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the atlantic coast  •  1930B, p. 1
July—Sept 1930

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE FIRST PAGE of documents for the SECOND HALF of 1930 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the months of July, August & September.

     The echoes from Pedrón’s brief May offensive in the mining districts begin to recede, overtaken by events in the Coast itself.  The downward economic spiral spawns organizing drives and strikes in the banana plantations and on the boats & loading docks (see Marston’s monthly reports; on July 5, e.g., he references three different episodes of labor organizing & unrest in the banana zone).  Sandino is formally extending his influence over the Upper Río Coco, as we see in his "regulaciones" on cutting timber — though according to German immigrant & mahogany magnate Enrique Gulke, Sandino issued similar regulations in the same zone in late 1927 (see Gulke's statement of 28 June 1928).  From the Bocay Valley & Upper Coco the EDSN begins to stretch its influence east, making quick strikes against civilian “traitors” like José Lleset, a.k.a. Cubano, a well-known merchant on the Upper Coco killed at his store at Aguasbila (a bit downstream from Sang Sang, near Asang where the anthropologist Mary Helms did her fieldwork in the early 1960s) for his collaboration with the US Marines.  Further downstream at Sawa Boom near the Coco’s mouth, Benny Muller (or Mueller), US citizen & longtime “bamboo white,” flees for his life to escape likely EDSN retribution, taking his large family with him. 

     The imperial spotlight shines especially bright in the reports of Lt. Darrah (22 Sept) & Lt. Waddell (23 Sept), the letter of Capt. Stent (10 Sept), and in the Benny Muller case (27 Sept).  The resolution passed by the “Comerciantes y algunos vecinos” (merchants & some citizens) of Cabo Gracias a Dios demanding two new Guardia posts on the Upper Coco (30 Sept) also merits attention.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

12 July 1930.
Instructions in case of Geronimo Ruiz, captured bandit, Pis Pis.   Col. John Marston to Jefe Director GN, p. 1.

2 July 1930.
Instructions in case of Geronimo Ruiz, captured bandit.  Statement of Manuel J. Mendoza, Police Agent, Pis Pis.  Enclosure in Col. John Marston to Jefe Director GN, p. 2.

5 July 1930.
Record of Events for June 1930, Eastern Area.   Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1. 
 "A strike of planters occurred on the ESCONDIDO RIVER and its upper tributaries during the month. ... There was little disorder except one incident where striking planters destroyed fruit of non strikers. All involved were arrested but immediately released by the Local Judge of RAMA, an obvious incompetent. ... A strike of laborers of the CUKRA DEVELOPMENT COMPANY at RIO GRANDE BAR occurred during the month. This was caused by the reduction of the number of stevedores on the fruit barges from 36 to 24. Threats were made by striking laborers but the presence of a Guardia officer at critical times at RIO GRANDE BAR prevented trouble. The COMPANY secured laborers from the upper RIO GRANDE RIVER, cutting out the laborers at RIO GRANDE BAR entirely. ... there is a threatened strike of planters on the RIO GRANDE RIVER, who have been delivering bananas to the AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY. The leaders of this movement have drawn up regulations enjoining orderly conduct of their members, the option of delivering fruit at the present price or not as much as each man sees fit, and have conferred with the AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY officials. No trouble has occurred and none is anticipated. The promotion of these strikes on the East Coast during the present financial depression is an enlightening commentary on the reasoning power of the population of this part of NICARAGUA. A more unpropitious time could not have been selected for an attempt to force a higher price for bananas or better wages. With the amount of unemployment that exists and with the amount of bananas produced far in excess of what the companies will buy, it is hopeless for the people to enforce any kind of demand on the companies furnishing capital on the Coast."

5 July 1930.
Record of Events for June 1930, Eastern Area.   Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

7 July 1930.
Letter from Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. W. C. Hall, p. 1.

7 July 1930.
Letter from Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. W. C. Hall, p. 2.

8 July 1930.
Regulaciones sobre el corte de madera, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN.   
Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, Sergio Ramírez, ed. & comp. (Managua, 1984), vol. 2, p. 122.

21 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, México D.F. 
 (second page of letter in Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, p. 130, included here for its brief references to Col. Abraham Rivera & Cabo Gracias a Dios.)   "Entre muchas cosas que aquí nos urge, es el parque de Con-Con, y supongo que a estas horas ya nos habra Ud. enviado las doce ametralladoras Thompson en alguna forma por el lugar convenido. ¶ Los Jefes Expedicionarios que recorreran los lugares fronterizos, y a quienes se les han extendido nuevas credenciales con el objeto de que sean identificados ante cualquier Enviado Especial suyo, que de esa Ud. mande, son ellos a saber: General Pedro Altamirano, General Carlos Salgado, General Ismael Peralta, General Simón González, General Francisco Estrada, General Miguel Angel Ortéz y Guillén, Coronel Pedro Blandón, Coronel Abraham Rivera y Coronel Domitilo Ledezma. ¶ Todos estos Jefes arriba mencionados, después de haber estado varios días conferenciando conmigo en este Cuartel General, han salido con amplios poderes y se encuentran tendidos desde las orillas del Cabo Gracias a Dios, hasta las montañas de León y Chinandega. ¶ Ningún Enviado Especial suyo ante mi, deberá confiarse de Jefes de fuerzas que no esten investidos de sus correspondientes credenciales por esa Jefatura Suprema, porque podría el caer en en una celada del enemigo. ¶ Dígame que fin tuvieron los diez mil dólares, para estar entendido. ¶ En los momentos en que le escribo la presente, me encuentro rodeado de algunos de los más altos Jefes de nuestro Ejército, los Generales Pedro Altamirano, Carlos Salgado y Miguel Angel Ortéz y Guillén, quienes han estado muy ocupados en arreglar sus asuntos relativos al amplio informe que rindieron de sus actividades desarrolladas durante la estancia de esta Jefatura Supema en el exterior. ¶ He sido comisionado por los tres Jefes en referencia para presentar a Ud., por mi medio, un atento y fraternal saludo. ¶ Mis mejores caricias para sus niños y para Ud. El afecto de su amigo sincero, ¶ Besos y abrazos para Cesar Augusto. ¶ Nicaragua, las Segovias, C.A., Julio veintiuno de mil novecientos treinta. ¶ Patria y Libertad. ¶ A. C. SANDINO (Firma y sello)

