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the atlantic coast  •  1928b, p. 6
nov 25 - DEC 31, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE sixth PAGE of documents for the second HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 37 days from November 25 to December 31.

     Perhaps the most illuminating document on this page is Major Utley's 7-page memorandum on the history of the Eastern Area (December 26), which provides a very fine synopsis of events and helps to put all the previous pages' radiograms & missives in a broader context, and which can be fruitfully read alongside his draft manuscript on the same subject (Dec. 23).  Also revealing of broader themes is the complaint against Sgt. McGregor (20 & 27 December).  The various statements & depositions in the case show the racist and haughty behavior typical of some Marines, the sense of fair play & respect practiced by others, and most importantly, Costeños' insistence on their rights and refusal to be treated as second-class citizens.  Major Sage's memorandum of 14 December offers insight into the Marines' efforts to adapt to local circumstances to improve their transport & communications capacities.  A specific instance of these efforts can be found in Capt. Burks' report of 15 December on "Boats and boatmen used by Captain Edson's command," which also helps to clarify the role of Miskitu boatmen in Edson's Río Coco expedition.  Many of these documents offer insight into contests over legitimate authority in the region — for instance, US mahogany exporter C. C. Mengel's letter to Senator Sackett (Dec. 29) complaining about the "illegal acts and interference by the so-called Nicaraguan Liberals who are opposed to the Constitutional Government of Adolphus Diaz" (curiously, Mr. Mengel seems unaware that the Liberal Gen. Moncada was elected president nearly two months before), and C. G. Eames' letter to the Marines complaining about Indians' unbridled lawlessness in & around Cabo Gracias a Dios (Dec. 31).

     And so 1928 comes to a close, without the Sandinistas yet setting foot in the Atlantic Coast region proper.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

25 November 1928.
Memorandum for Major Schmidt, B-2, from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 1.  
"There is little change in bandit information here. Have taken statements of Briseño, local juez for Sandino, and am letting him return to his home to-day. ¶ This far have been unable to obtain satisfactory statements from Hernandez and Mora beyond the middle of August. Information obtained by local inhabitants state that they left here with Pedro Altamirano after the contact at YACALWAS Sept 2/3, 1928; that they have been active with his band since that date; that when Altamirano crossed the COCO about the date of Capt. Hall’s contact (RIO CUA) these two were members of his band; and that they returned to this vicinity about the 24th of last month. It was on the 26th of November that we secured the pistol, etc., of Hernandez. There is no definite information that they participated as principals or, in fact, in any way in the SAN MARCOS affair, although I personally believe that they were present there as subordinates. ¶ The majority of inhabitants here state that Hernandez has been active as a bandit for the past year; that some political and personal grudge assassinations in this vicinity were committed by him or under his direction; he had with him an order from Altamirano to kill one Braulio Morales, who has been an active agent for us; and that he is greatly feared by the majority of the inhabitants throughout the valley. ¶ Knowing that he had returned to the vicinity, I took the liberty of addressing a letter to him the latter part of November, a copy of which is enclosed. He has been in possession of this letter for a month, and had not acted upon the invitation extended to turn himself in. I believe it betters policy, if possible to have him living at home where he could be watched, than in some hidden camp in the hills. However, since he did not act upon the letter, I do not feel myself obliged to turn him loose at this time, and intend to keep him here for an indefinite period at POTECA. Mora, the . . . "

25 November 1928.
Memorandum for Major Schmidt, B-2, from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 2.  
". . . man with him, I shall probably turn loose upon his promise to behave himself. ¶ With Hernandez, Mora and Brisaño here, the river is cleared of all known bandit sub-jefes except one, Capt. Emilio Aguila, resident of MASTAWAS, from that point to and including GUIGUILI, Aguila is believed to be in the vicinity of MASTAWAS now and his apprehension or surrendering is expected. ¶ Am enclosing a few papers found in possession of Hernandez. Request that a translation be made and that copies of all messages and papers in connection with this particular group be furnished me. ¶ Information was furnished by a native of GUIGUILI that following Capt. Hall’s contact of 19 Nov. 1928, Altamirano and his group crossed the COCO and withdrew to a small canyon of the GUIGUILI RIVER near VENTILLO. Also that MT. VENTILLO is and has been a bandit stronghold, with much corn, bananas, cattle, etc., and fresh water available and that it is used by Sandino when CHIPOTE and other known camps become too hard pressed for him. I have reported this by radio via EASTERN AREA. ¶ I intend to patrol this area thoroughly. Due to the fact that all but the sick in this organization have averaged twenty days or more out of each month on active patrolling since we arrived here in August, and that three-fourths of them returned from patrol on the day before Christmas, I would prefer to delay this investigation of VENTILLO until after the 10th of January or after Major Utley’s inspection the first of next month. If you consider this patrol urgent, of course I am ready to start at any time. I have in mind for this expedition, entering VENTILLP and CHIPOTE from GUIGUILI, then if warranted, swing south, cross the COCO and again patrol the CUA - GUASANEROS GUAPINOL area before returning to POTECA, a trip of about three or four weeks, depending on conditions and bandits if any found. ¶ Navas arrived here at midnight of the twenty-fifth left here last night and should be at BOCAY by noon of to-day, the 27th.  ¶ Best wishes for a Happy New Year ¶ Respectfully ¶ M. A. Edson."

28 November 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Comandante de Poteca, to Sr. Ruperto Hernandez, Esquipulas.  

29 November 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Dear Major: ¶ To acknowledge receipt of the Area Marching-Drinking or What-have-you song and the October (?) 1928 letter of instructions. Except for rather rainy weather today – our first rain in two days – the holiday will prove a fair enough effort at the old tradition of Thanksgiving – sports and an aching belly. ¶ Rutledge has not yet been found. His body is probably lodged in one of the rough spots of the Poteca – although it may have drifted past the Coco. I have established a river lookout which I will keep up for a week. He could swim only a little and evidently lost his head when the boat swamped at the end of the rapids. This water was over his head but the current usually carries me to shallow water – and had he not become excited, he would easily have reached shore, I believe. A full report . . ."

29 November 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . will be sent in as ordered by your radio 8628-0931. Pollock being in command of the patrol is quite down hearted, thinking himself responsible. ¶ We lost, also, 2 BARs – 1 sub Thompson and 2 rifles, as yet unrecovered. Twelve (12) rifles and similar arms were lost but seven have been recovered. ¶ Burke sent in the following code message as you may already have a copy. ¶ Quote Have reliable information the source of which I cannot disclose that Altiramano has a personal interest in getting you comma that he is willing to sacrifice a few men in a small ambush in order to do so stop This considered by natives as bad attitude and dangerous stop Burke unquote. ¶ You can imagine I am losing a great deal of sleep over this – and if I return to Cabezas next 4th of July haggard and grey haired you will know the reason therefore. ¶ Best regards to the Mess – particularly to my drunken raiding padres.¶ Respectfully, ¶ Edson."

4 December 1928 (1122).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"8603 REQUEST BRIGADE POLICY REGARDING NATIVES WHO HAVE RETURNED HOME BUT HAVE NOT PRESENTED THEMSELVES THIS COMMAND STOP NO REPEAT NO EVIDENCE P A R C K Y O H ATION (PARTCIPATION ?) SAN MARCOS AFFAIR 1122"

10 December 1928 (0930).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Bocay, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8610 YOUR 8609 1905 LETTER MAJOR SCHMIDT TO EDSON AS FOLLOWS COLON IF THOSE MENTIONED ARE SELF CONFESSED BANDITS THEY SHOULD HAVE REPORTED TO YOU STOP IF THEY HAVE RETURNED TO PEACEFUL PURSUITS LET THEM REST ON PROMISE TO KEEP YOU INFORMED OF ALL BANDIT INFORMATION STOP 0930."

14 December 1928.
Memorandum for the Inspecting Officer Col. Archibald Young, from Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 1.  
""Reference (a) Recommendation to be submitted by Commanding Officer relative to the efficiency of the command. ¶  1. I am of the opinion that the most important and necessary element required to carry out efficiently the mission of this command is water transportation. At the present time all patrols and missions in connection with the enforcement of the Hacienda Laws are dependent on hired or free water transportation. The cost of transportation is considerable when hired, the use of free transportation is unsatisfactory because the movement of the patrols is dependent on the regular schedule of the banana and mahogany barges on which the transportation is secured. ¶ 2. Patrols on the rivers require a boat propelled by power. The use of canoes with paddles is slow and unsatisfactory. Only small distances can be covered and too many men are required as paddlers. The ideal transportation for the rivers is a native canoe with an outboard motor. The canoes are available here and the motor can be purchased for approximately $150.00 each. At least four motors are required. One for use at Bluefields, on at Rama and two on the Rio Grande River. These motors are simple of operation, economical in the use of fuel, easily transported and cover considerable distance in a days run. Gasoline is available throughout the Area but it is desirable that considerable supply be purchased in the United States and shipped here. ¶ 3. A heavy duty boat is required for the outside trips between San Juan and Bluefields, Bluefields and Rio Grande and Rio Grande to Puerto Cabezas. At the present time only one schedule of boats runs between San Juan and Bluefields. The fare costs $5.00 each way and it will be seen that the transfer of men between stations, the required inspections of the command will result in a considerable figure in a years time. This is only an illustration and all other stations on the coast are the same. In addition should an emergency arise it becomes necessary to hire a boat and the cost is then expensive. The type of boat is a matter which the undersigned would prefer to leave to someone more familiar with these matters but it will require a boat and engine that can stand up in any sort of weather. ¶ 4. Communication between posts in the Area is difficult. There is a telegraph line between Rama and Bluefields, no communication at all between San Juan and Bluefields, some between this place and Las Perla or Rio Grande Bar. Radio communication can be held between La Cruz, Puerto Cabezas and Bluefields. It is not known what steps can be taken to bring pressure to bear on the proper branch of the government to repair the telegraph lines freely in use but it is believed that such steps should be taken, this not only as a benefit to the Guardia but to the entire community. ¶ 5. Considerable difficulty has been experienced in obtaining clothing. Requisitions have been submitted in due time but due to a shortage of clothing on hand it has been necessary at times for men to continue wearing clothing which is not suitable nor conducive to the morale of the men concerned . . ."

