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the atlantic coast  •  1931A, p. 5
May 1-7, 1931

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   THIS IS THE FIFTH PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the seven days from May 1 to May 7.

     Thrown back on their heels by the surprise Sandinista offensive in the first half of April, the Marines & Guardia, along with local merchants & business owners and the Moravian missionaries, try to take stock of what happened & what it means — militarily, commercially, in terms of labor & production, for mission work, and in related spheres.  Capt. Inman’s six-page report on the highlights of the events of April (3 May) should be read in combination with Col. Marston’s three-page intelligence report “on activities of Sandino, Blandon and Cockburn” (4 May), and Admiral A. St. Clair Smith’s five-page summary of the role of the Special Service Squadron (5 May) — which together offer overlapping but distinctive perspectives on these complex & confusing events.  Two letters from prominent merchants in Cabo Gracias a Dios to authorities in Managua offer different versions of an oft-heard refrain:  that they need more Guardia protection from “bandit” attacks (A. Fagot, 3 May, and Manuel C. y Bordas, 6 May).  That same need is also the subject of Sec. State Stimson’s telegram to US Minister Hanna in Managua, here focusing on Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company.  The Moravian missionaries also struggle to make sense of the previous month’s events for themselves & their flocks,, as seen in David Haglund’s letter of May 6, and the meeting minutes of an “informal conference” held in Bilwi on 7 May.  Meanwhile, further south, we see in Capt. Davis’s report from the Dept of Southern Bluefields that the EDSN offensive barely made a ripple in the Bluefields district (6 May).

     Taken together, the documents on this page offer a compelling snapshot of how the April 1931 Sandinista offensive affected different zones & social classes of the Coast.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

3 May 1931.
Letter from A. Fagot, Cape Gracias, to Mr. Irving A. Lindberg, Collector General of Customs & High Commissioner, Managua.  
"Dear Mr. Lindberg, ¶ Due to the political situation here, I am forced to leave the country, and tho I do not expect to return, I am still financially interested here, therefore this letter. ¶ As you doubtlessly know, this section is very poor and commerce is practically paralyzed, due to the difficulties in the immediate past. The lives of all Americans are endangered in this section, tho not as bad as painted. Unless the Government keeps some 15 National Guards here and some 25 at Waspuc, the place will die out altogether. Waspuc is the old Camp Edson, a strategic point, protecting the Waspuc river, and the Segovia for some 200 miles. This would naturally open up trade again. ¶ If the Bragman Bluff Lumber Co. resume their operations in Pto. Cabezas, they will use a large quantity of Indian labor from this river. All the common labor desired by them can be furnished from this river. I believe that due to their past and recent experiences, this Company will adopt a “hands off” policy as far as Spanish labor is concerned in the future. ¶ In view of the preceding, if this river is again opened up to commerce, imports would jump to the fore again and this, of course, would be highly beneficial for the Customs. ¶ Further if peace again reigns and commerce is protected, the people of this section would feel confidence in going forward with their recently adopted plans for planting of bananas extensively in this river. Sale for this commodity is practically guaranteed. ¶ I therefore would ask that in view of the foregoing, you use your good office and influence with the Government to establish sufficient National Guards here for protection of this river. The merchants here could not give a large sum at present toward the maintenance of the Guards, but with the improvement of conditions, they would naturally be enabled to make more substantial contributions. ¶ Very truly yours, ¶ [signed] A. Fagot"

1.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS NICARAGUA ¶ 3 May 1931 ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Headquarters, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Via: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL, 1931. ¶ Reference: (a) General Order no. 40-1929. ¶ 1. PERIOD From: 1 april 1931 ¶ To: 30 April 1931 ¶ 2. STRENGTH OF COMMAND ¶ Officers 5 ¶ Enlisted 71 ¶ 3. MILITARY OPERATIONS ¶ 1. MOVEMENTS OF PATROLS AND OTHER GUARDIA PERSONNEL ¶ 2 Apr. Captain Pefley to Toledo Wye on inspection trip and return. ¶ 4 Apr Lieutenant Darrah and two enlisted on patrol of railroad line and return. ¶ 5 Apr Capain Pefley, three enlisted, and one civilian guide to headwaters of River Striklaya and return. ¶ 6 Apr Lieutenant Darrah and five enlisted on payday trip as guard for Bragmans bluff Lumber Company. ¶ 7 Apr Capain Pefley and four enlisted on payday trip as guard for Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company. ¶ 9 Apr Raso Guillermo Sequeira, #1006, discharged by reason of Expiration of enlistment. ¶ 10 Apr Lieutenant Benson, Lieutenant Simmer (MC), and five enlisted to Bluefields on Special Temporary Detached Duty in connection with General Courts Martial. Two Enlisted transferred to Seventh Company, Bluefields. ¶ 11 Apr 0730 Sgt Saenz and three enlisted departed Toledo Wye for Logtown to investigate report of bandits in Logtown. ¶ 0745 Capain Pefley and four enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas for Logtown to investigate same report. ¶ 1200 Captain Pefley and eight enlisted in contact at Logtown with group of about 50 bandits under Pedro Blandon. Captain Pefley and Raso Manuel Morales, #1944, [...]"

2.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL , 1931. ¶ [...] were wounded in the contact. Captain Pefley died at about 1230 from the effects of his wound. Raso Manuel Morales, #1944, was slightly wounded in scalp. ¶ 1330 Lieutenant Darrah and twelve enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas for Logtown on combat mission. ¶ 1730 Lieutenant Darrah’s patrol arrived Louisiana Farm, joined with Sgt. Saenz’ patrol and patrolled as far as Cuyutigne, where they spent the night. ¶ 1800 Captain Pefley’s body arrived in Puerto Cabezas. Sgt. Arthur Taylor, #2705, with all effective Guardia, departed Puerto Cabezas to reinforce Lieutenant Darrah, turning over the Comandancia and all keys to civicos. ¶ Puerto Cabezas was highly excited at this time, as the only defense of the town was the hastily organized civico group. ¶ 12 Apr Lieutenant Darrah’s patrol in contact with bandit force of about 50 bandits under Pedro Blandon. No Guardia or bandit casualties. Time of this contact 0830. ¶ 1030 Two Marine Landplanes arrived from Managua. Departed immediately for Moss Farm and bombed group of bandits seen there. ¶ 1430 Captain Wood arrived from Bluefields for Temporary Duty as Department Commander. Captain Riden (MC) and four enlisted returned from Temporary Detached Duty in Bluefields. ¶ 1530 Lieutenant Darrah in contact at Snaki Bridge with bandit force estimated at 35. Guardia Patrol was attempting to repair railroad line which had been torn up by bandits. Raso Pascual Rivera, #3731, was wounded in both eyes in this contact, and will probably be permanently blind in both eyes. Two Marine Landplanes flew over Lieut Darrah immediately after this conact with food and ammunition, but Lieut Darrah waved them away. ¶ The civicos were hastily organized for the defense of Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 13 Apr 0245 Captain Wood, Lieutenant Simmer (MC) and four enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas to Reinforce Lieutenant Darrah’s patrol. Combat patrol now composed of three officers and 36 enlisted and Mr. R.R. Beardsley, civico. ¶ 0930 Two Marine Landplanes departed Puerto Cabezas for joint mission with Captain Wood’s patrol. 1010 The two planes joined Captain Wood’s patrol at Snaki bridge and escorted the patrol to Logtown, which had been found to be occupied by a bandit force. Captain Wood’s patrol walked approximately 18 kilometers to Logtown from Moss Bridge, which had been burned during the night. ¶ 1235-1310 Combat patrol under Captain Wood in contact with group of about 60 bandits under Pedro Blandon at Logtown. Bandits were driven from the vicinity with losses of about 18 dead, including Blandon and the second in command. Several days after the contact a tangled mass of mules and men was found in the brush south of Logtown. It is believed these casualties were caused by an airplane bomb. [...]"

3.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL, 1931. ¶ 1430 two Marine Landplanes returned from contact and made report of contact. ¶ 1545 Telephone report of Logtown contact received in Puerto Cabezas from Captain Wood. ¶ 1600 Group of about 30 bandits seen in potrero about eight miles from Puerto Cabezas. Lieutenant Benson and six civicos departed to investigate. ¶ 1630 Trail of group of about 30 bandits found in potrero about eight miles from Puerto Cabezas. Trail was lost on hard gravel. Patrol of Lieutenant Benson and civicos returned to Puerto Cabezas at 1735. ¶ 1715 Telephone report received in Puerto Cabezas that bandit group of about 30 was on railroad line at kilometer 24. At this time Puerto Cabezas was defended by 35 armed civicos. The entire civilian population of Puerto Cabezas, Bilway, and surrounding towns spent the night on the Standard Fruit and Steamship Company’s vessel “CEFALU”. It is estimated that 3500 persons deserted their homes for the steamship. ¶ 1117 Code message received from Captain Wood at Wawa Boom advising that bandits were at kilometer 13 on the railroad, which is about 3-1/2 miles from the aviation hangars in Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 14 Apr 0010 USS ASHEVILLE arrived Puerto Cabezas, Commanding Officer USS ASHEVILLE was requested to put landing force ashore. CO ASHEVILLE stated his orders were explicit in that he could NOT put a landing force ashore without direct orders to do so. 0145 Two shots were heard in the vicinity of Kilometer five. Patrol of 12 civicos and Lieutenant Benson investigated, but found no trace of bandits. ¶ 0600 telephone report received from Captain Wood’s patrol, which was leaving Wawa Boom for Puerto Cabezas via Wawa River. 0615 Two Marine landplanes departed to investigate report of bandits in vicinity of Puerto Cabezas. Planes returned at 0700 with report that no bandits seen, but that railroad bridge at kilometer 21 was burned out. ¶ 1200 Captain Wood, Lieutenant Darrah, Lieutenant Simmer (MC), Mr. R.R. Beardsley, civico, and 36 enlisted returned to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Telephone reports of looting of Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company’s Commissaries along the railroad line were received during the afternoon. ¶ 15 Apr Lieutenant Leonard Curcey arrived from Bluefields for duty. Lieutenant Benson, Lieutenant Curcey and 20 enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas at 0615 for reconnaissance of railroad line. Line was searched as far as Kilo 26. Several traces of bandits were seen. At Kilo 19, at a sharp turn in the track, an ambush had been laid. No bandits were in the vicinity and it was established that there were no bandits in the WAWA Boom-Puerto Cabezas Area. [...]"