31 July 1930.
Record of Events for July 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.

31 July 1930.
Record of Events for July 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

11 August 1930.
Report of Movement of Bandits, Lt. L. Curcey, La Cruz de Rio Grande, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields.  
"From: ¶ The Area Commander ¶ To: The Jefe Director ¶ Subject: Report of movement of bandits. ¶ 1. The following report has been received from the District Commander of the District of La Cruz de Rio Grande: GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ DISTRICT OF THE RIO GRANDE ¶ LA CRUZ, NICARAGUA, ¶ 8 August 1930. ¶ From: The District Commander ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Bluefields ¶ Subject: Information and report re movement of bandit troops. Reference: (a) My radios 1208 and 07009 August 1930. ¶ 1. While I was at La Cruz this date, I noticed a new face in town and decided to question the person as to what he was in search of, where he came from and whether or not he was armed. In the course of conversation, he informed me that he was Alfred Hanslaw of Guasaca, division of Matagalpa, that it took him ten days to come down the river from there, that he abandoned his farm at Guasaca because he was being continually molested by groups of bandits and that this last time which was on or about July fourth he states that PEDRON whom he recognized as Jefe of the groups mentioned in reference had about one hundred (100) followers of which seventy five percent were armed with rifles and the other with pistols, that half of the group were fairly well dressed and the other half shabby and that what they wanted was ammunition. ¶ 2. He claims that the group of bandits took trail northwest out of Guasaca and was very evident that they were headed for the mining area district, his reason that it is the CAMINO REAL and a direct trail to the mines. ¶ 3. He further states he has given his farm up for good, that he is in search of work here on the river in the capacity of mandador or contractor on any of the company farms if he can possibly make connection. I found that he had in his possession a pistol and an arms permit long expired. I told him I would have to take it up and gave him a receipt for the same. ¶ 4. In addition to the above, he informs me that the only sufferers of banditry are farmers. He tells me that on July fourth they took all of his animals, clothes, including shoes he was wearing and what portions of food he had in his house, leaving him absolutely nothing. No mention of the group is made amongst the bandits but that he is sure that this group was that of PEDRONE because he recognized PEDRONE himself as the head of the band. ¶ 5. Mr. Hanslaw mentioned some good citizens here in La Cruz and on my investigation as to his character I find that he was well recommended and vouched for as being the farmer of Guasaca, honest and trustworthy. He is stopping at La Cruz and expects to remain here. However, I informed him that in the event he wanted to leave here that I wanted him to see me before he did. I also instructed the corporal in charge at La Cruz to keep an eye on him so that should anything develop I can get him immediately. It is my opinion he is all right though. ¶ /s/ L. CURCEY. ¶ (signed) JOHN MARSTON"

12 August 1930.
Establishment of Department of Prinzapolka, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Area Commander, Central Area, Jinotega, p. 1. 
 "Effective 1 September 1930 the province of Prinzapolka becomes a part of the Area under your command [Central Area] and will be designated as the "Department of Prinzapolka."  Please establish posts as follows: 1 officer and 15 men at San Pedro de Pis Pis.  1 Officer and 15 men at Siuna (near La Luz Mine).  6 men at Wuani (near La Luz Mine). ... These posts will comprise the Department and Tungla, the only post now in Prinzapolka, will be considered, for all purposes, as under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Area.  Tungla is estimated close to the border line between Prinzapolka and Rio Grande and, if later developments indicate it more convenient to place it under the Central Area, this headquarters will issue the necessary instructions. ..."

12 August 1930.
Establishment of Department of Prinzapolka, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Area Commander, Central Area, Jinotega, p. 2.

15 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, Mexico D.F., p. 1.    
"Cuartel General, las Segovias, Nicaragua, C.A., agosto 15 de 1930. ¶ Sr. Dr. Pedro José Zepeda ¶ Representante General del Ejército Defensor ¶ de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua ¶ 3a de Balderas, No 24 ¶ México, D.F. ¶ Muy appreciable Dr. Zepeda: ¶ Fue en mi poder su appreciable nota del 16 de Junio pasado. Quedo impuesto de sus conceptos. ¶ En consideración a su reiterado ofrecimiento relativo a la expedición, le manifiesto que tengo completamente preparado el ánimo de toda la gente de nuestro Litoral Atlántico, habiendo nombrado Jefe Expedicionario de la Zona de Rio Grande al General Adán Gómez, y de la Zona de Puerto Cabezas se nombró de Jefe Expedicionario al General Adolfo Covans, asi como del Río Coco al Coronel Abraham Rivera. ¶ Estos tres Jefes se han entrevisado conmigo y solamente esperamos el arribo de la expedición por el lugar de que hablamos y para ello se ha dispuesto que permanezca un retén de cuatro hombres desequipados, dando el aspecto de simples civiles. ¶ No le hablo más de esto porque Usted ya sabrá que hacer para conseguirlo. ¶ Me parece muy bueno la idea para que sea el Coronel Rivera Bertrand quien venga al frente de la mencionada expedición, y en ese . . . "

