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the atlantic coast  •  1931A, p. 3
April 1-22, 1931

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE THIRD PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the 22 days from April 1 to April 22.  In fact, so much was happening in these heady days of Gen. Pedro Blandón's assault on the environs of Puerto Cabezas that documents dated April 22 continue onto the next page.

     The collection opens with an excerpt from Gen. Blandón’s April 7 missive to Sandino describing his troops’ beheading of the Moravian missionary Otto Bregenzer (as published in Somoza’s El verdadero Sandino), which can be fruitfully read in tandem with the letter of Bregenzer’s widow Elizabeth (22 April).  The page combines a flurry of Marine-Guardia reports on the rebels’ attacks on Logtown, Moss Farm, Vacarro Farm & other foreign-owned properties on the outskirts of Puerto Cabezas; a series of reports from Marine-Guardia field officers on their counter-offensive on land & from the air; a string of telegrams between US Minister Hanna in Managua and Secretary of State Stimson in Washington (as published in the Foreign Relations of the United States series); and all extant documents from the EDSN side, including the original Juramento (Oath) required by Blandón of his troops, taken from his body along with several other EDSN documents.  Comparing & contrasting Sandino’s account of Blandón’s death (13 April) with Marine-Guardia versions, as these appears in various reports, offers a fascinating window on how each side saw & represented the unfolding struggle.

     Was the rebel offensive a success or failure?  The answer, as it emerges from these & later documents, is ambiguous:  while the EDSN failed to take Puerto Cabezas or any other major town, their surprise offensive did spark a major shift in US policy, prompting Stimson to announce that US military forces could no longer guarantee the lives or properties of US citizens in Nicaragua.  Key synopses of events include Major Mitchell’s report on the use of air power to repel the rebel assault (14 April) and the 11-page report by Capt. Wood (22 April) — though even more detailed & revealing accounts will emerge in the weeks & months to come.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

7 April 1931.
Report from Gen. Pedron Blandón, his camp, to Gen. A. C. Sandino, Cuartel General.  
From Anastasio Somoza Garcia, El verdadero Sandino o el calvario de Las Segovias (1936), pp. 220-21.  "MISIONERO MORAVO QUE CAE EN PODER DE PEDRO BLANDÓN ¶ Existe en la Costa Atlántica una institución religiosa llamada Misión Morava, integrada por virtuosos sacerdotes de distintas nacionalidades: suecos, alemanes, ingleses, etc. La sede de la Referida Misión se encuentra en Puerto Cabezas y la cabeza principal es el Reverendo Grossman, quien dirige las actividades espirituales de los Pastores y asociados. Estos Misioneros son enviados a desempeñar su evangélica labor de catequizar a los zambos e indígenas que pueblan las riberas del río Coco, lo que han hecho con magnífico resultado. En tales labores se encontraba el reverendo Otto Brezenger [Bregenzer] cuando cayó en poder del cabecilla sandinista Pedro Blandón, quien por ese tiempo había invadido la Costa Atlántica con sus fuerzas. ¶ Oigamos el relato, todo él desposeído de verdad, que hace Blandón a Sandino, con fecha 7 de Abril de 1931, acerca de la captura y muerte del infortunado misionero, respetando su ortografía original: ¶ “El 30 de marzo salimos de San Pedro de Pis Pis, y llegamos el 31 del mismo a Musaguaz donde encontramos un hombre que los zumos le dicen Padre, el cual era un reportero del Jefe de la Guardia de las minas y de Puerto Cabezas quien les daba informe de todas las operaciones desarrolladas por nuestras fuerzas en esas regiones. ¶ Preguntado por mí, revestido con toda la autoridad que me caracteriza, que cual era su misión en nuestro territorio, contestó que los indios zumos habían enviado una acta firmada por todos ellos pidiendo al gobierno de Estados Unidos de Norte América, que les diera quien los instruyese porque aquí no había quien los civilizara, y entonces el macabro gobierno de EE.UU. de N.A. lo había mandado a él. ¶ Este era un miserable engañador a los indios y por lo tanto los tenia oprimidos y los explotaba de una manera tan brutal, que al instante que recibimos los informes de la conducta de él no pude menos que MANDAR SEPARAR LA CABEZA DEL CUERPO. Se llamaba Kabrigenser [Bregenzer], de nacionalidad norteamericana pues le encontramos sus credenciales, pasaportes y demás documentos pertenecientes a él, donde no nos quedó duda que era Americano. ¶ Todo lo útil para nuestro Ejército ordenamos que se trajera, y quemamos la casa que era propiedad de ese cabrón.” ¶ Es de creer que el relato anterior no es más que para justificar el crimen cometido en la persona de un hombre esencialmente pacífico, perteneciente a la Misión Morava, que como es sabido de todos los nicaragüenses, no se inmiscuye en asuntos políticos. Hemos de observar también que el Reverendo Brezenger [Bregenzer] no era Americano sino de nacionalidad alemana siendo falso por consiguiente que se le haya encontrado papeles que justificaran el aserto de Blandón. El Rvdo. Brezenger [Bregenzer] murió con el crucifijo en una mano y el Evangelio en la otra, mientras en sus labios sólo hubo palabras de perdón para sus fieros victimarios. ¶ Más adelante, en el mismo documento transcrito, da a conocer Blandón a Sandino, su modo de proceder en los Minerales de “Neptuno”, haciendo sin necesidad daños incalculable al pais entero. Dice así: ¶ “Se me había olvidado informarle que el motor del dinamo que movía todas las máquinas de la Mina de “El Neptuno” ordenamos romperlo con dinamita y así sucedió quedó en escombros y está paralizado el trabajo de dichas minas.” ¶ Pareciera que se tratara de dejar sin trabajo a la gente para hallar una forma de encontrar prosélitos, obligados por la necesidad. ¶ LA PROTESTA DEL MINISTRO DE ALEMANIA POR LA MUERTE DEL MISIONERO BREZENGER ¶ Para que se conozca la verdadera nacionalidad del misionero muerto por Blandón, desmintiéndose de manera enfática lo dicho por el cabecilla Sandinista, véase la nota enviada a nuestra Cancillería: ¶ Legación de Alemania en Centroamérica y Panamá, Guatemala , 17 de Abril de 1931. Sr. Ministro: . . . "

7 April 1931.
Report on Formation of a Bluefields branch of the Liberal Military League.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua.

12 April 1931.
List of Foreign Civilians Killed Near Puerto Cabezas (no author), from Commander Special Service Squadron, USS Rochester, ca. 12 April.

12 April 1931.
Gen. Pedro Blandón, Nominación en Favor del Hermano y Compañero Capitan Tarcisio Hundel Comandante de La Policía de la Hacienda Moss.  


12 April 1931.
Gen. Pedro Blandón, Juramento (two images, n.d.).  
 "Juramento Para Abanderados y Ayudantes de Bandera - "Jurais por vuestro Honor Militar, y para honra de nuestra Patria, defender la Bandera que flamea en nuestra Columna, aún a costa a tus propias vidas?  R. Si, juro.  Si así lo hicereis la Justicia Divina ós premiará y si no ós castigará.  En vuestros manos entrego el tesoro más sagrado que tiene nuestra Amada Nicaragua."

Source:  NA127/E38/Box 30.   Scan of photocopy of original, stamped "Bandit Correspondence," captured by Capt. Wood, taken from body of Blandón.   NOTE:  This version is different than that appearing in Alejandro Bendaña, La mística de Sandino (Managua, 1994), Doc. 8, p. 190, which reads as follows:  "Juran por su Honor Militar y por el honor de nuestro país defender la bandera que ondea en nuestra Columna, incluso al costo de sus propias vidas?  Respondan: Si, lo juro.  Si así lo hicieran, la Divina Justicia nos reconocerá y si no los castigará.  En sus manos entregó el tesoro más sagrado que tiene nuestra querida Nicaragua."  In light of these differences, it seems likely that Bendaña's is a Spanish translation of an English translation of the Spanish original.