4.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 4.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL, 1931. ¶ 15 Apr Two Marine Amphibians, Captain Johnson and Lieutenant Schrider, pilots, and Captain James P. Schwerin, GN, passenger, arrived from Bluefields. Captain Schwerin reported for duty as Department Commander. Two Marine Amphibians, Captain Johnson and Lieutenant Schrider pilots departed for Cabo Gracias. Returned and reported presence of bandits who were bombed. USS ASHEVILLE departed for Cabo Gracias. USS ROCHESTER and USS MEMPHIS arrived Puerto Cabezas. Landing force of one officer and thirteen (13) enlisted put ashore from MEMPHIS. ¶ 16 Apr Two marine Amphibians, Captain Johnson and Lieutenant Schrider, pilots departed for Bluefields, Capt Wood and Capt Riden, Passengers. USS ROCHESTER departed from Puerto Cabezas for HONDURAS. Lieutenant Darrah, Leiutenant Curcey and 25 enlisted departed for patrol of Railroad line. Returned with 21 prisoners who had robbed Commissaries. ¶ 17 Apr USS MEMPHIS departed Puerto Cabezas. Lieutenant CURCEY and 20 enlisted on Patrol of railroad line. USS LANGLEY and two plane guards arrived Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 18 Apr Lieutenant Darrah and 24 enlisted on patrol of Railroad line to Snaki bridge and return. ¶ 19 Apr Captain Orrel A. Inman arrived Puerto Cabezas aboard USS CONTESSA for duty. Lieutenant Curcey and twenty enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas for Yacal central to establish post from which to patrol the Railroad line. ¶ 20 Apr Sgt. Lazaro Guatemala and six enlisted on patrol of new railroad line and return to Puerto Cabezas. 15 enlisted arrived from Mang. ¶ 22 April Capain Inman, Lieutenant Darrah,Mr. R. R. Beardsley, civico, and twenty five enlisted departed Puerto Cabezas for patrol to Coco River. ¶ 24 Apr USS ROCHESTER arrived Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 25 Apr Captain Shwerin, Lieutenant Benson, and six enlisted on patrol of Railroad line and return. ¶ 26 Apr Lieut Simmer and three enlisted on medical inspection trip to Yacal central and return. ¶ 28 Apr Capain Inman, Lieutenant Darrah, Mr. R R Beardsley, civico, and eighteen enlisted returned from patrol of Saklin Cape Gracias Area. Captain Inman reported contact at Lecus River on 23 April. Bandit casualties 4 killed 3 wounded. Guardia Casualties: None. Guardia post of seven enlisted under First Sergeant Pablo Rivas M. 174, was established at Cabo Gracias by Captain Inman before his departure. ¶ 30 Apr Lieutenant Benson on patrol to Yacal and return. USS LANGLEY departed from Puerto Cabezas. [...]"

5.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 5.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL, 1931. ¶ 4. POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ Prisoner:- ¶ Total on hand confined as of last report 8 ¶ Total confined during period 35 ¶ Total released during period 14 ¶ Total remaining on hand, April 30, 1931 21 ¶ 5. INTELLIGENCE ¶ (1) The territory occupied is excited and perturbed and nervous. False reports of the presence of bandit groups are received from time to time, indicating the state of mind of the natives. ¶ (2) Military Situation: It is believed that the bandits who attacked Logtown and looted Commissaries in April have retired to the region of the Coco River west of Tilba Falls. One active enemy known to be in this Department is Adolfo Cockburn, Diputado Suplente of the Department of Cabo Gracias. This man was confined during March for suspected banditry was released. It is now know that he has been in communication with Sandino for some time and was one of the leaders of the Bandit movements on the Coco River. ¶ (3) The Economic situation in the Department of Northern Bluefields continues bad. The local merchants have felt the pinch and have appealed to the President for aid of some kind. ¶ (4) Friction between Guardia and civil population: NONE. ¶ (5) Political situation: Quiet. ¶ (6) The weather has been fair, hot and dry. It is believed that the rainy season is about to start. ¶ (7) Conditions of roads and trails: GOOD. ¶ (8) Condition of telegraph and telephone lines: No change. ¶ 6. AUXILIARIES No effort has been made to obtain Auxiliaries in this Department. ¶ 7. Civil POLICE It is expected that a local Civil Police Force will be established in May, 1931. ¶ 8. CIVICOS The Civicos in the Department of Northern Bluefields served continually for about 72 hours from 11 April to 14 April as the only armed force in Puerto Cabezas. Approximately 60 men offered their services, but lack of arms with which to arm them limited the effective force to 39 on duty at any one time. It is believed that these civicos may be relied on as a reserve for the defense of Puerto Cabezas. [...]"

6.     3 May 1931.
Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for April 1931, Capt. O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 6.   
"[...] Subject: Record of Events, Department of Northern Bluefields, for APRIL, 1931. ¶
9. CONFISCATED ARMS Rifles Shotguns Pistols Cutting ¶  Confiscated serviceable 0 0 4 0  ¶ Unserviceable 0 3 0 0 ¶  Confiscated previously 0 1 0 0 ¶  From Marines 0 0 0 0 ¶  Total arms confiscated on hand 0 4 4 0 ¶ 10. TRAINING ¶ No regular training was carried out in April, due to the absence of the larger part of the command on patrol and the establishment of the post at Yacal Central. It is believed that the conduct of the enlisted personnel in the combats of the past month demonstrated their ability in action, which was a favorable reflection on the training received in the past. ¶ 11. MISCELLANEOUS ¶ The remains of the Late Captain Harlen Pefley were shipped to the United States on the ss CEFALU which sailed from Puerto Cabezas on 15 April. ¶ (signed) O. A. INMAN ¶ FIRST ENDORSEMENT ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 6 May 1931 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. FORWARDED. ¶ (signed) C. A. WYNN"

4 May 1931.
Letter from David Haglund, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"Dear Bro. Gapp:- The letter I wrote from Kaurkira in Honduras you have received, I hope. Our plant to stay and work thee together with the Heath till we eventually would be able to return to Wasla, came to an end, for we were, as you know, sent for. Now we are here in Bluefields and we are thankful to be here. Gradually will also look like people again. Bro. Stortz lent me a coat yesterday so I could go to church till the taylor can get through. I suppose we have lost all we had in Wasla, for even if the Sandinistas did not take everything; which we do not know as yet; the house was broken up and is left open, one can understand what happens gradually where there is none to take care. The people are also so terrorized by the Sandinistas, that they do not dare to do anything to help the Missionary. The man who ran the engine for us on the trip when we escaped, wrote me afterwards that he has to quit the Wangks river, where he has wife and family, and return to Tasbapauni, for they are after to kill him for having enabled us to get out of their hands. ¶ We had hope to be able to stay with the Heaths for there is plenty of work; hoping to be permitted to go on furlough next year, now we do not know what will be decided about us. But we take everything as out of God’s hand. He who has spared or lives will lead us day by day. ¶ The family of Bregenzer arrived here Sund. Morning. But what pitiable condition they are in. But help is forthcoming from several sources, for the bluefields people are good Christians. The memorial service will be held this week Thursday. ¶ Personally I am much concerned for the Evangelista in the Wanks district; for they were under my care. There are conflicting stories as to the fate of Bro. Dannery Downs at BilwasKarma. One story has it that he was killed, another version is that he was flogged, (he was in bed sick with the small pox when they arrived there) and a third rumour has it that he was flogged so hard that he died from it afterwards. Personally I am inclined to believe the last; and it makes sad and worried to think of the faithful worker. I have written to Bro. Danneberger to try to find out something about him, for Bro. Danneberger stays still in Puerto Cabezas. Another Evangelist, Anayo Zelaya took his refuge to the bush. ¶ Whether or not he can stay there during the rainy season I do now know, but scarcely think so. A Spaniard, friend of mine one of the Sandinistas and yet loyal to use) came to see me in Kaurkira. I send some salt and powder to Anaya with him; for that would be the best and most useful thing for him if he has to stay for sometime in the bush. ¶ About the other two, Leopold Omier and Maivit I hear nothing, but they are more or less in safety in their respective places. Leo Mueller, who made his escape his escape together with us and Miss Kreitlow into Honduras, is now in Puerto Cabezas, as living is a little cheaper there than down here, he also has some of his relatives there who can help him to come through, if need be. ¶ What will become of this terrible movement is hard to say. Very little is done to stop it, and therefore it increases day by day. Only defenced [sic] places are secure at present, but they will not always be either; for inside such places are many of sympathizers, who in the moment of decision might turn the balance in favor of Sandino. We are bound to keep still at present. But if we should just mark time, or whether we should let those . . . "

