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the atlantic coast  •  1928b, p. 3
AUG 18 - sEPT 12, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE third PAGE of documents for the second HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 26 days from August 18 to September 12. 

     We see here the conclusion of Capt. Edson's Coco River patrol, which General Feland considered "one of the striking stories of the campaign ... we are all pleased with what has been accomplished on the Coco River" (Aug. 28).  The drive up the Río Coco expands the Marines' & Guardia's knowledge of & operations in the region and pushes the rebels deeper into the Bocay Valley and Garrobo areas, vast inaccessible zones that will remain the EDSN's main refuges for the remainder of the war.  At Waspuc, Capt. Tebbs talks of "my Indians" and a community church-building effort in Musawas at a just-established Moravian station (Aug. 21), while far to the east on the Honduran coast, Sgt. Walter Connelly's report on his trip to La Cruta sheds an interesting light on a little-discussed zone (Aug. 22).  A very fine capsule summary of the Marines' perception of the military situation can be found in Major Utley's Sept. 5 report on his "tentative plans" for the future, which can be read alongside Capt. Linscott's Aug. 28 "estimate of the situation."  A fascinating 8 Sept. report by Utley on "civilian prisoners" shows the intersections of labor relations, ethicity, and politics, with two British subjects, Johnson & Gallop, accused of "recruiting Nicaraguan citizens for labor" and working with the United Fruit Company to prevent Liberal laborers from voting.  "Both Johnson and Gallop are well known here," writes Utley.  "The former possesses considerable influence among the Indians and the latter being somewhat of a leader among the West Indians."  It is a confusing and intriguing case.  In Bluefields, Major Sage responds sensibly (Aug. 22) to the "complaints against civil officials at Rama" (Aug. 5, previous page).  The page concludes with another of Capt. Edson's lovingly detailed letters home, eight handwritten pages to his mother waxing expansive about the verdant tropical jungles and his tactical plans for the immediate future. 

     Overall one sees the Marines trying to keep a lid on things in anticipation of the upcoming November elections, after which, they hope, they can leave.  It didn't quite work that way, but as we'll see, it almost did.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, coMENIus press

18 August 1928.
"Crowded Out Last Week, From Our Prinzapolka Correspondent: The disgruntled gods," The Bluefields Weekly.

18 August 1928.
Air Patrol Memorandum #60 (no author indicated), p. 1.  
"1. Extracts from Report of Air Missions, dated 18 August, 1928, are quoted for the information of all concerned: ¶ 2. 0850 – MANAGUA: Took off. ¶ 0940 – TRINIDAD: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. ¶ 0955 – SAN RAFAEL del NORTE: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1005 – YALI: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1030 – TELPANECA: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1035 – DIPILTO: One house occupied. ¶ 1055 – OCOTAL: Landed. ¶ 1135 – OCOTAL: Took off. ¶ 1145 – SAN FERNANDO: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. ¶ 1200 – SAN ALBINO: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1205 – JICABO: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1215 – JICARO: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped mail which was retrieved. ¶ 1315 – MURRA AND VICINITY: Deserted. No signs of recent occupancy. ¶ 1230 – GULKE’s CAMP: Deserted. ¶ 1235 – POTECA: Capt. Edson’s Patrol Dropped mail and made the following pickup: ‘TO COMMANDING GENERAL 8618 REFERENCE BRIGADE FIELD MESSAGE #27, DATED 8-7-28. AT PRESENT DATE HAVE SEVEN BOATS WITH THIS PATROL WITH NO REPEAT NO OUTBOARD MOTORS. TOTAL CAPACITY 60 MEN PLUS NATIVE BOAT CREWS AND EQUIPMENT. AM RETURNING TWO BOATS TO BOCAY THIS DATE FOR RATIONS. MOST SUITABLE BOAT FOR USE OF RIVER PATROLS IS LARGE NATIVE PITPAN. AVERAGE CAPACITY THESE BOATS ONE SQUAD, LIGHT DRAFT, EASILY HANDLED BY POLE, PADDLE OR OUTBOARD MOTOR. WILL NOT SINK IF CAPSIZED. CAN BE EASILY FITTED WITH MOTOR ONLY ARTICLE BEING REQUIRED SHORT PIECE OF 2” x 4” WOOD AND FOUR BOLTS TO SECURE SAME TO PINPAN. OUTBOARD MOTORS NOT REPEAT NOT RECOMMENDED FOR ORIGINAL RIVER RECONNAISSANCE. CAN BE HEARD SEVERAL MILES AWAY. GIVE BANDITS IN VICINITY PLENTY OF TIME TO AMBUSH BOATS OR ESCAPE INTO BRUSH. WHEN FIRST CLEARING RIVER ADVANCE SHORE PATROLS ABSOLUTE NECESSITY TO PREVENT AMBUSH AND ADEQUATELY PROTECT BOAT. AFTER CONTROL OF RIVER IS OBTAINED OUTBOARD MOTORS VALUABLE FOR SUPPLY AND COMMUNICATIONS, REDUCING TRAVEL TIME ONE HALF TO TWO THIRDS. SEVERAL BOATS SUITABLE FOR RIVER PATROL DUTY IF MASTAWAS – POTECA AREA NOT REPEAT NOT COMMANDEERED BY THIS PATROL DUE TO LACK OF FACILITIES TO BRING THEM WITH IT. WILL ENDEAVOR TO COLLECT AS EARLY AS POSSIBLE AT POTECA FOR FURTHER USE. EDSON, 0800’ ‘TO CO EASTERN AREA INFO B-2 8618 INDIAN CAPTURED 8-15-28 CONTINUES TO GIVE ORIGINAL STORY AS FOLLOWS: CAPTURED BY MEN UNDER SALGADO IN VICINITY OF BOCAY ABOUT 1 JULY 1928. BANDITS COMING THROUGH BRUSH AFTER DARK (THIS IS NOT REPEAT NOT BELIEVED, MY OPINION HE WAS SENT UP RIVER BY SANDINO AGENT IN BODAY) WAS ASSIGNED DUTY AS A [section missing] LARGE ORGANIZED BANDIT GROUPS. AFTER TWO DAYS REST AT POTECA WILL SEND PATROL TO GULKE CAMP AREA. YOUR 8614 1930 ACKNOWLEDGED. EDSON 0800’. ‘TO COMMANDING GENERAL 3RD BRIG. INFO CO EASTERN AREA. 8617 REFERENCE BRIGADE FIELD MESSAGE NUMBER 28. FOLLOWING RIFLES CAPTURED THIS PATROL: AT MASTAWAS 8-4-28 ONE RIFLE; AT ILILIQUAS 8-7-28 TWELVE RIFLES; AT MASTAWAS 8-9-28 THIRTY FOUR RIFLES: TOTAL RIFLES FORTY RIFLES. REVOLVERS CAPTURED TOTAL TWO, S.W. CAL. 30. SHOTGUNS: CAPTURED TOTAL FIVE. TOTAL FIREARMS OF ALL KINDS: 54 OF THIS TOTAL ONE RIFLE NOW IN USE BY THIS PATROL, 34 RETURNED TO BOCAY, 13 DESTROYED; ONE REVOLVER NOW IN USE BY THIS PATROL, ONE RETURNED TO PUERTO CABEZAS; FIVE SHOTGUNS ALL DESTOYED. OF RIFLES CAPTURED MAJORITY WERE REMINGTON AND WESTINGHOUSE CAL. 30, MODEL 1915-16017; ABOUT 20 OF TOTAL FOUND AT MASTAWAS WERE UNSERVICEABLE. EDSON.’ . . . "