13 April 1931.
Circular (on death of Gen. Pedro Blandón).  Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN (2 images).
   "LA CAIDA DEL GENERAL PEDRO BLANDON ¶ 186 Circular (13 de abril de 1931) ¶ Circular a nuestros Jefes Expedicionarios y demas autoridades pertenecienes a nuestro Ejercito. ¶ Con la intencion de que todos los miembros de nuestro Ejercito conozcan el desarrollo de nuestras operaciones militares en los diferentes sectores del pais, me permito dirigirles la presente circular: ¶ Fuerzas nuestras al mando de los generales Pedro Altamirano, Israel Peralta, Pedro Antonio Irias, Pedro Blandon y el coronel Abraham Rivera, han recorrido nuestra Costa Atlantica desde el mes de febrero del corriente ano, con gran exito. ¶ Ultimamente, el hermano general Pedro Blandon, con una poderosa columna, libro en Puerto Cabezas cuatro renidos y sangrientso combates contra el enemigo, a los que avanzo muchos elementos de Guerra y otros de utilidad para nuestro Ejercito. ¶ En los combates anteriores el general Blandon habia logrado fusilar once Yankees y quince guardias nacionales, despues de desarmarlos, pues los fusilados iban huyendo despues de desalojarlos de sus posiciones por nuestras fuerzas. ¶ Nuestras fuerzas fueron ametralladas y bombardeadas por los avione de Guerra que tienen los Yankees en sus barcos, que recorren los mares de Nicaragua. ¶ Cuando las fuerzas de infanteria del enemigo habian sido deshechas por las nuestras, estallo una bomba de los aviones y puso fin a la vida de nuestro querido hermano general Pedro Blandon. La misma bomba mato al joven Tomas Blandon, sobrino del general. ¶ Un golpe mortal, terrible, se sintio en nuestra columna al sucumbir el general Blandon, pero nadie desmayo y antes bien se condujeron al Cabo de Gracias, en donde se tomaron el Puerto y destruyeron la Radio. Tomaron todo cuanto pudieron tomar. ¶ Pocas horas despues fue tambien bombardeado el Cabo por los aviones de Guerra del enemigo, pero no hubieron bajas de nuestra parte. ¶ Quedo de primer jefe de la columna expedicionaria que opero a las ordenes de Blandon, el hermano coronel Juan Santos Morales. ¶ Cuartel General del Ejercito Defensor de la Soberania Nacional de Nicaragua, mayo 4 de 1931. ¶ Patria y Libertad ¶ A. C. SANDINO."

1.     14 April 1931.
Operations of Marine Corps planes from Managua on East Coast during bandit activities April 12-14, Major R. J. Mitchell, Managua, p. 1.   
"The following report covers the operations of Marine Corps planes from Managua from April 12 to 14 on the East Coast during bandit activities there: ¶ “United States Marine Corps, Headquarters, ¶ Aircraft Squadrons, Second Brigade, ¶ Managua, Nicaragua, 14 April 1931. ¶ Report of Plane Patrol to Puerto Cabezas ¶ Two observation landplanes, Lieutenants Young and Jack pilots, left Managua at 0?10, Sunday, 12 April, arriving Puerto Cabezas at 1030. The planes were gassed and information was obtained as to the probable location of the bandits. At 1140 the two planes left on patrol, and headed for a large cloud of smoke, which could be seen in the distance at approximately the place at which Lieutenant Darrah and his patrol of twenty-two men were supposed to be located. ¶ Upon reaching the smoke, several houses were found on fire but no bandits could be located. These houses were located on a three-mile long railroad spur, at the junction of which and the main line Lieut. Darrah and his patrol were found. They appeared in good shape and motioned in the direction of the burning houses. The planes proceeded to search this area very thoroughly, dropping bombs on suspicious looking places, but were unable to route out any bandits. In the meanwhile Lieut. Darrah took his patrol down the entire length of the spur, searching every house and box car, but met with no success, and finally signaled the planes that no bandits could be found. Upon seeing these signals, the planes returned immediately to Puerto Cabezas where food and ammunition was obtained and put up in sacks. ¶ Upon loading these sacks in the planes, they took off and followed the Sisin train for about forty minutes. Lieut. Benson G.N., who was acting as observer in Lieut. Young’s plane, had received information earlier in the afternoon—it was then 1555—that a group of bandits were reported having been seen on the above mentioned trail. Nothing, however, was found and the planes finally turned back and headed for Darrah and his patrol. When they found him, he had crossed the railroad at Moss farm (Snaki) and was replacing rails which the bandits had torn up during the preceeding night. Lieut. Young made a drop to him, stating that both planes had food and ammunition for him and requested a signal as to where the drops were to be made. Darrah motioned down the track in the direction of Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Report of Plane patrol to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Thinking that he meant a short way down the track, the planes circled about until Darrah and his patrol repaired the tracks sufficiently to allow the passage of two gasoline railcars, boarded these cars and got underway. The planes followed these cars for over ten minutes, during which time no effort or signal whatever was made to receive the drops, Lieut. Young, believing that Lieut. Darrah was going all the way into Puerto Cabezas and did not want the drops returned to that town and dropped the food and ammunition over the side at the field, before landing, the field was too soft and wet to warrant making (---) (---) [...]"

2.     14 April 1931.
Operations of Marine Corps planes from Managua on East Coast during bandit activities April 12-14, Major R. J. Mitchell, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...]The morning of the thirteenth, both planes left the field at Pueto Cabezas 0940 and headed straight for Moss farm where contact was to be made with Capt. Wood, G.N., and his patrol. Upon reaching Moss farm, nothing could be seen of Wood, so the planes split, Lieut. Jack heading north in the direction of Logtown and Lieut . Young in the opposite diection. Young found Wood and his outfit, which included Darrah and hs patrol, about five miles south of Moss farm. Young proceeded to escort Wood as far as the latter place. Wood’s train could not go any farther because of a burning trestle—more work of the bandits. ¶ In the meantime, Lieut. Jack had followed the railroad as far as Logtown where he saw a group of about eight bandits loading horses with bundles. Upon seeing the plane, the bandits dispersed, a few running into some of the remaining houses- had been burned to the ground-and the others into the surrounding brush. Jack dropped bombs and opened up with his machine gun immediately but was unable to tell what effect they had. ¶ After having expended all of his bombs, Lieut. Jack flew back to where Lieut. Young was circling, gave the information signal and returned to Logtown with Young following. ¶ No bandits were in sight but about twenty-five saddled horses could be seen wandering about, so Young decided to kill these, thereby hampering the bandits to some extent. ¶ After having killed two the idea occurred to Young that it might be possible for Capt Wood and his patrol to capture these well equipped animals and make good use of them, especially in view of the fact that it would be necessary for Wood to hike all the way from the burned trestle at Moss farm to Logtown. ¶ Young then flew over to Capt Wood at Moss farm, leaving Jack over Logtown to keep a sharp lookout for any bandits who might try to leave the vicinity, and made a drop to Wood describing the situation and advising a forced march to Logtown, one plane to guard him all the way and the other to keep a lookout at Logtown. Young then returned to Logtown to carry out the latter mission while Jack went back to Wood and stayed with him until he entered Logtown, an hour and three-quarters later. ¶ Upon entering the town, the Guardia patrol found that things were as they had been surmised-some bandits were in houses and others on the outskirts of the town hiding in the brush and apparently waiting for the planes to leave so that they might regain their horses. ¶ As the patrol entered the town, Young flew very low in an effort to determine the location of the bandits from puffs of smoke, from their rifles. They apparently, were using smokeless powder, for no smoke whatever could be seen, and the only indication that Young had of the approximate location of the bandits was the direction in which he Guardia were pointing their rifles. From this, it was possible to estimate the location of the bandits and Young dropped bombs at where he thought the bandits were hidden. ¶ The ground contact lasted thirty-five minutes, during which eight bandits were killed and two known wounded.[...]"

3.     14 April 1931.
Operations of Marine Corps planes from Managua on East Coast during bandit activities April 12-14, Major R. J. Mitchell, Managua, p. 3.   
"[...] Seeing that Capt Wood and his patrol had the situation well in hand, and the gas running low in the planes, Young and Jack returned to Puerto Cabezas landing at 1415. ¶ Later on that same day, information of a group of bandits on the railroad about twenty miles from Puerto Cabezas was received and the planes took off again at 1750 and patrolled until 1820, during which a message for Lieut. Benson at Guardia Headquarters, Puerto Cabezas, was dropped to a Mr. Lehman at Wawa Boom. ¶ At five o’clock the following morning, Tuesday 14 April, Lieut. Young received a phone call from Lieut. Benson, requesting a plane patrol at once in the immediate vicinity of Puerto Cabezas, word having been received that the bandits were very close. Young dressed immediately and hurried to Guardia headquarters where he met Lieut . Jack. Benson, in the meanwhile, had gone down to the steamer dock and did not return until about 0630. Upon reaching Headquarters, he told Young and Jack that he had talked with Capt. Wood by phone. The latter was then at Wawa Boom with an engine, a couple of flat cars and a box car. Benson wrote a message for Wood, which he turned over to Young with a request that it be dropped to Wood. Benson also stated that Wood had a message for him and asked that it be picked up by one of the planes. ¶ Both planes took off from Puerto Cabezas at 0720 and flew along the railroad to Wawa Boom, where Capt Wood and his patrol were located. On the way a railroad trestle about fifteen miles out of Puerto Cabezas was found in flames. ¶ Benson’s note was dropped to Capt Wood and the latter’s message was successfully picked up. In his message Capt Wood stated he would return to Puerto Cabezas with his patrol in a motor launch, which was then tied up at the dock at Wawa Boom. The planes then returned to Puerto Cabezas without having seen any bandits, although their possible location was denoted by the trestle as being approximately fifteen miles from Puerto Cabezas. The planes landed at 0810. ¶ The crews of the planes then had breakfast, after which Lieuts. Young and jack went aboard the Asheville to call on Comdr. Waddell and give him a clear estimate of the situation while the mechanics serviced the two planes. ¶ Comdr. Waddell prepared a report for Admiral Smith and turned it over to Lieut. Young for delivery. Immediately after this, the pilots went out to the flying field, warmed up their planes, and took off at 155 for Managua, arriving there at 1440 after an uneventul flight. ¶ /s/ R. J. MITCHELL, ¶ Major, USMC."