4 May 1931.
Letter from David Haglund, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.  
". . . of our brethren who are due for furlough next year be going this year instead so as to have fresh workers when the time of restoration returns, is all a matter to be considered and determined upon in due time and place. Several of us think this would be the better move. ¶ That we are downcast and sorry to see the promising work in the Wangks river and in Musawas thus destroyed, I do not need to add. We do not know why the Lord suffers all this to happen, but neither may we despair. He will perfect us through suffering. We hope that a great harvest will once (more)be forthcoming from the field where now tears yes even blood is sown for HIS name’s sake. ¶ I shall try to make a scetch (sic) to indicate the way we made our escape into Honduras. ¶ Kindest regards from us all. ¶ Yours in HIS service. ¶ [signed] David Haglund"

1.  4 May 1931.
Intelligence Report on Activities of Sandino, Blandon, and Cockburn.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
"1. Captain O. A. Inman, GN, Department commander of Northern Bluefields, sent Mr. J.A. Fagot, the son of the most prominent American resident of Cape Gracias, to Bluefields to report information he had obtained when he was in Honduras , a fugitive from bandits who looted CAPE GRACIAS who were trying to capture him. ¶ 2. Mr. J.A. Fagot is a young man, married, fairly well educated, keen, alert and intelligent but most of the information contained herein, obtained from Mr. Fagot, is second hand, and a great amount of it is obviously the usual SANDINO propaganda. Mr. Fagot reported, substantially, the following: ¶ FAGOT met one MELLO SANZ [Ramiro Molla Sáenz] and had lengthy conversations with him on April 24, 1931, in Honduras. MELLO SANZ is a Spaniard who has come to this continent to walk from NEW YORK to BUENOS AIRES. He a writer and is preparing a book on SANDINO. FAGOT ‘S interview with SANZ took place in CARATASCA, HONDURAS. SANZ previously passed from DANLI to SANDINO’S headquarters, exact place unrevealed, the travel involved occupying twelve days, from DANLI. He arrived at the headquarters on April 10th 1931, and spent two and one half days (2-1/2) with SANDINO. SANDINO claimed to have Seventy-three (73) Military Divisions, a total of five thousand (5000) men”, that he was obtaining good supplies of ammunition, of German manufacture, from the Pacific seaboard; that his money comes from Bolshevist source; that he has an aeroplane landing field in NICARAGUA, near QUILALI on the COCO RIVER; that several of GENERAL MONCADA’S . . . "

2.  4 May 1931.
Intelligence Report on Activities of Sandino, Blandon, and Cockburn.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- ¶ old Generals are now coming over to enlist in SANDINO’S cause, notably General ESCAMILLA. SANDINO told SANZ that ADOLPHO COCKBURN holds a commission from SANDINO as a General. FAGOT states that this same statement came from WEBSTER to ABRAM MARTINEZ, (both well known on COCO RIVER), and to FAGOT. SANDINO directed SANZ to keep an eye on BLANDON and COCKBURN and RIVERA, during the course of their operations on the COCO RIVER and near PUERTO CABEZAS: that his orders to these jefes were to kill all Americans and destroy their property but to leave natives entirely alone. SANZ stated that he would communicate with SANDINO when he arrived in COSTA RICA on his way SOUTH, and that he intended to report unfavorably to SANDINO on the conduct of EAST COAST general especially with regard to COCKBURN and RIVERA; that these two parties have some kind of a private understanding between each other, and that all of the loot and plunder captured in the raids does not reach SANDINO that much of the stolen goods are in COCKBURN’S possession who is now selling the goods in a small store on the COCO RIVER. SANDINO’S plan required BLANDON to take PUERTO CABEZAS, after which PEDRO ALTAMIRANO’S column would reinforce BLANDON, via PIS PIS – SANT CRUZ trail; a third column would hereafter joint the forces from the COCO RIVER, and the entire, concentrated SANDINO force would then proceed down the EAST COAST, then RIO GRANDE DISTRICT and take BLUEFIELDS. After taking PUERTO CABEZAS, BLANDON was to report to SAKLIN and give instructions to RIVERA, who, by that time, would have taken CAPE GRACIAS. On April 28, 1931, FAGOT met NIEVES ALVAREZ, a resident of YAS, just below WASPOOK, on COCO RIVER. NIEVES ALVAREZ, a known SANDINO spy, stated that the reinforcements, three hundred (300) bandits, were then proceeding down the COCO RIVER. The leader of this force was not revealed. ¶ After ABRAM RIVERA was released from prison in BLUEFIELDS; he immediately associated himself with COCKBURN, and these two parties have been inconstant communication and activity, together for over one (1) year. A long conference between these two was held, just prior to RIVERA’S raid down the COCO RIVER in JANUARY 1931. The meeting took place at SAKLIN. After the Guardia patrol had finished its observation of the SAKLIN-COCO RIVER territory, COCKBURN immediately assumed executive powers, and actually changed one of the “Commandantes” on the river= FRANKling a negro, “FRANCIS”, who had been imprisoned with COCKBURN, as comandante of SAKLIN after forcing the old agent of police to leave. It was this action that caused an open break between COCKBURN and the GOVERNOR, CAPE GRACIAS."

3.  4 May 1931.
Intelligence Report on Activities of Sandino, Blandon, and Cockburn.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.  
". . . Becoming bolder, COCKBURN called reunions of the Indians (COCKBURN is well known as the “King of the Indians on the COCO RIVER) from ANDRES and KISALIYI districts, and made propaganda openly in favor of SANDINO. One Indian, “CLE…C” , inhabitant of SOUPCUCI, told FAGOT that the COCKBURN-RIVERA bandits had ransacked his house and assaulted his wife and went to BLANDON to protest. CLERMAC asked COCKBURN “How can these men be our brothers when they do these things?” COCKBURN is alleged to have consulted with BLANDON, who told COCKBURN to promise all of the Indians, as he did that in three days time, if all Indians would come over to the RAILROAD LINE, they would receive loot from PUERTO CABEZAS in ample quantity to reimburse them for any losses suffered on the COCO RIVER. COCKBURN and RIVERA were together almost constantly during the bandit raiding activities on the COCO RIVER, and COCKBURN aided them with supplies of cattle and feed. COCKBURN’S stores are the only ones on the entire lower stretch of the COCO RIVER that have never been touched in bandit raids. COCKBURN’S son, “JAMES” was recognized among the bandits who raided CAFÉ GRACIAS. RUFINO COLOMER, and Nicaraguan resident of KIMPKI, COCO RIVER, piloted the RIVERA bandits down the river, and now has some of the supplies taken from the radio office, CAPE GRACIAS, in his house. ¶ FAGOT states that MOLLO SANTE [Ramiro Molla Saenz] showed him a SANDINO map, whereon seventy-three (75), marks indicative of units of SANDINO forces located in various parts of NICARAGUA, were inscribed. There were five (5) such markers near MANAGUA. FAGOT attempted to obtain the map, but did not succeed. (signed) JOHN MARSTON"

1.     5 May 1931.
Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 1.  
"SUBJECT: Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April, 1931. ¶ 1. At 12.30 a.m., Sunday, 12 April, while the ROCHESTER was at Corinto, Nicaragua, a radio dispatch was received by me from Mr. Salassi, Manager of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Co. at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, reporting bandit activities and asking assistance. This was the first intimation of the trouble in that part of Nicaragua. I immediately requested Commander Second Brigade for such information as he might have, and directed the ASHEVILLE, then at Cristobal, to be prepared to sail at two hours notice. About 0600 Commander Second Brigade confirmed Mr. Salassi’s report, and I ordered the ASHEVILLE to proceed at once to Puerto Cabezas. She sailed somewhat before 10 o’clock, some nine hours after the first report of trouble. ¶ Meanwhile, on Saturday, 11 April, at Logtown, about 70 miles inland from Puerto Cabezas and located at the end of the railway line of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company, had occurred the first alarm. A clerk in the commissary of that company had discovered bandits approaching and telephoned the alarm. Three Americans were killed at this time in the vicinity of Logtown. In replying to the alarm given by telephone, Captain Harlan Pefley, U.S.M.C., and a squad of Guardia Nacional, and one civilian, William L. Selser, had proceeded up the railway. When near Logtown they were ambushed and Captain Pefley was killed and Selser mortally wounded. Later in the day, not far from Moss Farm, five other Americans, employees of the Lumber Company, were killed. At about 1800 Lieutenant Darrah, G.N., (Sergeant, U.S.M.C.), left Puerto Cabezas with all the remaining Guardia of the town and started after the bandits, who numbered about 100 under Pedro Blandon. On Sunday, April 12th, Lieutenant Darrah’s detachment was cut off from Puerto Cabezas by the bandits. So far as is known however, the Guardia was never in danger. There were two brief contacts that day, and the bandits robbed three commissary stores of the Lumber Company. Two Marine airplanes from Managua made contact with Darrah and bombed the bandits. . . . "

2.     5 May 1931.
Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
" . . . April 13-14. On April 13th Captain J.C. Wood, Guardia Nacional, arrived at Puerto Cabezas from Bluefields and took charge. With Lieutenant Zimmer, G.N., and four remaining members of the Guardia, he left Puerto Cabezas and succeeded in joining Darrah’s group. Puerto Cabezas was left in the hands of a civilian guard. During the day Captain Wood’s force attacked the bandits, who had occupied Logtown, and in a severe action killed Blandon and 18 other bandits. Marine planes maintained contact with Wood. Blandon undoubtedly had designs on Puerto Cabezas and had a total of some 150 men. Some of these men were already enroute to Cabezas and had a rendezvous with Blandon in the outskirts of the village. Blandon’s death either threw the entire operation into confusion or, lacking a leader, the various groups scattered and returned to the interior, taking with them large quantities of stores stolen from the commissaries. Captain Wood failing to make further contact with the bandits, returned towards Cabezas, avoided an ambush at Wawa Boom, and returned on the 14th to Cabezas by way of Wawa River. ¶ Conditions in Puerto Cabezas among the inhabitants on the 13th were greatly disturbed. The town was without protection except for a small number of Civicos who did not possess the confidence of her residents. Most of the American and other foreign inhabitants of the town gathered on the wharf, on the S.S. CEFALAU, and on the S.S. WAUNTA. The deaths at Logtown were known and there was great fear and excitement on all sides. Many women and children were present. About midnight of the 13th the ASHEVILLE arrived and the situation took a turn for the better. Her orders prevented her from landing a guard but she took an anchorage close to the wharf, turned on her searchlights, and trained her guns to sweep the bluffs. From this time on matters began to improve. Captain Wood’s force returned to Cabezas about noon on the 14th. The presence of the ASHEVILLE and this guard quieted the situation. There were no more bandits seen on this day. ¶ April 15th. On the 15th the Guardia again left Cabezas to go out against the bandits, and during their absence the ASHEVILLE now having received authority, landed its guard. No contacts were made on this day in the vicinity of Puerto Cabezas. A group of about 20 bandits had, however, proceeded down the Coco River, attacked Cape Gracias a Dios and looted some of the stores of this town. They were discovered by airplanes and bombed. . . ."

