Header image
the atlantic coast thru 1927, p. 3
APRIL 8 - JULY 8, 1927

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE THIRD PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE PERIOD THROUGH 1927 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the 92 days from April 8 to July 8, 1927.

   From April 8 the Civil War would rage for another month, until the May 4 Treaty of Tipitapa.  Sandino's rebellion thence explodes in Las Segovias, but barely makes a ripple in the Atlantic Coast.  None of the events described here have much of anything to do with Sandino.  Especially noteworthy is Dr. Marchand's 6-page missive of April 24 on the role of Creoles in the Civil War and the politics of the US intervention.  C. T. Steger's 22-page "Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926" of May 10 examines the country as a whole, but also offers much relevant information on economic activities in the Atlantic Coast.  Neptune Mine owner Benjamin Warnick's May 14 letter listing "supplies and money furnished Liberals as per their demands" offers insight into how revolutionary armies in Central America paid for war, while A. B. Brand's letter of May 28 describing some 500 demobilized Liberal soldiers "committing depredations" and ravaging local plantations around San Juan del Norte suggests some of the ways that social turmoil continued after the Civil War had formally ended.  Collector of Customs W. J. Crampton's affadavit of June 8 shows one reason why US officials might have had it in for Bluefields businessman Leon Frank.  US Consul McConnico's July 8 report ("Concrete Results in Trade Extension Work") details the growing dominance of US businesses on the Coast, concluding that "the Bluefields Consular District is dependent upon the United States commercially. ... Americans control the banana, the mahogany, and the mining industries ... In fact, the economic life of the district is dependent upon Americans." 

     All this and more, and a big silence on Sandino.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

8 April 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 1.  
"The Honorable The American Minister, Managua, Nicaragua.  ¶  Sir:  I have the honor to report that several protests have been filled at this office by American Mahogany companies against the destruction of their camps by both Conservative and Liberal forces.  ¶  On the 22nd instant, the Otis Manufacturing Company received a communication from its contractor, Don Jose Tomas Oscampo, who was in charge of a camp on the Rama River near Muelle de Los Bueyes, stating that the liberal troops had entered his camp, recruited his men and absolutely paralyzed his works.  ¶  He also stated that the operations of the camp on the River Bulunn, a tributary of the Mico near the town of Santo Tomas and Acoyapa in Chonatales, had been completely paralyzed by the liberal forces.  And the Company had unconfirmed reports that the camp of Don Ernesto Largaespada, its largest contractor, had been burned, the cattle driven away, the supplies sacked, and Senor Largaespada himself made a prisoner.  ¶  The S.B. Vrooman . . . "

8 April 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 2.   
" . . . The S.B. Vroomen Company on March 22, 1927 protested against the destruction of its camps at Paso Lajas, Rama River, by Diaz troops, the men being recruited and the provisions being confiscated.  ¶  The Nicaragua Mahogany Company today filled a protest against the destruction of its camps on Cusuca, Siquia River, under the management of Tomas Teja, by Diaz troops.  ¶  The protests of the first two companies were subject of my radiogram of March 22, 1927.  The Protest of the Nicaragua Mahogany Company was not filled until today as previously stated.  ¶  On Sunday the Jefe Politico will proceed to Rama with representatives of the mahogany companies and enter into a written agreement with the leader of the Liberal forces to bring about a cessation of the molestation or destruction of camps by either party.  ¶  I am, Sir, Your Obedienet Servant, A.J. McConnico, American Consul."

22 April 1927.
Radiogram from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to Admiral Latimer, Managua.  
"ADMIRAL LATIMER, MANAGUA.  REFERENCE GUTIERREZ BONANZA MINES COMPANY MATTER SUBMTTED TO YOU BY CAPTAIN WAINWRIGHT GUTIERREZ CONTINUES MOLESTING PLEASE HAVE HIM REMOVED IMMEDIATELY ANSWER"

1.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1. 
 A fascinating account by a highly literate and interesting figure; all of Marchand's letters bear close reading.

2.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.

3.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.

4.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.

5.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 5.

6.     24 April 1927.
Letter from Dr. John Louis Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 6.