14 April 1931.
Message from Lt. Col. W. C. Wise, Jr., Managua, to US Minister Matthew E. Hanna, US Legation, Managua.  
"The following code message from Commander, Special Service Squadron to Chief Naval Operations was received by this office today, and is quoted for your information: "0014 RECOMMEND ASHEVILLE BE AUTHORIZED PUT LANDING FORCE ASHORE PUERTO CABEZAS 0415""

15 April 1931.
Patrol Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields.   
"15 April 1931 ¶ From: First Lieutenant William W Benson, GN. ¶ To: The Department Commander. ¶ Subject: Patrol Report. ¶ 1. A patrol consisting of myself, Second Lieutenant Leonard Cursey, and twenty enlisted Guardia cleared Puerto Cabezas at 0630 for reconnaissance of the Puerto Cabezas—Wawa boom Area. ¶ 2. The patrol searched each side of the railroad track from Kilometer 1 to Kilometer 26 for traces of bandits. At Kilometer 19, where the railroad makes a sharp turn to the right, a position was found which indicated that a bandit group of about twenty men had been in ambush there. Along the top of the bank to the left grooves had been cut and outlines of prone men were found. Decayed food, cigarette butts, imprints of new rubber-soled and hob-nailed shoes, such as were included in the loots from the robbed commissary were found at this place. A freshly cut trail through the adjacent brush indicated the route of approach and departure to and from this ambush. The various small Indian settlements along the railroad line were searched and found deserted, but no damage appeared to have been done. At Kilometer 21 a railroad bridge had been burned and traffic blocked hereby. At Kilometer 26 a group, of about 75mIndian refugees was met on the railroad track. These people had left Kipla, Plato, and other farms in the Vance District and were returning to their homes along the coast. ¶ 3. Indians at Kilometer 24, who had come in from Ayupini Sissin and other towns to the North were questioned regarding bandit activities in those localities. Bandit groups had been in Auyupini and Sisin, but had left on the morning of April 14. ¶ 4. It is believed that the Puerto Cabezas-Wawa Boom Area is free from Bandits. ¶ (signed) W. W. BENSON"

15 April 1931.
Extract from Reports from Eastern Area Regarding Operations Against Bandits: (Death of Blandon)," no author, summary of events near Puerto Cabezas, April 11-15, 1931, p. 1.

15 April 1931.
Extract from Reports from Eastern Area Regarding Operations Against Bandits: (Death of Blandon)," no author, summary of events near Puerto Cabezas, April 11-15, 1931, p. 2.

16 April 1931.
"Operations Against Bandits in Eastern Area," Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 44, pp. 17-18, p. 1.   
"OPERATIONS AGAINST BANDITS IN EASTERN AREA. ¶ On April 11, 1931, Captain H. Pefley, G.N., commanding Puerto Cabezas, cleared Puerto Cabezas with a small guardia patrol to investigate rumor of some trouble at Logtown (approximately 60 miles from Puerto Cabezas on the Lumber Company’s railroad). Upon arrival at Logtown the Guardia patrol was fired at and Captain Pefley was killed and one guardia wounded. The Guardia patrol fought off the assailants and drove them in the direction of the Coco River. Captain Pefley’s body was recovered and taken to Puerto Cabezas, Lieut. Darrah and Puerto Cabezas guardia patrol then cleared in pursuit. Another guardia patrol cleared at night to assist. ¶ On April 12, it was reported that Lieut. Darrah and his patrol were surrounded at Moss Farm, south of Logtown, after all night fight with armed outlaws of unknown number and identity but apparently well armed with plentiful supply of ammunition. No Guardia casualties. The U.S.S. Asheville was ordered to proceed to Puerto Cabezas. Marine planes cleared Managua to assist. Captain Wood arrived Puerto Cabezas from Bluefield and cleared with Lieut. Simmer and guardia patrol to reinforce Darrah. ¶ Last report received April 12 indicated Darrah with patrol in good condition at Wakinwas interposing himself between Puerto Cabezas and Blandon group at Snaki. Definitely known tht Blandon with 75 men well armed were present. ¶ On April 13 planes returned Puerto Cabezas. Report that Captain Wood’s patrol was escorted across Saki bridge and found Moss Farm bridge burned. Guardia marched to Cuyutigny where they captured supply train from bandits. Contact lasted 35 minutes. Known dead bandits left on field eight and 2 wounded. One guardia slightly wounded. The following message was received after the contact: [...]"

16 April 1931.
"Operations Against Bandits in Eastern Area," Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 44, pp. 17-18, p. 2.   
"[...] Telegram from Bluefields, to jefe Director, GN., Managua. April 15, 1931. “Following received from Wood quote My 18413 Apr correction scratch out Pedron Altamirano to correct error over long distance telephone period The Jefe killed at Logtown was in neat complete uniform puttees black and red neckerchief rather short stature under middle age black pompadour hair squarely built body armed with a forty five and broad bladed sword period I took following papers from his person colon one typewritten letter dated February twenty one addressed to Senor General Blandon entreating and ordering him to report to Headquarters comma one typewritten quote Credencial de Representante personal de esa Jefatura Suprema a favor del hermano Jefe Expedicionario de Nuestro Ejercito General Pedro Blandon en jira militar a nuestra costa Atlantica unquote dated sixteen March both signed A.C. Sandino and his seal and obvious originals period Also one order with Pedro Blandon’s official signature period Natives in vicinity Logtown stated the jefe killed was Pedro Blandon- 08015 April 31 Wood unquote 09015 April 31 MARSTON.” ¶ It is apparent that Pedro Blandon was killed in the contact. Lieut. Benson and patrol returned from Wawaboom-Puerto Cabezas region and reported no bandit activities. ¶ On April 16 Lieut. Darrah, Lieut. Curcey and Puerto Cabezas Guardia patrol cleard Puerto Cabezas for New Vance Tract to disperse 60 local robbers, armed with pistols and machetes. Patrol returned on April 17 with 18 of the group and considerable plunder. ¶ The first Sergeant of the Guardia post at Neptune Mine reported the capture of a spy from the Blandon group and that the spy was shot and killed while trying to escape. THE END"

17 April 1931.
Radiogram from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"RADIOGRAM ¶ FROM : THE JEFE DIRECTOR, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA ¶ TO: THE AREA COMMANDER, EASTERN AREA. ¶ MANAGUA, 17 APRIL 1931. ¶ THE JEFE DIECTOR CONGRATULATES COLONEL MARSTON ALL OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN OF THE EASTERN AREA FOR THE SPLENDID PERFORMANCE OF DUTY IN THE RECENT OPERATIONS AGAINST ORGANIZED BANDITS IN THAT AREA PERIOD IT IS DESIRED TO ESPECIALLY COMMEND THE MEMBERS OF CAPTAIN PEFLEYS PATROL FOR THEIR AGGRESSIVENESS AND COURAGE AFTER THEIR LEADER HAD BECOME A CASUALTY AND FOR THEIR ESPRIT DE CORPS DEMONSRATED BY THE RECOVERY OF THEIR LEADERS BODY AND ITS CONDUIT TO PUERTO CABEZAS COMMA LIEUT DARRAH AND HIS PATROL FOR THE EXHIBITION OF COURAGE DISPLAYED IN PURSUING AND ENGAGING A FORCE SO MUCH LARGER THAN THEIR OWN AND LATER THEIR WORK IN CAPTURING LOCAL ROBBERS AND PLUNDER COMMA CAPTAIN WOOD FOR HIS ENERGY SKILL COURAGE AND JUDGMENT WHICH ENABLED HIM TO INFLICT SEVERE LOSSES ON THE BANDITS INCLUDING THE DEATH OF ONE OF THE FOREMOST JEFES PEDRON BLANDON COMMA FIRST SERGEANT PERRERA FOR HIS INITIATIVE JUDGMENT AND DEVOTION TO DUTY IN THE CAPTURE OF THE BLANDON SPY AT NEPTUNE MINE AND COLONEL MARSTON AREA COMMANDER FOR HIS COOL CAREFUL HANDLING OF THE SITUATION AND THE HIGHLY SATISFACTORY MANNER [...]"