3.     5 May 1931.
Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 3.  
". . . From this time on, while bandits were occasionally reported at distant points, they were engaged in withdrawing in small groups into the interior, and the entire raid proved to be over. There is little doubt however that a considerable number of bandits remained in the neighborhood, and had it not been for the presence of the ASHEVILLE and the imminent arrival of the other vessels, there may have been other attacks. The MEMPHIS arrived in Puerto Cabezas at 0600 of the 17th of April and the ASHEVILLE left at once for Cape Gracias a Dios. ¶ 2. Throughout the above period and for some time thereafter correct information as to what was going on was almost impossible to obtain. The above report was gathered from all sources by Commander Special Service Squadron on his arrival the 20th. Even after that time there was no certainty as to the number killed or exactly who had been killed. Exaggerated reports in regard to the number of deaths and the conditions in various places were being circulated. As is always the case the facts were hard to establish. ¶ 3. The SACRAMENTO arrived at Bluefields at 0900 on the 17th. On April 19th there were many reports of the bandits concentrating at Saklin and at El Gallo. There undoubtedly was a concentration at Saklin but it seems to have been for the purpose of distributing stolen stores, and the bandits continued on up the river. A considerable number of bandits under Altamirano were heading towards El Gallo and Rama. The expedition against the bandits at Saklin under Captain Inman, G.N., who had arrived at Puerto Cabezas, and the one from Bluefields against El Gallo, were in the field at various times between 19 and 23 April, hunting the bandits. The only contact occurred on the 23rd when Captain Inman’s patrol had a short contact at the Lecus River in which four bandits were killed. During the absence of the Guardia from Puerto Cabezas and Bluefields the MEMPHIS and SACRAMENTO landed small detachments. ¶ The ROCHESTER arrived Bluefields at 0930 on the 19th and proceeded p the coast the same day to Puerto Cabezas, and later went to Cape Gracias a Dios. Commander Special Service Squadron landed at all these ports and interviewed various authorities and others ashore, and obtained much of the information set down above. Conditions ashore greatly improved at all . . . "

4.     5 May 1931.
Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 4.  

". . . points. Confidence was reestablished and work resumed along the railway from Puerto Cabezas on the 22nd. The LANGLEY arrived at Puerto Cabezas on the 22nd. The MEMPHIS was directed by the Department to proceed to the coast of Honduras on the 19th. Conditions on the coast remained quiet, and on the 127th Commander Special Service Squadron left Puerto Cabezas for Trujillo, Honduras. ¶ 4. I think it is well established that this raid by the bandits had been planned for some time. As a matter of fact one has occurred about this time of the year on previous year. The object of these raids seems to be to collect as many stores as possible in the Eastern part of Nicaragua and get them to the west before the rain starts, after which transportation is impossible. ¶ While general reply to the question as to whether there was any warning of the approach of the bandits was in the negative, I am sure that there was much information circulated as to their approach. No attention was paid to it because of the many false alarms at earlier times. ¶ The reason for the large number of deaths is still obscure, but the best opinion seems to be that a deliberate policy against the Americans had been adopted. There is no doubt that many others who were not Americans were killed for the reason that they were thought to be informers through which information had reached the Guardia. Many deaths were due to machete wounds and bodies were frequently badly cut up, and sometimes decapitated. As far as I know there are no reports of other mutilations. ¶ In the death of Blandon the bandits have, by common opinion, lost their best fighter. Sandino has not been, so far as is known, in any contacts in the year, and seems to purposely avoid fighting. ¶ The conduct of the officers and men of the Guardia reflects great credit on that organization, and this is the opinion of civilians as well as military. The men have fought well, stood up under fire, and the officers have led them bravely and intelligently. That Captain Pefley should have been ambushed as he was is one of the surprises of the raid. He was an excellent soldier much experienced in Nicaraguan fighting, and had a reputation of being one of the best, and his death is much regretted. I feel that Captain J.C. Wood, U.S.M.C., and Lieutenant Darrah, G.N.,did a most excellent piece of work about Logtown, . . . "

5.     5 May 1931.
Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 5.  
". . . and that this deserves recognition. They deserve credit for their bravery and very intelligent work. ¶ 5. I invite the Department’s attention to the fact that there are but 150 Guardia detailed to the entire eastern coast of Nicaragua. If my information is correct, the area which this small detachment has under its charge is about half the total area of Nicaragua. I know that the Commanding Officer of this area feels that he has an insufficient force to perform the duties assigned to him. My opinion agrees with this office and this distribution, compared with the number of men in the western area, seems inadequate. I think 50 to 75 men would be a sufficient increase. Should the Department feel itself able to take up this matter with the proper authorities with a view to an increase, I recommend that it be done. ¶ 6. Chronological record of events and list of casualties are attached for reference. ¶ [signed] A. ST. CLAIR SMITH"

6.     5 May 1931.
List of Foreign Civilians Killed Near Puerto Cabezas, addendum to Report of Operations on the East Coast of Nicaragua, April 1931.  A. St. Clair Smith, Commander Special Service Squadron, in Passage on USS Rochester from Puerto Castilla, Honduras to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to Chief of Naval Operations, Washington D.C., p. 6.

5 May 1931.
Request for recommendation, Corporal Henry A. McLean, Kentucky Farm, NCO in charge of Punta Gorda District, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields.  
"Subject: Recommendation ¶ Col. I understand that you are going away to your home. Col. I would like you to send a recommendation for me before you leave I would like you to give me this recommendation for the time I was serving with you as my commander I don’t know if my conduct is bad but if it is not bad I therefore ask for a recommendation because in later days I believed it will do me some good that’s why I would like to have a recommendation THANKS SIR (signed) ¶ RESPECTFULLY CORPORAL HENRY A. MC.LEAN G.N."

1.     6 May 1931.
Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the month of April 1931.  Capt. C. A. Davis, Bluefields, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.    
"6th. May 1931. ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Subject: Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the month of April 1931. ¶ A. PERIOD: Fro 0000 Wednesday 1 April 1931. ¶ To 2400 Thursday 30 April 1931. ¶ B. STRENGTH OF COMMAND: 7TH. COMPANY. ¶ Officers…….. 5 ¶ Enlisted……. 82 ¶ C. MILITARY OPERATIONS. ¶ 1. Apr. Sergeant HUNTER, Guillermo #985; Cabo BARRUEL, Santiago #981; Cabo RAMIREZ, Andres #980; Cabo MAIRENA, Saturnino #984; Raso MENDIOLA, Guillermo #978 and Raso RUIZ, Victor M. #979, discharged for Expiration of Enlistment. ¶ 2 Apr. Raso HODGSON, Edward #986 discharged for Expiration of Enlistment. Raso FUENTES, Enrique #2789 from duty at El Rama to Bluefields. ¶ 3 Apr. Captain SHAUGHNESSEY, Ernest E. to 30 days leave U.S.A. Cabo WILSON, Eddinton #2180 from duty at Bluefields to El Bluff, in charge. Raso NOGUERA, Eliseo #1990 from El Bluff to Bluefields for duty. ¶ 4 Apr. Raso FUENTE, Enrique #2789 from duty at Bluefields to El Rama. ¶ 5 Apr. Raso RAMIREZ, Carlos #3884 A.W.O.L. from 11 PM. April 4th. 1931. ¶ 6 Apr. Raso RAMIREZ, Calos #3884 from A.W.O.L. to confined awaiting action. Raso GUTIERREZ, Jose #2248 from confined on B&W. to A.W.O.L. this date. ¶ 8 Apr. Raso JUAN, Vidario #2429-discharged for Ineptitude by orders of the Area Commander. Raso ROBOTEAU,Renoldo #2968; Raso MARTINEZ, Bacilio #3174 and Raso MITCHELL, Grey #2847 from Bluefields to Rio Grande for duty. -1- [...]"