15 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, Mexico D.F., p. 2.  
 ". . . Caso el lugar de desembarque sería Calansanún, en las mismas aguas del Caratasca. ¶ En ese caso debera Usted extender su nombramiento al Coronel Enrique Rivera Bertrand, para que sea identificado por nuestros Jefes Expedicionarios, quienes estarán con sus respectivas credenciales extendidas por esta Jefatura Suprema. ¶ Estamos satisfechos por todos los trabajos desarrollados pur Usted en favor de la Causa que defendemos. ¶ La nota dirigada por el Coronel Enrique Rivera Bertrand a Usted, la hago mía, en cuanto a lo ajustada a la verdad absoluta que está. ¶ Para mi es difícil entrar en discusiones con personas tan estupidas, como las que me han atacado a las espaldas en los momentos que comprendieron que en atención a mayores actividades mías contra el enemigo común, no me podría defender de sus nuevas calumnías. ¶ No es cierto que Laborde, con su pequeña camarilla que le rodea, sean Comunistas. ¶ Por la observación que yo hice de ellos, comprendí que son conservadores furibundos y que parecen tener consignas del enemigo común de nuestros pueblos para estorbar toda labor patriótica que se desarrolle en pro de los pueblos para estorbar toda labor patriótica que se desarrolle en pro de los pueblos de nuestra América Indo-Hispaña, porque solo así se puede explicar tanto insulto y tanta calumnía de esos individuos conta personas a quienes, por su sacrificio en las luchas humanitarias, merecen el respeto y consideraciones de las colectividades conscientes. En el archivo de nuestro Ejército, que esta Jefatura Suprema dejó a cargo de Usted, se encuentra la primera carta que yo dirigí a Laborde desde Mérida. ¶ Esa carta es extensa y explicativa, y la escribí después de haber leído una carta que Laborde le dirigió a Martí, creyendo yo que Laborde era Representante General del Comunismo Mexicano, para quien yo guardo aprecio y respeto, pero que nunca he pertenecido a el. ¿De que manera Laborde podría ser traidor a nuestro Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Naional de Nicaragua, si nunca ha pertenecido a él? ¶ ¿De qué manera, pues, podría yo ser traidor a un partido al que nunca he pertenecido? . . . "

1.     18 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, Mexico D.F., p. 1.  
"Cuartel General, Agosto 18, 1930. ¶ Sr. Pedro José Zepeda ¶ Representante General del ¶ Ejército Defenso de la Soberanía ¶ Nacional de Nicaragua. ¶ México, D.F. 3a de Balderas, No. 24. Que baste este papel para participarle en lineas generales nuestras operaciones militares. ¶ Nuestras fuerzas están tendidas desde la orilla del Cabo Gracias a Dios, hasta los departamentos de León y Chinandega. ¶ En esos dos últimos departamentos opera como Jefe Expedicionario de nuestras fuerzas el Coronel efectivo Domitilo Ledezma. ¶ El Coronel Ledezma es un viejo soldado de nuestro Ejército, y fue con él con quien enviamos a León y Managua las copias de los documentos que envié a Usted por primera vez en 1929, relativos a la proclamación del Gobierno Povisional que nuestro Ejército hizo a Usted. ¶ Los últimos combates sostenidos entre nuestras fuerzas y la de los ejércitos mercenarios, han sido muy sangrientos pero sensacionales. Son cuatro. ¶ En el lugar denominado Cosmate, jursdicción de Jalapa, a last tres de la mañana del nueve cayeron en emboscada, por primera vez en la Historia de nuestra Guerra, las fuerzas compuestas por cien hom- . . ."

2.     18 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, Mexico D.F., p. 2.  
". . . bres al mando del General Simón González, uno de los Jefes Expedicionarios de nuestro Ejército. ¶ El General González salió gravemente herido y se disputa entre la vida y la muerte, como tantas veces sucede con los soldados Defensores del Honor y la Libertad de los pueblos oprimidos por los magnates. ¶ La columna del General González fue dispersada por el enemigo, pero no perdieron elementos de guerra. ¶ Dos días después, en el lugar denominado Las Cruces, jurisdicción de Jinotega, cayó en emboscada una fuerza del enemigo compuesta por cuatrocientos hombres. ¶ Los Jefes pertenecienes a nuestro Ejército, que comandaban la emboscada en que cayeron las fuerzas mercenarias de Norteamérica, fueron los Tenientes Coroneles Juan Pablo Umanzor y Dionisio Centeno. ¶ El enemigo dejó en el campo mas de ochenta muertos, entre los que se contaban nueve yanquis, pero el que más nos llamó la atención fue uno de ellos por su edad. ¶ Se trata de un anciano yanqui que vestia trajes más finos que los otros, y se notaba que era un hombre de estimación, pero bandido como todos. ¶ En las alforjillas que portaba se le encontraron documentos y objetos finos, de los que usan solamente los hombes de mucha comodidad o de altas representaciones. ¶ Pero seguramente bajas de esa naturaleza las esconden y no las dan a conocer. ¶ Le envió algunos de los documentos avanzados, para que convenza con ellos a los incredulos. ¶ En el lugar denominado Las Cuatro Esquinas, jurisdicción de Matagalpa, el enemigo, en numero de (100) cien hombres, trato de atacar a las Fuerzas Expedicionarias de nuestro Ejército, que iban al mando de los Generales Pedro Antonio Irías y Miguel Angel Ortéz. ¶ Confidencialmente nuestras fuerzas habían abandonado el campo quince minutes antes. ¶ La fuerza enemiga, compuesta de cien hombres, se posesionó del campo y ocupó las mismas posiciones que tenía nuestro Ejército. ¶ Cinco minutes despues entraron por diferentes flancos tres fuertes columnas del enemigo que, al desconocerse, trabaron un renido combate entre ellos mismos. . . . "