17 April 1931.
Radiogram from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- ¶ IN WHICH HE EMPLOYED HIS COMMAND DURING THE TENSE AND THREATENING SITUATION PERIOD IT IS DIRECED THAT THE AREA COMMANDER PUBLISH THIS DISPTATCH TO THE ENTIRE COMMAND AND CIRCULATE TO ALL MEMBERS THE JEFE DIRECTORS PERSONAL AS WELL AS OFFICIAL APPRECIATION FOR THEIR EXCELLENT SERVICES PERIOD 15317 APRIL 31 ¶ MATTHEWS"

17 April 1931.
Memo from Capt. J. C. Wood, Bluefields, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.  
Re mandador Louisiana Farm Austin Murphy.

17 April 1931.
Memo from Capt. J. C. Wood, Bluefields, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.  
Re mandador Louisiana Farm Austin Murphy.

19 April 1931.
Memo from Matthew E. Hanna, American Minister Managua, to Gen. Calvin Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua.   
"Managua, April 19, 1931 ¶ My dear General Matthews: ¶ I have just received the following telegram dated April 18 from the German Charge d’Affaires in Guatemala city: ¶ “German Consul Bluefields telegraphs 20 Germans are in risk of life today in Puerto Cabezas German missionary was killed yesterday in Department Prinzapolka Permit me to appeal to your humanitarian sentiments requesting of you possible military aid in favor countrymen in danger Sincere thanks.” ¶ I have replied as follows: “I have your telegram concerning the alleged dangers threatening a number of german citizens in Puerto Cabezas and I will bring the matter immediately to the attention of the appropriate authorities here and inform them of your request for aid.” ¶ I am bringing this to your attention in fulfillment of statement made in my foregoing telegram. ¶ I am, my dear General Matthews, ¶ Sincerely yours, (signed) Matthew E. Hanna ¶ American Minister. ¶ Brigadier General Calvin Matthews, G.N., ¶ Commanding Guardia Nacional of Nicaragua, ¶ Managua"

1.  20 April 1931.
Radiogram from Henry L. Stimson, Washington DC., to M. E. Hanna, US Legation Managua, p. 1.   
"US NAVAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE ¶ MANAGUA NICARAGUA APRIL 20 1931 ¶ FROM: STIMSON WASHINGTON DC ¶ TO GOVT STATE AMERICAN LEGATION MANAGUA NICAARAGUA ¶ GOVT STATE AMLEGATION MANAGUA ¶ NINETY TWENTIETH FOLLOWING STATEMENT ISSUED TO THE PRESS BY THE SECRETARY ON APRIL EIGHTEENTH QUOTE THE PROBLEM BEFORE THE GOVERNMENT TODAY IS NOT A PROBLEM OF THE PROTECTION OF ITS CITIZENS IN NICARAGUA FROM A WAR BUT FROM MURDER AND ASSASSINATION IN THAT RESPECT IT IS TOTALLY DIFFERENT FROM THE PROBLEM WHICH EXISTED IN 1926. IN 1926 TWO ARMIES CONSISTING OF TWO OR THREE THOUSAND MEN EACH WERE FIGHTING IN NICARAGUA ON THE EAST COAST BOTH ARMIES PROFESSED TO BE CARRYING OUT THE RULES OF WARFARE AND TO BE PROTECTING NEUTRALS AND NEUTRAL PROPERTY SO THE PROBLEM OF THIS GOVERNMENT WAS SOLVED BY ESTABLISHING NEUTRAL ZONES IN WHICH BY AGREEMENT WITH BOTH ARMIES AT THAT TIME HOSTILITES DID NOT ENTER THESE NEUTRAL ZONES AS I RECALL IT WERE ESTABLISHED WITH A CONSENT OF BOTH LIBERALS AND CONSERVATIVES COMMANDERS OF THE CONTENDING ARMIES THERE WAS NO ORGANIZED ATTEMPT TO MURDER PRIVATE CITIZENS OF ANY COUNTRY THE PROBLEM WAS ONLY TO PROTEC THEM FROM THE INEVITABLE CATASTROPHE OF THE WAR WE NOW HAVE SITUATION WHERE SMALL GROUPS OF CONFESSED OUTLAWS TREATED AS OUTLAWS BY THE NICARAGUAN GOVERNMENT ON MAKING THEIR WAY THROUGH THE JUNGLES TO THE EAST COAST WITH THE AVOWED INTENTION OF MURDERING AND PILLAGING THE CIVILIAN INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTRY THE TERRAIN WHERE THIS IS TAKING PLACE IS ONE OF THE THICKEST [...]"

2.  20 April 1931.
Radiogram from Sec. State Henry L. Stimson, Washington DC., to M. E. Hanna, US Legation Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] SHEET TWO CONTD ¶ JUNGLES IN THE WORLD THE RAIN FALL IN THE EAST COAST OF NICARAGUA IS SOMETHING MORE THAN DOUBLE THE RAINFALL ON THE WEST COAST AND AS A RESULT THIS IS VERY THICK JUNGLE COUNTRY A REGION WHERE IT WOLD BE ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE FOR REGULAR TROOPS TO OPERATE EFFECTIVELY EVEN IF IT WERE ATTEMPTED ANOTHER POINT OF DIFFERENCE WHICH IS VITAL AS THAT IN 1926 THERE WAS NO NICARAGUA CONSTABULARY SINCE THAT TIME FOR NEARLY FOUR YEARS OUR OFFICERS HAVE BEEN HELPING THE NICARAGUAN GOVERNMENT TRAIN FORCES OF CONSTABULARY ESPECIALLY FOR FIGHTING IN THIS KIND OF TERRAIN THE VERY OBJECT BEING TO PRODUCE THE MOST APPROPRIATE KIND OF FORCE TO MEET TROPICAL AND JUNGLE CONDITIONS OF WAR FARE THAT FORCE HAS BEEN RECENTLY RAISED FROM 1850 TO OVER 2100 AND IS REPORTED BY ITS OFFICERS AS BEING HIGHLY EFFICIENT PURELY FROM A STANDPOINT OF PROTECTION THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAS TO PROTECT THE AMERICANS AND FOREIGN CIVILIANS WHO HAD BEEN SUDDENLY EXPOSED TO THIS DANGER IN THE FORESTS OF EASTERN NICARGUA IS TO GIVE THEM WARNING OF THE DANGER AND AN OPPORTUNITY TO ESCAPE TO THE PROTECTION OF THE COAST TOWNS AND THEN FOR THIS SPECIALLY TRAINED CONSTABULARY TO OPERATE IN THE JUNGLE AGAINST THE BANDITS IF THE NUMBER OF CONSTABULARY NOW ON THE EAST COAST IS NOT SUFFICIENT FOR THAT PURPOSE THERE ARE CERTAINLY ENOUGH ELSEWHERE TO REINFORCE THEM AGAINST THESE COMPARATIVELY SMALL BANDITS OUTLAWS AMERICAN NAVAL VESSELS ARE STANDING BY AT ALL THE THREATENED EAST COAST PORTS WITH ORDERS TO PROTECT LIFE AND PROPERTY AT THESE PORTS THESE SHIPS WILL REMAIN UNTIL THE DANGER IS OVER BY ASSSISTING THE GOVERNMENT OF NICARGUA IN ORGANIZING AND TRAINING A COMPETENT GUARDIA WE ARE NOT ONLY FURNISHING THE MOST PRACTICABLE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD OF MEETING THE BANDIT PROBLEMS AND THE PROTECTION OF [...]"