2.     6 May 1931.
Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the month of April 1931.  Capt. C. A. Davis, Bluefields, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] First Lieuenant Walter J. STONE, from Bluefields to El Gallo for duty. ¶ 10 Apr. Cabo GARCIA, Agustin #2318 and Cabo MCKENZIE, Gladstone #2792 promoted to Sergeants. Raso FUENTE, Enrique #789 promoted to Corporal. ¶ 11 Apr. Cabo HODGSON, Bertram #1005, discharged for Expiration of Enlistment. Sergeant CASANOVA, Constino #2701 transferred from 7th. Company to Hdqtrs. Det. E.A. Raso GUTIERREZ, Jose #2248 declared deserter as of April 5th. 1931. ¶ 12 Apr. Raso ARAGON, Medardo #1254 and Raso GUEBARA, Rosendo #2670, joined from 9th. Company. Sergeants GUATEMALA, Lazaro #3537 & TORUNO, Eduardo #1255 and Rasos BALE, Jose #3421; RIOS, Emeterio #3247 and Raso TEJADA, Emiliano #603, assigned to 7th. Company from 9th. Company, Temp. and transferred same date to 9th. Company. ¶ 13 Apr. 2nd. Lt. RIEWE, Fred reported Bluefields 1800 April 11th. For General Court Martial duty. ¶ 14 Apr. 2nd. Lt. CURCEY, Leonard, transferred from 7th. Co. to 9th. Co. ¶ Raso HODGSON, Orlando #1022 from El Gallo to Bluefields for duty. ¶ Raso GORGONA, Alejandro #3489 and Raso RIVERA, Flores #3113 from Rio Grande Bar to Bluefields for duty. ¶ 16 Apr. Cbo OPORTO, Apolonio #1019, and Raso HODGSON, Orlando #102, discharged for Expiration of Enlistment. Second Lt. RIEWE, Fred from duty at Bluefields to El Rama. 19 Apr. Sergeant DASH, Wilfred A. #960; Sgt. CHAMORRO, Cresencio #1652; Cabos BENDLIST, Benjamin #2793; MARTINEZ, Carlos #1849; NEWBALL, Nathaniel #2704; Trumpeters OLIVAREZ, Diego C. #1922 and RODRIGUEZ , Jesus #1835; Rasos AVALO, Mateo #3004; ALVAREZ, Eustacio #2273; CASTILLO, Francisco #1911; BOIK, Donasinio #2321; FUENTES, Bruno #2819; JOSEPH, Roosevelt #3172; LEZAMA, Humberto #2176; MORAZAN, Gonzalo #3340; WILLIAM, McKenley #2604; MANZANO, Santiago #3852; NOGUERA, Eliseo #1990; PEDRO, Regino #2444; RAMSEY, Thomas #2826; RENOS, Sipriano #3227; TEJADA, Maximo #3033; TORRES, Pedro #3738 VARGAS, Eliseo #2130; GORGONA, Alejandro #3489; and Raso RIVERA, Flores #3113, from Bluefields to El Gallo for duty. ¶ 28 Apr. Sergeant DASH, Wilfred A. #960; Sgt. MCKENZIE, Gladstone #2792; Sgt. CHAMORRO, Cresencio #1652; Trumpeters OLIVAREZ, Diego C #1922 and RODRIGUEZ, Jesus #1835; Rasos AVALO, Mateo #3004; LEZAMA, Humberto #2176; VARGAS, Eliseo #2130;MORAZAN, Gonzalo #3340; CASTILLO, Francisco #1911. -2- [...]"

3.     6 May 1931.
Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the month of April 1931.  Capt. C. A. Davis, Bluefields, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] RIVERA, Flores #3113; GORGONA, Alejandro #3489; WILLIAMS, McKenley #2604; RAMSEY,Thomas #2826; MANZANO, Santiago #3852; BOIK,Donasinio #2321; and Raso REGINO, Pedro #2444 from duty at El Gallo to Bluefields. ¶ 29 Apr. 2nd. Lt. STEPHENSON, Theodore M. joined from Mangua, April 28th. ¶ Rasos ACDANA, Rodolfo #2485;Raso DAVILA, Lubas #2191; DIAZ, Francisco #2561; FLORES, Gregorio #2632; FLORES, Federick #2828; GONZALES, Camilo #2870; MALTEZ, Isidro #1600; MARTINEZ, Eulalio 3646; FRANCO, Carlos #3512; QUINTERO, Pedro #3847; CUBILLO, Joaquin #3670; MARTINEZ, Salomon #3556 and Raso CRUZ, Gregorio #92; joined from Granan ato 7th. Company. LA CRUZ AND EL GALLO. ¶ 11 Apr. Raso HODGSON, Orlando #1022, cleared El Gallo to Bluefields. ¶ Cabo GARCIA, Agustin #2318 from El Gallo to Rio Grande Bar, in charge. ¶ First Lieutenant STONE, Walter J. Cabo VEGA, Benjamin, Raso BURNS, David, Raso MCDONALD, Cladious cleared El Gallo for Pan American and returned same day. ¶ 14 Apr. Leiutenant STONE, Walter J. and Raso MCDONALD, Cladious #2345, to La Cruz and returned same date. ¶ 19 Apr. Raso CALDERON, Erasmo #2343 cleared for Tungla, Raso MARTINEZ, Alejandro #2131 cleared for San Pedro. ¶ 20 Apr. 1st. Lt. DAVIS, Chester A. and 2nd. Lt. CASPERONIS, with Twenty-seven guardias, arrived from Bluefields to El Gallo. ¶ 21 Apr . 1st. Lt . DAVIS, Chester A. and 1st. Lt. STONE, Walter J. to La Cruz and returned same date. ¶ 25 Apr. 2nd. Lt. CASPERONIS, John P. and 2nd. Lt. LYNCH, Thomas M. (MC) and seventeen enlisted cleared El Gallo for Bluefields. PUNTA GORDA. Weekly patrols up and down the river. All quiet. EL RAMA. Patrols covered Rio Escondido, Rama, Siquia and Mico, weekly., All quiet. B. POLICE OPERATIONS. 1. Prisoners Total on hand last report….31 ¶ Total confined during month….33 ¶ total released during month..32 ¶ total escaped during month.. 0 total ¶ remaining on hand 28 ¶ 2. Good.
¶ -3- ¶ 1. General state of territory occupied, Quiet. ¶ 2. No known bandits in this Department. ¶ 3. Economic condition – Depressed. ¶ 4. Friction between civil population and the Guardia – None. ¶ 5. Civil attitude towards the Guardia – Good. ¶ 6. Political situation – Quiet. ¶ 7. Weather – extremely dry. ¶ 8. Condition of roads and trails . Fair. ¶ 9. Telegraph and telegraphic communications – No change. F. CONFISCATION OF ARMS. 1 Shotgun.- District of La Cruz 1 Revolver – District of La Cruz. 1 Revolver 38 Spec. District of El Rama. G. TRAINING. Instruction and training carried out per schedule. (signed) C.A. Davis [...]"

1.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 1.  
[NOTE:  First are three images of a photocopy of the Spanish-language original, followed by three images of the English translation.]   "Muy estimado Señor: -- Reposa en mi poder su muy apreciable con fecha del 28 del mes próximo pasado de cuyo contenido he tomado la debida nota. ¶ Quedo entendido de que por circunstancias imposibles según su carta la Guardia no está en condición de ayudarme a reparar mi Casa recientemente dañada por los Aeroplanos que con motivo de la invasión bandolera en este Puerto se hizo necesario tomar las medidas de bombardeo como un medio de combatirlos y como un caso natural mi casa desgraciadamente sufrio. ¶ De todo lo que Ud manifiesta en su muy apreciable lo encuentro en orden y me abriga la esperanza de que Ud General Matthews en su debida fecha me ayudara ante el supremo Gobierno a fin de lograr obtener el valor del daño causado. ¶ Fue una bendición del cielo en que yo y mi familia nos encontrásemos en otra casa de lo contrario hubiéramos perecido ya que somos 10 de familia de los cuales hay siete niños siendo el mayor de 10 años, yo de mi parte diré de que en casos como estos no le parece a ud se le debería dar algo aviso a los no-combatientes a fin de salir de sus Casas? En este último caso encontrándose los Bandoleros en esta ese día, hubieran los Aeroplanos acabado con ellos sin haber tenido que lamentar pérdidas de vida de ningún género más que el completo aniquilamiento de los bandidos. En fin esto es nada más que una idea mía que talvez no mereciera atención. ¶ La situación de esta Comarca es lamentable sin comunicación de ninguna parte sin Radio porque la Estación fue dañada se empeora cada vez mas sin poder ver un linativo que venga a mejorarla, este Puerto siempre ha tenido vida propia ya que cuenta con toda clase de productos que se extraen del gran Rio Coco Segovia, pero hoy dada la gran amenaza que existe el Comercio desapareció ya no existe ninguna empresa sobre el rio, y el Puerto se encuentra completamente muerto, para darle major idea diré de que la Aduana le producía al Gobierno antes que llegase el bandolerismo alrededor de cinco mil córdobas mensuales, fuera de las otras entradas de rentas internas etc etc, pero hoy las entradas son casi nulas y hablando con el Sr. Administrador de Aduanas dice que apenas llegan a $300.00 que le parece? La Nicaraguan Products Corporation que mantenía un Vapor bi-semanal a este Puerto con el de Mobile U.S.A. y que ha sido la única empresa de darle incremento al banano en este Rio abandonó este hermoso trabajo que le daba pan a todas las gentes del Rio y de este Puerto y que esperaba engrandecer dicho comercio que significaría entre dos años el Puerto por donde se sacaría más Banano dada la circunstancia de . . .