1.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 1.  
[NOTEThis document does not treat the Atlantic Coast region exclusively, but provides a very good capsule summary of the subject for the country as a whole, including the Atlantic Coast.]   "There was forwarded with this Consulate’s monthly review of commerce and industries, dated January 5th, 1927, a preliminary review of industrial and commercial developments for the year 1926.  The present report is supplementary, and will furnish only data which was unavailable at the time the preliminary survey was forwarded."

2.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 2.  
"FOREIGN TRADE.  From the point of view of foreign trade, and the balance of trade, the year 1926 was most satisfactory.  Due chiefly to the bumper crop of coffee, the chief export commodity, and the satisfactory prices, the total export value reached $15,028,726, setting a new record.  Imports were valued at $10,254,512, leaving a favorable trade balance of $2,774,214. Thus, although the total trade was slightly less than in 1920, and the favorable trade balance smaller than in 1924, the year under review may be considered, from the point of view of foreign commerce alone, one of the most satisfactory since the war.  ¶  The following table shows, for purposes of comparison, the values of imports and exports of Nicaragua for the years 1920 to 1926, inclusive: ¶ [table]  ¶  Imports.  ¶  There was no marked change in the importations as compared with the year proceeding, either in the amounts of the various commodities imported, or in their sources. Entries of cotton goods show the only important decrease, from $2,669,589 in 1925 to $2,102,998 in 1926.  Reports of chemical products, drugs, and medicines, while of less importance, show approximately the same percentile decrease, from $459,980 to $371,599.  The only increase was in the importation of iron and steel products, values of which rose . . . "

3.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 3.  
" . . . from $682,245 in 1925 to $843,664 in 1926.  While a great part of these latter goods were used in peaceful pursuits, the increase may be attributed in large part to imports of barbed wire and other iron and steel goods for military purposes.  ¶  The attached table (Enclosure No. 1) shows according to commodities imports during 1925 and 1926.  ¶  The United States as usual supplied the bulk of imports to Nicaragua; although there was a slight decrease in the total value of goods supplied, from $7,272,191 to $7,116,715, the percentage of the total remains unchanged at 70%.  The same may be said of Great Britain, which in both years supplied 11% of the total.  Exports from all other European counties showed a slight percentile decline, with the exception of Germany, which increased its exports to Nicaragua from $607,118 in 1925 to $725,880 in 1926, or from 6% to 7% of the total.  While entries of German goods are comparatively small, it may be noted that this competition is growing increasingly successful, especially in textiles, chemicals, glassware and porcelain, and a number of manufactures of metals.  From less than $100,000 in 1922, German exports to Nicaragua have grown without fluctuation to more than $700,000 in 1926, or from 1% to 7% of the total.  ¶  The table of Enclosure No. 2 shows imports into Nicaragua by sources, and percentages of the total originating in the more important countries of origin.  Figures for 1925 are given for purposes of comparison.  ¶  Exports.  ¶  Thanks to the excellent coffee crop of the 1925-1926 season, total exports from Nicaragua in 1926 exceed slightly the figure for the preceding year. Sugar exports reached little more than half the value of those in 1925.  Exports . . . "

4.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 4.  
" . . . of bananas and wood, the principal East Coast products, were approximately 40% less than in the preceding year.  This was due to revolutionary conditions which hindered the bringing of these products to seacoast, and the lack of labor.  On the West Coast, where the Government was in control during the harvest season, every effort was made to facilitate the shipments, and coffee and sugar were moved promptly.  ¶  The above described developments resulted in a decided change in the proportions to the total of exports of the more important individual items. For the second time in more than ten years, coffee exports account for more than one-half of the total value, while the proportion of the other important products is in most cases lower than it has been since 1920.  The following table shows the proportion of the more important products to total exports since 1920:  ¶  [table]  ¶  This change in the proportionate values of the various items, combined with the growing purchases of Nicaraguan coffee by France, has likewise brought about a change in the percentage of the total going to the various markets.  In 1926 the United States, almost the largest customer, took only 53% of the total exports, as compared with 77%, 71%, 72%, 57%, and 65%, respectively, in the five years proceeding.  ¶  As was implied above, this change is partly due to the . . . "