18 August 1928.
Air Patrol Memorandum #60 (no author indicated), p. 2.  
"TO CO EASTERN AREA – INFO BRIGADE – 8617 ARRIVED POTECA 0815 THIS DATE. NO EVIDENCE ANY FORCE OF BANDITS THIS PLACE. STRATEGICAL POSITION FOR RIVER TRAVEL AS IT ABSOLUTELY CONTROLS UP RIVER TRAFFIC. WILL PATROL FROM HERE IN ALL DIRECTIONS. PROBABLY DISPOSITION THIS COMMAND, ONE SECTION VICINITY ILILIQUAS. ONE PLATOON (LESS ONE SECTION) WAMBLAN, COMPANY (LESS ONE PLATOON) POTECA. PRESENT DISPOSITION THIS DATE, COMPANY (LESS ONE SECTION) POTECA, ONE SECTION MASTAWAS. LIEUT COOK IS NOW WITH ME. EDSON 0915’. As the planes made pickup, two Fokkers arrived to drop rations. ¶ 1205 – OCOTAL: Landed and gave Area Commander brief summary of patrol report. ¶ 1300 – OCOTAL: One plane, Lt. Lamson-Scribner, pilot, took off and dropped mail and cleared panels at DARAILI – YALI – and SAN RAFAEL. A message pick up was made of routine mail at San RAFAEL. ¶ 1300 – OCOTAL: One plane, Sgt. Frith, pilot, took off and dropped mail and cleared panels at SOMOTO and PUEBLO NUEVO. SOMOTO displayed panels ‘MARINE PATROL WEST’. ¶ 1415 – MANAGUA: Both planes landed at Airdrome. ¶ 3. Few boats were observed in the vicinity of GARROBO and CASCA, and no other signs could be seen which would indicate outlaws in this vicinity. There were several women around WUINA [SIUNA]and continued with their work while the planes were in the vicinity. Nothing suspicious was observed throughout the area patrolled. ¶ 4. One 52U-1 airplane, Lieut. Weir, pilot with Gy-Sgt. Kurtz, Observer, took off Managua at 0850 and dropped mail and cleared panels at DARIO – MATAGALPA – TUMA – CORINTO RANCH – ALGOVIA – ULUSE – MUY MUY – BOACO and returned to MANAGUA at 1130. Nothing suspicious was observed in the area patrolled. There is a large level field two miles NORTH EAST of MUY MUY which, it is believed would make a good emergency landing field, if cleared of about twenty five trees and stumps. ¶ 5. Two Fokker Transport planes dropped twenty two hundred pounds of rations to Captain Edson’s patrol at POTECA, at 1130 this date."

18 August 1928 (1430).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Coco Patrol at Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

20 August 1928.
Report on Augustin Solano, former Commandante, Pearl Lagoon, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.  
"1. For some time past numerous reports have been submitted by the inhabitants of Pearl Lagoon on the activities of the then Commandante, Augustin Solano. ¶ 2. None of these reports were of a serious nature and were as a rule those involving the arrest of people for minor offenses such as drunkenness, being out on the streets after 8:00 P.M., at night, violation of the sanitary laws, etc. ¶ 3. An investigation into these reports was made by a Guardia Officer and as is usually the case the persons who uttered the complaints would not or could not state facts and no definite information could be obtained on which to base charges. ¶ 4. A rumor to the effect that Solano was receiving a retainer fee from the Nicaraguan Mahogany Company and from the Vrooman Lumber Company was also investigated. I believe that the statement is true. It has been the custom heretofore for Civil Police Officials to accept a fee from the mahogany and banana companies not for any particular service rendered but rather to prevent the Commandante from interfering with the workings of the companies. All the mahogany and lumber companies carry a secret ledger carrying funds for expenditures of this nature and nothing short of a court order would reveal the existence of the workings of such a system. ¶ 5. Augustin Solano has always presented a well dressed appearance, lives well and comfortably and apparently had no sources of income outside of his salary of $40.00 per month as a Civil Police Official. ¶ 6. This man has been relieved by the Guardia Nacional Police at Pearl Lagoon and it is my urgent recommendation that any attempts that may be made through the government at Managua to appoint him to any other civil police or government position in this Area be blocked as I am firmly convinced that this man has accepted bribes and that he is not an honest public servant. ¶ 7. The Guardia Officer at Pearl Lagoon has been instructed to endeavor to obtain absolute facts that may be used as a basis of charges against this man and if obtained they will be forwarded to Headquarters. ¶ A. B. Sage."