2.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 2.  
[Photocopy of Spanish-language original, p. 2.]     " . . . Gral. Matthews No 2. ¶ Que hay tan Buenos terrenos para ese fin en esa Comarca, como dejo dicho abandonaron todos sus trabajos y pararon todas sus operaciones, lo cual como manifiesto es de lamentarse. ¶ El Otro día escribí al Sr. J. B. Eccleston Presidente de dicha corporación en Nueva York, sobre varias cosas, y en contestación me decía de que la Corporación daría con gusto a la Guardia Nacional mensualmente la cantidad de $150.00 y hasta más, si mantuviese en el Pueblo de Waspook un destacamento de guardias, con un Jefe Competente. ¶ Para que Ud obtenga una idea estratégica de este lugar (de Waspook) diré de que la Boca de Waspook es el mismo lugar que los Marinos Americanos ocuparon durante todo el tiempo que estuvieron persiguiendo a Sandino por el hecho que es el cruce de Caminos para casi todas partes, es decir para los Minerales de Pis Pis, para la frontera Hondureña, para el Cabo y para sobre el rio Arriba es pues la llave para la trepada sobre el Rio, para la Bajada no solo del Rio Coco sino del Waspook, y Pis Pis. ¶ Hasta ese Lugar en todo tiempo el rio es Navegable para embarcaciones de Gasolina consta de 190 millas de este Puerto y ya habido casi comunicación antes de la invasión y paralización completa, además como Ud sabrá las invasiones a Puerto Cabezas bajan por allí también de tal manera que como dejo dicho es la llave de todo este territorio bajo. ¶ Con el establecimiento de esta Guardia allí, reanudarían los negocios y se gozaría de complete garantía y paz para seguir adelante todas la empresas y volver las cosas a su estado normal a como estaban antes. Además estoy seguro de que otros comerciantes ayudarían con gusto a la Guardia con cantidades considerables, lo he hablado con algunos de ellos y muestran su satisfacción. ¶ Las gentes casi todas ha abandonado sus hogares y sus propiedades algunas familias han salido del pais, en la calamidad mas grande, y otras viven en otros lugares remotos logrando así escaparse de estos señores. ¶ El Radio no fue en su totalidad destruido pues conversando el otro día con el oficial del Barco Americano Asheville, me manifiesto de que después de haberlo inspeccionado cuidadosamente, con mil dólares menos que mas, se podía reparar a como estaba, que los destruido eran partes pequeñas, de tal manera pues ya ve Ud que con poco podremos tener de Nuevo la comunicación debida con todas partes del Mundo. Esta empresa como Ud sabrá es de la Tropical Radio subsidiaria de la United Fruit Company y al parecer como que no piensan hacer nada con ella ya que no muestran ningún interés no obstante de que tienen un contrato con la nación. El Puerto ya se siente un poco más tranquilo por el hecho de . . ."

3.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 3.  
[Photocopy of Spanish-language original, p. 3.]   "Gral. Matthews. No. 3 ¶ . . . que tenemos siete guardias resguardando el Puerto aunque mi estimado General son bien pocos, debe Ud de acordarse que este es un puerto de entrada Mundial y el Puerto abastesedor de este gran Rio Coco Segovia. ¶ Como uno de los tantos accidentes é incidentes que hubieron cuando los Bandoleros tomaron este Puerto diré de que se les escuchó decir que permanecerían en esta 4 días porque esperaban un barco cargado de Armas, y se cree verdad porque por varios días antes que llegasen por la noche se miraba un Barco hacienda señales en alta mar y a vista de este Puerto. Mas desde que se acercaron los Barcos de la Armada Americana desapareció dicho barco misterioso y yo entre muchos de la localidad se lo manifestamos al Almirante Smith del Barco Rochester. ¶ Me he permitido darle estas humildes recomendaciones o mejor dicho datos, que talvez le sean útiles, ruégole general perdonarme caso de que dichos datos no le sean interesantes, más si quiere otros le recomendaría se entrevistase con el Sr. Representante de la Comarca Dr. Don Juan Bautista Lacayo quien ha vivido muchos años en esta y conoce todos estos lugares, mas si pudiese ser útil en algo, sabe que me tiene a sus órdenes y que tendría gusto ayudarle en su labor tan grande y meritoria para Nicaragua. ¶ Ya desde que llegaron los siete Números de la Guardia estuve a ver al Sr Sargento y le ofrecí todas mis embarcaciones de motores sin costarle a la Guardia un centavo, caso los necesite. ¶ Sí, le ruego caso de serle útil mis indicaciones he datos tomarlas como un motivo personal mío para Ud y no para darles publicidad por circunstancias que Ud conoce ya que nos encontramos aun amenazados. ¶ Agradeciendo los conceptos de su carta citada, y rogándole me de aviso el momento oportuno para presentar mis reclamos soy del honorable señor General, su muy Atto. Y S.S. ¶ Manuel C y Bordas."

4.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 4.  
[Photocopy of English translation, p. 1.]   "My dear sir: ¶ Your kind letter of the 28th ult., of which I have taken due notice is in my hands. ¶ I understand that through impossible circumstances, according to your letter, the Guardia is not in condition to help me in repairing my recently damaged house caused by the airplanes which due to the bandit invasion in this harbor it was necessary to adopt the measure of bombarding as a means to fight them and of which naturally my house unluckily, suffered. ¶ I found correct all you expressed in your kind letter but I have the hope that you will help me when the time comes to obtain from the Government the value of the damages done. ¶ It was a blessing that I and my family were in another house otherwise we would have perished as our family is of ten members seven of which are children the eldest being of 10 years of age. For my part I would say in cases like this, don’t you think so, that notice should be given to non-combatants in order that they be able to evacuate their houses? In this last case while bandits were in town that day, the planes would have annihilated them without having lamented loss of lives of any kind but the complete annihilation of the bandits. Though this is nothing but my opinion which may not deserve attention. ¶ The situation of this comarca is lamentable; without communication to any part; without radio as the radio Station was damaged; this situation gets still worse without a help to come to improve it. This harbor has always had its own means of living as it counts with all kind of products extracted from the Great River Coco of Segovia , but trade is at an end at present through the existing threat. There is not any enterprise up the river, and the harbor is absolutely dead; to give you a better idea I would say that the Aduana had produced the Government up to five thousand cordobas monthly, this before the reaching of banditry here, and outside the internal government rents, but today the revenues are almost nulled [sic] and speaking with the administrator of the Custom House he says that the revenues amount only to $300.00. What do you think of this?- ¶ The Nicaragua Products Corporation which runs a steamer twice a week between this harbor and that of Mobile U.S.A. and which is . . ."

5.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 5.  
[Photocopy of English translation, p. 2.]   ". . . The Corporation that has given protection encouraged the Banana business along this River, left cancelled this trade through which a great number of people were able to make their living. There were hopes of enlarging this trade which in two years to come (would) have made this harbor the leading banana harbor due to the fact that there are good lands for planting bananas in this Comarca; as I said before, this Company ceased its operations which I say is lamentable. ¶ I wrote the other day to Mr. J. B. Eccleston, President of the referred Corporation, in New York, on several subjects, and in reply he say (said) that the Corporation is willing to give $150.00 and more to the Guardia Nacional, if a detachment was established at the town of Waspook, under a competent chief. ¶ In order that you have an idea an estrategic idea of that place (Waspook) I remind (you) that the Mouth of Waspook is the same place which the Marines occupied during the time they (pursued) Sandino due to the fact that it is the crossing of main roads, that is to say, to the Mines of Pis Pis, to the borders of Honduras, to Cape Gracias and up the River Coco, is the key to travel up the River, and down the River not only of River coco but also of the Waspook and Pis Pis. ¶ Up to that place and in all seasons the river can be navigated, in gasoline boats; it is of 197 miles from this harbor and communication was maintained before the invasion and complete paralization [paralysis]; besides, as you already may know, the excursions to Puerto Cabezas also come down through there and therefore, as I have stated this place is the key to all this territory. ¶ With the establishment of the Guardia there business would be started again and complete guarantee and peace would be enjoyed and prosecute of all enterprises and return things to a normal situation as was before. I am sure that the other merchants will be pleased to help the Guardia in considerable amounts, (I) have spoken same with some of them and they expressed their satisfaction. ¶ Most of the people have evacuated their homes and their properties; some of the families have left the country, in a real poverty, and others live in far places managing to escape these gentlemen. ¶ The Radio was not totally disrupted as talking the other day with an officer of the American ship Ashville, he told me that after having examined it carefully, he found that it would take a thousand dollars, more or less, to repair it and that small parts were damaged. You see how we could have again with (a) little, communication with all parts of the world. This enterprise as you know belongs to the Tropical Radio (and) is (a) subsidiary of the United Fruit Company and it seems that nothing will be done toward repairing this end (sic) in spite that they have a contract with the Government. [...]"

6.     6 May 1931.
Letter from Manuel C. y Bordas, Nicaraguan Products Corporation, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, p. 6.  
"[...] The harbours feels easier with the fact of having seven guardias guarding the harbor, though my dear General, they are very little. You must bear in mind that this is a World harbor and the distributing harbor of the Coco River. ¶ As one of the so many accidents and incidents there resulted when the bandits took this harbor I can say that it was said by the bandits that they would remain here four days as they were waiting for a ship loaded with arms, and is believed to be true as several days before their arrival a ship was seen during the night making signals at high sea and before this harbor. But since the warships of the United States arrived and the mysterious ship disappeared and several persons of the locality have referred same to Admiral Smith of the Rochester. ¶ I have permitted myself to submit to you these recommendations better to say, information which may be of use to you, please excuse me if such information is not of interest to you; but in case you desire others I would recommend you to interview the representative of the Comarca Dr. Don Juan Bautista Lacayo who have lived here for many years and knows all these places. If I can be of use to you, I am at your disposition as I will be greatly pleased to help you in your great and meritorious work in benefit of Nicaragua. ¶ Since the arrival of the seven number of the Guardia, I called to see the Sergeant of the Guardia and offered him my boats without any cost to the Guardia, (in) case they (are) needed. ¶ Case my indications are of any use to you please take it as personal confidential and do not publish same for circumstances you know as we are still threat(ened). ¶ Thanking you for the contents of your mentioned letter, and requesting you to notify me (at) the time opportune for my claim, I remain, Respectfully, Manuel C. y Bordas"