5.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 5.  
" . . . fact that coffee, which is practically the only Nicaraguan product exported to France, gained greatly in relative importance, while production of those commodities of which the United States is the largest purchaser declined.  At the same time absolute purchases by France increased, so that she assumed first place as a purchaser of Nicaraguan coffee, taking about 37% of the total crop, as compared with 30% in 1925.  As a result, 22% of the total value of exports went to France, and compared with 16% in 1924 and 14% in 1925.  ¶  No other changes of particular interest are noted in either the volume or destination of exports.  These will be shown in more detail by the accompanying tables, the first of which (Enclosure No. 2) shows the principal items of exportation in 1925 and 1926, while the second (Enclosure No. 4) shows exports for the same periods according to countries of destination.  ¶  Declared Exports to U.S.  ¶  As Enclosure No. 5 there is likewise submitted a consolidated declared export return, showing total exports from Nicaragua to the United Stated in 1925 and 1926, as shown by consular records in the files at Bluefields and Corinto. . . . "

6.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 6.  
" . . . Collections by Months.  ¶  Figures for imports by months are not available, but the statistics of customs collections by months, which are given below, will give some indication of the trend of importation.  It will be noticed that during the first months of the year, there was a steady increase in collections, lasting through April; from this time on, however, as a result of unstable political conditions, a gradual but steady decrease set in, continuing practically without fluctuation until the end of the year.  Figures for 1925 are given for purposes of comparison.  ¶  [table] . . . "

7.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 7.  
" . . . Of the above total, for 1926, important duties account for $2,179,406.20, while $142,936.96 was collected from export taxes, and the remainder of $3,557.76 is accounted for by miscellaneous receipts. The figure given above does not include receipts from the surtax of 12 ˝% on import duties, which amounted to $266,302.08, bringing the general total for 1926 to $3,592,203.00.  ¶  Collections by Ports.  ¶  The majority of the collections were as usual made at Corinto, receipts at which port were 68% of the total.  El Bluff, the customs house of Bluefields, collected 18.6%, and Puerto Cabezas 9.1%.  A detailed statement of collections by ports follows:  ¶  [table] . . . "

8.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 8.  
" . . . GOVERNMENT FINANCES.  ¶  At the beginning of 1926, the financial situation of the Government was very favorable, due to the large collections during the previous year.  During 1926 total revenues were even larger than in 1925, and almost equaled those of the year of greatest production, 1920.  ¶  The following tables show in detail the production of the various revenues and the distribution of the total, the year 1926.  Figures for the preceding year, and for the year 1920, in which collections were the largest on record, are given for the purpose of comparison.  ¶  [table] . . . "

9.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 9. 
 " . . . [table]  ¶  Despite the large returns during the year, excessive expenditures for military purposes have added to the indebtedness of the Government, and emptied the Treasury.  At the beginning of 1927 the financial situation was extremely critical.  Some relief was attained by the negotiation of a loan of $1,000,000 in March of 1927, most of this amount, however, was used to repay advances from the National Bank, and pressing debts.  In addition to this loan, there are outstanding war claims whose amount has not yet been determined, but which will become an obligation on the government as soon as they can be examined and passed on by a claims commission.  ¶  The High Commission created in conformity with the Financial Plan of 1927 has continued to supervise the distribution of the extraordinary funds, and attend to the service of the Guaranteed Customs Bonds.  Thus the payment of interest and . . . "

10.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 10.  
" . . . amortization of the public debt has not been interfered with.  One drawing was held in July, 1926, to retire bonds to the value of $110,000, and at a second drawing in January, 1927, further retirements in the amount of $125,000 were made, bringing the total retirements from1926 revenue to $225,000.  The total amount outstanding as of February 1st, 1927, is $2,632,000. . . . "

11.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 11.  
" . . . The developments of interest took place during the year with respect to banking or finances.  The average circulation of the Cordoba increased again as compared with the preceding year, the monthly average rising from 3,467,000 in 1925 to 4,253,000 in 1926.  ¶  Interest rates showed little fluctuation, ranging from 8 to 12%, according to the nature of the security and of the loan itself.  New York exchange remained unchanged at 99.5 buying and 101 selling, throughout the years . . . ."