3.     18 July 1930.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Pedro José Zepeda, Mexico D.F., p. 3.   
" . . . enteradas nuestras fuerzas de lo ocurrido dentro del enemigo, se enderazaron para atrás y les cayeron en pelo. ¶ El enemigo fue dispersado por todos sus flancos, dejando el campo cubierto de cadáveres, dejando en nuestro poder todos los elementos. ¶ En el lugar denominado Rancho Grande, sobre la picada que conduce de Matagalpa al Departamento de Bluefields, una columna enemiga compuesta de trescientos hombres fue arrollada, aniquilada y quitado todo su tren de Guerra, por las fuerzas al mando de los Generales Expedicionarios de nuestro Ejército Carlos Salgado y Francisco Estrada. ¶ El triunfo fue redondo porque hasta la señora de uno de los Jefes mercenarios yanquis fue avanzada después del desastre del enemigo. ¶ En los momentos que participó estas noticias, el enemigo se prepara para dar un combate combinado en nuestro Cuartel General, denominado “Joaquín Trincado”. ¶ Flotillas de aeroplanos enemigos recorren nuestras regiones, tratando de acercar las columnas de filibusteros. ¶ Con la ayuda del Creador estamos seguros de destruir los planes macabros que el enemigo pueda traer contra nuestro Ejército. ¶ De Usted atentamente. ¶ Patria y Libertad. ¶ A. C. SANDINO (Firma y sello) ¶ P.D. Dr. Zepeda: ¶ Ruégole mostrar a los que no creen en el triunfo de la Justicia esos documentos avanzados que le adjunto. ¶ Vale."

19 August 1930.
High Rate of increase Venereal Diseases in the Guardia Nacional, 9th Company Puerto Cabezas.  Department Medical Officer T. Simmer to Commanding Officer.  
"1. Attention is invited to the again high rate of venereal diseases in this Port, this is probable due to the Sanidad of this Port not cooperating with the Guardia Nacional. ¶ 2. General Order #28,1928 is not being complied with in this port, prostitution is carried on in nearly all cantina’s in this town, by none-registered women. ¶ 3. Letter was forwarded to Doctor Montgarlo calling his attention to the above named subject about 12 August 1930, but no action has been taken to this date. ¶ 4. Unless there is some immediate action taken by some Sanitary Doctor the increase of venereal diseases in the Guardia here will be so great that they will be probable of no service in case of any emergency. ¶ (signed) T. Simmer"

20 August 1930.
Information regarding Alcalde (Elesia DUARTE) of Bluefields.  Lt. Fred Riewe, Chief of Police, Bluefields, to Area Commander, Bluefields.  
"Reference: (a) Jefe Directors letter to all Area and ¶ Department Commanders, dated 2 August, 1930. ¶ 1. Sr. Elesia Duarte served as Alcalde of Bluefields (first term) from 1 January to 31 December, 1929. He was reelected in the November election for a period of two years, which will expire 31 December, 1931. ¶ 2. His attitude toward the American occupations is indifferent, and toward the Guardia, officially good, unofficially very poor. ¶ 3. He has not had any connection with banditry. (to the best of my knowledge) ¶ 4. He is a very poor Public Administrator and can not account, or show, how Public Funds are disposed. During his Administration as Alcalde of Bluefields no improvements have been made. ¶ 5. About twenty years ago he was a miner or a mine operator, (Colin Mine) in the Pis Pis Area. He also was Fiscal Agent at Wuani. From 1916 to 1925 he worked for the Fruit Companies as a common laborer. During the 1926 Revolution he was a General in the Liberal party. He also took part, or directed the robbery of the Bluefields Bank on 2 May, 1926. He and Beltran Sandoval disposed of $60,000 Sixty Thousand dollars which was taken from the Bank. During the year of 1925 he was Treasurer of the Municipal of Bluefields. ¶ (Signed) Fred Riewe, ¶ 1st Endorsement, ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 21 August 1930 ¶ From: The Area Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional. ¶ 1. FORWARDED/ ¶ (Signed) JOHN MARSTON."

1.     1 September 1930.
Record of Events for August 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
 

2.     1 September 1930.
Record of Events for August 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

3.     1 September 1930.
Record of Events for August 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.

4.     1 September 1930.
Record of Events for August 1930, Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 4.

1 September 1930.
Progress Report,  Lt. H. J.  Withers, Cacao, to Area Commander Col. C. B. Matthews, Central Area, Jinotega. 
 [Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13]   "1. 27th Cleared Corinto Finca 1000, 22 mules, 4 bulls, arrived Hacienda Jacinto Garcia 1700, 28th cleared 0740, arrived Carretera 1520. 29th cleared 0800, arrived Guasaco, 1500. 30th cleared 0800, arrived La Tronca (Tomas Pineda) 1630. 31st rested animals and overhauled gear. 1st Sept. cleared 0800, arrived Cacao 1400. ¶ 2. Owing to steep hills and condition of trails it is difficult to average over three leagues a day. Animals in fair condition with exception of several very sore backs; Guardia in excellent condition with exception of one foot infection. ¶ 3. Crossed Rio Wul Wul (USMC 5th Regt Special Map of Nicaragua) about five miles from junction with Tuma River at noon today. Expect to be in vicinity of Casuli (same map Sept 5th. ¶ 4. Sighted two airplanes at noon 27 Aug. they passed to north of us. Have seen none since. Smoke candles were used but were not sighted by plane. If planes come out a drop of several cartons of cigarettes and some matches would be greatly appreciated. ¶ 5. Inhabitants of this section state that no bandits have been seen since the passing of Pedron in May. ¶ 6. This report is being placed in the hands of Dionicio Anastacio of Cacao, Juez de Mesta for forwarding by first convenience. ¶ H. J. Withers. ¶ COPIES