20 August 1928.
Radiogram from Capt. A. DeCarre, Bocay, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"To: C. O. Eastern Area: - Bocay Aug. 20, 1928 ¶ Your 8619 -2300. ¶ The only native Indian in Bocay named JESUS is here now. He was appointed Commandant by Sandino when Sandino was along with Moncada here at Bocay between January 25 and February 15th. Jesus remained as Commandant until about May 15th. Around that date Sandino was at GARROBO and he sent to Bocay for Jesus to report to him. Jesus remained in Bocay and around May 30th SALGADO passed through Bocay and took Jesus with him. ¶ Jesus returned to Bocay around June 21st and has been in Bocay ever since. ¶ (This report comes from Thompson). ¶ /s/ A. DeCarre, Major, U. S. M. C. ¶ Aug. 21st. ¶ P. S. I Interviewed Jesus this date and the above is the substance of the interview."

20 August 1928.
Radiogram no. 2 from Capt. A. DeCarre, Bocay, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"To: C. O. Eastern Area. Bocay Aug. 20, 1928. ¶ There is a rumor in the village of Bocay that Sandino passed the word among his men at Poteca that he has been called to Mexico. ¶ /s/ A. DeCarre, Major, U. S. M. C."

20 August 1928 (1701).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. A. DeCarre, CO Marines Bocay.  
"TO CO MARINES BOCAY INFO CO MARINES WASPUC ¶ FROM COMDR EASTERN AREA 20 AUGUST, 1928 ¶ 8620 DISTRIBUTION OF FIFTY NINTH COMPANY AS SHOWN BY RECORDS OF THESE HEADQUARTERS STOP MASTAWAS FIFTEEN STOP BOCAY THIRTY ONE STOP SUSANWAS NINE STOP EN ROUTE BOCAY FROM WASPUC NINETEEN STOP AWAWAS EIGHT STOP WASPUC ELEVEN STOP EN ROUTE WASPUC FROM CAPE GRACIAS THIRTEEN STOP EIGHTEEN ENLISTED TULSA DETACH EN ROUTE WASPUC FOR BOCAY STOP AT BOCAY DENVER DETACH SEVEN COMMA GALVESTON THREE STOP THIS NOT INCLUDING NAVY PERSONNEL COMMA OFFICERS COMMA AND RADIO OPERATORS STOP PLEASE REPORT REGARDING CORRECTNESS OF THESE FIGURES STOP BOCAY RIVER PATROL WILL CONSIST OF ONE PLATOON STOP DENVER AND GALVESTON MEN AND ONE RADIO SET WITH CARROLL SHALL JOIN COCO PATROL STOP RADIO OPERATOR FOR BOCAY RIVER PATROL WILL BE SUPPLIED LATER STOP 1701"

21 August 1928.
Drop message to Lt. Whaling, La Luz, from Lt. W. C. Hall, by direction, Puerto Cabezas.

21 August 1928 (1345).
Radiogram from Capt. Tebbs, CO Waspuc, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

21 August 1928 (1623).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"TO: COMDR EASTERN AREA. 21 AUGUST 1928 ¶ FROM: COMDR SECBRIG MANAGUA. ¶ 8620 TODAY PLANES MADE FOLLOWING PICK UPS FROM EDSON STOP QUOTE 8518 THREE ENLISTED DENVER DETACHMENT ONE GALVESTON DETACHMENT EVACUATED HOSPITAL CABEZAS VIA BOCAY 2100 BOCAY 2100 EIGHTEENTH STOP ABRAM RIVERA PRISONER ALSO EVACUATED CABEZAS SAME TIME COMMA HAS BROTHER COMMA LOUIS RIVERA COMMA WORKING SIKISQUAS FORMERLY HIRED BY RIP DAVIS 0910 UNQUOTE AND QUOTE 8620 PATROL ONE PLATOON LESS ONE SQUAD UNDER LIEUTENANT COOK STARTED RECONNAISSANCE GULKES CAMP AND WILL REPORT ON RESULTS OF AERIAL BOMBING STOP DAILY ROUTINE PATROLS SOUTH ALONG COCO RIVER FROM HERE 0755 UNQUOTE EDSON STATES THAT ABOUT FIFTY FIVE PERCENT HIS COMMAND UNDER QUARANTINE TREATMENT FOR MALARIA STOP 1623"

22 August 1928.
Complaints against civil officials at Rama, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"1. The enclosure was received in this office on August 8, 1928, and an investigation was immediately made into the various complaints contained therein with the following results. ¶ Information was sent to the signers of the letter to the effect that an officer of the Guardia would be present in Rama from August 14, 1928 to conduct an investigation into the subject matter and requesting them to appear. All of the signers of the letter left town on the notification and all failed to appear during the time that the investigation was under way. The signers were all Liberals and the parties named in the letter as offenders are conservatives. It was found that all the persons named in the letter as having been offended against had left town previously and that all the cases in question happened during 1926 and 1927. Some information was obtained but it is all hearsay and there were no definite, concrete facts developed on which to base charges. ¶ The charges set forth are described in detail. The present Alcalde was installed by the armed forces in Rama in 1926 and has been continued to this day. The ballot boxes of the 1927 election at Rama were lost overboard and the votes not counted, the present Alcalde retaining his seat. It is probably true that he is not seated in accordance with the law but the situation is so complicated that nothing can be done at this time and the approaching elections will rectify the conditions. The charges of assaults preferred against the Alcalde are probably true although no one would come forward and testify to the facts. ¶ The charge of collection of head tax is impossible to prove, it appears that this happened in 1926 and was a measure taken during the revolution. ¶ Liquor may have been sold at a higher price than fixed by law but it is not being done now. The price for which sold by the fiscal agent is $1.22 a quart when sold in large quantities and $1.30 when it is necessary to draw off small quantities for sale in bottles. ¶ The persons who were supposed to have been fined could not be located. This may have happened but the facts cannot be determined. The Commandante of the Hacienda Guard has no authority to assess fines. This power lies in the hands of the Administrator de Rentas at Bluefields and all cases of persons arrested for making guaro are sent here for trial. It may have happened during the revolution and it is quite probable that it did but it has not been done since the arrival of the Guardia here. ¶ The matter of the slaughtering of the cattle without proper report is correct. When the Guardia took over Rama this matter was taken up with the municipal authorities, a place designated as the slaughter house, and the butcher required to submit a monthly report showing owners name, sex, color, brands, etc. This report is vised [sic] by the Sub-Division Commander and forwarded to the Jefe Politico . . . "