12.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 12.  
" . . . ROADS AND STREETS.  ¶  Despite shortages of money and other deficiencies arising from internal disturbances, more progress was made in highway and street constructions than in any previous year.  ¶  Although no more road construction was undertaken, resurfacing was done on two important roads: that from Managua to Matagalpa, and that from Managua to Jinotepe.  The total spent on this work during the year was $120,000.  It is hoped that the surfacing done is of a character to last through the wet season without being destroyed; in which event work can be begun in the next dry season where it is being left off at present, with the expectation of sufficient programs being made to make these roads practicable for automobiles throughout the entire year.  ¶  Paving in Managua.  ¶  During the latter half of the year 1925 preliminary surveys were made by an American engineering concern, resulting in a contract with the Government for the paving of all the inner sections of the city of Managua.  By the beginning of 1926 the surveys were finished, a program of construction covering a period of four years was drawn up, and a construction plant had been acquired and installed.  ¶  Construction of streets of penetration macadam (that is, a macadam base bound and covered with asphalt) was carried on throughout 1926.  Completed construction was not more than half of the proposed program for the year; partly because of political disturbances and interferences, but chiefly because the advances from the Government were made irregularly and below the amounts agreed upon.  ¶  Total construction completed to February 1st, 1927 amounted to 11,629 square meters, or about 2 lineal kilometers, of streets within the city, and 1 kilometer of . . . :

13.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 13.  
" . . . paved road leading to the cemetery just outside the city. Sanitary sewers and water mains had been laid beneath all the paved streets, and 4,900 lineal meters of concrete curb and gutter have been completed.  ¶  Total expenditures to January 1st, 1927, were $416,180, of which $200,000 was advanced during 1925, and a like amount during 1926.  About three-fourths of this total was expended for the preliminary surveys, and for plant and equipment, so that less than $100,000 has gone into actual construction work.  The expenditures for plant and equipment, of course, constitute the chief overhead for the four year programs, and amounts expended from this time on will show more immediate results. . . . "

14.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 14.  
" . . . SANITATION  ¶  The work of sanitation and hygiene initiated under the auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation has been carried on during the year without change.  While no new activity could be begun, due to political disturbances and shortage of funds, it was possible to continue without diminution the program already in existence.  anitary conditions in the larger cities and in the port of Corinto continue good, none of the preventable tropical diseases having been prevalent during the year. . . . "

15.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 15.  
" . . . PROGRESS IN MORE IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES.  ¶  Mines and Mining.  ¶  In the mines of both coasts operations have been carried on with great efficiency.  To the usual difficulty of transportation was added, during the year under review, the fact that two or more of the mines usually lay within one of the zones of military activity.  The mines of the East coast carried on the production of gold, and two in Western Nicaragua produced gold and silver.  The San Albino Mines, at La Libertad**, which had been acquired by American owners about a year ago, worked during much of the year in a primitive fashion.  However, in December production began with modern machinery which had in the meantime been installed.  Production from this mine may be expected to increase during the coming year.  ¶  Accurate statistics of production are not available; however, for all practical purposes, exports may be assumed to be all of production.  Shipments of gold were valued at $685,565, or almost exactly $100,000 more than in 1925.  Silver exports declined from $78,431 in 1925 to $35,782 in 1926.  ¶  Coffee.  ¶  The 1925-1926 coffee crop, which was harvested and shipped during 1926, was slightly in excess of 18,000,000 kilograms.  Prices were good, and the total export values of $8,100,397 was the largest on record.  As was mentioned above, in connection with the discussion of exports, it was entirely due to the excellent crop that the country enjoyed some measure of prosperity during the year.  ¶  Official statistics of exports by countries are not at hand. However, statistics compiled by this Consulate . . . "     [** Note: the report is inaccurate here; San Albino Mines were not near La Libertad, Chontales, but El Jícaro & Murra in Nueva Segovia Dept.  See the first pages of the TOP 100.]

16.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 16.  
" . . . giving quantities alone, show a total exportation of 19,609 short tons of coffee through the Port of Corinto during the year.  Of this amount, 9,100 tons went to France, 5,413 went to the United States, 1,627 to Germany, 1,509 to Holland, and 600 to England. Thus France has regained her position as the largest taker of Nicaraguan coffee, which for the preceding two years had been held by the United States.  ¶  Due to uneven distribution of rains, shortage of labor, and damage caused to volcanic fumes, the production of the 1926-1927 crop was not more than 60% as great as that of the year preceding.  The total export crop will hardly exceed 10,000 short tons.  ¶  Woods.  ¶  Production of woods, the second item of exportation in point of value, declined by about 50% as compared with the previous year. This industry, represented chiefly on the East Coast, suffered greatly from interruption arising from revolutionary activity.  Shifting zones of military activity made continuous production impossible in many sections; recruiting of workmen for military services made labor scarce; and disputes regarding payment of the forestal tax to the Puerto Cabezas Liberal Government, which was in control of most of the East Coast, added to the difficulties.  ¶  Bananas.  ¶  For practically the same reasons as those mentioned in the case of woods, production and exportation of bananas, the third item in value, decreased in approximately the same measure.  Exports declined from 3,087,147 bunches, valued at $1,736,055, in 1926, to 2,162,745 bunches, . . . "