14 December 1928.
Memorandum for the Inspecting Officer Col. Archibald Young, from Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . [section missing] compares very favorably with the standard throughout the Area. There has been a feeling on the part of the better qualified privates that they do not care for promotion to the grade of corporal or sergeant due to the small amount of pay involved and the responsibilities of the higher rank. I am in favor of a change of the pay table by which the difference between the privates and corporals pay would be greater than it is at present and which would lend attraction to the promotion to the higher rank. This should be carried also to the grades of sergeants and first sergeants. ¶ 7. Considerable difficulty has been found in obtaining board for the men on detached duty at small posts on the allowance of thirty cents a day. Economic conditions on this coast are utterly different from the Pacific side and it has been found impossible at some places to even obtain rice and beans as a steady diet for less than fifty cents per diem. By the exercise of economy and close supervision it has been possible to ration the men at the Sub-Divisions on thirty cents per day. All supplies are purchased locally and shipped to the subdivisions and by this method the allowance has not been exceeded. The savings have been made to amount to any figure. It is of course impossible to run a separate mess for two, three or four men, the necessary cooking utensils, purchase of supplies, detail of cooks, etc., makes this out of the question. It is recommended that wherever required an allowance of fifty or sixty cents be authorized. An illustration of this matter is at Puerto Cabezas. Only one person was found who would ration the Guardia for fifty cents a day, all other demanding up to $1.00 per day. This of course is due to the large force of laborers at Puerto Cabezas and to the fact that they are allowed $0.75 and $1.00 per day for their living. ¶ 8. It is recommended that arrangement be made for a weekly plane service from Managua. All mail and correspondence now takes from three weeks upward for transmission and reply. It is believed that the local Commanding Officer of Marines would also be benefitted by this move and it is known that he is in favor of the same. ¶ 9. Conditions in an Area of this size and nature require that more officers be assigned to duty than in an area on the other side where railroads, automobiles, trails, etc., are available. One or two officers should be constantly on the move throughout the Area making patrols and becoming familiar with the territory and the inhabitants. It has been impossible to accomplish this so far due to lack of officer personnel. Recommendations have been submitted to this effect and it is again recommended that they be given consideration. ¶ 10. Two qualified buglers were requested for duty in this Area. It has been impossible so far to enlist a man who can perform on the bugle. It is believed that at least one bugler should be present at Area Headquarters to blow the routine calls including colors, for funerals and the publication of orders in town. ¶ A. B. Sage, ¶ Major, GN. ¶ Area Commander."

15 December 1928.
Report on Boats and Boatmen Used by Capt. Edson's Command, Capt. J. J. Burks, Bocay, to Col. A. Young, p. 1.  
"References: (a) Letter Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua, to Commanding Officer, Camp Utley, Bocay, Nicaragua, dated 15 November, 1928, same subject. ¶ (b) Enclosure 1 to reference (a) ¶ (c) Enclosure 2 to reference (a) (Capt. Edson’s report). ¶ 1. Since, as stated in reference (a) “Captain Edson’s report covers only one side of this question”, and since that report contains certain statements which tend to show a lack of co-operation on the part of the Commanding Officer at Bocay with Captain Edson at Poteca during a part of the time at which I was in command at Bocay, which statements as far as I am concerned are wholly without justification, I wish to acquaint the Command Eastern Area with all of the facts in connection with the matter dealt with. This communication was not received at Bocay until on or about December 10, 1928. ¶ 2. Quoting from reference (c), “(B) A rescue was submitted to CO Bocay to furnish me with ten (10) boatmen over a month ago and nothing has come of that request to date.” If such a request was submitted to the Commanding Officer at Bocay at that time, it was before my arrival at Bocay, since the report was dated “10-30-28”. Nothing regarding any such request has ever come to my attention either by written or verbal means, even tho Captain Edson had ample opportunity to, and did communicate with me during the month period he referred to. He made no mention to me at any time of having made any such request of the Commanding officer at Bocay nor did he at any time make his wishes known to me along the line of hiring boatmen for him. ¶ Again, he states, “(c) Two of my prisoners were sent to Bocay sick. Others now there attempting to gather crew for me which Bocay has failed to materialize to date.” At the time Captain Edson sent the two Indians referred to here, he wrote me under date of October 24th., that these two Indians were to hire or obtain eight others and return here ---”. He made no mention at that time of any boatmen he had requested the Commanding Officer at Bocay to hire for him or of any assistance he desired me to give the two men he sent here. I asked one of these men if there was anything that I could do to help him and he replied that there was not. I then presumed that they had special instructions from Captain Edson and that any assistance from me was not wanted. After about two weeks had elapsed, I made inquiries to ascertain if anything had been done relative to the hiring of these eight men and found that none had been hired. I spoke to Mr. Thompson at that time with . . . "

15 December 1928.
Report on Boats and Boatmen Used by Capt. Edson's Command, Capt. J. J. Burks, Bocay, to Col. A. Young, p. 2.  
". . . regard to this and at my request he located and hired eight men for Captain Edson, which were immediately dispatched to Poteca. Before the departure of these eight men for Poteca Mr. Thompson advanced them a total of fifty dollars of his own funds in my presence. ¶ (c) I am without knowledge of the matter contained in Captain Edson’s statements regarding Mr. Thompson. I do know that since I have been at Bocay, both Mr. Thompson and Mr. Webster have co-operated with me to the fullest extent in all dealings which I have had with them. ¶ (d) The statements of Captain Edson to the effect that all matter relative to the unwillingness of the Indians to make trips to Poteca originates with Mr. Thompson and that there is, he believes little if any truth in it, is not founded on any facts or circumstances as I see them here. The boat trip with loads of supplies from Bocay to Poteca is a much easier and quicker trip than the one from Waspuc to Bocay and for that reason is admittedly more profitable to Mr. Thompson than the latter trip. This I think eliminates any possible motive from a financial standpoint on the part of Thompson to not want the boat crews to go to Poteca. I know of no other motive that he could have, since there is never any difficulty in obtaining boat crews for other places. I know that at the time in question the Indians were unwilling to go to Poteca because I saw evidences of it myself. ¶ (e) Relative to the last statement in Captain Edson’s report regarding the rations furnished by Mr. Thompson to his boat crews which he states Lieutenant Pollock desired brought to your attention, I do now know hoe either Lieutenant Pollock or Captain Edson at Poteca can know what amount of rations Mr. Thompson furnishes his boat crews at Bocay and for that reason whether such rations are sufficient or of what disposition these boat crews make of their own rations after leaving Bocay. ¶ (f) I have never concerned myself with the amount of rations Mr. Thompson furnishes his boatmen as I regard that as purely his business as I consider that he knows far better than I what constitutes a sufficient boat crew ration. ¶ (g) As to the rations being broken into on the trip from here to Poteca, I had no knowledge of that prior to the receipt of this communication. The memorandum receipts have been returned from Poteca signed by an officer for all supplies shipped there without any notation or report of any kind of any breakage or pilfering being made to me. Mr. Thompson has agreed to be held responsible for any pilfering or thefts by his crews. Had I known of this pilfering I could have held Mr. Thompson responsible and he could have held the boat crew in question responsible which would probably have prevented any recurrence of the same. ¶ (h) At the time I wrote the personal note, reference (b), to Captain Edson, in which I requested him not to hold the one boat crews at Poteca, which by so doing would keep them away from the polls here on election day, I regarded it as my duty to do so. My understanding was that our primary duty here was to guarantee a fair election and I considered that his crews should be allowed to return here in time to vote if they so desired. Before these boatmen left here I assured them that they . . . "  [p. 3 missing]

16 December 1928 (1230).
Radiogram from Capt. J. J. Burks, Garrobo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8616 TWO PLANCES OVER ABOUT 1115 DROPPED CLOTHING AND MAIL STOP PROCEEDED SOUTH DIRECTION STOP PLANES RETURNED AT 1200 AND DROPPED TWO HUNDRED AND SEVENTY POUND OF RATIONS STOP 1230."

16 December 1928 (1638).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Capt. J. J. Burks, Bocay.  
"8616 ONE BOAT NINE INDIANS CLEARED FOR BOCAY AT 1600."