3.  20 April 1931.
Radiogram from Sec. State Henry L. Stimson, Washington DC., to M. E. Hanna, US Legation Managua, p. 3.   
"[...] SHEET THREE CONTD ¶ AMERICANS AND FOREIGNERS IN NICARAGUA FROM ITS ATTENDANT PERILS BUT WE ARE AT THE SAME TIME RECOGNIZING THAT IT IS A PROBLEM WITH WHICH THE SOVEREIGN GOVERNMENT OF NICARAGUA IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED AND A PROBLEM WHICH IT IS PRIMARILY THE RIGHT DUTY OF THAT GOVERNMENT TO SOLVE THERE HAS BEEN NO CHANGE IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT NOT TO SEND AMERICAN TROOPS INTO THE INTERIOR THE EVENTS OF THIS LAST WEEK HAVE PRETTY THOROUGHLY TORN THE MASK OFF THE CHARACTER OF THE MYTHICAL PATRIOT SANDINO TWO OF HIS LTS HAVE BEEN RECOGNIZED AS LEADERS OF THESE OUTLAWS BANDS AND BOTH FROM THEIR WORK AND FROM THE EVIDENCE OF CAPTURED PAPERS THEY ARE SHOWN TO HAVE BEEN ENGAGED IN A DELIBERATE PLAN OF ASSASSINATION AND PILLAGE AGAINST HELPLESS CIVILIANS OF VARIOUS NATIONALITIES INCLUDING NICARAGUANS WORKING IN MINES AND LOGGING CAMPS THE MOVEMENTS OF THESE OUTLAWS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN PROVINCES TO THE EASTERN COAST OF NICARAGUA CAME JUST AFTER THE TERRIFIC EARTHQUAKE WHICH PROSTRATED THE CENTER OF THAT COUNTRY WHEN EVER HUMANE IMPULSE WAS TO ASSIST THOSE WHO WERE SUFFFERING FROM THAT CATASTROPHE AND WHEN FORCES INCLUDING MARINES AND CONSTABULARY WERE ENGAGED IN THE ELEVATION OF DISTRESS IT WAS IN THE HOUR OF HIS COUNTRY DESOLATION AND SANDINO CHOSE TO SEND HIS OUTLAWS ACROSS THE COUNTRY TO ATTACK THE REGION WHICH HE BELIEVED TO BE LEFT UNGUARDED UNQUOTE ¶ STIMSON"

1.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 1.  
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 804-05.

13 April (1500) telegram Rowe to Stimson.
14 April (1500) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 1).

2.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 2.  
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 806-07.

•   14 April (1500) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 2).
•   14 April (2000) telegram Stimson to Hanna.
•   16 April (1800) telegram Stimson to Hanna (pt 1)

3.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 3.  
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 808-09.

•   16 April (1800) telegram Stimson to Hanna (pt 2)
•   16 April (1900) telegram Stimson to Hanna.
  "In view of outbreak of banditry in portions of Nicaragua hitherto free from such violence you will advise American citizens that this Government cannot undertake general protection of Americans throughout that country with American forces. To do so would lead to difficulties and commitments which this Government does not propose to undertake. Therefore, the Department recommends to all Americans who do not feel secure under the protection afforded them by the Nicaraguan Government through the Nicaraguan National Guard to withdraw from the country, or at leas to the coast towns whence they can be protected or evacuated in case of necessity. Those who remain do so at their own risk and must not expect American forces to be sent inland to their aid."
•   17 April (1800) telegram Rowe to Stimson
•   17 April (2000) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 1)

4.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 4.  
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 810-11.

•   17 April (2000) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 2)
•   17 April (2200) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 1)

5.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 5. 
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 812-813.

•   17 April (2200) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 2)
•   18 April (1400) telegram Stimson to Rowe
•   18 April (1500) telegram Stimson to Hanna

•   18 April (1600) telegram Rowe to Stimson
•   19 April (2000) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 1)

6.  20 April 1931.
Assistance by the US Marines in the Suppression of Bandit Activities in Nicaragua.   Sec. State Henry Stimson (Wash DC), American Minister Matthew Hanna (Managua), Vice Consul Rowe (Bluefields), various telegrams, p. 6. 
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. 2 (Wash DC: GPO, 1946), pp. 814-15.

•   19 April (2000) telegram Hanna to Stimson (pt 2)
•   20 April (1300) telegram Stimson to Hanna
•   20 April letter Stimson to Hanna with press statement (first part)

21 April 1931.
Intelligence Report from Neptune Mine.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN.

1.     22 April 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Tuburus on the Wawa River, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"Dr. S. H. Gapp ¶ Bethlehem, Pa. ¶ Dear Bro. Gapp: ¶ How shall I begin to tell you what has befallen us! Whether any word has reached you I do not know. On Mar. 31st about 10 AM the alarm came “The Spaniards are coming” and in haste each took up a few necessary things and started for the bush. Br. Bregenzer however would not go with us. He had the assurance of Heb. 13:6 and his last word to me was: “The Lord God is still alive”. We then made our way to a hidden camp in the bush previously prepared for just such an emergency, and later some of Sumu men found us and took us still further away for they had been watching from the bush and they thought it wiser. They said our house was full of Spaniards and the whole village overrun with bandits, many Miskitos and Sumus among them. ¶ In the late afternoon one of our helpers came to us. He had been caught on the river by the bandits and brought to Musawas a prisoner. About 2 PM he had been taken to our house where he saw and spoke with Br. Bregenzer, who was tied on one arm and being led around by a guard while the . . . "

2.     22 April 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Tuburus on the Wawa River, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.  
". . . bandits were spoiling our goods. In his free left hand he had a Spanish New Testament from which he read and proclaimed the Gospel though they told him to keep still for they didn’t want to hear. Then this helper (Everesto) who was prisoner was given a machete (a huge knife) in his hand and told to kill Br. B. with it but he refused and then they said – “alright then you must die too for you are his friend” and taking him outside they would have done so but were taken by surprise when he made a dash for freedom and though they threw knives and shot pistols and guns after him he got away safely. ¶ We slept in the open that night and next day went still deeper into the bush and there in the evening another helper found us bringing news of what was taking place. When I asked him what news of Br. B. he answered: “Yesterday afternoon they buried him”. Not till several days later did we find out facts and they are not in detail for those of our Sumus who remained in the village were not allowed to come near. It seems that after the man Everesto escaped, the bandits tied another rope around Br. B’s other arm and dragged him to a place just outside our yard fence – (the site of the old toilet!). Here he knelt to pray and they asked “who do you pray to--to Holy Mary or one of the saints?” It is reported Br. B. answered: “No, I am not made of wood—I pray to the Lord Jesus Christ”. At this they . . . "

3.     22 April 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Tuburus on the Wawa River, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 3.  
". . . became very angry and slashed at him with their machetes and finally beheaded him and buried him in a shallow 4 inch grave. ¶ This band of men consisted of 250 men at sundown another band of 300 arrived. Two weeks before the captain of this last band had sent 3 spies to Musawas and they had learned from our Sumus of our hiding supplies in a secret place in the bush and had also heard a lot of vile, malicious lies spoken against Br. B. by those who opposed the preaching of the Gospel in Musawas and this band came with the intention of freeing our Sumus from the tyranny of such an evil man as they had heard the parson to be, but they came too late. But the things hidden in the bush would have escaped but knowing about them they set out to search, looking 2 days without success and then a Musawas Sumu led the way. A box of medicine was literally emptied all over the ground, bottles broken and pills, etc. covered the ground. Other things they seem to have taken with them. They were also looking for us to kill us also. The Sumus left in the village they tried to force to reveal our hiding place. None of them actually knew but on threat of death one man was ready to tell but another told him sternly to keep still, it was enough. They told the people not . . . [upside-down at the top of the page:]
"¶ The text that morning was John 15:13. Br. B was much burdened with the soul that were yet lost, and it was this that kept him there to give the Gospel to the bandits for how shall they hear without a preacher! Rom. 1:16 was the text of his first sermon in Blfds. And his motto throughout his ministry . . . "

4.     22 April 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Tuburus on the Wawa River, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 4.  
". . . to tell what became of the parson—he just simply disappeared, and afterward they should kill us with poison. On Good Friday they were playing victrola and dancing in our house and Saturday AM they left Musawas, leaving 5 men behind as a sort of rear guard and these set fire to the house and all other buildings on the premises. The church didn’t catch but they broke the pulpit and vilely polluted the building. ¶ In the meantime we were camping in the bush and when we heard on Easter Sunday of the complete destruction of everything we realized there was nothing left for us to do but to try to get to the coast as soon as possible. It is a long story to tell everything but by the wonderful and abundant mercies of our Lord and Saviour we have come so far. Food, clothing and shelter He has provided each day and we trust that He will also lead us out safely. Arrived here we heard that ahead of us there had been trouble also and we are waiting here for news from below that the way will be open before we proceed. I cannot speak enough of the devotion, self sacrifice and considerations which our Sumu carriers have shown us. ¶ Please excuse the pencil writing. It is a 2 inch stub which I have quite by chance, or rather by the Lord’s will and having time here I write so that when by His help we reach Bilwi you may receive this speedily. Expect to go to Blfds, D.V.—Beyond that I do not know. The Lord will direct. With kind regards, I am, Sincerely, Elizabeth Bregenzer  [upside-down at the top of the page:]   ¶ Please do not give honor to my husband, he would not be pleased for all honor belong to our Lord and Savor Jesus Christ."