17.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 17.  
" . . . valued at $1,225,661, in 1926.  ¶  Revolutionary conditions likewise prevented the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company from exploiting to any extent its new 10,000 acre tract on the Wawa River, due to inability to complete its railway.  ¶  Sugar.  ¶  Production of sugar in the 1925-1926 season was about 17,500 short tons, of which about 11,500 short tons were exported during the year 1926.  ¶  Customs statistics show an exportation of 10,155,619 kilos of sugar, valued at $876,228, in 1926, as compared with 10,980,910 kilos, valued at $1,5559,165 in 1925 – a negligible change in volume, but a decline of almost one half in value.  The records of this Consulate, however, show that in the case of exports to the United States, which were more than two-thirds of the total, the unit prices remained approximately the same during the two years.  While it is not possible at present to explain the discrepancy, it is believed that the figures of the Consulate are correct, and that the statement of value for 1925 in the customs figures must be erroneous.  ¶  Shipments to the United States in 1926 were 16,030,500 pounds, valued at $499,160, as compared with 20,203,500 pounds, declared at $632,767, in 1925."

18.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 18.   
[TABLE:  IMPORTS INTO NICARAGUA, YEARS 1925 & 1926.   Major items in sequence: Cotton manufactures.  Foodstuffs.  Chemical products, drugs, medicines.  Iron and Steel.  Leather goods.  Petroleum.   Gasoline.  Fibre and vegetable manufactures.  Liquors, beers, wines.  Other.  TOTALS: $10,376.291.00 ($10.4 million) in 1925, and only $22,000 less in 1926, at $10.3 million.]    [In brief: at stake were ten million bucks worth of imports by mostly US companies.  That's not huge in comparative terms, but it's not peanuts.  And that's just imports.]

19.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 19.  
 "ENCLOSURE NO. 2  ¶  IMPORTS INTO NICARAGUA  ¶ . . . "  [Table:  Columns:  Country of origin.  Value, 1925 Dollars.  Percent of total, 1925.  Percent of total, 1926. ¶  United States of America:-- $7.272.121.00 --- 70 Percent of Total in 1925 and 1926]

20.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 20.  
"ENCLOSURE NO. 3  ¶  PRINCIPAL EXPORTS OF NICARAGUA, Years 1925 and 1926." [Table: Columns:  Articles.  Unit.  Quantity & Value 1925.  Quantity & Value 1926.  Top three exports in both years:  Coffee: $5.6 million in 1925, and $8.1 million in 1926.  Bananas: $1.7 million in 1925, and $1.2 million in 1926.  Woods: $1.9 million in 1925, and $1.3 million in 1926.]    [In other words, considerable capital & profit were at stake here — a tiny fraction of Latin American trade as a whole in these years, but a lot of money all the same.]

21.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 21.  
"ENCLOSURE NO. 4.  ¶  EXPORTS FROM NICARAGUA by countries of destination, Years 1925 & 1926. . . ."    [USA:  $7.9 million & 65% in 1925, and $6.9 million and 53% in 1926.  In a year, France gained 8%, Colombia shot up close to 3,000 percent.   Lots of abrupt swings.]

22.     10 May 1927.
"Review of Commerce & Industries for the Year 1926 - Nicaragua," by C. T. Steger for the US Consul, Corinto, p. 22.  
"Consular Form 20: ANNUAL DECLARED-EXPORT RETURN . . . from Nicaragua to the United States of America during the year ended December 31, 1926 . . . "

14 May 1927.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Dear Sir:  ¶  Please submit to the Mixed Comission [sic] the following vouchers for supplies and money furnished Liberals as per their demands, vouchers are originals herewith enclosed, being as follows:  ¶  Voucher singed by Francisco Gonzales $154.88  ¶  Voucher signed by Sebastian Perez 54.50  ¶  Voucher signed by Luis Arroliga 500.00  ¶  Voucher signed by Fernando Gutierrez Humberto Molina 266.60  ¶  Voucher signed by Ramon Gradis 500.00  ¶  Voucher signed by Rodolfo Dorn B 48.60  ¶  [total] $1524.58  ¶  Kindly acknowledge receipt and send copy of any receipt you may receive from Mixed Comission covering same.  Your kind attention will oblige,  ¶  Yours very truly,  ¶  [Benjamin Warnick]  ¶  President."