17 December 1928 (1655).
Radiogram from Capt. J. J. Burks, Garrobo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8616 PATROL LEFT LA PITA NOON FIFTEENTH ARRIVING HERE FOURTEEN THIRTY TODAY STOP AREA COVERED AS ORDERED IN FIELD ORDER STOP PATROL REPORTS NO TRAILS LEADING TO OR IN DIRECTION OF KILAMBE FROM THIS SIDE STOP ALL NATIVES SAY THERE ARE NO BANDITS AT KILAMBE COME BUT THAT THEY ARE AT EL CHIPOTE AND THAT NONE HAVE BEEN IN AREA SINCE MAY ALL NATIVES WORKING AND FRIENDLY STOP PATROL SEARCH FOR GRAVE OF CPL WILLIAMSON AND FOUND AN OPENED GRAVE AT ZAPOTE WITH SERVICE BLANKET PARTIALLY IN IN THE BLANKET HAD R HUGHES NAME ON IT STOP NO OTHER MARK OF INDENTIFICATION FOUND STOP ZAPOTE IS TWO AND ONE HALD MILES SOUTHWEST OF EL CEDRO ON MAIN TRAIL STOP NATIVES SAY SANDINO MOVED THE BODY STOP FRIENDLY NATIVE TRYING TO LOCATE BODY STOP UNABLE TO LOCATE PACK ANIMALS STOP TWO MEN RETURNED WITH FEVER STOP MORALE EXCELLENT 1650."

18 December 1928 (1130).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, with copies to COs Poteca, Garrobo, Cuvali.

20 December 1928 (1611).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas. 
"Any women or children taken with bandits should not repeat not be considered as prisoners or treated or reported as such."

1.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Enclosures: (1) Statement of Nicolas T. Lagos. ¶ (2) Statement of Ida Bodden. ¶ 1. Forwarded herewith are the enclosures, statements made out against Sergeant McGregor, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ 2. It is respectfully requested that the same be investigated. ¶ C. R. Darrah . . ."

2.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
". . . Interpretation of Statement of Ida Bodden. ¶ About 6:00 p.m., 18 December 1928, I was at my house which is situated in Bilway (Old Bilway) this locality, holding a conservation with a sergeant of the United States Landing Forces named McGregor, when two American Citizens passed, one of them asked McGregor if he remembered the individual that he had hit with a black jack, (the individual of whom they were referring is Mr. Nicolas Torres Lagos) then he said he heard that when McGregor saw him again he would shoot him. At which McGregor responded, that on the first occasion that he saw Lagos at night, he would kill him and cut him up, at which expressions the person making the statement did not feel very comfortable, because on one occasion Mr. Lagos was beaten by several, and I told the sergeant, that there had been no reason for it, and more, he would have to kill me and the woman of Lago’s also. At which McGregor responded, that to kill three Nicaraguans was the same as nothing. Then I called Señora Claudina Padilla to serve as a witness to McGregor’s words, but she got up and left the place where we were, and he would not repeat his expressions. This is all I can declare in this case. ¶ SIGNED Ida Bodden. . ."

3.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
". . . Interpretation of Statement of Nicolas Torres Lagos¶ I, Nicolas Terres Lagos, of age, Married, chauffer and living in this locality declare, that without any right I have been beaten by the sergeant of the American Forces in this locality, with a black-jack, causing a cut on my head. After this offense and without me giving him a reason Sergeant McGregor has expressed on several occasions against me, and that on the first occasion he got he would kill me, because killing one Nicaraguan had no value. For my part I declare, that I do not hold a grudge against the said sergeant, and if I am beaten again on another occasion it will be just because he wants to. I am careful not to give Sergeant McGregor a cause to beat me. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, 20 December 1928. ¶ SIGNED Nicolas Torres Lagos . . ."

4.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.  
". . . STATEMENT OF R. C. ATKINS ¶ I was in Bilwi on the evening of December 18, 1928. While on my way back home I meet Sergeant McGregor. We were talking and I mention about Mr. Wilkes and his troubles. ¶ I personally heard Sergeant McGregor say he didn’t see why they didn’t get him instead of Mr. Wilkes for he was the one that had to do the work. I didn’t hear Sergeant McGregor threaten anyone’s life at any time I was talking with him, and he walk with me almost through Bilwi when I started home. ¶ R. C. ATKINS ¶ STATEMENT OF ROSS JOHNSON. ¶ While in Bilwi on the evening of December 18, 1928, I met Sergeant McGregor. I stop and was speaking to him, when someone said have you heard any more about Lagos and Wilkes case and McGregor said no, only that it was funny Lagos had not taken action against him instead of Wilkes as it as him who hit Lagos over the head. ¶ At no time did I hear McGregor threaten or say he would kill anyone. ¶ Ross Johnson . . ."

5.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.  
". . . STATEMENT OF D. K. McGREGOR, SERGEANT U.S.M.C.¶ While attending the fights in the machine shop, I heard some noise at the door so went over to see what it was about. Upon my arrival at the door I heard G. Wilkes, who was night watchman say drop that knife, so I stepped in front of him and flashed my light as it was dark, when I seen on taxi driver name Lagos who had a knife in his hand. When I demanded he give me the knife he tried to hide the knife in his right hand hip pocket. ¶ When I seen him go for his hip I struck him as it was possible he might have had a pistol in it, which I could not ascertain till he had been searched. ¶ If the knife had been handed me at first there would have been no blows struck and no time have I threatened this man. ¶ D. K. McGregor, ¶ Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ STATEMENT OF SERGEANT D. K. McGREGOR, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ In the evening of December 18 I as sitting on the porch talking to Miss Bodden when Rose Johnson and Atkins came along we were talking of the thing and another when one of the boys asked me if I heard any more about the Lagos case. I said no, but it seemed funny that he did not take action on me instead of G. Wilkes as it was me that had struck him so hard and they said it did seem funny and that was all that was said about the case. ¶ I did not threaten to kill anyone. ¶ D. K. McGregor, ¶ Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps . . ."

6.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.  
" . . . Enclosure: Letter, Commander Eastern Area to Sergeant McGregor, and attached papers. ¶ 1. Returned. The enclosures show the investigation made by me. In view of these facts, charges are herewith proffered against Nicolas T. Lagos and Ida Bodden for making slanderous, untrue remarks against Sergeant McGregor. It is requested that they be prosecuted to the full extent of the law and this headquarters be informed of the action taken. HAROLD H. UTLEY. ¶ 1. The following are taken from the Criminal Code and the Penal Code of Nicaragua. ¶ In accordance with Art. 31 of the Criminal Code of Nicaragua, it is impossible to start any legal proceedings against Mr. Lagos and Miss Aida Bodden for the offenses mentioned as committed by them, unless a formal accusation is introduced by the person supposed to have been offended by said persons, as these sorts of offenses are qualified by the law as ‘private’. ¶ The above has been established to Art. 40 of the same Criminal Code which literally reads: Legal proceedings against offenses which can not be indicated by the authorities themselves (like in private offenses) only can be denounced and accusations introduced by the person that has been offended, etc. ¶ The above is also covered by Art. 392 of the Penal Code of Nicaragua which orders the same thing, this: ‘Nobody shall be prosecuted by calumny or insult unless so petitioned by the person offended, etc. ¶ 2. Sergeant McGregor will have to appear her in court to place his case, before further action can be taken. ¶ C. R. Darrah . . ."

7.   20 December 1928.
Report on Complaint of one Nicolas Torres Lagos against Sgt. McGregor, USMC, by Major C. R. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.  
" . . . Rose - ¶ Use your own judgments having in view both sides of the situation – i.e. ¶ The desirability of putting some sort of a check on slanderous accusations ¶ The present status of McGregor ¶ Utley."