22 August 1928.
Complaints against civil officials at Rama, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . ¶ 2. It can be stated definitely that since the Guardia Nacional relieved the civil police at Rama that none of the abuses mentioned in the letter have happened. I believe the basic reason back of the charges is an effort on the part of the signers to cause trouble for the officials mentioned. From the evidence adduced by the investigation I would state that there is nothing on which charges could be based which would result in the conviction of any of the personnel mentioned before any court nor is there sufficient evidence available to recommend their removal from office. ¶ 3. The former Commandante of the Hacienda Guard, Jacobo Moreira, appointed Director of Police at Bluefields upon the death of the Director, General Gomez. He has cooperated with this office in matters and no cases have come to the attention of this office that indicate any partiality, unjust decision, etc. ¶ 4. The former Commandante of Policia at Rama, Gustavo Balladares, has left that town and is employed at a mahogany camp near Muelle de Los Bueyes. ¶ 5. The Alcalde at Rama has given his support to the Sub-Division Commander at Rama, has helped in the clean up of the town and it is known that he is making proper disposition of the fines collected. ¶ 6. The present Commandante of the Hacienda Guard at Rama, Elisio Largaespada, appears to be a weak kneed sort of an official and does not possess sufficient nerve to collect fines from any person. He reports to the Sub-Division Commander whenever he leaves on a patrol and a member of the Guardia accompanies the patrol, merely for the purpose of becoming familiar with the trails and people. In reality he is detailed to accompany the patrol for the purpose of reporting upon any attempt on the part of the Hacienda Guard to defeat the ends of justice. ¶ 7. No reply has been made to the signers of the letter by this office. ¶ A. B. Sage."

22 August 1928.
Memorandum for the Commanding Officer, Sgt. Walter L. Connelly, Cape Gracias (Cabo Gracias a Dios).  
"Left Cape at 6:00 A.M., on horses for Cruta, Nic. The first river about one mile from the Cape it is necessary to unload the horses cross in boats and have the horses swim across. At this river there is one small boat that will carry four or five men this boat is used as a ferry. We traveled in the bush for seven miles then we came out on the second river and as there were no boats is was necessary to swim across. After we left there we traveled up the beach until we reached the last river and at this river we were taken across by an Indian woman. After we left this river we traveled up the beach for two hours then we went into the bush for about three miles until we reached Cruta. ¶ Received the following information at Cruta, Nic., that on or about the 14th of this month there were fifty Honduran soldiers in command of a Lt. Col., name unknown, they stayed there for one day. The uniform of these men were khaki with white caps something like the marine caps. These men crossed the river to the Nicaraguan side and in crossing lost a boat load of supplies. ¶ They were supposed to meet sixty more of their men at Cruta but on account of losing their supplies they left Cruta for a place called Duley Fumbry on the Honduras side. The Lt. Col asked the Commandante at Cruta, Nic. how many men were at the Cape. ¶ Found out from Mr. Ames an American that lives there that Sandino’s men are crossing the Patuca River, and are going through the mahogany camps on the Honduras side. On their way back they are using the Wuankibila trail that goes to Waspuc. ¶ Walter L. Connelly. ¶ Sergeant, USMC."

23 August 1928 (1042).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

23 August 1928 (1950).
Radiogram from Capt. Tebbs, CO Waspuc, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

23 August 1928 (2000).
Radiogram from Capt. Tebbs, CO Waspuc, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

25 August 1928.
"Departmental Board of Sanitation," The Bluefields Weekly.

25 August 1928.
Sketch of Trails La Luz and Pis Pis Regions, Capt. W. N. Best, USMC.

26 August 1928.
Weekly Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Cuvali, Nicaragua.  
"CUVALI, NICARAGUA ¶ August 26, 1928 ¶ From: CAPT. H. D. LINSCOTT, USMC ¶ To: THE COMMANDER, EAST COAST AREA. ¶ SUBJECT: WEEKLY REPORT. ¶ 1. Following report herewith submitted: ¶ August 19 – 600 lbs provisions arrived from LA LUZ. Bought horse for $15.00 and mule for $40.00. Corporal SELF, in charge of the provisions, reported ARROLIGA and two men had passed over part of MATAGALPA TRAIL between ALO AND AGUA CALIENTE about August 12th. Could not track them on account of rain. Natives disclaimed knowledge of their present whereabouts. ¶ August 20 – Sent 1st Sgt RIEWE and one man back to LA LUZ. Plane over 1:30. Dropped official mail. Made one pick up – one pick up lost. ¶ August 22 – Patrol to HIYAS and return. All quiet. Secured 2 horses, owners unknown. ¶ August 23 – Patrol short distance up BOCAY TRAIL and return. All quiet. ¶ August 25 – Patrol to HIYAS and return. All quiet. ¶ 2. Present strength 1 officer 42 enlisted. ¶ 3. Pack animals on hand – 7. Rations on hand 2380 pounds."

1.   27 August 1928 (0020).
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
[Message is admittedly hard to read, but with effort one can make out most of it.  Time to return to the LOC.]

2.   27 August 1928 (0020).
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.

3.   27 August 1928 (0020).
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.

4.   27 August 1928 (0020).
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.