10 September 1930.
Letter from Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. Waddell.
 [Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18]   "Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. ¶ 10 September, 1930. ¶ My dear Captain Waddell: ¶ Please pardon my writing you in this form but my office force is reduced to nothing and I have no one except Lieutenant Benson who can typewrite a letter properly and he is up to his neck in work. ¶ The situation on the Coco River is still very uncertain. Lt. Darrah with six men left last night for Sacklin they will be met there today by a launch from Cabo Gracias which will take them to Sang Sang from where they will go by canoe to Aguasbila which is just north of San Ramon on the north side of the river. He will thoroughly investigate all rumors, and will send us word from time to time. He has been directed to stay out until he believes his presence there is no longer required, and has investigated the robbery at Aguasbila by Honduranians and these last rumors. ¶ Mr. W. J. Green came in last night from Cabo Gracias and I talked with him this morning. The killing of Jose Lleset at Aguasbila and the reported presence of Pedron bandits were brought in by Indians, one of who was a woman to Sang Sang. No one saw the bandits clearly or saw Lleset killed. That the rumors are exaggerated there is little doubt, but there is a possibility of some truth in them. The presence of Pedron’s men, so far from their base in Southern Jinotega, appears extremely doubtful, that is as far as an organized band is concerned. There might be a couple of men who had been formerly with Pedron and call themselves “Pedronistos”. ¶ Conditions like this will always exist as long as the river is not properly policed by both Honduranians and Nicaraguans on an amicable basis. The disputed territory, just north of the river where there is no law of any description, offers a harbor for all criminals of all nations and it is full of all sorts at present. It is quite possible that all the above reported outrages if they were committed at all were committed by these. The robberies and extortion at Aguasbila certainly were committed by Honduranians if the testimony of eye witnesses can be believed. None of the messages reporting the killing Lleset and the presence of ”Pedronistos” are the same as to dates etc. The police agent of Sang Sang is now in Cabo Gracias having left Sang Sang at the first rumor; he is the one who brought all the news to Cabo Gracias, so you can see that he himself is not particularly well informed. He has, I believe, a total of one rusty pistol and three cartridges to protect himself with and is not disposed to argue with anyone to any great extent. ¶ This is the total of all the information I have and it is as you see, very indefinite, but I will keep you posted to developments. ¶ Copy of letter hand-written by Capt. Stent.) copied 10/15/30 rbh"

17 September 1930.
Report of Information Obtained on Patrol to SACLIN.  Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas.  
"1. The following information was obtained on the patrol to SACLIN: On September third a group of about 20 to 35 bandits arrived in AGUASBILA at about 3:00 pm, killed JOSE LLESET, a CUBAN, burned his store, and returned up the COCO RIVER the same date, clearing AGUASBILA about 5:30 pm. It is believed that these bandits were NICARAGUAN bandits and that LLESET was killed for the following reasons: When the revolution broke out in 1926, LLESET was a CONSERVATIVE and hostile to the presence of the UNITED STATES NAVAL FORCES. Most of the inhabitants of the COCO RIVER are LIBERALS and LLESET was blackballed by them. However, LLESET saw that he could make money in his store by being friendly to the marines, so he changed his politics accordingly, and did a thriving business. His former enemies became his strongest friends and directed business to him. LLESET feared the revenge of the bandits for his change of political faith and for helping the marines, as did others on the river. It is believed that LLESET was killed for this reason, as from time to time, while the marines still occupied BOCAY, word was received that LLESET and others would be killed if the bandits had the opportunity. ¶ While in SACLIN, I received two letters from Lieut. DARRAH stating that he had arrived in SANGSANG on September 14 and that there was nothing new to report, and that the entire river as far as SANGSANG was peaceful and quiet, Lieut. DARRAH planned to go AGUASBILA by pitpan on September 15. ¶ I proceeded no further than SACLIN since my presence was not necessary in view of the news contained in Lieut. DARRAH’S letters, and the expense involved would not have warranted my proceeding further. ¶ The report that the bandits that killed LLESET were members of ALTAMIRANO’S band was absolutely unfounded. ¶ Signed W. W. BENSON"

1.     21 September 1930.
Report of Trip from Jinotega to Prinzapolka and Establishment of the Department.   Lt. H. J.  Withers, Prinzapolka, to Area Commander, Central Area, Jinotega, p. 1.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)

2.     21 September 1930.
Report of Trip from Jinotega to Prinzapolka and Establishment of the Department.   Lt. H. J.  Withers, Prinzapolka, to Area Commander, Central Area, Jinotega, p. 2.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)

3.     21 September 1930.
Report of Trip from Jinotega to Prinzapolka and Establishment of the Department.   Lt. H. J.  Withers, Prinzapolka, to Area Commander, Central Area, Jinotega, p. 3. 
 (Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)

4.     21 September 1930.
Report from Col. C. B. Matthews, Central Area Commander, to Jefe Director GN, 10 October 1930, forwarding Lt. H. J. Withers' Report of Trip from Jinotega to Prinzapolka and Establishment of the Department, p. 4.