14 May 1927.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"Bluefields, Nicaragua, August 23, 1927.  ¶  Claim of Bonanza Mines Company, an American corporation, Benjamin C. Warnick, President, against the Nicaraguan Government for supplies and money demanded by and given to Liberal forces during the recent revolution, as evidenced by the accompanying vouchers:-  ¶  Voucher signed by Francisco Gonzales $154.88  ¶  Voucher signed by Sebastian Perez 54.50  ¶  Voucher signed by Luis Arroliga 500.00  ¶  Voucher signed by Fernando Gutierrez and Humberto Molina 266.60  ¶  Voucher signed by Ramon Gradis 500.00  ¶  Voucher signed by Rodolfo Dorn B 48.60  ¶  [total] $1,524.58"

1.     28 May 1927.
Letter from A. B. Brand, San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Sir:  ¶  On the 25th instant we sent a message to be forwarded from the Colorado Bar wireless station, which we now beg to confirm, as follows:  ¶  “American Consul,  ¶ Bluefields.  ¶  “Five hundred disbanded troops should be moved immediately.  Here five days committing depredations.  Authorities Greytown no control.  Food and military guard required.  ¶  Brand.  ¶  Paton.”  ¶  The first lot (some 300 and odd) came down from the Lake on the 21st instant.  The second installment, on the 24th, and since the sending of our message, above quoted, a fresh bunch arrived on the 27th instant, so that now there are over six hundred here, and we understand that there are several more to come.  ¶  These men claim that they are the discharged soldiers of General Moncada's forces.  That they were promised transportation back to the coast; coming from Managua to Fort San Carlos, at the south-eastern end . . . "

2.     28 May 1927.
Letter from A. B. Brand, San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . of Lake Nicaragua, under a guard of American marines, by whom they were turned over to the “tender mercies” of the local government officials.  They further claim that they have received no rations since leaving San Carlos, which may not be quite true; but that while they were with the Marines they had all they required.  However, they seem to be more than able to take care of themselves, and as soon as they arrived here proceeded to commandeer all the cattle they could lay hold of, and to ravage the nearby plantations, which were just recovering from the attentions bestowed on them by the plundering savages that passed through here last year.  They have killed off most all the milk cows in this neighborhood and are now robbing the hen-roosts, and say openly that, if they are not provided with food, they will sack the town.  ¶  Our local Governor who, by the way, says he has received no instructions from headquarters, frankly admits that he is powerless, with the small force at his command, to prevent all this.  The town is completely out of provisions.  Governor Gutierrez has sent radio messages, as well as written communications by the motor-boat “Venture” to the Jefe Politico, at Bluefields, begging that transportation be furnished these people, but no attention has been paid to him.  Most of them belong to Puerto Cabezas and the upper coast, and are only too willing to return . . . "

3.     28 May 1927.
Letter from A. B. Brand, San Juan del Norte, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . there.  ¶  We cannot bring ourselves to believe that these men have been willfully sent here to terrorize and ravage the place, so we addressed you the foregoing message, trusting that you would bring the matter to the attention of the American Naval Commander on the coast.  ¶  Can you do anything to induce the proper authorities to provide transportation facilities for these men?  The situation here is desperate.  ¶  Very respectfully yours, ¶  /s/ A. B. Brand  ¶  May 30th. –  Since writing the above, the “Victorine” has arrived.  The captain demands C$200 for the trip.  One hundred of the men have subscribed C$200 and the town people will make up the difference; but there are still five hundred men left, and more to come from the interior."