1.   23 December 1928 (approximate date).
Manuscript on Eastern Nicaragua, by Major H. H. Utley, p. 1.  
" “Oh! The Eastern Area grew and grew, Hablas tu! ¶ The Eastern Area, grew and grew, Hablas tu! ¶ The Eastern Area grew and it grew, ¶ We don’t know what it’s coming to, ¶ Hinky Dinky Hablas tu!” (Area Song.) ¶ Practically every revolution worthy of the name in Nicaragua began on the east coast and consequently our naval forces frequently operated off that coast and many landing parties have from time to time occupied strategic points ashore. In Jan 1927 one battalion (Bartlett’s) of the Fifth Marines was sent to the coast from Guantanamo. Lieutenant Colonel J. J. Mende was sent from Washington to take command of this battalion. Landing parties of both marines and bluejackets from the ships on the east coast patrol, including a destroyer division, covered the coast and as far inland as EL GALLO and RAMA. The tactical command of these forces was vested in the senior naval officer of the east coast patrol. This force was reduced to one company, the 51st (Kendall’s) which garrisoned BLUEFIELDS, PUERTO CABEZAS, and EL GALLO, with small outposts at EL BLUFF across the lagoon from BLUEFIELDS and the location of the BLUEFIELDS Custom House, and at WAWA CENTRAL at the end of the railroad out of PUERTO CABEZAS. Command had reverted to the 5th Regiment ¶ The coast line extends north and south almost 250 miles. There are no roads, few trails, one railroad about 86 kilometers long extending from PUERTO CABEZAS through the farms of the Standard Fruit and Steamship Co to WAWA CENTRAL; but there are nine routes east and west: the WANKS (called the COCO on some maps) River, the CUCALAYA River, the BAMBANA River, the PRINZAPOLKA River, the TUMA River (which empties into the GRANDE), the GRANDE River, the KURINGWAS River the ESCONDIDO River, and the SAN JUAN River. North and south practically all travel is in small coasting power schooners or smaller craft. The only trail of importance is that leading from MATAGALPA via TUMA and from JINOTEGA via COYALAR through LA LUZ to the PIS PIS mining area, and thence following the general line of the WASPUC River to the WANKS. The country is - except in the pine belt near the coast north of the WAWA River - heavily wooded and covered with dense underbrush, and is very sparsely settled, except along the rivers. ¶ On 22 January 1928 I assumed command of the Eastern Area pursuant to radio orders received while en route to CORINTO. Notwithstanding these orders, the area itself was not formed until 18 February 1928 when Brigade Order No was issued. However I commenced to function using the office of the 51st Co at BLUEFIELDS for my headquarters and having neither staff, clerks nor even an orderly. I found the one company split into three detachments, without any medical officer, and with no explicit orders nor even instructions as to our mission. There was an almost complete absence of maps, which in view of the length of time our naval forces had been operating on this coast seemed remarkable. ¶ Brigade Order Number 24. Headquarters Second Brigade Marine Corps, Managua, Nic. ¶ SUBJECT: Creation of EASTERN AREA. February 18 1928 ¶ 1. A Territorial Subdivision known as “The EASTERN AREA” is hereby created. The Eastern Area comprises the East Coast of NICARAGUA and such Nicaraguan Territory inland which can be controlled by troops supplied from the East Coast of NICARAGUA. ¶ 2. The senior line officer on duty with troops in the Easter Area (at present, Major Harold H. Utley, USMC) will be known as the “Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua”; that officer will command all troops of this Brigade stationed or operating within said Area. ¶ 3. The Eastern Area as herein defined will be immediately subordinate to these Headquarters. ¶ BY COMMAND OF BRIGADIER GENERAL FELAND: W. DULTY SMITH, Major, USMC, B-Ex. ¶ OFFICIAL O. Floyd, Major USMC, B-3. . . . "

2.   23 December 1928 (approximate date).
Manuscript on Eastern Nicaragua, by Major H. H. Utley, p. 2.  
" . . . It will be noted that the western boundary was clearly indeterminate. Later this was to cause complications. I found the records in the 51st Company office poorly kept, making it difficult to obtain a clear picture of the situation. Due to the shortage of officers Kendall had been tied to BLUEFIELDS and had very little knowledge of the greater part of the area. In addition to commanding the company and being the only officer at BLUEFIELDS, Kendall was AOM and SDA for which latter duties he had no liking and little aptitude. I was unable to find a single order, letter, or message from which I could deduce my mission. I assumed it to be the preservation of order within my area, and the protection of American lives and property. A personal letter to my old friend Floyd on the Brigade Staff along those lines evoked a most remarkable reply. I therefore continued to act on my assumption of my mission until a specific one was given me later. ¶ BLUEFIELDS itself is situated on a lagoon some distance from deep water. A line of hills on the land side shuts off any breeze from almost three sides. The streets are in a terrible state of disrepair, the houses none too good. There are several mercantile establishments, mostly owned and operated by chinamen, three Clubs, and the Nicaraguan offices of several foreign companies, of which by far the most important is the Cuyamel Fruit and Steamship Co. Most of the others are mahogany companies. The Tropical Radio Corp. has a station at BLUEFIELDS, and there is a government telephone line which sometimes connects with RAMA up the ESCONDIDO River. It is the seat of government of the Department of Bluefields, and historically is very important. In fact, as I was to learn later, the people in the interior of NICARAGUA think only of BLUEFIELDS when they speak of the east coast. Politically and historically it is important, but actually its importance is very small, except for the fact that it furnishes a jumping off place for revolutionary bands. It seethes with politics, and unfortunately the foreigners have meddled in Nicaraguan politics quite a bit. There are two strategic points, from the point of view of potential revolutionists or bandits, - the bank at BLUEFIELDS and the Custom-house at EL BLUFF which is across the lagoon, on the ship channel, and the point where all vessels enter and clear. Some years ago an attempt was made to move the city to the bluff but the property owners and merchants were able to block the very wise move. The river ESCONDIDO derives its name from the fact that pirates were in the habit of hiding their vessels up that river when hard pressed, or when it was necessary to haul out for repairs or overhaul. Back of the custom house at EL BLUFF there is a steep hill, on the summit of which the remains of old fortifications can still be seen. Legends differ regarding the origin of this fort, one story being that it was built by the pirates to deny entrance to the ESCONDIDO to British frigates, and was captured by the landing party of which Lord Nelson then a junior officer was a member, which landed near CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS and marched down the coast, and the other being that it was built by this force to deny the river to the pirates. It seems pretty certain that it was occupied by the British in either event. Of the so called Americans resident in BLUEFIELDS only one “Boss” Baker seemed worthy of confidence. An elderly man, head of the Nicaraguan Division of the Cuyamel Co., head of the American Naval Intelligence in this section during the war, his opinions could always be accepted with respect, and his statements relied upon. Of the rest the less said the better. Some were frankly anti-marine, some only so when they thought no one was listening who would inform us. ¶ I deduced my mission to be “the preservation of order and the protection of foreign and especially American lives and property within my area. ¶ My force consisted of one company, the 51st (Kendall) distributed about equally between BLUEFIELDS, EL GALLO and PUERTO CABEZAS, with one squad outposts at EL BLUFF and WAWA CENTRAL. It was not well trained and I was surprised later to learn that little or no patrolling had been done. The mining sectors west and southwest of PUERTO CABEZAS, and the WANKS River which seemed to be an excellent and much used route of supply for the bandits were unknown territory. With the small force available little more could be done than to protect the three points, and the distribution appeared satisfactory. A purely passive defense of the three places with the preservation of order in the immediate neighborhood seemed all that could be done, but I insisted that small patrols be sent out to investigate the immediate environs of each of our posts. . . . "

3.   23 December 1928 (approximate date).
Manuscript on Eastern Nicaragua, by Major H. H. Utley, p. 3.  
" . . . There were a few Heavy Browning Machine Guns sufficient for defensive purposes only, one 37mm, and the regular allowance of Automatic Rifles. ¶ There were no known bandits within the area, but the northwestern part was a No Man’s Land and a large proportion of the population was believed to be favorably disposed towards the bandits. ¶ On the evening of the 28th of January I embarked on the Cuyamel Fruit Steam Managua, for MAN O WAY KEY, where the fruit from the GRANDE River is loaded. Monday 30 January I transferred to power barge #1, and proceeded via GRANDE BAR and LA CRUZ up the GRANDE River to EL GALLO where I arrived Tuesday morning. Inspected the detachment there and went over the situation with Lieutenant Carroll and with such of the officials of the Cuyamel Co as were present. The key to the position is the hill on which the radio station is located. The Commissary and office are located on the river bank which at this point is quite steep and high. The boats of the company tie up to the bank beneath the office and are defiladed from the hill by the high bank of the river, but are commanded from the office building. Considerable subsistence stores, clothing, and cash are carried in the commissary and office. I directed that the defense should include holding both the hill and the office-commissary building with approximately equal forces; that the garrison on the hill keep a raving, which afforded cover from which to launch an attack against the office building, under fire and the garrison of the office-commissary building deny the boats to any attacking party and also keep the reverse slops of a ridge which furnished a good jumping off line against to the hill under fire. ¶ The following morning I left EL GALLO in a power boat accompanied by one Marine and one civilian, “Johnie” Williams, the BLUEFIELDS manager of a mahogany company. We proceeded to TUMARIN where we were supposed to find mules awaiting us. However there were no mules ready and after waiting awhile without results, I elected to make the next lap which I was assured was only 18 kilometers on foot. We left what baggage we had to be forwarded by the mules when they arrived and started out. I was soft from much desk duty and that 18 kilometers proved to be the longest 18 kilometers in the world, bar none. The trail was a series of ups and downs, with sticky mud above the ankles most of the way. About five o’clock we were met by a native boy with a single saddle mule which was offered to me, but my pride forbade my riding when I was more lightly equipped than the marine with me. It was then offered to the marine but he would not ride when I walked, so it was offered to Williams. He had no pride and mounted, and has since repaid me for that ride in many a drink at the Tropical Club in BLUEFIELDS as the price for not telling the crowd there of his inability to make the whole hike. ¶ Just before dark we reached our destination, a mahogany camp at the headwaters of CARAWALLA Creek, operated by an Austrian named Miller, who as a soldier of forune had served with the Liberals during the revolution as a general. He had been a Sergeant-Major during the World War in the Austrian Army. The camp was new, in fact not yet completed, and was most interesting to me. None of the buildings were walled but the roofs were in place and the camp was in full swing. We had an excellent dinner and turned in early in our hammocks swung from the mahogany posts which supported the roof of what was later to be the office and commissary. The next morning while I took a look around the marine with me went out and shot two wild turkeys with is rifle. Knocked the head off of each one and then wisely refused to fire another shot. But his prowess created quite a stir in the camp. The following morning Williams returned to LA CRUZ by mule, while Miller, the marine with me and myself started downstream in a native pitpan hollowed out of a mahogany tree for PEARL LAGOON where the Vrooman Co tug was to meet us. We had a crew of three indians and it was most interesting to watch the adept way in which they handled the boat through the rapids. Twice we disembarked and walked around rapids while the crew let the boat down by means of a long paineer, ie a rope made fast to one end of the boat. But we had misjudged the time and space factor and it was well after dark and we were well upstream from the lagoon when we were challenged sharply for the bank and at Kelly’s reply learned that we were at the head of navigation of the KURINGWAS River and that the Vrooman tug with an escort of marines was moored to the bank. We three thankfully scrambled aboard and after dismissing our boat crew were soon under way down stream while one of the marines prepared supper for us on a gasoline stove of the type used by auto camping parties in the states, three of which are possessed by the 51st Co. . . . "