1.   27 August 1928.
2nd Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Dear Major:- ¶ Sergeant Murphy has told me that when he was at BOCAY, you mentioned the possibility of replacements being sent forward to relieve the two ships detachments under my command. Personally I am wondering just where these replacements are to come from, but if they are formed and become available please consider the following. Personally I would prefer to be left out in this region until permanently relieved. It requires a certain amount of [initiative] to get back into the stride of outing it after a period of more or less relaxation in Puerto Cabezas and now that I am where I would like to stay until ordered back for good. Although Cook is not so definite about it. I would like to keep him here. He is developing into an excellent patrol man – so ready to go at any time – and has a keen sense of humor which affects my own somber attitude. ¶ The men are of course anxious to go back out at any time and believe any rumors to that effect they hear, although I have respectfully advised them to order their Christmas presents addressed to POTECA or vicinity. About 60% of the men are under malaria (quinine) . . . "

2.   27 August 1928.
2nd Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . [section missing] and infected hands are quite [section missing] these faults are undoubtedly due [section missing] service in the bush. The Denver has a larger percentage of its men on the sick present list, although the Galveston have been out for the longer straight stretch from Puerto Cabezas. The other organizations in the Eastern Area are probably finding the same troubles and I do not believe replacements by those units help very much. New blood from the States would probably be the solution to these ills but that would mean recruits who would not be as good as the few fit old men I have with me. However if you do relieve this ships detachment – as I mentioned above – I would prefer to receive [undercclass] replacements to the Coco Patrol and be left in command of that unit rather than a relief by organizations, if such a thing can be done. ¶ DeWitt tells me Lt. Pollick has been ordered to the Galveston. When does he arrive in Cabezas and does he join his organization here? ¶ We will all be glad when our own planes are operating once more. A few magazines would be welcome if we stay here any length of time. If you can give me some [idea] as to the permanence or otherwise of this post, I would appreciate it. Bourne and the west coast ships have given us excellent service but I miss Wop Howard’s messages which he  . . . "

3.   27 August 1928.
2nd Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
" . . . [sends now & then]. ¶ Am sending Shearer a copy of the certificates used by the 11th Rgt. to cover gratuitous issues. He may be using something similar at the present time. ¶ I think Ridderhof has some idea of the way we have been operating. After reaching his camp, I overhead him remark to one of his men who was complaining about his food – ‘After seeing the way the patrol at Poteca is fixed for rations, I do not think we have anything to growl about and should consider ourselves lucky.’ One of his recruits was telling a buddy of his who did not come here that this (Coco Patrol) is certainly a tougher looking outfit with beards and everything. ¶ Send my best to the aviators, doctors, and Hall. He seems to be the only one left out of these reports but he is by no means forgotten. Those hands better stand [up for] duty when and if I get back to post. Thank you for the interest you have taken in our activities and the super support we can always expect from you. ¶ Respectfully, ¶ Edson."

27 August 1928.
Letter from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Major Hans Schmidt, Managua.  
"My dear Schmidt: ¶ Thanks for your congratulatory note. As you have already discovered, we had gone one step further in anticipation and we were prepared for your anticipatory request regarding damage to the mines. However, stand by for an additional demand from the owner or owner’s agent, one Mr. Springer of Bluefields. I am collecting further data in re what I believe he will complain about and hope to be ready to give you the information when you ask for it. Incidentally, his record shows him to be very much anti-American and particularly anti-Marine, and last Sunday while calling on him in the hope that by so doing I could adjust his complaint, he made so many statements that were known to me to be false and which I believe he knew to be false and intended to impress others present and to belittle the Marine Corps, that I declined to continue the conference further and withdrew while I could still do so in a courteous and dignified manner. ¶ We are beginning to run short of boats, due to heavy losses in the rapids. I am told that you have some photographs, or at least somebody on the Staff has some photographs of those made for the Eleventh Regiment. May I have two copies of each? Thank you. ¶ With best wishes, sincerely, ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps."

28 August 1928.
Letter from Gen. Feland, Managua, to "My dear Utley," Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"My dear Utley: ¶ I want to have a note ready for the next plane going over to you. I expect that will be in a few days. The plan is to send you three of the four amphibians. The two now here were received in rather bad condition. But as fast as they can be made ready we will send them over so that you have at Puerto Cabezas three active planes and one in reserve. I will not send the last one from here unless your total falls below three. ¶ As you undoubtedly know we are all pleased with what has been accomplished on the Coco river. Edson’s persistent advance and successes gained make up one of the striking stories of the campaign. Please do not be sparing in your recommendations for awards or commendations as you feel they are deserved. ¶ As to the future operations, I have only some general ideas, but I think we will be able to make a good plan soon depending on where the bandits decide to make the main concentration. The locality indicated at first, and still indicated to some extent, is the Garrobo area. There are bunches of them foraging in Segovia and south west of Santa Cruz. I think they may concentrate around Garrobo, they may try to concentrate around the Murra area, or they may decide not to concentrate but to maintain smaller groups in several areas. ¶ Personally I believe that one of the essential things is to build up a good patrol or line of guard posts along the Coco. I believe it is to our great advantage to prevent any more men or supplies coming to the bandits from Honduras and to prevent the return of any now there. And I have concluded that it is also well to keep those we now have in Nicaragua on our side of the fence and dispose of them ourselves. This is on the basis that their existence across the border would be a constant threat of their return, recuperated, re-supplied and reinforced. Our lines along the border ought to be shooting both ways and prevent crossing in either direction . . ."

28 August 1928.
Letter from Gen. Feland, Managua, to "My dear Utley," Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . Now to make this border guard most effective is the problem. We have all this extra work for the elections and we have to be ready to strike at any of the bands we can locate. ¶ I feel confident now that it will not be necessary for Edson to go farther than Poteca where he now is. Dunlap should be able to take care of the rest in fact later on he may be able to take over Poteca, letting your men drop a little farther down the stream. ¶ And if you want them and the situation then requires it, I might send you another 60 or 70 men around the middle of September. Let me know what you think about this. ¶ Utley, I was rather surprised to be told by the Admiral that you had a letter from the Captain of the Denver about the number of planes you have. It was to the effect that you felt, or your headquarters had the impression, that the Brigade did not allow you the planes needed and that in fact the Brigade does not seem to think you should have any planes at all. I don’t assume that Allen’s letter gave your exact words or views, and of course you are right in talking over your situation in all aspects with the Captain of the ship there. But there is another side which is that there were no planes to give you except those more needed here, of which need I am the judge. ¶ As the general plan develops, will let you know so that you can fit your plans to it. I am very glad that you have started the outfit up the Bocay river as that should get us the information as to what is going on in the Garrobo region. ¶ It is hardly necessary to tell you that I am more than pleased with the way things have been handled in your area and my congratulations are due you, your officers and men. ¶ Sincerely yours, ¶ [signed] by General Feland."