6 May 1931.
"Parrafos de una carta escrita por el Juez del Distrito de Cabo Gracias a Dios, Don Moisés García, al Magistrado Dr. Carlos A. Morales."   
"PARRAFOS DE UNA CARTA ESCRITA POR EL JUEZ DEL DISTRITO DE CABO GRACIAS A DIOS, DON MOISES GARCIA URBINA AL MAGISTRADO DR. CARLOS A. MORALES ¶ Le participo que (quizás ya lo sepan Ustedes, pero no es malo repetirlo) según carta que del pueblo de Caratasca un amigo nicaragüense escribió a un vecino de esta Comarca, el General Ferrera, el general Arturo Ordoñez y el coronel Federico Ordoñez a la cabeza de cuatrocientos hombres que fueron derrotados por el Gobierno de Colindres, se internaron a nuestro territorio y se han incorporado al sandinismo. ¶ Aquí seguimos amenazados por los sandinistas; ahora se está rumorando que vuelven en estos días. En Puerto Cabezas los esperan y se están fortificando; pero aquí solo tenemos seis guardias al mando de un sargento salvadoreño, número que no es suficiente para detener y hacer frente a una invasión de esos hombres que siempre llegan en número considerable, y por eso estoy preocupado temiendo por la suerte que correré con mis hijas. Si mi situación no fuera tan difícil quizás ya me habría marchado de aquí para no estar en esta intranquilidad. ¶ Usted que es atendido del General Moncada, influya con él, para que haciendo un supremo esfuerzo, dedique un poco su atención a esta porción de la Republica. La gente se está muriendo de hambre porque después de que todo es muy caro, su único patrimonio (la venta de banano) ha terminado porque el bandolerismo les impide hacer ese negocio, porque no hay embarcación que se atreva a navegar en el Rio Coco. ¶ Y pensar que tan fácil que es evitar las invasiones sandinistas con solo, como dije a Usted en mi carta anterior, poner 25 guardias con dos máquinas en Waspuck al pie de los raudales y diez guardias y dos máquinas en este puerto . Con esos destacamentos no podrán pasar a Puerto Cabezas ni llegar aquí y si por un caso extraordinario sucediera, serian repelidos y estarían garantizados vecinos y propiedades. Esto también proporcionaría el poder batirlos en las Segovias y quizás sería fácil coparlos porque no tendrían ninguna salida, si se excepciona el lado de Honduras, pero no por estos lados. ¶ La Nación también saldría gananciosa porque las rentas aduaneras aumentarían. Figúrese que en tiempos normales esta Aduana producía C$4,000.00 mensuales por término medio y ahora solamente da C$400.00 y es así, porque no hay negocio que hacer, con la única renta del banano cegada."

6 May 1931.
Letter from S. W. W. Amiss, Assistant to the Vice President, Standard Fruit & Steamship Co., New Orleans LA, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields.   
"May 6, 1931 ¶ Colonel John Marston, ¶ Commander, Eastern Area, ¶ Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nicaragua. Dear Sir: ¶ Mr. R.J. Salassi, our local manager at Puerto Cabezas, addressed you under date of April 22nd, extending congratulations to you as commander of the Guardia Nacional, Eastern Area, for the prompt and efficient manner in which your local forces successfully repulsed the bandit attack against our people and property in Nicaragua. We also wish to express our appreciation and congratulations to you, your officers and men for the good work accomplished in the face of heavy odds. ¶ We feel that it will not be long before you will have the situation completely in hand, and that Puerto Cabezas will feel at ease to resume its peaceful activities for the welfare of the east coast. ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ (signed) S.W.W. Amiss ¶ Assistant to Vice President."

1.  7 May 1931.
Meeting Minutes, D. Haglund, H. H. Stortz, G. R. Heath, Moravian Church, Bilwi (?), to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"An informal conference was called by Brother Shimer, the Acting Superintendent and Warden, on Thursday morning, May 7th, 1931. This conference was called in order to discuss the matters and problems which are confronting our work in Nicaragua at this present time and also to see whether a solution for same could not be found. ¶ Brother Shimer presided at the Conference. The opening hymn was No. 487. The lesson was read from Ezra 8. The daily texts were also read and Brother Shimer led in prayer. The conference was attended by the Brethen Shimer, Heath, Haglund, Bishop, Wolff, Palmer and Stortz and by Sisters Heath, Kreitlow, Bade, Haglund and Bishop. ¶ The Warden stated that plans for the carrying on of the work had been made but due to the existing conditions these plans had gone awry. So at present it is hard to say what to do and how to do it. That we were gathered to express our opinions and from these opinions the P.B. and also the S.P.G. would be able to formulate plans for future work. That we are unable as an informal conference to take any action but that by expressing our opinions a solution might be possible to these problems. ¶ Bro. Bishop expressed his opinion that the Wangks River district, Wasla, Sangsangta, etc., were unsafe for the present, but that from private conversations he had had he thought that Karawala, Bilwi, Kaurkira, Cape and Yulu were safe; that it might be possible to work the Wangks district from Bilwi. ¶ Bro. Heath also expressed the opinion that the Wangks district was unsafe. His reason was that Wasla was so situated that it was almost impossible to get away. Also BilwasKarma was in the trail of the Sandinistas. ¶ At this point Brother Wolff raised the question whether or not our going away was a benefit to the Indians; also if we would return whether we might not endanger them. If we would return they would have to care for us and by so doing might incur the anger of the Sandinistas. He had heard that the Sandinistas had already threatened to do harm to the Tuberus Indians were they to have anything to do with the missionaries. Brother Haglund said in this connection that this was so because he had heard from one of his Wasla Indians that the bandits were opposed to the teaching of God’s work. He also told that the Indians were very reluctant in giving information. He said he knew that one of his Indians knew some of the deeds committed by the Sandinistas but that he was afraid to divulge them because the Sandinistas had threatened to kill them if they would give away or tell to anyone their deeds. ¶ Bro. Heath also stated that much misunderstanding was due to finances as well, but that he would take up that point later. ¶ Bro. Haglund also told how the bandits sought their information by sending out spies, that they are out to get what they are after; that this being the case, if they fail in their first efforts they will change their tactics until they get their man. As an example he cited the capture and murder of Cubano, a Spaniard on the Wangks river. ¶ Bro. Heath then said from the discussion he took it that so far as things go now the Brethren and Sisters thought that it would be possible to carry on the work at Puerto Cabezas, Cabo Gracias and to carry on as far as possible the work on the Wangks and Sandy Bay districts from Bilwi. Bro. Wolff said that Karawala should be included in this list of stations which could be manned, it being said that according to the position of Karawala it would be easy to keep in touch with the movements of the bandits. ¶ Bro. Haglund then gave us his idea on persecution and also concluded his resume by stating that he did not consider the actions of the Sandinistas as persecution but that of murder. . . . "

2.  7 May 1931.
Meeting Minutes, D. Haglund, H. H. Stortz, G. R. Heath, Moravian Church, Bilwi (?), to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.  
". . . Page 2. ¶  Bro. Palmer also gave a lengthy discourse on caution and also his views on the present situation. ¶ Bro. Wolff then showed the danger that small places would have to undergo now. Stating that the Sandinistas’ efforts had been frustrated in their attempts on the large towns, they would not put their efforts on small towns. ¶ Bro. Haglund raised the question as to whether Kaukira would be safe. Would it be possible to serve the Wangks district from there? ¶ Bro Heath said, according to the information he had, Kaukira was not in the direct route of the Marauders. So on this account he thought they were not in danger. Other people also had told him the same. But a great deal depended on the purpose of the Sandinistas. If their purpose was to clear the field of leaders, he thought there was no danger. But if the bandits had Bolshevistic views and meant to carry out such views, then Kaurkira was by no means a safe place. For that matter then no place in the danger zone was safe. He stated that the Caratasca Lagoon was rough and thus in case of danger then the lagoon was rough escape from within, as well as from without, was impossible. He also stated that the Mission premises were so situated that anybody could come in on them without their knowledge. He gave an illustration of this very thing, how a man did come in this manner. In this connection the Honduranian revolution was mentioned. Bro. Heaths aid he had been assured that this would not affect the section of Honduras where the mission station is built, outside the fact that new officials would be coming to take charge. Rumor had it that Sandino had a hand in the Honduras revolution but this cannot be confirmed. The speaker also stated that in case of trouble Kaukira would be isolated. A schooner could get there direct from Bilwi, cleared for Iriona. He stated that if the missionaries were hated and the Sandinistas really wanted to get the missionary they could easily do so. ¶ The question then arose about the Cape. In this connection it was pointed out, especially from the experience of the last invasion, that it was easy for the Sandinistas to make an invasion and also that it was difficult to get away from Cabo Gracias. Bro. Haglund pointed out that now the bandits would take more precautions and wherein they failed once they would not fail again. It was also pointed out that Mr. Lester, the wireless operator, had made his escape by way of the sea, but that it was during the calm weather. Now that rough weather is coming escape by sea would be more difficult than in any other season. ¶ Another detail mentioned was the Acting Chief of Police at the Cape, and also now Acting Governor, was a Sandino sympathizer and that he was a bad man, that unless a strong national Guard were placed there and unless the wireless apparatus would be repaired the Cape at present is not safe. ¶ The Old Cape was mentioned. It was pointed out that if the Sandinistas desired to get the missionary they could easily do so before the missionary would be able to get away, as it is possible for them to come overland by way of Ispail Watla, this being on the Wangks river and about one hour’s walk from the Old Cape. The danger of spies was also mentioned in this connection. ¶ The conclusion was then drawn by the Warden that from all this talk the Wangks district could not be served, not even from the Cape, due to the fact that the Cape people did not know the happenings up the river, and were the missionaries to serve the Wangks from the Cape they might run into danger. So the Wangks district would have to be served as best it could from Bilwi, that the Cape also at present was not safe. It would therefore seem that the Coast could only be served and manned from Puerto Cabezas south. ¶ The matter of church dues was also brought up at this time. Brother heath suggested that S.P.G. should be notified that changes in regard to the collection of church . . . "