1.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.    
"HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ 22 April 1931 ¶ From: Captain John C. Wood, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Headquarters Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931. ¶ References: (a) Map Showing Bragman Bluff Lumber Company Properties, dated November 17, 1928, attached hereto. ¶ Enclosures: (2). ¶ 1. In accordance with your verbal instructions of April 11, 1931, to proceed immediately to PUERTO CABEZAS and take command of the Department of Northern Bluefields until reporting of regular relief for Captain Harlan Pefley, G.N., deceased, killed from bandit ambush near LOGTOWN the same morning, I cleared EL BLUFF, with Captain RIDEN, (MC), and Ninth Company personnel then on General Court Martial duty in BLUEFIELDS, Lieutenant BENSON, Lieutenant SIMMER (MC) and four (4) enlisted, via special chartered schooner, “ANDERSON”, and arrived at Ninth Company Headquarters, PUERTO CABEZAS, at 1450 on April 12, 1931. ¶ 2. There were nine (9) effective enlisted Guardia and about thirty (30) armed civicos with three (3) Ninth Company officers on duty in PUERTO CABEZAS. Lieutenant DARRAH, with civico volunteers assistant, Mr. RALPH BEARDSLEY, Canadian, employee of Bragman Bluff Lumber Company, was then operating against bandit force near MOSS FARM, with thirty (30) enlisted Guardia, one (1) applicant, an one (1) additional civico. There were two (2) Guardia enlisted at Guardia Post TOLEDO WYN, located in YARLIS FARM. ¶ 3. In the forenoon DARRAH had been fighting to extricate patrol from a dangerous position, in the hills of MOSS FARM, having been cut off from their base by bandit control of SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE from position on a hill close to bridge on NORTH side of WAWA RIVER. Two Marine amphibians, Lieutenant YOUNG, commanding, and Lieutenant JACK, USMC, had bombed bandit positions with great effect. Today received signals from DARRAH requesting food and ammunition and returned to PUERTO CABEZAS. In the afternoon ammunition was prepared for plane drop and sent by the amphibians. [...]"

2.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.    
"[...] -2- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS,April 12-17, 1931. ¶ 4. Upon take-off of amphibians a rumor of “the bandits are entering the city from NORTH” spread throughout the townspeople almost instantly. Boarded commandeered truck with Lieutenant SIMMER and six (6) enlisted and proceeded to AVIATION FIELD. While boarding truck gave explicit and repeated orders, to civicos at CUARTEL not to sound the general alarm – power plant whistle. The northern boundary entrances to city were quiet. Returning to CUARTEL , we found that the general alarm had been sounded, and it had caused a general panic in the city, during which practically all women and children ran, screaming, to wharf and stampeded aboard the tourist passenger and fruit S S CEFALU , and the smaller utility labor passenger and cargo S S WOUNTA. ¶ 5. In the late afternoon amphibian BENSON observer returned to PUERTO CABEZAS. Lieutenant YOUNG reported that DARRAH was breaking through bandit lines and had waved off ammunition drop. Had telephone operator attempt communication with several mandador’s houses in vicinity SOUTH of SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE. Finally obtained communication with WAKIWAS FARM and report from that place that DARRAH had broken through and was approaching. DARRAH reported via telephone from WAKIWAS FARM that he had two brief contacts with bandits in the vicinity of MOSS FARM, had forced crossing over SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE during which one Guardia was seriously wounded, and that they were now all in camp at WAKIWAS FARM. Made arrangements and telephoned authority for DARRAH to break in WAKIWAS commissary for food supplies and directed him to stand by for orders to control next day’s operations. ¶ 6. About 1750 one VALENTINE CLOTES was reported in PUERTO CABEZAS as an escaped Bandit prisoner. Sent for him. He reported that he had been a very good acquaintance of PEDRO BLANDON in former years when they had worked together in lumber business and carpenter trade, near PUERTO CABEZAS , that he had been a BLANDON prisoner at MOSS FARM for over twelve (12) hours, and had escaped that morning when planes bombed bandit camp, and while bandits scurried for cover at the command of the Jefe who directed “take to a stump”—of a tree. CLOTES said that he had talked with BLANDON two or three times; that there were sixty well armed men, two boys, who carried full shoulder ammunition slings, two sakks reserve ammunition, two (2) Lewis machine guns, one (1) Winchester repeating rifle, and a small “cannon” mounted on wheels. BLANDON was overheard to say that SANDINO and three hundred fifty men were on route to the RAILROAD LINE via PIS PIS TRAIL, and ALTAMIRANO was coming via the COCO RIVER, and upon arrival of both columns a concentrated attack would be made on PUERTO CABEZAS, and that they would take it “dead or alive”. VALENTINE CLOTES, negro, mature, fairly well educated, above laboring class, is a serious citizen and his information was considered very reliable. [...]"

3.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] -3- ¶ SUBJECT : Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ CLOTES further stated that there were sixty (60) bandits in camp at MOSS FARM hill where he was held prisoner. BLANDON in his conversation with CLOTES said that his entire force then numbered one hundred fifty, and that the balance of those not in camp were then operating in bands of twenty-five (25) each, along near the RAILROAD LINE towards PUERTO CABEZAS, and that many bandit recruits obtained from destitute farms laborers had been obtained in vicinity of SNAKI district. ¶ 7. At about 1900 in telephone communication with DARRAH who asked that a good supply of Krag, Springfield and .38 pistol ammunition be sent to him. (----) DARRAH that I would bring the ammunition supply and reinforcements and arrive at daylight on April 13, 1931, and to be prepared to move NORTH, force crossing over SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE in conjunction with attack from planes. Our mission was to drive out bandit concentration from the head of RAILROAD LINE. Part of these instructions were given in the local military telephone code, because of previously reported ruse by which bandits had elicited information from non-combatants over the telephone, pretending to be laborer of the Lumber Company. DARRAH informed that he had cut telephone NORTH of WAKIWAS FARM. ¶ APRIL 13, 1931. ¶ 0300 WOOD, SIMMER, four enlisted, with Krag, Springfield and .38 cal. Pistol ammunition, armed with four rifles, two .45 Colt automatics, cleared PUERTO CABEZAS for WAKIWAS FARM, via train composed of locomotive, tender, flat car fortified with row of sand bags around edges of platform and one banana car. Instructed locomotive engineer to make highest speed, no whistle or bell warnings, no dispatching, and stop only when absolutely necessary. Placed gasoline motorcar, with operator, to run three hundred yards in advance of train, as point, to give forewarning in case of derailment, torn-up track, damage to trestle bridges or other attempt to stop train. ¶ 0415 Water stop. ¶ 0545 Water stop at Guardia Post TOLEDO WYN. Place practically deserted. Picked up two (2) remaining enlisted Guardia there. ¶ 0620 Arrived WAKIWAS. In communication with BENSON at PUERTO CABEZAS , over long distance telephone. Made las arrangements relative to plane take-off. Message received from Lieutenant YOUNG saying that he would stick with the Guardia until released by me. [...]"

4.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 4.   
"[...] -4- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ In readiness to entrain, stood by for arranged time of departure that would place us at SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE simultaneously with planes. Guardia enlisted asked if they wanted more coffee, passed word back, ”We don’t want any food; we want to go out and fight.” ¶ 0820 Entrained and cleared WAKIWAS FARM for SNAKI. Three (3) officers, thirty-six (36) enlisted, and one (1) applicant, one (1) civico, and one (1) assistant to officers, Mr. BEARDSLEY. Total forty-two (42). List of personnel contained in enclosure. ¶ 0920 Marine amphibians, Lieutenants YOUNG and JACK, USM, piloting, observed. ¶ 0945 Arrived SNAKI STEEL BRIDGE, span 480 feet, height 30 feet. Observed beyond MOSS TRESTLE BRIDGE burning, smoke covering entire right-of-way. Opened fire on two (2) men lurking near SNAKI BRIDGE on NORTH side, who took cover in brush hill. One rail torn out of railroad track on bridge at SOUTH END. Mr. BEARSLEY started to repair it. Abandoned train and proceeded on foot. Lieutenant SIMMER, Mr. BEARDSLEY, and six (6) enlisted, covered by machine gun and rifle fire in readiness, crossed bridge without drawing bandit fire. ¶ 1020 All Guardia across bridge. ¶ 1030 Arrived MOSS TRESTLE BRIDGE, wooden, 210 feet span, height 25 ft., burning, and made crossing in ravine fording stream. About three hundred (300) yards beyond, in vicinity of bandit camp of previous day, found portable field telephone set, with long wires attached and lying on ground, in middle of railroad track. The railroad line telephone wires were never cut by bandits during the period. ¶ 1035 Plane drop informed that bandits were in town at end of left hand spur where old locomotive left. In this vicinity, between MOSS FARM and LOUISIANA FARM saw about fifteen bodies of natives and negroes. Six headless bodies seen sprawled out down banks of ravines near bottom. It was later reported that Americans W. Bond and P. Davis were among these six. Dozens of buildings had been burned to the ground, including commissaries. ¶ 1130 Passed the abandoned locomotive, tender, flat car, and armored banana car, used by DARRAH on April 11, 1931. ¶ 1140 Arrived LOUISIANA FARM. AUSTIN MURPHY, mandador, Canadian, mature age, and thoroughly responsible, informed that he had been [...]"