29 August 1928 (1022).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua; copies to CO Bocay, Capt. Linscott.  
"TO: COMDR SECBRIG MANAGUA. INFO: 29 AUGUST, 1928. CO BOCAY. CAPTAIN LINSCOTT (AIR MAIL) FROM: COMDR EASTERN AREA. ¶ 8630 DAILY REPORT TWENTY NINTH STOP FLIGHT TODAY TO WASPUC DASH BOCAY DASH RIVER PATROL DASH CUVALI DASH LA LUZ DASH NEPTUNE MINE STOP WALKER NOW FIFTEEN MILES ABOVE CASCA STOP PIS PIS OUTPOST MOVED FROM EDEN MINE TO NEPTUNE MINE STOP LINSCOTT REMAINS AT CULVALI PREPARED TO MOVE NORTHWEST TOWARDS GARROBO OR WEST TOWARDS CACAO IN CASE WALKERS ADVANCE FORCES THE OUTLAWS IN EITHER DIRECTION STOP ARROLIGA REPORTED AGAIN ACTIVE NEAR MINING AREAS STOP RUMOR FROM EDEN MINE THAT BANDIT PATROLS ARE OBTAINING SUPPLIES OF COFFEE AND CATTLE FROM AUGUSTINE RIVERA AT CASA VIEJA STOP DECARRE AT BOCAY REPORTS THIRTY OUTLAWS VICINITY OF GARROBO COMMA MORE DYNAMITE REPORTED AS LEFT BY SANDINO ALONG BOCAY RIVER COMMA THAT JIRON HAS LEFT SANDINO AND IS NOW ALONE WITH SMALL COMMAND COMMA ALTIMIRANO ALSO OPERATING ALONE IN CUA DISTRICT STOP THIS INFORMATION FROM INDIAN BOATMEN RECENTLY WITH THE BANDITS STOP PREVIOUS REPORTS FROM SIMILAR SOURCES HAVE PROVED CORRECT STOP REPORTS FROM EDSON ALSO INDICATE THAT THE OUTLAW FORCE HAS DIVIDED BETWEEN CUA RIVER DISTRICT AND MURRA AREA STOP REPORTS INDICATE THAT PERMANENT OUTPOSTS AT BANA COMMA CUA AND CACAO NECESSARY TO BLOCK POSSIBLE ROUTES OF RETREAT NOW OPEN TO OUTLAWS 1022."

30 August 1928.
Message from Major Oliver Floyd, Managua, to Capt. Edson, Poteca.

30 August 1928.
Distribution of civilian police & hacienda guards, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua.

31 August 1928 (1430).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

2 September 1928.
Air Patrol Memorandum #72, extracts, from Managua to Poteca, Garrobo, Bocay River area (no author indicated).  
"1. Extracts from report of Air Mission, dated 1 Sept, 1928, are quoted for the information of all concerned: ¶ 2. 0845 – MANAGUA: Took off. ¶ 0958: SANTA ELENA: Normal. ¶ 1002 – SUA RIVER JUNCTION: Normal. ¶ 1017 – POTECA: Dropped mail and medical supplies which were retrieved. Picked up following message: ‘TO B-2; 8501 TABLASCO TRAIL HAS NOT REPEAT NOT BEEN USED SINCE 8-16-28. NO REPEAT NO CONTACT WITH GROUP REPORTED MY 8631-1000. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM BRAULIO MORALES – PANCHO GARCIA and RAMIRES GAROTA, SUB JEFES OF SANDINO, PROCEEDED SANDINO OVER RAMA – MURRA TRAIL BY SIX OR SEVEN DAYS WITH ABOUT TWENTY FIVE MULES, WITH ORDERS TO WAIT FOR HIM IN VICINITY TAMIS CANYON. REPORTS A TRAIL EXISTS FROM MURRA TO POTECA RIVER VIA CONGOJAS AND FROM LOS MAXCONS (WILLEY SKETOR) TO HONDURAS. TRAIL ALSO CONNECTED TAMIS AND CONGOJAS RIVER – EDSON 0843’. Dropped message that WAMBLAN RIVER AREA would be searched to GARROBO. The patrols of Capts. Linscott and Walker should be in that vicinity. ¶ 1025: WAMBLAN: Panel ‘Marie Patrol EAST’ laid out. ¶ 1050 – BOCAY: Normal. ¶ 1053: GARROBO: Capt. Walker’s patrol, panel displayed. ‘ARRIVED HERE YESTERDAY’. A message was dropped asking for verification if their location was GARROBO; if the patrol was Capt. Walker’s and if they had anything to report. Panels ‘GARROBO’ – ‘WALKER’S PATROL’ – ‘NO ENEMY’ and ‘NOTHING TO REPORT’ laid out. ¶ 1100 – Searched BOCAY RIVER AREA beyond PASO REAL de CUA to headwaters but was unable to locate patrol of Capt. Linscott. ¶ 1135 – GARROBO: Dropped message that Capt. Linscott’s patrol could not be located and that nothing suspicious had been observed along the BOCAY RIVER to its source. ¶ 1158 – THREE FOURTHS MILES EAST OF WAMBLAN: Marine Patrol observed. No panels displayed. ¶ 1200 – WAMBLAN: Panel ‘No further need of you’ laid out. ¶ 1202 – POTECA: Panel ‘Nothing to report’ laid out. Dropped message that nothing suspicious had been seen in the WAMBLAN-BOCAY RIVER AREA and gave panel signals received from Capt. Walker at GARROBO and information that Capt. Linscott’s patrol could not be located. ¶ 1210 – GUIGUILI: Panel ‘MARINE PATROL DOWN RIVER’ laid out. Dropped mail and message that Capt. Edson had nothing to report. Made pick up of routine mail for Area CO. ¶ 1325- SANTA CRUZ: The plane piloted by Maj. Bourne returned via OCOCTAL making drop of pickup from GUIGUILI. Lieut. Lamson-Scribner returned direct to MANAGUA. ¶ 1330 – MANAGUA: Landed at Airdrome. ¶ 3. A letter marked CONFIDENTIAL for B-2, was picked up at POTECA and brought to MANAGUA. Nothing suspicious was noted in the area patrolled."