1.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   "Subject: Report of patrol. ¶ Reference: Orders dated 9 September 1930 with enclosures. ¶ Enclosures: (7) ¶ 1. Forwarded herewith is the report of the Coco River Patrol which was made by myself and six (6) enlisted men. ¶ 2. From information received by this patrol it is my opinion that, there are a number of bandits in between Bocay and Patuca, the number is rumored at between forty (40) and sixty (60). No one seems to be positive who the leader of the group is. Some say, it is a part of Sandinos outfit and some say, it is a part of Pedron’s. My opinion is, that this group has been chased out of Nueva Segovia District by military operations there, and figure they can maintain themselves for a period in the Coco River District. At present there are very few supplies to be had in this district, and do not figure they will remain there long. The supplies they stole in Aguas Bila should last them for a period of two (2) months or more. The only other places along the river where they can get more supplies are at Waspok and Sang Sang. In Sang Sang I estimated the supplies on hand to be worth about six hundred ($600.00) and in Waspok about four hundred ($400.00) dollars. I advised the owners of both stores to move everything down river, and as they seem to think that the bandits will kill them, also advised them to stay out of the upper river district. ¶ There are several persons who reported to me that, they were notified, they would be killed as Jose Lleset was at a later date. All of these have left and are now in Cabo Gracias or Ulwas. The reason for the threat against their lives is, that while the Marines were operating in the Coco District these persons had given them aid and information against the bandits. The names of the different persons threatened are:-- ¶ Mr. Alfred Webster, Sang Sang. ¶ Mr. Allen Miller, Waspok. ¶ Mr. Lee Miller, Waspok. ¶ Mr. Abram Martinez, Sang Sang. ¶ Mr. Joaquin Alvarado, Waspok. ¶ Mr. Michael A. Thompson, Sang Sang."

2.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   "Subject: Report of patrol. ¶ It is my opinion that if the owners of the stores in Waspok and Sang Sang take my advise, and that the persons threatened do not go back up the river, the bandits will have no reason to stay in that district and will soon leave. There is absolutely no other way for them to get supplies, as the Indians live on next to nothing—such as bananas, fish and corn. There is no money for them to steal, and taking the supplies and their intended victims away from that part of the country will leave nothing for them to stay for. ¶ Signed C.R. Darrah—¶ 1st. Endorsement. 24 September, 1930. ¶ DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS, GUARDIA NACIONA DE NICARAGUA, PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA. ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Area of the East, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. Forwarded. Signed W.W. Benson.-- ¶ 2d Endorsement. ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 27 September 1930 ¶ From: The Area Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. FORWARDED. JOHN MARSTON (signed)"

3.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   "INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM THE COMANDANTE, SANG SANG, NICARAGUA, 17 SEPTEMER 1939. ¶ This information was taken as there seemed to be some confusion as to what group of men had killed Cubano and sacked his store. ¶ Somewhere between the 15th and 20th of August 1930 four Hondureanians, one of which was Inspector of the Mosquito Coast arrived at Aguas Bila for the purpose of arresting Jose Lleset, (Cubano) for not having procured license to sell whiskey and guaro from Trujillo, Honduras, Also several Mosquito Indians were arrested and fined by them for cutting mahogany. This was witnessed by the Arana boys who made their report to the Governor at Cabo Gracias. ¶ On this trip the Hondureanians collected somewhere in the neighborhood of four hundred ($400.00) dollars in fines. ¶ This is the third time that Hondureanians have arrived on the Rio Coco collecting fines and molesting Nicaraguans.

4.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   "A boatman by the name of “Leo” who was forced to help take the bandits back up the river after they had murdered Cubano and sacked his store told Richard, that one of the bandits had told him, they were building shelter above Bocay for about sixty (60) men. ¶ INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM BERNARD MILLER, SANG SANG, NICARAGUA, 17 SEPTEMBER 1930: ¶ An Indian from Asang told him that there were five boats full of bandits that came down the river from Bocay, and that three of them stayed at or above Tilba Rapids, and that two went to Aguas Bila with about twelve men. And also they were given orders not to go any lower than Aguas Bila by their jefe, and to return up river after they had carried out their mission, but to what place no one seems to know, or it is, that they do not care to tell."

5.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   Information received from Maria Chacon, wife of Jose Lleset, Aguas Bila, Nic., 16 Sept. 1930, and Carlos Coleman, Sang Sang, Nic., 17 Sept. 1930. ¶  Bandits must have been in the building sometime before she knew of their presence, as she had already gone to bed and was asleep. One of the group awakened her, and told her, she had better leave quickly and go to her parents. While getting dressed she heard Cubano ask them to what group they belonged, and the reply was, to Sandinos. ¶ On leaving she said, she saw three good size boats, but as to the number of the men she does not know, but from the noise they made there must have been quite a few. ¶ The bandits took all food and other supplies in the store and all clothing that belonged to the family from the house. ¶ After having sacked the building they tried to burn it, but only managed to burn a place about three and a half feet high and eight inches wide. ¶ The body of Cubano is buried in the front yard of their property. ¶ This is all that the woman knows of the affair as she was so badly frightened. ¶ INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM CARLOS COLEMAN, SANG SANG, NICARAGUA, 17 SEPTEMBER 1930. ¶ Coleman is attending to the store of Abram Martinez in Sang Sang, and was told the following by (M)osquitos:-- ¶ That bandits would return about the end of the month to rob the store at Sang Sang and the one at Waspok. ¶ Where the Indians got this information is more than anyone seems to find out.

6.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)   Information received from Manuel Olivas Carbajal, Sang Sang, Nic., 17 Sept. 1930.  ¶  Carbajal was an employee of Jose Lleset at the time of his death, but at the time of his being murdered he, (Carbajal) was in Sang Sang. (This was verified by the Comandante of Sang Sang). The information he gives was told to him by Indians who live in Aguas Bila, and is as follows:-- ¶ Jose Lleset and J. Manuel Carbajal were sitting in Cubanos store talking, and Cubanos wife was in her bedroom sleeping, when a bunch of armed men entered and tied Cubano up and started lecturing him about having helped the Marines when they were operating in that district, and made it clear to him that he was to be murdered for the same. ¶ They, (the bandits) then took everything out of the store and the house, marched Cubano down to the rivers edge and murdered him. Cubano’s wife ran with her baby. ¶ Indians state, that the leader of the group was a tall, stout old man with a beard. This description is similar to that of Pedron’s. They also stated that there were about fifty (50) in the group, and all were armed with two pistols and a machete, very few of them had rifles.

