURED AT GREYTOWN BY GUARDIA NOW CONFINED HERE QUOTE R E INITIALS REYNOLDS OF GERMAN DESCENT OPERATES TRES AMIGOS RANCHO SEVEN MILES SOUTH OF BOCA SAN CARLOS ON SAN CARLOS RIVER AND RUNS LAUNCH UP RIVER TO VICINITY OF SAN CARLOS THENCE FORWARDING SUPPLIES POSSIBLY ARMS NORTHWEST AND ALONG NORTH COAST OF LAKE NICARAGUA REYNOLDS VERY ANTI AMERICAN UNQUOTE 1530"

 

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