3.  7 May 1931.
Meeting Minutes, D. Haglund, H. H. Stortz, G. R. Heath, Moravian Church, Bilwi (?), to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 3.  
"[...] 3. dues should be made. He stated the following reasons: ¶ 1. Most of the Indians do not know why they pay it and it is hard to explain it to them. 2. ¶ On account of this trouble we are accused of getting money out of the Indians. (This wording is incorrect. The Sandinistas are accusing us of robbing the Indians. C.C.S.) He stated that a Sandinista said that collections and freewill offerings were not opposed by that taxes imposed like church dues did meet with their disapproval. Brother Heath mentioned the case of Allan Mueller who was not killed as he was keeping services but was not receiving any money from the Indians. ¶ 3. An attempt was made by Bishop Hamilton and Bishop Hennig to make a distinction between native funds and foreign contributions, but this is not known. The distinction is merely on the account books. ¶ Bro. Heath then suggested that we put the paying of church dues on a voluntary basis. Then it would be clear that the church dues are not used to pay the foreign missionary. ¶ 4. He stated that some way should be devised of putting the church dues under the direct management of the local church committee. He proposed further that in some form or other the Southern District Conference be convoked as soon as possible without regard to the financial conditions laid down in the Book of Order. ¶ In this connection it was also mentioned about the salaries paid to our ”own” evangelists, that the money collected from the field should be used to pay them. The Warden stated that there was no distinction made on his books, that he takes all money received as given for the work, regardless of who gives it. ¶ In regard to the evangelists it was said that there are some on the field and in hiding, and as they are in hiding and are risking their lives and unable to work, it were better for them to return home until danger is past. This was said by Brother Haglund in regard to Dannery Downs, Ignatius Maibit and Anaiyo. ¶ Brother Shimer said that due to all this discussion it were best for Bro. Danneberger to come to Bluefields to discuss these matters. ¶ Bro. Heath thanked Bro. Shimer for the stand he takes in regard to Spanish being taught in the schools. He suggested that as it is not possible to make abrupt changes at once in the schools that at least the Spanish Alphabet should be used whether English is taught or not, also that Arithmetic should be taught in Spanish. This also is to apply to Bluefields. ¶ This informal conference was brought to a close by the singing of Hymn 486, prayer by Brother Wolff and the benediction. ¶ (signed) H.H. Stortz, ¶ Secretary"

4.  7 May 1931.
Meeting Minutes, D. Haglund, H. H. Stortz, G. R. Heath, Moravian Church, Bilwi (?), to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 4.  
". . . The brethren Danneberger, Haglund, Heath, Stortz, Wilson, Wolff and the Sisters Danneberger, Haglund, Heath met on Monday morning June 1st for in informal consultation about the present acute emergency in our Mission Province. Bro. Shimer was invited, but was prevented from being present; and Br. Palmer was out of town. ¶ It was felt strongly that our Indian congregations have never understood and to not now understand our financial arrangements, particularly our system of so-called Church Dues; and that the Mission has been seriously slandered on that account. The brethren Haglund, Stortz and Heath were appointed as a committee to look into this matter and make suggestions to P.B. and S.P.G. ¶ The Committee’s findings were as follows: ¶ 1. We recommend, through P.B., that in our Indian congregations NO collection of any sort should be made in connection with the Communion; and that the wine be pad for out of the Local Congregation count. When a Poor Fund is needed we suggest that the offerings at the Public service on Communion Sunday could be for the poor. ¶ 2. We earnestly urge that arrears of Church Contributions (“Mani Lalaka”—be NOT counted as debts from year to year; further, that no member be kept back from Communion for non-payment. Persistent delinquents might be disciplined by depriving them of the right to attend or vote at Congregation Council meetings. ¶ 3. However, we are convinced that the whole system of Church Contributions needs radical alteration. We recommend that early in the New Year a Congregation Council be called, at which each member is asked to make a voluntary assessment for the year. It would be specially important that the minister, evangelist, or other official worker should assess himself along with the rest. The amount promised might be collected in quarterly installments, payable preferable at Quarterly Congregation Council meetings. ¶ 4. We most earnestly urge that all Church Contributions be used only to support Indian work; and that our provincial Accounts and Local Station Accounts be made to show this. And to this end we suggest that this money, AS WELL AS THE SUNDAY COLLECTIONS, be entirely at the disposal of the local congregation acting through its church committee; and that out of the Local Church Funds gathered by collections, voluntary annual assessment, or any other means, the congregation make a substantial grant each year towards an Indian Workers’ Fund, out of which our Indian evangelists (cathechists), teachers, and eventually ministers, should be paid. ¶ 5. We realize that if our suggestion is accepted, we would not able for the first year or two to make any estimate as to the probably result. ¶ 6. If our suggestion be accepted, changes would have to be made in our Book of Order, Brotherly Agreement, and Annual Account Blanks. ¶ 7. We strongly urge that under no circumstances whatever should dues be requested or charged for ecclesiastical rites, as Baptism, Marriage and Burial; but voluntary offerings may always be accepted and should be included in the Local Church Funds mentioned above. (It should be observed that actually in our Indian congregations such fees as are referred to have rarely been charged. ) NOTE. The above recommendations apply to the Indian congregations from Quammtla northward; and also to the Karawala pastoral charge if this should not be included in the Southern District. ¶ Signed: D. Haglund H.H. Stortz G.R. Heath"

1.  7 May 1931 (0800).
Telegram from Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, to US Minister M. Hanna, Managua, p. 1.   
"TELEGRAM RECEIVED ¶ SECSTATE MAY 6, 1931 ¶ WASHINGTON 110 ¶ Gray MAY 7 8 AM. ¶ Mr. W. Irving Moss Chairman of the Standard Fruit Company in a letter April 28th to the Department says that the Nicaraguan forces protecting Company’s property consists of twenty guardia at Puerto Cabezas twenty on the Atlantic Railroad and twenty four men on patrol duty in the interior and that the Guardia Commander has been instructed to recruit twenty five men but that the company does not know how soon this will be done period Company also does not know whether twenty four men on patrol duty in the interior are available for immediate mobilization for defense paragraph ¶ Department explained to Mr. Moss by telephone on 5th instant the difficulties under which the Nicaraguan Government is operating lack of funds etc. and that the agreement of February 5 last called for fifteen hundred of the twenty-one hundred fifty guardia to be on combat duty in the Segovias leaving but six hundred fifty men for the policing and protection of the rest of the Republic and that if the 1500 Guardia on active combat should be decreased for garrisoning other points in the republic the active campaign against the bandits would necessarily suffer paragraph ¶ Moss appreciates this and desires to be helpful but says that if called upon to operate his properties with the present protection he would have no other alternative than to close operations and abandon his property paragraph ¶ It seems likely however that the company would pay the salaries of 50 additional guardia provided that the Company would be assured that the 64 already on duty there would not be withdrawn or diminished paragraph. ¶ Mr. Moss had just talked with the Manager at Puerto Cabezas who had returned to New Orleans a few days ago in a very upset physical and mental state on account of recent experiences period the Manager reports that protection requires also a bombing airplane to reconnoiter and bomb the bandits who he fears may renew their attack at any time period his reports indicate that Sandino sympathizers are living along the line of the railroad giving information to the bandits who can come down the river to within 25 miles of the company [...]"

2.  7 May 1931 (0800).
Telegram from Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, to US Minister M. Hanna, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] property period. Company realizes that the Guardia has no aviation force but it appears likely that company also would supply a bombing aeroplane mechanic and operator provided it would have the commercial use of the aeroplane if possible when it is not being used for its primary military operations but that it would be incorporated in the Guardia by requisition or otherwise from combat duty so that the company would not be carrying on such operations or entail any liability on account thereof paragraph. ¶ Please discuss the matter in the first instance with General Matthews and see whether he considers it to be feasible to increase the Guardia by 50 in the region of the Company’s plantation and the railroad giving assurances that the guardia now there will not be reduced or removed and inquire the cost thereof in order that the matter may be taken up further with the Company period also discuss with him the question of the aeroplane and ascertain whether this also is feasible paragraph. ¶ Mr. Moss is very anxious comma should an agreement be arrived at with General Matthews that the matter be put to the Nicaraguan Government in such a way that the latter would appear to be requesting and urging the company to do this and assuring the company that the protection now given will not be diminished in order that if the company shows a disposition to meet part of the expenses of protecting its property the government would not then withdraw such protection as is now afforded leaving the company to pay the total cost paragraph. ¶ Department considers it inadvisable for you to discuss the matter with the Nicaraguan authorities until you have discussed the matter with General Matthews and have communicated his views to the Department and the Department has a chance to discuss it further with the Company and can give you further instructions paragraph. ¶ We have had earnestly in mind the economic situation of Nicaragua left by the earthquake which you have so effectively and fully reported to us and we have been giving the matter earnest consideration with a view of helping the general situation if it can be done period the difficulties however are extremely serious and our present suggestion to Standard Fruit Company is the first tangible result offering in any degree an opportunity to alleviate the difficulties under which we know General Matthews is laboring period it comes after several conferences with the company and we think should be given most careful attention with a view to working out a result which will [...]"

3.  7 May 1931 (0800).
Telegram from Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, to US Minister M. Hanna, Managua, p. 3.   
"[...] strengthen the guardia in that area with little if any additional expense and at the same time secure this claim period we are continuing our other efforts and will report to you as soon as any tangible result may appear. Stimson."

 

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