7.     22 September 1930.
Report of Patrol (with 7 enclosures), Lt. Clyde R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Dept. Commander Col. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E202/Box 13)  ¶  Information received from J. Manuel Carbajal, at Sacklin, Nic., 10 Sept. 1930.  3 September 1930 about 9:30 p.m. bandits murdered Jose Lleset (Cubano) for having given information to, and for having helped Marines about two years ago, group of about fifty (50) men. ¶ Carbajal and a man by the name of Abram Rivera were present when the bandits entered the store of Cubano. Carbajal was tied up along with Cubano, and was also threatened, but after he told them that he was working for Captain Brown’s Lumber Camp which is in Honduras he was not harmed, but was taken with them when they left as far as Tilba Rapids and turned loose. The man Rivera was not molested. Reported that he is cooking for the bandits. About one year ago he was released from prison in Bluefields. He was arrested by the Marines for having been with Sandino. ¶ Cubano’s store and home were sacked of everything. After having taken everything out Cubano was then taken down to the river’s edge and murdered by (with) a machete. ¶ One of the bandits said, Pedron was in the group. ¶ No names were mentioned. They all called each other, general, coronel or capitan.

1.     23 September 1930.
Report of Activities, Lt. W. W. Waddell, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Special Service Squadron, USS Asheville, p. 1. 
  (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)  SUBJECT: Report of Activities. ¶ ENCLOSURES: (A) Letter from Captain Stent, USMC.National Guard. ¶ (B) Despatch from Cape Gracias. ¶ (C) Despatch from Cabo Gracias. ¶ (D) Despatch from Cape Gracias. ¶ 1. On 3 September, information was received that bandits had come down the river to Aguasbila, and killed one Jose Lleset, (called the Cubano), a well known merchant of that vicinity. A detailed report of this was made by Captain Stent, enclosure (A). ¶ 2. About 1600, 11 September, enclosure (B) was received on board. The commanding officer went ashore immediately to consult with Captain Stent of the National Guard. He had received no report or information from the patrol sent out to investigate the previous report nor any other information. The radio station at Puerto Cabezas got in touch with the station at Gracious (Gracias) and obtained additional information enclosure (C). Captain Stent was of opinion that bandits in this vicinity would have been reported by his patrol, but nevertheless sent out another patrol of sixteen (16) men and two (2) officers. ASHEVILLE left at 2300 for Cape Gracious and arrived 0700, 12 September. ¶ 3. Shortly after anchoring off Cape Gracious, a boat came alongside with H. H. Fagot, (brother of Albert Fagot), F. S. Belcher, and J. Asmussen, on board. Mr. Belcher is representative of the Nicaraguan Products Company, a New York Company. Mr. Fagot and Mr. Asmussen are local business men, Mr. Asmussen with a branch at the mouth of Waspook River. All were quite scared and fearful for the details of the killing of Jose Lleset at Aguasbila, which occurred about 3 September. This they had obtained indirectly from one Manuel Carbajal, who was visiting Lleset but managed to escape from the bandits. Lleset was apparently tortured and mutilated. Carbajal, was then at Sacklin. The bandits have since been reported further down the river, all reports are indefinate, no first or second hand information as to actual seeing of bandits. ¶ 4. Mr. Fagot left Coom, (15 miles below Sacklin) at noon 10 September, arriving Cape Gracious 11 September. The bandits were ¶ -1- ....

2.     23 September 1930.
Report of Activities, Lt. W. W. Waddell, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Special Service Squadron, USS Asheville, p. 2. 
  (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)   .....reported to be between Waspook and Sacklin at the time he left Coom. ¶ 5. The bandits originally came down in seven boats, (according to report), but are thought to have captured more. ¶ 6. After conferring with these men, the commanding officer together with the executive officer, marine officer, and the landing force commander, went ashore to inspect the surroundings of the town in case it should be necessary to send a landing force ashore. Nearly all the surrounding country is delta formation, most of it bog, completely covered with trees and underbrush. There is a landing at the town, and the first one above this on the same (north) side of the river is at the station of ILAYA, which is about two (2) miles above the fork in the river. The party landed here and walked to the interior to the Indian Village, about a half a mile back. From here there is a path leading to the ocean to the north, coming out near the north fork of the river. There is also a path from near the north fork of the river leading into the town of Cape Gracious, so that the return trip could be made in this way, but it would involve crossing the north fork of the river as well as wading through bog. These are the only paths on the north peninsula. ¶ 7. South of the river, Green’s Sawmill, is just above the town near the canal shown on the chart, and there are paths connecting with the ocean. ¶ 8. In general there is no suitable place for a landing force and operations would be very difficult. ¶ 9. Decided to remain anchored off Cape Gracious. Awaiting further news from the bandits. Arranged radio schedule with shore stations at Cape Gracious and Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 10. 13 September. No further news. Executive officer and medical officer went ashore, although weather bad. Executive officer interviewed Mr. W.J. Green, who is considered most level headed man in vicinity. He stated that word had been received that more people had come down the river in fear of bandits. He thought the bandits may have come down the river beyond Waspook. ASHEVILLE returned to Puerto Cabezas 2400. ¶ -2- ....