4 September 1928.
Telegram from the Mengel Company, Louisville KY, to the Sec. State, Washington D.C.

1.   5 September 1928.
Tentative plans for redistribution of command upon withdrawal of Fleet Marines and Bluejacket Battalion, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"References: (a) Chief of Staff’s Memorandum dated 15 August, 1928, subject as above. ¶ 1. In arriving at the conclusions expressed below the following assumptions have been made: ¶ a. That prior to the election, organized resistance to our forces will have ceased and open opposition will be limited to small parties of local robbers. ¶ b. That the election is successfully accomplished and its result accepted by both parties. ¶ c. That there is no extended outbreak in Honduras. ¶ d. That the present policy of the Guardia is the Area continues: i.e., the police functions are taken over in the south first, working gradually to the north and beginning on each river, at its mouth. ¶ 2. At the present time the force in this area consists of the 51st, 59th and 60th Companies, the Denver, Galveston and Tulsa Detachments, and the West Virginia Detachment temporarily attached for the period of the election. Each company is organized into Company Headquarters and three (3) Platoons, strength approximately 133 enlisted; with one platoon added to the 51st Company for Area Headquarters, and the Electoral Detail (approximately 75 enlisted) in addition, assigned mainly to the 51st Company. ¶ 3. Posts are established at POTECA, BOCAY, WASPUC, with connecting posts of a squad or a section at intermediate strategic points to protect the line of communication and one squad at CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS. Posts are established at LA LUZ and in the PIS PIS Mining District with one squad at PRINZAPOLKA. In the Southern Sector there is a section at QUEPI, one at EL GALLO, and one at MUELLE DE LOS BUEYES, with one squad at RIO GRANDE BAR. The two main posts are at BLUEFIELDS and PUERTO CABEZAS . . . "

2.   5 September 1928.
Tentative plans for redistribution of command upon withdrawal of Fleet Marines and Bluejacket Battalion, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . 4. I am of the opinion that, after the election, the following posts should be maintained: ¶ a. PUERTO CABEZAS: Readily accessible to the U.S. Facilities for caring for sick, quartering rear echelons, preservation of stores, training and recreation are available. Largest single investment of foreign capital on this coast. Will be last point taken over by Guardia. ¶ b. WASPUC AND BOCAY: Strategic points on WANKS River. Have been occupied for some time and withdrawal will leave inhabitants, especially indians, at mercy of local robbers and ex-bandit sympathizers. ¶ c. PIS PIS Mining district and LA LUZ: American and foreign capital invested in both localities. Time required to move from one to the other precludes protecting both by single post. Withdrawal will leave these mines and stores pertaining thereto open to local marauders and result in complaints to State Department or our failure to afford protection. Quarters, water, etc., available. ¶ d. EL GALLO: Location of principal plant of Cuyamel Fruit Company, close to LA CRUZ, always the scene of minor disorders. Quarters available. Easily supplied from Bluefields. ¶ e. EL BLUFF (Bluefields): Politically important. There are two strategic points requiring protection – the bank in BLUEFIELDS and the Custom House at EL BLUFF. The occupation of either by Marines will protect both. El Bluff is believed to be the more desirable location from both an administrative and a tactical standpoint. ¶ f. CAPE GRACIAS, PRINZAPOLKA, RIO GRANDE BAR: Necessary to protect stores being forwarded to posts up river. Can be withdrawn soon after Guardia has taken over police functions at these posts . . . "

3.   5 September 1928.
Tentative plans for redistribution of command upon withdrawal of Fleet Marines and Bluejacket Battalion, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
[Table listing outposts and number of troops in Eastern Area, with remarks. Outposts are:  Bocay, Waspuc, La Luz, Pis Pis, Cape Gracias a Dios, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rio Grande Bar, El Gallo, El Bluff.  Aggregate: Marines: 18 Officers, 428 enlisted. Navy: 3 Officers, 14 enlisted.]

4.   5 September 1928.
Tentative plans for redistribution of command upon withdrawal of Fleet Marines and Bluejacket Battalion, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4. 
 " . . . Personnel shown at PUERTO CABEZAS and EL BLUFF includes sick, short timers, and reserves. ¶ No replacements will be necessary for a considerable period except officers, enlisted men of the first two grades, and Navy attached. Normal attrition will be taken care of by the withdrawal of the posts at CAPE GRACIAS, PRINZAPOLKA, and RIO GRANDE BAR. ¶ It will be noted that this distribution provides for three companies of Company Headquarters and three (3) platoons each, one of the platoons of the 51st Company being Area Headquarters. All radio operators are assigned to this platoon to facilitate training and assignment. It is recommended that all enlisted men of the Navy be similarly assigned to the same platoon and carried as on detached duty when elsewhere than at Area Headquarters. ¶ 5. This distribution permits the withdrawal of the West Virginia Detachment immediately after election – by 10 November if embarked at CAPE GRACIAS, PUERTO CABEZAS, and BLUEFIELDS. ¶ 6. The Tulsa, Galveston, and Denver Detachments and 1 officer (Captain Edson) of the Rochester Detachment will be available for transfer from PUERTO CABEZAS during December. As both officers and men have personal effects stored at PUERTO CABEZAS it is urgent that their withdrawal be affected via that post. The above is based on the assumptions stated in paragraph 1 a, 1 b, and 1 c above. In my opinion an earlier withdrawal would be inadvisable. ¶ 7. Four officers, Major De Carre, Captain Kendall, Captain [---], and Second Lieutenant Crawford, and about 145 enlisted men will be available for transfer when the Electoral Detail is released and transportation within the Area is available. One Medical Officer and three enlisted medical will be available for transfer at the same time. ¶ 8. There are thirty-two (32) enlisted men in the three companies who are due for return to the United States by reason of approaching expiration of enlistment or completion of tour of foreign service prior to 1 January 1929. It is recommended that these be included in those referred to in paragraph seven above, leaving about 123 available for transfer elsewhere within the brigade. ¶ 9. In my opinion, further reduction of personnel should depend upon the developments of the situation and upon the celerity with which the Guardia is able to take over the police functions of the Area. ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY."