4.   23 December 1928 (approximate date).
Manuscript on Eastern Nicaragua, by Major H. H. Utley, p. 4.  
" [ . . . ] . . . to sea for BLUEFIELDS. LAS PERLAS or PEARL CITY is an excellent example of a “dead” city. Its streets are broad, and still plainly marked by the remains of the drainage ditches on each side. Here and there, averaging perhaps one to a city block a solitary native shack or a more pretentious store or cantina still stands, and about half of the buildings are occupied. ¶ After a few days in BLUEFIELDS arranging for supplies to be sent to GALLO, I accepted the invitation of the USS Denver, the ship on station, to make a trip with him to PUERTO CABEZAS. Captain W.H. Allen had been a shipmate of mine years ago on the old NORTH CAROLINA, and I was well aware of his peculiarities. He treated me however with every consideration, and thoroughly indoctrinated his subordinates with the idea that the ship on station was there to help the marines ashore. Upon our arrival off PUERTO CABEZAS, Captain Merritt A. Edson, the Marine Officer of the Denver, was loaned me, to assist me in making my inspection, and for the further reason that Captain Allen wanted him familiar with conditions at every port where the ship touched. We were hospitably received by the officials of the Bragmans Lumber Co., and put up in a vacant house across the street from the buildings occupied by the Marine Detachment. We spent one day in inspecting and going over the situation, and the second in going out to the end of “the line” i.e. the railroad over which the bananas are brought to port from the farms. Unlike the CUYAMEL Co which owns very few farms and operates almost exclusively by purchasing from sub-contractors, the Standard Fruit and SS Co operates its own farms, doing its clearing, planting, cultivating, and cutting either by contract or by hiring its own labor. This method involves a greater overhead in supervision etc., but on the other hand it places the responsibility and control in the hands of the officials of the company. Both plans have their advocates, both appear to have disadvantages. We found the detachment in good shape, quartered in several buildings close together, one had been erected for employees of the company, one erected for the landing force of one of the ships, the others small buildings erected for various purposes and moved to the desired location which was an excellent one, on the bluff overlooking the sea, well inside the white residential section. Guard duty was severe, almost every man doing a watch each night, and working a part of each day. The detachment furnished the actual police protection for the white residential section, guarded the dock, the sawmill, the company office, company commissary, and Customs House. Some time before there had been a number of fires believed to have been of incendiary origin, which had resulted in the landing of the Marine Detachment of the USS Tulsa, and the continuous occupation of the place by various detachments ever since. Just beyond the limits of the white residential section lay the town of old Bilway or Biway or Bilwa. This was also policed to some extent by the marines. The Nicaraguan Commandante, a young man who had been educated in New York, became somewhat of a soldier of fortune, and eventually thrown his lot with Sacasa and aided in the attack on PUERTO CABEZAS had under his command two other Commandantes and about twenty-five policemen, all, including the commandantes paid by the company. As they were well paid these jobs were much sought after, and one of my missions was to investigate charges that had been made that the position of commandante and the employment by him of policemen was illegal. Illegal or not it was the only solution, and I duly noted the existence of official appointments of the Commandante, Senor Don Luis Castro. ¶ The trip out the line was most interesting although it became very monotonous later when necessity required frequent trips. For the first part of the run the line lay through the pine ridge which extends along the coast well into HONDURAS, then through a bit of swampy land across the WAWA River at WAWA BOOM and a few kilometers beyond passes into the farm lands. Bananas by the way have several peculiarities. First they grow upside down, and secondly they will not ripen on the parent tree. The railroad is 86 kilometers long terminating just beyond WAWA Central on the banks of the WAWA. Here the marines occupied what was termed an outpost. In reality it was a detached post as it was far beyond supporting distance, and pretty completely isolated. The principal function of this detachment was in reality the support of the local Commandante and his policemen in their efforts to maintain order, and in this they had been quite successful, although it appeared that the “support” had been mainly going out with the Commandante and then doing the work necessary . . . "  [remainder missing]

24 December 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Alfred Webster, Bocay. 
"Please accept my thanks for securing the Indians who have been working for me for the past two months.  All of them with the exception of one have been excellent.  I would appreciate it if you could obtain about eight more who could come here about the 1st of January for a period of about two months to replace the ones whom I now have so that they may return to their homes for awhile."

25 December 1928 (0822).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8625 INFORM THIS OFFICE CONCERNING SERVICES OF NATIVE POLICE IN CAPE GRACIAS COMMA NUMBER EMPLOYED COMMA HOW LONG THEY HAVE BEEN THERE AND ANY OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THEM 0822."

26 December 1928 (1615).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8626 MEDICAL SUPPLIES LISTEN IN YOUR 8623 1420 DROPPED TO CUVALI ON TWENTY FOURTH STOP PLANE UNABLE TO GET INTO CUVALI TODAY STOP DROP OF MEDICAL SUPPLIES BROUGHT BY MANLEY AND THOSE SUPPLIES LISTEN IN YOUR 8626 1345 WILL BE DROPPED WHEN WEATHER PERMITS STOP 1615."

26 December 1928 (1703).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Matagalpa.  
"NINE MAN PATROL SERGEANT BENTON IN CHARGE CLEARED CUVALI FOR YAOSCA [YASICA] AT ZERO EIGHT HUNDRED TODAY."

1.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"A battalion of the Fifth Regiment (Bartlett’s) was sent to this coast form Guantanamo. I think Colonel J. J. Meade came from Headquarters and assumed command of the Battalion. Landing parties of both marines and blue jackets of various ships on the east coast patrol, including a destroyer division, covered the coast and as far inland as EL GALLO and RAMA. The command of these forces rested with the Naval Commander of the East Coast Patrol. ¶ This force was subsequently reduced, leaving one company of the battalion, the fifty-first (Kendall) as a sole garrison of this part of Nicaragua, but the tactical command continued to be exercised by the Naval Commander of the East Coast Patrol until some time in the Summer of 1927 (probably about the time the Eleventh Regiment and Brigade Headquarters went back to the States) when the command passed to the Fifth Regiment. ¶ The company had headquarters at Bluefields, garrisoning that place. EL GALLO and PUERTO CABEZAS with approximately thirty men in each place. PUERTO CABEZAS had an outpost at the end of the railroad at WAWA CENTRAL; BLUEFIELDS had an outpost at the Customs House at EL BLUFF. ¶ I have very little information as to what had happened prior to my arrival as the records had not been properly kept, but I believe that Captain D. J. Kendall, U.S. Marine Corps, now on duty at QUANTICO, Virginia, can give you the desired information. ¶ I assumed command 22 January, 1928, of the area which extends from Honduras to Costa Rica, approximately 250 miles, and “such territory which can be controlled by troops supplied from the East Coast of Nicaragua”. In this area there are no roads, few trails, one railroad, about 86 kilometers long, extending from Puerto Cabezas to Wawa Central, but there are nine routes east and west: the WANKS or COCO River, the CUCALAYA River, the BAMBANA River, the PRINZAPOLKA River, the TUMA River, the RIO GRANDE River, the KURINGWAS River, the ESCONDIDO River, and the SAN JUAN River. North and south practically all travel is by small power schooners or even smaller craft. The only trail of importance is that leading frmo MATAGALPA via TUMA and JINOTEGA via COYALAR through LA LUZ to the PIS PIS mining area and thence . . . "