5.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 5.   
"[...] -5- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ ……a prisoner of BLANDON’S , was released, and exhibited pass signed by BLANDON. MURPHY and BLANDON had worked in the lumber business, in vicinity of PATUCA and COCO RIVER, in former years and were friends. MURPHY informed that BLANDON and sixty(60) men had passed this point headed towards LOGTOWN at 0500, that morning. They had obtained several recruits from farms laborers in that vicinity. Plane drop informed bandits in camp near hill in town, over which the plane had been circling; 1-1/2 hours gasoline fuel supply left. ¶ 1150 Plane drop. Msg “Suggest you make all possible speed. Gasoline getting low”. ¶ 1205 Plane drop informed bandits took cover on approach of planes; and were trying to fire up steam in old locomotive. Only three bombs left, one machine gun out of commission, and two hours fuel supply in planes. The hiking pace of troops was increased, and although some Guardia were heavily loaded, HRMG tripod, gun, reserve ammunition, and fatigued from march in open sun, they responded well. ¶ 1230 Passed point where Captain HARLEN PEFLEY, GN, was ambushed and killed two days previously. ¶ 1235 Entered LOGTOWN. Place is situated in cleared, shallow basin, RR running NORTH and SOUTH. The only buildings left undestroyed by fire were about two dozen laborers, portable, (on flat cars), abandoned shacks, laid out in three rows running NORTH and SOUTH, facing RR tracks. Bandit fire opened on us from EAST and WEST rims of basin, near brush. Immediately opened fire on bandits running among shacks, most of whom were dashing for cover near ditches near RR tracks and under shacks. Old negro man ordered to point out positions of bandits who were firing from elevated positions about 300 yards WEST and 75 yards EAST. He replied “They are on all sides of you” and ran SOUTH towards railroad entrance to clearing where we entered. There was difficulty in holding back Guardia in one line. In eagerness for combat they overran firing line. Passing among shacks, Mr. BEARDLEY suddenly came upon well uniformed and dressed bandit, who was making for cover underneath a shack. Mr. BEARDSLEY shot him at close range with rifle. The bandit staggered a few steps, was hit again, and fell to his hands and knee when a dozen Guardia saw him and opened fire. This bandit was very tenacious of life and expired only a few minutes before the Guardia left LOGTOWN. After clearing shacks extended in skirmish line, NORTH-SOUTH ,and attacked toward EAST, up gradual inclination to crest. [...]"

6.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 6.   
"[...] -6- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ Bandit fire from this direction ceased. Turned about, down, and past shacks and reformed line along ditch near RR track. Advanced WEST with short rushes of entire line. At this stage the greatest volume of Guardia fire was obtained, with amphibian planes bombing and laying down machine gun fire, two Guardia machine guns operating, including the heavy Browning in action on our left flank, directed at enemy who were firing from concealed positions in brush, near our entering point. We advanced not more than one hundred yards up the western slope when bandit fire gradually diminished and finally ceased entirely. ¶ 1310 Ceased firing. Plane drop informed that gasoline fuel supply was low and that the planes were clearing immediately for PUERTO CABEZAS. Sent four small combat patrols to NE, N, NW, W, to find scattered bandits. Tall negro inhabitant of town stated that the jefe killed was PEDRO BLANDON. Searched bodies and found a commission on body of jefe signed by A C SANDINO, together with other papers, directed to PEDRO BLANDON, making him jefe of ATLANTIC COAST bandit forces. ¶ The number of bandits involved is estimated to have been between sixty and seventy (60-70). There were no dead or missing Guardia casualties. One Guardia, Raso Rafael Rosales, #2214, was slightly wounded in abdominal region from rifle fire. There were two (2) known bandit wounded. There were eight (8) bandit dead, left on field within clearing of LOGTOWN. There was a total of eighteen (18) bandit dead counted by VALENTINE CLOTES, who was ordered to LOGTOWN, after the engagement for the purpose of identifying the dead jefe. His report stated that there were more dead, not counted, in inaccessible places. The total estimated bandit dead in LOGTOWN ENGAGEMENT, on April 13, 1931, is reported to have been eighteen (18), and total bandit casualties, twenty (20). Captured bandits: None. ¶ Guardia weapons employed in engagement were: Three (3) .45 calibre Colt automatic pistols, four (4) .38 calibre revolvers, thirty-four (34) rifles, one (1) Lewis machine gun and one (1) heavy Browning machine gun. The bandit force was equipped with the following weapons: Two (2) .45 calibre Colt automatic pistols, captured, one (1) .44 calibre Winchester repeating rifle, captured, four (4) muzzle loading rifles, poor, captured, damaged in action and destroyed, and two (2) swords, captured. It is my opinion that about forty to fifty (40-50) rifles, revolvers and pistols were employed by bandits in the engagement. Four (4) mules, were captured. One (1), wounded, left at LOGTOWN, and three (3) captured mules were returned to MOSS FARM, Lumber Company property. There are a large number of horses and mules maintained and used in each banana farm district. A great number of these animals are scattered all over end of RAILROAD LINE, and near the banana farms. [...]"

7.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 7.   
"[...] -7- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations at PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ The results of the engagement were: A part of the bandit force concentrated at the head of the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company RALROAD LINE were destroyed, and the balance were driven towards SAKLIN. 1430 Cleared LOGTOWN. Old negro who gave general information on bandit positions found shot dead in SOUTH entrance to clearing. ¶ 1520 Arrived LOUISIANA FARM. AUSTIN MURPHY identified captured swords as BLANDON’S. Ordered MURPHY to proceed as soon as possible to LOGTOWN to identify body of jefe. Informed that shortly after rifle firing ceased one (1) bandit ran past LOUISIANA FARM, wounded through left hand, through neck and in shoulder. Detachment had some food. ¶ 1550 Cleared LOUISIANA FARM. ¶ 1700 Arrived SNAKI, entrained and cleared for WAKIWAS. ¶ 1640 Arrived WAKIWAS. In telephone communication with BENSON, at PUERTO CABEZAS. Informed that townspeople were momentarily expecting attack from bandits and requested Guardia patrol to make all possible speed to PUERTO CABEZAS. Warned that bandits were reported operating near RAILROAD LINE in the central farms districts, and to be on the alert. This information checked in general with several reports we had received between SNAKI and LOGTOWN to effect that a detachment of bandits had been sent from LOGTOWN-CUYUTIGNI section to the RAILROAD LINE via AUAPINI TRAIL. ¶ 1930 Stopped suddenly at Guardia Post TOLEDO WYE by a motor car boy who had returned from KILOMETRE 13 (13 kilometres from PUERTO CABEZAS) to warn us that bandits were stationed there and were stopping all motor cars at that point, and had already arrested several. Placed four guardia to clear track of any obstruction encountered, and cleared TOLEDO WYE for WAWA BOOM. ¶ 2010 Arrived WAWA BOOM. Placed rain on EAST side of WAWA BRIDGE, --swamp on both sides of right-of-way, headlight covering entire bridge, sentry posts at both ends of grain. Camped for night. ¶ APRIL 14, 1931 ¶ 0730 In telephone communication with BENSON, PUERTO CABEZAS. Informed that planes were clearing for WAWA BOOM for exchange of communications and observations. [...]"