8 June 1927.
Declaration of W. J. Crampton, Acting Collector General of Customs, Managua, p. 1.  
"TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN  ¶  I, W. J. Crampton, an American citizen, under oath, declare as follows:  ¶  1. That on the 14th day of May, year 1926, a JUNTA composed of Liberal revolutionists headed by one Luis Beltran Sandoval, known as the General in Chief of the revolutionists, called at the Custom House at El Bluff, Bluefields, Nicaragua, of which Custom House the undersigned was in charge as Collector of Customs, the said JUNTA being accompanied by one Leon Frank, an American citizen engaged in business in Bluefields.  The said Leon Frank did not enter the office of the undersigned with the JUNTA, but remained outside the door listening to the argument between the undersigned and the members of the JUNTA.  ¶  2. That the object of the visit was to compel the undersigned to handle Customs and other collections in accordance with the wishes of the revolutionists, the undersigned on account of refusal to comply being a few days thereafter, on May 18th, ousted from his position as Collector of Customs by the revolutionists, all in violation of law and contracts between the Republic of Nicaragua and certain bankers of Wall Street, New York.  ¶  3. That a few days thereafter, the undersigned, as a result of action taken by the Secretary of State of the United States of America, returned to his post as Collector of Customs at El Bluff.  ¶  4. That in August, 1926, the undersigned being advised of the imminent bombardment of El Bluff by revolutionists, transferred himself and staff to Bluefields, six miles distant from El Bluff, where he opened up a temporary Custom House on the main street in proximity to the barracks of the U.S. Naval Forces under Commander Richardson of the U.S.S. Galveston  ¶  5. That as a result of the proximity of the two buildings, both on the same street, and the official business that necessarily had to be transacted between the Naval forces and the Custom House, the undersigned daily came in contact with Commander Richardson within and outside of regular working hours.  ¶  6. That the undersigned states positively that Commander Richardson was never observed by the undersigned under the influence of liquor, and it was a notorious and well known fact that the only liquor refreshment he consumed, apart from water, consisted of beer, most of which was of very low alcoholic content.  ¶  7. That the undersigned has no particular interest in Commander Richardson apart from the fact that he does not care to see an innocent man falsely accused and remain silent.  ¶ Managua, Republic of Nicaragua, June 8th, 1927.  ¶  /s/ W.J. Crampton,  ¶  Acting Collector General of Customs  ¶  Republic of Nicaragua  ¶  Managua, Nicaragua.  ¶  Personally appeared before me this 8th day of June 1927 the above named person and stated that the above document was of his own free will and to which he swore to and affixed his signature. Managua, June 8th, 1927.  ¶  /s/ Charles C. Eberhardt, American Minister"

8 June 1927.
Declaration of W. J. Crampton, Acting Collector General of Customs, Managua, p. 2.  
"TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:  ¶  I, W. J. Crampton, an American citizen, declare as follows:  ¶  1. That as a result of the Liberal revolutionists attacking El Bluff in August and September, 1926, where the Custom House is located, on the east coast of Nicaragua, the undersigned was obliged to open up a temporary Custom House in Bluefields located in proximity to the barracks occupied by the U.S. Naval forces occupying Bluefields.  ¶  2. That the undersigned as the then Collector of Customs necessarily came much in contact with the officers of the landing force and especially so with Lieut. McGee of the U.S.S. Galveston.  ¶  3. That the undersigned never saw Lieut. McGee under the influence of intoxicating liquors, it being known to the undersigned that McGee, who was Intelligence Officer, at times feigned intoxication in order to obtain very necessary information from negro and other residents of Bluefields.  ¶  4. That Lieut. McGee as observed by the undersigned, always conducted himself like a gentleman, and is, in the opinion of the undersigned, a very efficient and forceful Naval officer.  ¶  Managua, Republic of Nicaragua, June 8th, 1927.  ¶  /s/ W.J. Crampton,  ¶  Acting collector-General of Customs,  ¶  Republic of Nicaragua,  ¶  Managua, Nicaragua.  ¶  Personally appeared before me this 8th day of June 1927 the above named person and stated that the above document was of his own free will and to which he wore to and affixed his signature. Managua, June 8, 1927.  ¶  /s/ Charles C. Eberhardt, American Minister"