3.     23 September 1930.
Report of Activities, Lt. W. W. Waddell, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Special Service Squadron, USS Asheville, p. 3. 
 (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)   ... 11.  14 September. During night of 13-14 September, received message, enclosure (D), from Mr. Belcher of Cape Gracious, stating he had report of Lieutenant Benson of the Guardia, which we did not receive, since the ASHEVILLE had left Cape Gracious. It was evident, from the message that the scare had been caused by the original killing of Jose Lleset at Aguasbila. On arriving at Puerto Cabezas, found that Captain Stent of the Guardia had received similar information. ¶ 12. 13 September. Nicaraguan Holiday. Full dressed ship and fired salute of 21 guns at noon. Made preparations for leaving for Bluefields. Late afternoon, while ashore, commanding officer was informed by Captain Stent that he had been informed by a man named Schmidt, that he, Schmidt had heard a conversation in a cantina stating that there was going to be a local uprising against the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company that night. He stated it was said in the conversation that the ASHEVILLE was sailing at seven p.m. He stated that one Judge Humberto Ramirez was present with the party holding the conversation, that he was sure of this although the party was in another room. Captain Stent had interviewed Judge Humberto Ramirez, who denied that he was present at the cantina, or made any such statement. The commanding officer talked to Schmidt, but gained no further information. Schmidt is German, but speaks both English and Spanish. There seemed no reason for an uprising against the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, other than possibly a Communist uprising, however since this was a holiday and many people from the country and other localities were in town, it would seem a good time for such an uprising, if one were intended. After talking with Captain Stent and Mr. Scott of the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., it was decided that there was no reason to fear. Arrangements were made for a schedule with the local radio station after leaving and the ASHEVILLE left at 1900 for Bluefields. ¶ 13. 15 September. Arrived at Bluefields. Commanding officer talked to Colonel Marston of the Guardia and Mr. Fletcher, American Counsel. Captain Best was in Managua. Information received from Col. Marston and Lieutenant Holdahl, (senior member of the Electoral mission in Bluefields), was to the effect that there were no disturbances and everything was proceeding satisfactorily. ¶ 14. 17 September. Proceeded to Great Corn Island. Commanding officer called on Governor and obtained general information regarding the Island. ¶15. 19 September. Proceeded to Little Corn Island, obtained general information and proceeded to Puerto Cabezas. ¶-3- ....

4.     23 September 1930.
Report of Activities, Lt. W. W. Waddell, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Special Service Squadron, USS Asheville, p. 4.  
 (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)   ...16. 19 September. Arrived Puerto Cabezas. Lieutenant Benson had returned and stated that the people who killed Jose Lleset came down the river and after killing him attempted burn his store, and returned up the river after about two hours. No bandits of any kind had come below Aguasbila, and the identity of those who came this far was not known, that is whether they were a part of the organized Nicaraguan bandits or perhaps men from Honduras, or the disputed territory between Honduras and Nicaragua, who for some reason had a grudge against Lleset. ¶17. There have been no occurrences or reports of note since returning to Puerto Cabezas.

1.     27 September 1930.
Telegrams from J. F. Muller, New Orleans LA, to Sec. State Washington D.C., & related correspondence in the case of his brother Benny F. Muller & family, Sawa Boom, Nic., p. 1.

2.     27 September 1930.
Telegrams from J. F. Muller, New Orleans LA, to Sec. State Washington D.C., & related correspondence in the case of his brother Benny F. Muller & family, Sawa Boom, Nic., p. 2.

3.     27 September 1930.
Telegrams from J. F. Muller, New Orleans LA, to Sec. State Washington D.C., & related correspondence in the case of his brother Benny F. Muller & family, Sawa Boom, Nic., p. 3.    Letter from Benny F. Muller, Sawa Boom, to brother John Muller, USA, 11 Sept. 1930:   "Sawa Boom 9/11/30.  ¶  A large raiding party of Sandino's came down the River so far I have heard they have killed several, expect they have burnt me out.  Wife eight children one grandchild came down to me here leaving on a minute notice four of the oldest boys up at my place am very uneasy about them, as the rumor is they are three hundred strong well armed and are on their way down the river maybe Port Cabezas or Cape.  ¶  Everything I have is up the river am afraid has been burnt out, please to not get my name to any of this news in print as they have told up River they came down to make a lesson every one that helped the U.S. Marines are to be killed and all the damage they can do them.  So far have caught only one of their list of five they want bad and I am one of the other four.  ¶  Hope the Government will put a good force at the foot of the falls for protection of the river. This is in a rush to get this off by chance.  /s/  Your brother "

4.     27 September 1930.
Telegrams from J. F. Muller, New Orleans LA, to Sec. State Washington D.C., & related correspondence in the case of his brother Benny F. Muller & family, Sawa Boom, Nic., p. 4.   Telegram from T. V. Muller, San Antonio TX, to Sec. State, 29 Sept. 1930.

5.     27 September 1930.
Telegrams from J. F. Muller, New Orleans LA, to Sec. State Washington D.C., & related correspondence in the case of his brother Benny F. Muller & family, Sawa Boom, Nic., p. 5.   Letter from Rep. Robert Luce, Waltham, Mass., to Sec. State, 1 Oct. 1930.

29 September 1930.
Letter from Benjamin Abaunza, Ministerio de la Gobernación y Anexos, Palacio Nacional, Managua, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.

29 September 1930.
Letter from Benjamin Abaunza, Ministerio de la Gobernación y Anexos, Palacio Nacional, Managua, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2. 
 Resolution passed by the Comerciantes y algunos vecinos of Cabo Gracias a Dios, asking for two new Guardia posts at the mouths of the Waspook and Tilba Rivers. Signed by: Manuel Gardner, Nicaraguan Products Corp.   P. Gardner.   O.R. Moore.   A. Fagot.   H.E. Fagot.   J. Asmussen.   Wuing Chong.   E. Chong.   Abdul Jobbar.   Salvador Mairena.   Martín Miranda.   F.A. Alvarez.   Paco Jarquín H."

 

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