8.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 8.   
"[...] -8- ¶ SUBJECT : Report of operations at PUERTO CABEZAS , April 12-17, 1931. ¶ The city of PUERTO CABEZAS had suffered the second panic from false bandit news of invasion about midnight. For a second time sick, wounded and dying from the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company Hospital were rushed, together with panic stricken women and children, through the city to the wharf and aboard the S S CEFALU and S S WUANTA. Informed that the U S S ASHEVILLE had arrived during the night, but that her landing force was not coming ashore. This gave origin to a rumor in the city that the bandits were so numerous and so near that the marines were afraid to land. ¶ 0840 Plane drop informed that wooden trestle bridge at KILOMETER 23 between WAWA BOOM and PUERTO CABEZAS was burning, and that PUERTO CABEZAS was surrounded by the bandits. ¶ 0940 Cleared WAWA BOOM on forty foot sea going launch NORTH STAR and proceeded down WAWA RIVER. Mr. BEARDSLEY piloting. Mr. BEARDSLEY had placed launch engine in operation after great difficulty, after stripping WAWA BOOM commissary of telephone batteries for current. The launch was run on battery. Lost life boat over WAWA BAR. With inadequate knowledge of the bar, except from meager information obtained from Indian Guardia, we struck bottom over the bar about one half mile at sea, and several times nearly stranded by grounding. ¶ 1215 Arrived PUERTO CABEZAS. Conferred with Captain WADELL, USN, CO, USS ASHEVILLE, and his officers. Prepared for dispatching combat patrol on the following day. ¶ APRIL 15, 1931. ¶ Lieutenant CURCEY arrived on schooner LEONET from BLUEFIELDS, at 0230. Lieutenant BENSON, CURCEY, and twenty (20) enlisted cleared on Combat mission, via train at 0630. AHSEVILLE landing force ashore at 0930. Two Marine amphibians, Captain JOHNSON, Lieutenant SCHRIMKER , USMC, pilots, Captain SCHWERIN, GN, passenger arrived at 1140. Captain SCHWERIN reported for duty and assigned to duty as Department Commander, Department of Northern Bluefields, in accordance with radiogram instructions from Area Commander, BLUEFIELDS, 1600 BENSON patrol returned and reported no bandits in WAWA BOOM – PUERTO CABEZAS region, but found trestle bridge at KIOLMETER 23 burning, and evidence, scouped out man rests, tobacco, and food remnants,- of a well prepared ambush position at top of railroad gravel cut, at KILOMETER 13. 1610-1730 two Marine amphibians, Lieutenant DARRAH, observer, to CAPE GRACIAS and return. They drew bandit fire at CAPE GRACIAS, saw many boats, [...]"

9.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 9.   
"[...] -9- ¶ SUBJECT: Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, April 12-17, 1931. ¶ ..dropped fourteen (14) bombs. Casualties unknown. Received orders from Area Commander, BLUEFIELDS, to return to regular station if conditions in PUERTO CABEZAS were fairly stable. About one hundred fifty (150) native refugees arrived by train, from RAILROAD LINE. The remains of Captain HARLEN PEFLEY, USMC, with personal effects, were shipped via S S CEFALU, consigned to COMMANDANT EIGHT NAVAL DISTRICT, NEW ORLEANS. Arranged to have K23 bridge repaired at once. ¶ APRIL 16, 1931. Lieutenant DARRAH, CURCEY and twenty (20) enlisted, cleared via train to disperse wholesale looters of commissaries in NEW VANCE TRACT. They accomplished their mission, arresting eighteen (18) offenders, local inhabitants, and brought in a large quantity of stolen merchandise, food, and clothing for return to owners. They proceeded as far as possible into NEW VANCE TRACT, and were stopped at KIPLA FARM by flames from the burning farm district and buildings. Armed and sent twenty-eight (28) farm mandadors and assistants via train to the northern farms districts to reorganize work of banana production. Repaired bridges permitted trains, as far as SNAKI. Two Marine amphibians made circuits, observing RAILROAD LINE, SAKLIN, CAPE GRACIAS. The LINE was quiet. No indications of bandits on COCO RIVER. Normal activity at CAPE GRACIAS, with American, German, white flags and sign “Bandits Gone” displayed. ¶ APRIL 17, 1931. Lieutenant CURCEY, Mr. BEARDSLEY, and eight (8) enlisted cleared via Gasoline motorcar to LOUISIANA FARM, with orders to assist the superintendent of farms in restoring working conditions, and to get positive identification of dead bandit jefe at LOGTON. Ordered by Area Commander to return BLUEFIELDS. 2020 Cleared PUERTO CABEZAS via plane, Captain JOHNSON and Lieutenant SCHRIEDER, USMC, piloting two Marine amphibians, and arrived BLUEFIELDS 1220. ¶ (signed) JOHN C. WOOD ¶ First Endorsement ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL. ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 23 April 1931 ¶ From: TheArea Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicargua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. FORWARDED. ¶ (SIGNED) JOHN MARSTON [...]"

10.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 10.   
"[...] HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 22 April 1931 ¶ LIST OF PERSONNEL EMPLOYED IN LOGTOWN ENGAGEMENT ¶ 13 APRIL 1931 ¶ 1. Captain John C. Wood, GN ¶ 2. First Lieutenant Clyde R. Darrah, GN ¶ 3. Second Lieutenant Tony Simmer, GN, (MC) ¶ 4. Sergeant Lazaro Guatemala, #3557 ¶ 5. Sergeant Arthur Taylor, #2705 ¶ 6. Sergeant Eduardo Toruno, #1255 ¶ 7. Sergeant Adrian Saenz, #3486 ¶ 8. Corporal Sebastian Jimenez, #3427 ¶ 9. Corporal Earix Watson, #2662 ¶ 10. Corporal Joaquin Zelaya, #1838 ¶ 11. Raso Jose Aguirez, #3310 ¶ 12. Raso Marcelin Basquedano, #2588 ¶ 13. Raso Abram Balles, #2658 ¶ 14. Raso Jose Balles, #3421 ¶ 15. Raso Simeon Blandon, #3422 ¶ 16. Raso Charles Casanova, #2593 ¶ 17. Raso Sabas Cornejo, #3473 ¶ 18. Raso Felicito Cruz, #1943 ¶ 19. Raso Thomas Davis, #3027 ¶ 20. Raso Julio Delgadillo, #3730 ¶ 21. Raso Pedro Duran, #3425 ¶ 22. Raso Jose J. Espinoza, #3488 ¶ 23. Raso Dave Flores, #2852 ¶ 24. Raso Emil Groniwald, #2414 ¶ 25. Raso Justino Flete, #3362 ¶ 26. Raso Armando T. Harvey, #3746 ¶ 27. Raso Vivian Hernandez, #3004 ¶ 28. Raso Juan B. Martinez, #3479 ¶ 29. Raso Mateo Martinez, #3477 ¶ 30. Raso Gifford Robinson, #2602 ¶ 31. Raso Orgando Rojero, #2854 ¶ 32. Raso Rafael Rosales, #2214 ¶ 33. Raso Manuel Seas, #3487 ¶ 34. Raso Nicho Simeon, #2441 ¶ 35. Raso Daniel Urbina, #3482 ¶ 36. Raso Diego Vasquez, #3429 ¶ 37. Raso Felton Wilson, 32547 ¶ 38. Raso Julian Zepeda,#2259 ¶ 39. Raso Levi Pinnock, #4281 ¶ 40. Applicant Emilio Arraz ¶ 41. Civico Mr. RalphR. Beardsley. ¶ 42. Civico Jose Talavera. [...]"

11.     22 April 1931.
Report of operations in PUERTO CABEZAS, for period April 12-17, 1931.  Captain John C. Wood, Bluefields, to Area Commander Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 11.   
"[...] 4 May 1931 ¶ From: Captain John C. Wood, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Recommendation of enlisted men of the Ninth Company for commendation. ¶ Reference: (a) My report of operations in Puerto Cabezas for the period April 12 – 17, 1931. ¶ 1. I recommend that the following named members of the Ninth Company Guardia Nacional, be specially commended for their outstanding, brave, loyal, and highly meritorious and effective performance of duty in combat against bandits in the engagement of Logtown on April 13, 1931 :-- ¶ Sergeant Lazaro Guatemala, #3637 ¶ Sergeant Arthur Taylor #2705 ¶ Sergeant Eduardo Toruno, #1355 ¶ Corporal Sebatian Jimenze, #3427 ¶ Corporal Earix Watson, #2652 ¶ Raso Simeon Blandon, #3422 ¶ Raso Armando T. Harvey, #3746 ¶ Raso Gifford Robinson, #2602 ¶ Raso Orgando Mojero, #2854 ¶ Raso Rafael Rosales, #2214 ¶ Raso Levi Pinnock, #4281 ¶ (signed) JOHN C. WOOD ¶ FIRST ENDORSEMENT HEADWQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 4 May 1931 ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nic. ¶ 1. Forwarded, fully concurring in above recommendations. ¶ (signed) JOHN MARSTON"

 

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