2.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  

". . . following the general line of the WASPUC River. In the dry season transportation by boat becomes difficult due to low water; in the rainy season, I am informed, passage upstream is difficult due to the force of the current, and that the trails are practically impassable, due to mud. ¶ About 90% of the natives are LIBERALS. They have been taught that the CONSERVATIVES, while in power, have neglected this coast in the matter of public improvements, especially roads, and they refer to the provisions of the original treaty of annexation, whereby the net income from the custom houses located on this coast was to be applied to public schools and works here, which they claim has never been done. They are further convinced that the LIBERAL PARTY was on the road to success when the STIMSON AGREEMENT was made, and that only American intervention prevented their success by force of arms. The majority of the LIBERALS in this area belong to the extreme wing of the party, and are therefore pro-SANDINO and pro-SACASSA, as opposed to MONDADA. If the election is held as planned, and if the LIBERALS win, the situation on this coast will be quiet for a time, assuming that the GUARDIA functions efficiently, but there will undoubtedly be considerable local friction due to the radical change in police procedure and ethics - should there be no election or should the CONSERVATIVES win, anything unpleasant may happen. Reports received indicate a probability of trouble in HONDURAS this summer and if this proves to be true, there is another source of potential trouble, either as a base for NICARAGUAN bandits or from raiding parties and refugees from Honduras. In any case there should be a force of not less than two companies of marines retained on this coast for a long time to come. Upon taking command and making a personal reconnaissance of the RIO GRANDE as far as TUMARIN (at right angle bend southwest of EL GALLO on Ham map), CAROWALA CREEK, KURINGWAS RIVER, PEARL LAGOON, PUERTO CABEZAS to end of railroad, and CAPE GRACIAS, I felt that the available force was disposed of to the best advantage, but that it was inadequate. There was only one company (the 51st) in the area and it garrisoned the three most important: PUERTO CABEZAS, which is important because it is by far the largest foreign investment on this coast - about ten million dollars - and because it furnished the best base of operations and supply for the sector north of the RIO GRANDE; BLUEFIELDS, because historically and politically, it is the center of intrigue, and it furnished the best base of operations and supply for the sector south of the PRINZAPOLKA; and EL GALLO, because it is the second most important foreign establishment, its occupation closes the RIO GRANDE and RIO TUMA, and it forms an advanced base for operations up those river basins. The occupation of these points was all that could be done with the force available but the information received indicated that in order to provide for eventualities there should be a post somewhere on the WANKS and one . . . "

3.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
" . . . and one in the mining area, with probably a small outpost at RAMA. I determined, with the co-operation of Captain ALLEN of the U.S.S. DENVER, to conduct a reconnoitering patrol up the WANKS and WASPUC Rivers, and down the BAMBANA or PRINZAPOLKA. EDSON and a few marines were to be loaned me, and the remainder taken from the 51st Company. It was my desire to determine, personally, the reliability of the information received, and the proper location of any posts, I desired to establish. This plan was interrupted by the first movement of the bandits to the northeast about the middle of February. The Marine Detachment of the DENVER was landed at PUERTO CABEZAS on 21 February, and I shifted my headquarters (consisting of myself and one trumpeter) to the same place on 24 February. Meanwhile EDSON had sent two small patrols overland - one to SACKLIN on the WANKS and one to TUNKI. ¶ I send EDSON with fifteen enlisted to patrol the WANKS as far as WASPUC and thence at discretion. The TULSA DETACHMENT landed at PUERTO CABEZAS on 10 March. Upon learning of the intention to land them I planned a combined movement under MATTESON from EL GALLO and TEBBS from here into the mining area, but the activities of the gun runners in the southern sector required all available marines in that sector and part of the TULSA detachment to investigate and apprehend them. ¶ TEBBS and one squad made an unsuccessful search for arms in the area round CAPE GRACIAS, but accomplished some results in the moral effect pronounced. KENDALL seized some arms and ammunition on the beach at FALSE BLUFF ready for shipment and was very active in investigating reports of other intended shipments. EDSON penetrated as far as AWAWAS and returned. He collected much information, made valuable contacts with residents and produced a favorable impression on the Indians who form the bulk of the inhabitants. He returned 25 March to refit. TEBBS with eighteen enlisted left on 5 April, which was the earliest that transportation could be arranged, for TUNKY via the BAMBANA River, with orders to patrol the mining areas and investigate conditions. The following day, upon receipt of reports of a band of twenty having made a raid down the WANKS, EDSON and COOK with thirty-eight enlisted left, via CAPE GRACIAS, with orders to close the WASPUC and WANKS River at their junction and to operate thence at discretion. He established camp at WASPUC the 14th, and reported on the 18th (received here 26th), that he was proceeding to AWAWAS (also called AWAAS BILA) with a patrol on the 18th, having established an outpost at SANG SANG. All information indicated there was a force of bandits at or near BOCAY area and this force was estimated at one hundred, about half armed with rifles. ¶ On 12 April, information was received from Brigade that a band of one hundred armed men were seen moving east on RIO GRANDE in small boats in vicinity of RIO NEGRO. MATTESON at EL GALLO was noti- . . . "

4.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.  
" . . . -fied, but either the information was incorrect or they changed their course. On the same date Brigade informed me that two hundred bandits, under JIRON, had made camp at YAUSCA. On April 19th received information that bandits had raided LA LUZ Mine and were about 150 in number, all armed, with machine guns, well mounted, but with little ammunition. TEBBS on receipt of information from me on the 14th, of approach of bandits, withdrew small patrol to TUNKI. Later he withdrew his entire patrol (18 enlisted) down the BAMBANA and PRINZAPOLKA Rivers to PRINZAPOLKA and by boat to PUERTO CABEZAS. There were only two courses open to him with his small force - to occupy a strong position and hold it, or to withdraw. His estimate of the situation now appears faulty, due to incorrect evaluation of the information received, but, due to unwillingness of natives to act as guides or furnish any reliable information he was severely handicapped, and he was of course aware that he was beyond supporting distance of any force on this coast. His report is quoted herewith: ¶ “Arrived TUNKI 2100 the 11th. 13th with five men left TUNKI for BONANZA MINE, camped on TUNKI River within two hours march of mines. Trails vile. Daybreak 14th overtaken by runner with message from Eastern Area giving information that 200 bandits were headed for PIS PIS. No one present knew trails mentioned in message. Dropped down river and joined remainder of patrol at TUNKI. Sent message to Major UTLEY by runner, 15th, took 12 men and headed for JINOTEGA - PIS PIS trail to intercept the bandits. At 1430 runner from NCO at TUNKI overtook me with message from Mr. HEAD, manager of BONANZA MINE, stating that SANDINO was expected there that night. They had taken a trail from LIMON unknown to me. Turned back to TUNKI arriving there 1900 and took position. By this time those who had cared to leave mines had arrived in TUNKI. 16 men were in no condition to take trail, remained in TUNKI, sent runner to Major UTLEY and scout to mine. Scout returned from mine at 1100 the 17th, with information that SANDINO with about 500 men, some mounted, some on foot were at BONANZA MINE the evening of the 16th, that 200 left 0600 the 17th for BRAGMAN’S and others were preparing to follow. Information later confirmed through different sources. No guides or pack animals there. 17th left TUNKI via BAMBANA River for PRINZAPOLKA, arriving 0930 the 19th. Shown letter from A.H. Brown to L. Elizondo Company stating 200 bandits had arrived on 14th at LA LUZ MINE. The mine stripped. They left on evening of 13th for NEPTUNE MINE on way to PUERTO CABEZAS, taking assistant manager. Evening of 15th, they received information that 280 armed men on way to mine, killing and burning. Arriver PUERTO CABEZAS 1600 the 19th. TEBBS”. ¶ From the best information now available it appears that a band of from 100 to 150 mounted bandits, all armed, with two machine guns, but with little ammunition moved east from YAUSCA to LA LUZ where they arrived 12 April. They demanded MR. AMPHLETT, the American . . . "

5.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.  
" . . . manager of the mine, and were very insistent that he be found. It was not until convinced that he really was not in the vicinity that they seized MARSHALL. They took no other prisoners but apparently obtained a few recruits. On the evening of the 13th, they started for LONE STAR MINE where they were reported as “digging in”. From there parties made raids on the NEPTUNE MINE the 16th, 17th, and 18th. They were joined at LONE STAR by another band of about 100. Either then or later it appears that two other bands joined them, one of which came from the direction of BOCAY. On the 23rd, I was advised that 7 officers and 200 enlisted with one medical officer and four hospital corpsmen were enroute from CORINTO on the CLEVELAND. With the bandits reported digging in at LONE STAR and operating the NEPTUNE MINE (which reports have since been discredited), I planned to block the WASPUC River and parallel trail with EDSON, reenforced by an officer and the remainder of the DENVER DETACHMENT, and push reconnaissance to the south; to move two officers and the GALVESTON DETACHMENT to LA LUZ via the PRINZAPOLKA to block the PRINZAPOLKA River and the trail to the southeast over which the bandits had come; and send two officers with a company (less one platoon) to EDEN MINE overland. If reconnaissance developed that an advance was practicable up the WASPUC, to strike with the remaining company to drive him away from HONDURAS, and would be the easiest force to supply. If the routes were impractical, to strike from the south. Difficulties of supply made an attach in force from here overland impracticable. MATTESON with 35 enlisted to hold EL GALLO, close the RIO GRANDE, and scout north and northwest. KENDALL, with about 30 enlisted, to hold BLUEFIELDS, and close the ESCONDIDO. TEBBS with the TULSA DETACHMENT, a portion of the 51st Company, and men unfit to hike, to hold PUERTO CABEZAS, and furnish guards for pack trains and supply flotillas. It should be stated that there are a large number of SANDINO sympathizers in this vicinity, and there was an ever present possibility that some of them might attempt to make trouble by looting or acts of sabotage, and I feel that any such act will be greatly magnified. Orders were sent to the Commanding Officer of Marines on board the CLEVELAND, to prepare the patrol to operate up the PRINZAPOLKA. As the GALVESTON Detachment did not go aboard the CLEVELAND, he detailed half the 60th Company. ¶ Meanwhile, on the 27th, a report was received that EDSON had had an engagement with the bandits and been defeated. Although I doubted its correctness, I directed Lieutenant CARROLL, with the remainder of the DENVER Detachment, to take a portable field radio set and a month’s supplies and move at once to reenforce EDSON. Just one hour and two minutes after I made the decision, I watched the lines cast off from the power boat that was carrying the detachment to CAPE GRACIAS. We were fortunate in that the local assistant manager, Mr. R. AHEARN, was in charge that day and he rendered us every possible assistance. This fact is mentioned in view of various ward-room criticisms I have heard of regarding the delays incident to . . . "