6 September 1928.
Plan of Operations, Murra region, K. I. Buse, Managua, by direction of Northern Area Commander, Ocotal, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Gulkey's Camp [Enrique Gulke's Mahogany Camp, Río Poteca].

6 September 1928.
"Sandino Situation," Major Fred T. Cruse, Military Attaché, Tegucigalpa, to Secretary of State, Washington.  
"During the week evidence accumulated that no only Sandino, but most of his followers are now out of Nicaragua and in Honduras, but of course still close to the border. Sandino himself, with his usual small group, is near the Nicaraguan and of the Piedra Chata Trail. ¶ This trail starts at J. Amada Flores’ lumber camp, called Piedra Chata, on the Patuca River, and comes out on the Coco River near Bocay. The government here realizes that the matter is now largely up to them and as Sandino’s only possible source of supply or communication is the trail to Flores place, the President on Saturday ordered Flores brought here. ¶ The intention is to get into communication with Sandino through Flores, and try to get him out of Honduras as quickly and quietly as possible. The Government is perfectly willing to use force against him, but the prospect of a campaign in that region is simply appalling to consider. ¶ A messenger, the first since July 6th, came in on Aug. 23. We brought an unimportant letter from Sandino – no mention at all of the fight on the Poteca River, for instance – but the usual stuff about uprisings in Nicaragua. I reported the arrival of this messenger to General Pineda, and the police questioned him getting the information given in the first paragraph. ¶ Turcios is about ready to blow up. In addition to losing the income from his Ariel he gets no more Sandino funds from Mexico. He has made arrangements to have El Ariel published in Guatemala by J. Constantino Gonzales and in Salvador also, but I do not know yet by whom. The first issue from Salvador is expected in a few days."

7 September 1928 (0800).
Radiogram from Capt. Walker, Garrobo, to CO Northern Sector.

7 September 1928 (1012).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

7 September 1928 (1042).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

8 September 1928.
"Our Forecast = The Reaction," The Bluefields Weekly.

8 September 1928.
Civilian Prisoners, Report by Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Commander, Southern Sector, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"1. There are being transferred by Schooner Ultramar, under Marine guard, two prisoners, Johnson and Gallop, who are charged with violation of Nicaraguan law – recruiting Nicaraguan citizens for labor outside of Nicaragua without taking the necessary steps to obtain permission. ¶ 2. On the evening of 5 September, I was informed by the representative of the British Consul that these men were British subjects, that they were confirmed at the local Commandancia, and that he had been unable to ascertain what the charges were against them. I immediately called upon the Commandante who seemed very uncertain as to what law had been violated, or the provisions of the law, but in the course of my interview, stated that as a side issue he believed the money for the transportation of these laborers was being furnished by the Conservative Party, to the end that Liberal laborers would not be here to vote. He was unable to furnish any proof of this statement, nor to even offer any witnesses in support thereof. On the following morning the manager of the Bragmans Bluff Fruit & Lumber Company called upon me and stated that the men had been arrested at his request, as they were recruiting farm labor contrary to verbal agreement between them and himself, he having no objections to the orderly removal of carpenters, plumbers, masons, etc., as there was a surplus of this class of labor; whereas there was an acute shortage in farm labor. He stated further that these labors were being recruited for work on United Fruit Company projects. The witnesses he offered to substantiate his charges are all employees of his Company. ¶ 3. On the afternoon of the same day, the local Campaign Committee of the Conservative party came to my office and charged the local Commandante with intimidation of Conservative voters in that these men being friends of theirs, their arrest would frighten other Conservatives from consorting with members of the Campaign Committee. There was no evidence offered or obtainable as to either of the political charges, these charges being conclusions deduced by those making them. The charges were reported to Captain Best, Vice Chairman of the Electoral Board on this Coast, for such investigation as he saw fit to make. ¶ 4. Both Johnson and Gallop deny the charges. Gallop had prior to his arrest, posted at various points, in and around Rilway, a notice signed by himself, stating that he was not desirous of employing any labor for export. Johnson had prepared similar statement, but I cannot find evidence of it having been posted. ¶ 5. Both Johnson and Gallop are well known here. The former . . . "

8 September 1928.
Civilian Prisoners, Report by Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Commander, Southern Sector, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . possesses considerable influence among the Indians and the latter being somewhat of a leader among the West Indians. ¶ 6. From the information I have obtained, I believe the charges unfounded but consider it probable that the statement of these two men as to labor conditions at the place where they had been working for the United Fruit Company, has caused additional unrest here. I do not believe there is any political significance to be attached to their actions, nor to those of the Commandante who, I believe was inspired solely by the officials of the Fruit Company here, who in turn, have been much worried by the labor situation as regards farm labor, and very naturally look with considerable fear upon any aggression on the part of the United Fruit Company. ¶ 7. As stated above, these prisoners are not Military Prisoners, but it is desired that you bring their cases to the attention of the proper Guardia officials and use your influence with the Nicaraguan authorities to obtain for them a speedy and impartial trial. ¶ 8. A full report will be rendered in duplicate to this office in writing, of the action taken and of the result of their trial. ¶ HAROLD H. UTLEY, ¶ Major, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ Commander, Eastern Area."

8 September 1928 (1800).
Radiogram from Capt. Walker, Garrobo, to CO Northern Sector.

10 September 1928 (0932).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

12 September 1928 (0822).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

12 September 1928 (0913).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

 

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