20 June 1927.
Letter from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 1.  
"Sir:  ¶  Having reference to the Department’s Confidential Despatch No. 227, of May 12, 1927 (317.115 B 621/20), I have the honor to transmit herewith two statements, by which the American, W. J. Crampton, Acting Collector General of Customs of Nicaragua, has sworn and affirmed his signature.  These statements refer respectively to the conduct of Lieutenant Commander Richardson and Lieutenant McGee, who were attached to the U.S.S. GALVESTON at the time when a landing force from that vessel was on duty at Bluefields, as Mr. Crampton had opportunity of observing from the frequent daily . . . "

20 June 1927.
Letter from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
" . . . contacts which he necessarily had with them in as small a community during that period.  ¶  Mr. Crampton had given me the substance of these statements verbally some time ago.  When the Department’s dispatch referred to above was received and it was noted that complaints from American citizens and others seriously reflecting upon the character of both Lieutenant Commander Richardson and Lieutenant McGee were before the Navy Department, it was thought that in all fairness to those officers such evidence should be placed before the investigating committee.  ¶  It may be stated that Mr. Campton’s statement agrees in virtually all particulars with statements which were made to me from other sources; that Mr. Crampton was not particularly friendly toward either of these officers or others of the landing forces of the U.S.S. GALVESTON; that he agrees with the general estimate from the Atlantic coast of the questionable character of Frank; and that he agrees also with the Admiral’s statement that Frank has committed many unneutral acts.  ¶  At the request of Admiral Latimer copies of these statements have been given to him. He will probably soon be returning to Washington, when he may re-open with the Department the question of refusal to extend to Frank further protection.  ¶ In have the honor to be, Sir,  ¶  Your obedient servant,  ¶  CHARLES C. EBERHARDT.  ¶  Enclosures:  ¶  1/ Statement concerning Lieutenant Commander Richardson.  ¶  2/ Statement concerning Lieutenant McGee"

1.     8 July 1927.
"Concrete Results in Trade Extension Work (Year ended June 30, 1927, No. 180)," US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"DEPENDENCE UPON THE UNITED STATES.  ¶  The Bluefields Consular District is dependent upon the United States commercially. All of the exports consisted of bananas, mahogany and cedar, gold and silver, coconuts and turtles, valued at $3,000,000 annually, are absorbed by the United States.  Fully 85 percent of its imports, valued at more than $2,000,000 annually, are of American origin or manufacture.  ¶  The district produces no manufactured goods, nor food products in sufficient quantities to meet the limited demand of its population of 50,000. It is compelled therefore to seek all varieties of manufactured goods and most of its food products elsewhere.  Its only steamer connection is with the United States, and in consequence of long association, it deals almost exclusively with the United States in purchasing its supplies. . . . "

2.     8 July 1927.
"Concrete Results in Trade Extension Work (Year ended June 30, 1927, No. 180)," US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . AMERICANS CONTROL LARGER INTERESTS.  ¶  Americans control the banana, the mahogany, and the mining industries, maintaining their headquarters in the United States.  Americans control the import trade, the leading commission merchants being Americans, and even the principal retail merchants, mainly Chinese, maintain American connections and banking accounts in the United States.  In fact, the economic life of the district is dependent upon Americans.  ¶  Six American firms of Bluefields represent 35 American exporters; and three of the foreign firms, six more American exporters.  Furthermore, the two mining companies, the five mahogany companies, and the two banana companies, whose operations really serve as a basis of the economic life of the district, have their headquarters in the United States and purchase the larger properties of their supplies through their home offices. . . . "

3.     8 July 1927.
"Concrete Results in Trade Extension Work (Year ended June 30, 1927, No. 180)," US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . CONSULAR EFFORTS.  ¶  With such American control and rivalry consular efforts cannot be credited with much success.  Although 100 replies to trade inquiries were written during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1927, it cannot be said that this office aided materially in the promotion of American trade.  The situation was rather critical throughout the year, owing to revolutionary disturbances, trade conditions at no time being normal.  Nevertheless, the representatives of the 41 American exporters were alert and took advantage of every opportunity to satisfy the limited demands.  ¶  There were no trade opportunities during the year; no trade disputes, nor cases involving trade protection, no cases of governmental contracts and concessions upon which to base reports; no construction work nor extension of transportation facilities except that of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company at Puerto Cabezas (which was carried on amidst difficulties incident to the revolution); and no reconstruction and development enterprises.  In fact, it was a year of business inactivity verging on stagnation, a continuation of which for a few more months would have resulted in economic disaster. . . . "

 

PREVIOUS     NEXT

 


A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8