6.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.  
" . . . getting patrols out in an emergency. The report of EDSON’s engagement later proved unfounded. ¶ I was advised that “for technical reasons”, my request for aerial reconnaissance from the interior must be denied, but that request had been made for amphibian planes to be based here. ¶ The CLEVELAND docked at 4:00 p.m. 29 April, and marines and stores disembarked promptly. ROSE, with WHALING and 52 enlisted, left at 2:00 a.m., 30 April, having been delayed due to the state of the tide. ¶ LINSCOTT, with RANCK and 54 enlisted, left 1 May overland via BROWN’S CAMP (on the railroad), ENLESING’S CAMP (on the CUCALAYA River), for EDEN MINE. ¶ EDSON left 2 officers and 20 men to hold AWAWAS and WASPUC and pushed up the WASPUC River. Believing this force insufficient, I sent TAFT with GALVESTON DETACHMENT to hold the line AWAWAS - WASPUC, and to support EDSON. He left here 4 May. ¶ Two amphibians arrived via the NITRO on 3 May. They were put over the side and landed on our improvised flying field the same day. A detachment of two officers and 15 men came with them. They will be insufficient for the care of six (or even five) planes and should be increased. The value of this reenforcement is beyond expression. There is only one landing field at present in this area, but there are numerous lagoons and landings can be made on most of the rivers. At present, due to lack of skilled operators and consequent failure of the field sets built on the U.S.S. DENVER to function, I have no radio communication with TAFT, LINSCOTT, WALKER, or ROSE. I have been landed twice at WASPUC and have been able to personally reconnoiter the ground over which my lines extend. Contact, by means of dropped messages, panels, and pick-up messages, has been made with EDSON, LINSCOTT, and ROSE, but unfortunately Captain HOWARD was forced down near LA LUZ immediately after he picked up Captain ROSE’S messages. ¶ The bandits, after making their junction at or near LONE STAR MIND, and looting the NEPTUNE MINE, moved before all of my patrols were in position. From the best information available about one hundred went back to LA LUZ the 26th, and wrecked it with dynamite. From personal observation from the air, I am of the opinion that the mill itself is a total loss from an explosion, that a building just across the road - probably the commissary or office - was blown down by the force of the explosion in the mill building, and a large house, some distance away - probably AMPHLETT’S - totally destroyed by fire. They then went towards WASPUC and encountered EDSON’S advance guard at MAROBILA and had a running fight lasting . . . "

7.   26 December 1928 (1703).
Memorandum [on the History of the Eastern Area], Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.  
" . . . four hours, the bandits withdrawing up the WASPUC. The remainder went from the PIS PIS area to CASA VIEJA. ¶ My present lines are as follows: CARROLL, with one section, at or near AWAWAS, guarding the trail leading into HONDURAS in that vicinity and the route down the WANKS from the direction of BOCAY; TAFT, with one platoon, at WASPUC; EDSN, with COOK and one platoon, at TULULUK, blocks trails west from CASA VIEJA and east from LAKUS; LINSCOTT, with RANCK and one platoon, at NEPTUNE MINE; ROSE, with WHALING and 50 men, at LA LUZ, blocks trail to JINOTEGA and MATAGALPA: MATTESON, with 35 men at EL GALLO; WALKER, with 59th Company (less one platoon), moving towards PIS PIS in support. ¶ This position accomplishes a part of my mission, to deny territory and supplies, especially ammunition, to the bandits, but it does not drive them out or destroy them. My present plan is to advance westward on CASA VIEJA with two platoons, one from LA LUZ up the ULI basin, and one from PIS PIS westward, while EDSON operates on their north flank in the same direction, and continue the drive as far as the force can be supplied. TAFT to move up the WANKS on BOCAY, towards which, it is understood, Colonel DUNLAP is also sending a platoon; WALKER to take over the security of the WANKS. There will, however, be some delay due to the time necessary to get the supplies now enroute, up to the forward bases."

27 December 1928 (0700).
Radiogram from CO Cape Gracias to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8627 YOUR RADIO 8626 IN PAST ONE OFFICE COMMA ONE SCT COMMA FIVE NATIVE POLICE STOP PRESENT GOVERNOR HERE SINCE OCTOBER THIS YEAR COMMA SECRETARY HERE SINCE APRIL THIS YEAR STOP AT PRESENT NO NATIONAL POLICE HERE STOP 0700."

27 December 1928.
Memorandum for Major Hans Schmidt, B-2, from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 1.  
"There is little change in bandit information here. Have taken statements of Briseno, local jues for Sandino, and am letting him return to his home today. ¶ Thus far have been unable to obtain satisfactory statements from Hermandez and Mora beyond the middle of August. Information obtained by local inhabitants state that they left there with Pedro Altimirano after the contact at YACALWAS September 2/3, 1928; that they have been active with his band since that date; that when Altimarano crossed the COCO about the date of Capt. Hall’s contact (RIO CUA) these two were members of his band; and that they returned the 26th of November that we secured the pistol, etc., of Hermandez. There is no definite information that they participated as principals or, in fact, in any way in the SAN MARCOS affair, although I personally believe that they were present there as subordinates. ¶ The majority of inhabitants here state that Hermandez has been active as a bandit for the past year; that some political and personal grudge assassinations in this vicinity were committed by him or under his direction; he had with him an order from Altimirano to kill one Braulio Morales, who had been an active agent for me; and that he is greatly feared by the majority of the inhabitants throughout the valley. ¶ Knowing that he had returned to the vicinity, I took the liberty of addressing a letter to him the latter part of November, a copy of which is enclosed. He has been in possession of this letter for a month, and had not acted upon the invitation extended to turn himself in. I believe it better policy, if possible to have him living at home where he could be watched, than in some hidden camp in the hills. However, since he did not act upon the letter, I do not feel myself obliged to turn him loose at this time, and intend to keep him here for an indefinite period at POTECA. Mora, the . . ."

27 December 1928.
Memorandum for Major Hans Schmidt, B-2, from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 2.  
" . . . man with him, I shall probably turn loose upon his promise to behave himself. ¶ With Hernandez, Mora and Briseno here, the river is cleared of all known bandit sub-jefes except one, Capt. Emilio Aguila, resident of MASTAWAS, from that point to and including GUIGUILI. Aguila is believed to be in the vicinity of MASTAWAS now and his apprehension or surrendering is expected. ¶ Am enclosing a few papers found in possession of Hermandez. Request that a translation be made and that copies of all messages and papers in connection with this particular group be furnished me. ¶ Information was furnished by a native of GUIGUILI that following Capt. Hall’s contact of 19 Nov. 1928, Altimirano and his group crossed the COCO and withdrew to a small canyon of the GUIGUILI RIVER near VENTILLO. Also that MT. VENTILLO is and has been a bandit stronghold, with much corn, bananas, cattle, etc., and fresh water available and that it is used by Sandino when CHIPOTE and other known camps become too hard pressed for him. I have reported this by radio via EASTERN AREA. ¶ I intend to patrol this area thoroughly. Due to the fact that all but the sick in this organization have averaged twenty days or more out of each month on active patrolling since we arrive here in August, and that three-fourths of them returned from patrol on the day before Christmas, I would prefer to delay this investigation of VENTILLO until after the10th of January or after Major Utley’s inspection the first of next month. If you consider this patrol urgent, of course I am ready to start at any time. I have in mind for this expedition, entering VENTILLO and CHIPOTE from GUIGUILI, then if warranted, swing south, cross the COCO and again patrol the CUA – GUASANEROS – GUIAPINOL area before turning to POTECA, a trip of about three or four weeks, depending on conditions and bandits is any found. ¶ Havas arrived here at midnight of the twenty-fifth, left here last night and should be at BOCAY by noon today, the 27th. ¶ Best wishes for a Happy New Year, ¶ Respectfully, ¶ M. A. Edson."

1.   27 December 1928.
Report on Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, from T. T. Thrasher for Jefe Director GN, to Division Commander, Southern Bluefields, p. 1.  
"1. There is quoted herewith in translation a letter from Macario Estrada and twenty others concerning their complaint from Puerto Cabezas: ¶ ‘Puerto Cabezas, Nov. 27th, 1928. – General Elias R. Beadle, Managua. - Sr. General:- We enclosed you a copy of a communication directed, this same date, to the Minister of the U.S. Through this communication you will take note of what happened in this port. We well know that you are a worthy employee of the Government of Nicaragua and that by your energy, rectitude and impartiality in fulfilling your high office of Jefe of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, have deserted the general applause of the Nation. We do not doubt that you will intercede in the complaint we signed and will give ample guarantee, freeing us from any outrage. You are the one called to protect the Nicaraguans for it is commended to you the meritory task of hindering all those that want to commit abuse of authority. Trusting that the compliance of your duties will cover us in an effective manner and that you will do your best to keep this case from the knowledge of the press, we remain, (s) Macario Estrada and twenty others.’ ¶ 2. There is also quoted in translation a copy of a letter which was sent to the American Minister on this same subject: ¶ ‘Puerto Cabezas, Nov. 27th, 1928. – Mr. Charles Eberhardt, Minister of the U.S., in Nicaragua, Managua.- Honorable Sr. Minister: With the highest respect which your Excellence so worthy deserves, we allowed ourselves this honor of directing you this present with the only purpose of exposing before you our complaints against the abuses of authority which D. K. McGregor and B. L. Booth, militaries of the American Army, are committing with the people of Puerto Cabezas. It is the case Sr. Minister, that said militaries, not knowing if duly authorized, are exercising function of authority in an arbitrary and cruel way; up to the limit . . ."

2.   27 December 1928.
Report on Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, from T. T. Thrasher for Jefe Director GN, to Division Commander, Southern Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . of exhibiting with those men they take to jail, acts of barbery, abolish since years ago in all countries, more or less civilized like ours. We do not mentioned cases related to our complaint because they are so many, horrible and shameless, that we fear it will cause you dissatisfaction for those that committed them. So that you will not believe our charges unbiased, it is necessary that you should know that those two men, feared already among our people, are leaving a trail of sorrow with their kicks and the strength of their wrist. Just imagine, Sr. Minister, a prisoner brought to jail tied with a lasso and dragged by an ass, obliged to run for fear of perishing hang to the lasso; and already tired of running without any more breath was obliged to get up with a whip the bailiff used with a show of cruelty in his back. In this offensive act to humanity the neighborhood can give testimony if a just and impartial information is followed. We can never believe that the mentioned militaries proceed with instructions from their superior, but guide by instincts of cruelty, for as an honor to justice and truth, we have nothing to complain against the rest of the American military men stationed in this place. We understand that this is an exception subject to rule and which can be repaired by interposing your office before whom it corresponds. Being here a detachment of the Guardia Nacional under the immediate direction of the Commandante of Puerto Cabezas, who is in charge of the control of the town, we cannot see the idea of having military men like those we have mentioned, fulfilling functions of authorities. But if there is any reason which the abnormal circumstances of the country required the intermission of the Marines in the administrative affairs of the locality, it is necessary that they would proceed with moderation, adjusted to the laws of Nicaragua and with respect the principle of humanity. Be sure, Sr. Minister, that we do not feel adverse towards the legions of the American army which has come in an hour of hard proof, to guarantee the freedom of the election in Nicaragua. As a proof of the testimony of our acknowledgement for the work mentioned in the previous paragraph, we submit to your Excellence; for, we know the alarming spirit of your and our newspaper men and we think that they would give to the matter colors of great scandal which will echo beyond our boundaries, fomenting this way the work of discredit maintain in different countries by systematic enemies of the United States. In this, we trust in your favorable resolution about these irregularities. We are sure that you will do all what is of justice and convenient; and we beg you will not to save us from the responsibility we assume when taking this attitude, but to save us from the temerity of the mentioned men, making them to respect us before exercising any vengeance. With our best respect and consideration . . ."

3.   27 December 1928.
Report on Complaint from Puerto Cabezas, from T. T. Thrasher for Jefe Director GN, to Division Commander, Southern Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . For the Honorable Sr. representative of the American Legation, in Nicaragua, we have the honor to remain, respectfully.’ ¶ 3. The above letters are for your investigation and report. ¶ Tom E. THRASHER, JR. ¶ By direction."

28 December 1928 (0945).
Radiogram from CO Cape Gracias to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"8628 YOUR 8627 STOP PRESENT GOVERNOR DOES NOT EMPLOY ANY NATIVE POLICE OR SOLDIERS STOP NO RECORD WHEN NATIVE POLICE WERE DISMISSED 0945"

28 December 1928 (1032).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"BONE FAVIORIZO WHO CLAIMS TO HAVE BEEN AROUND BOCAY RECENTLY IS AUTHOR OF ARTICLE IN LOCAL PRESS THAT INHABITANTS OF THAT AREA ARE DYING OF STARVATION AND SICKNESS DUE TO SANDINISTA ACTIVITIES PERIOD INVESTIGATE AND REPORT TRUE CONDITIONS 1032."

29 December 1928.
Letter from C. C. Mengel, President, The Mengel Co., Louisville KY, to Sen. F. M. Sackett, Washington D.C.  
"Dear Senator: ¶ This Company has large operations in Central America and especially in Nicaragua where we have at times, nearly a million dollars invested, and at the present time have a half million, and we were about to send you the following telegram: ¶ ‘As you know, we are large operators and importers of mahogany logs from Nicaragua and together with other important American mahogany manufacturers have been sadly interfered with and our operations subjected to heavy losses for period of nearly one year due to illegal acts and interference by the so-called Nicaraguan Liberals who are opposed to Constitutional Government of Adolphus Diaz. After careful study of situation we believe that by vigorous support of the American Government that the Constitutional Authorities at Nicaragua can and will control situation which will permit orderly procedure of American business in Nicaragua heretofore enjoyed by us and other manufacturers. May we ask you to use your influence direct with Secretary of State in support of the above position and give the present policy of our State Department which we understand is favorable to the Diaz regime your unqualified support.’ ¶ which is self-explanatory. ¶ We are also enclosing you a copy of a telegram sent to the Secretary of State on December 24th. ¶ We understand there has been some criticism of the action of the Secretary of State and we would like for you to support his action, making a personal call on him, stating your position. ¶ Personal regards. ¶ Yours truly, ¶ THE MENGEL COMPANY ¶ G. C. Mengel, President."

30 December 1928 (1103).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Marines Poteca, Garrobo, Cuvali.  
"TO: CO MARINES POTECA GARROBO CULVALI 30 DECEMBER 1928 ¶ FROM: COMDR EASTERN AREA 8630 FOLLOWING FROM SEOBRIG QUOTED FOR INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE QUOTE 8630 VIGILANTE PATROL OF FIFTY TWO UNDER NATIVE WITH SEVEN MARINES OPERATING IN VICINITY OF PENA BLANCA PERIOD PLEASE INFORM YOUR PATROLS PERIOD PATROL MAY SPLIT IN TWO PARTS PERIOD HAS PANEL WHITE FIELD WITH BLACK VICE IN IT 1103"

30 December 1928 (1354).
Radiogram from CO Marines Poteca to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"FROM: C O MARINES POTECA ¶ TO: COMDR EASTERN AREA ¶ DEC 30, 1928 ¶ C5P V PSW NR NR 6 Z C 5P V PSW GR 84 ¶ MSG LT HALL STOP LLOYD NOT REPEAT NOT BELIEVED COMPETENT HANDLE INDEPENDENT STATION STOP HOWEVER AM SENDING CARROLL BOCAY THIS DATE PLACE THAT STATION OPERATION STOP IF OPERATOR NOT ALREADY BOCAY PLEASE SEND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE STOP REQUEST CARROLL OR OTHER COMPETENT OPERATOR BE ORDERED POTECA STOP CARROLL INSTRUCTED REQUEST ORDERS FROM COMMANDER EA UPON GAINING COMMUNICATION WITH C5P STOP SEND BOOTS SIZE SIX STOP QUARTERMASTER SHOES NOT REPEAT NOT WORTH A DAMN STOP EXPECT TO SEE YOU WITH MAJOR STOP EDSON ¶ TOR 1354 CM"

31 December 1928.
Letter from C. G. Eames, Cabo Gracias a Dios y Cruta, to United States Marine Corps, Cape Gracias, Nic.  
"Beg to advise that I was told by Lt Alfoud Calhurn of the Guardia National of Nicaragua when he was here that any time complaints were made to me where there was no authority here or these people did not keep within the law that I was notified the Guardia or U.S. Marines at Cape Gracias, which prompts me to write you this letter.  ¶  Lately an Indian here cut up a woman and the Commandante that he been here does not want to arrest the man or report same to the proper authorities at the Cape.  ¶  If this keeps up then all these Indians will go wild and no law or order here, there must be some one here to keep law and order, and at once.  ¶  Should there be anything that I may be able to do to keep law and order here plese command me by the bearer.  ¶  It’s not so serious that the attention of the Marines is required here, as long as these people know who is Commandante or in charge here they will toe the mark, but as things are now there is no authority.  ¶  And I am asking you to please place this letter in the hands of the Guardia for attention at once.  ¶  May be a good idea that one or two Marines made a trip here just to show these people that if they don’t keep within the law that they will have to pay the penalty.  ¶  Please let me know by the bearer what to tell these people."

 

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