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the atlantic coast  •  1928b, p. 4
SEPT 14 - OCT 17, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE fourth PAGE of documents for the second HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 34 days from September 14 to October 17.

     Mainly what we see here are the continuing Marine-Guardia efforts to get a fix on the EDSN in the vast interior zones, and the ongoing political struggles of Creoles and Indians in the urban centers of the Coast.

     Especially noteworthy documents on this page include the anonymous 4-page "intelligence notes" of 14 September from the Merritt A. Edson papers, which include some fascinating information about Abraham Rivera and other EDSN actors.  Also worth close attention are Capt. A. DeCarre's notes from Bocay to Capt. Edson in Poteca, especially his plea of 25 September that Edson "Please return boat of Indians immediately - as they are under contract," and his 4 October message expressing concern that he might "lose face with the indians here" if a "SU MOO" (Sumu) Indian named Jesús was not kept on the payroll.  Edson's 8-page letter of 19 September continues in the perceptive & descriptive vein of all his letters home.  Moving to the Coast, and on a completely different note, is the 18 July letter from Livingston Cayasso, Secretary of the Creole & Indian League of Bluefields, to Gen. Frank McCoy affirming Creole & Indian voting rights in the upcoming November elections (Bluefields Weekly, 22 Sept.).  The documents in the "Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson" (24 Sept.) contain a boatload of information on the "Negro Revolutionists" of Bluefields (in Capt. Kendall's words) and the role of the British Consul Rees in the byzantine world of Bluefields Creole politics — and more broadly, of Costeños ongoing struggles for their full rights of citizenship before the state and capital.  The other radiograms & reports & missives & newspaper stories also merit a careful read.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, coMENius press


14 September 1928 (1355).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas; copy CO Bocay (2 images of 2 different imprints of same document).

1.   14 September 1928.
Intelligence Notes (no author indicated, Edson papers, "Confiscated Intelligence Material"), p. 1.  
"MORALES called with his son and a boatman. His son was present during the conversation. He stated positively that the man killed in the Yacalwas contact of 3d inst. was Concepcion Hernandez and not Colonel Ruperto Hernandez, that Ruperto left on the 2nd or 3rd to join Pedro Altamirano up the Cua; that Pedro took with him three recruits – Saturnino Mesa, Felipe Loza and Gregorio Barrera; that the foregoing three had not heretofore engaged in bandit activities in this vicinity; that of the members of Hernandez’ band who were with him before the Yacalwas contact there still remained missing the following: Luis Nunez, Alejandro Mendez, Lino Sanchez, Serapio Nedino, Saturnino Nedino, and possibly Ladislao Mora (not certain as to the last); that it was generally understood among the people of the Yacalwas-Baca vicinity that the above eight and possibly nine men had gone with Ruperto to join Altamirano; that there were possibly four or five others but as to those named he was fairly certain. ¶ There formerly was in the Yacalwas area a ‘Jues’ (Judge) surnamed Briseño appointed by Sandino as his representative in that vicinity. Normally the . . . "

2.   14 September 1928.
Intelligence Notes (no author indicated, Edson papers, "Confiscated Intelligence Material"), p. 2.  
" . . . ‘Jueces’ of Sandino were administrators of a crude unwritten law, but were actually little more than foraging agents, in most cases wringing bits of grain, beans, livestock and mostly from even the poorest natives. These supplies were accumulated along the river and shipped to Sandino or one of this jefes. Briseño is illiterate and a very cruel man. ¶ On the tenth of August Briseño disappeared. His pipante was seen abandoned near the north of the Baca river the same day. He is now supposed by Yacalwas people to be with Sandino’s personal guard.  Morales personally saw Sandino’s body guard move from Poteca up the Coco to the Baca on August 10; that he personally saw Sandino among them; that the flotilla consisted of two pipantes and one large bateaux; that there were between thirty and forty armed men in the party. ¶ Clemente Calderon was Sandino’s ‘Juez’ at Guiguili. He disappeared on 10 August, coincidentally with Sandino’s movement up the Coco and west through Baca. His band is about one hour up the Guigiuli river from the Coco. His wife . . . "

3.   14 September 1928.
Intelligence Notes (no author indicated, Edson papers, "Confiscated Intelligence Material"), p. 3.  
" . . . and five or six children are living at that house now. ¶ Maradiga (to whom Calderon wrote the letters, forwarded to Brigade) is a Sandinista Colonel. He with Colonel Sanchez came down the Coco from the Guiguili vicinity, to Poteca and were immediately sent up to Gulkes Camp by Sandino personally. This happened about July 5-10. A group of about twenty armed men accompanied them. ¶ Abram Rivera is a distant relative of Guadalupe Rivera. Mesa says that Rivera originally was a peaceful river merchant trading all the way from Santa Cruz to Puerto Cabezas. For a long time he would have nothing to do with Sandino’s activities. Sandino finally impressed him and compelled him to take over the service of supply. Mesa also says that Rivera never has been enthusiastic in Sandino’s cause. ¶ The Riveras according to Mesa are one of the two or three best families in Jinotega. Abram Rivera has a brother, LUIS, who works for some large company in Puerto Cabezas. LUIS speaks English fluently, went . . . "

4.   14 September 1928.
Intelligence Notes (no author indicated, Edson papers, "Confiscated Intelligence Material"), p. 4.  
" . . . to schoolhouse in Germany. One of the other important families of Jinotega is the CASTELLON family. RAFAEL a second brother of Abram married one of the Castellon girls. A brother of hers, CAYETANO CASTELLON, married a sister of Abram Rivera. The two families are thus closely related. They are of the social ‘upper crust’ of Jinotega. ¶ Possibly the ‘BALENTINA CASTELLON’, to whom Marselina de Hernandez wrote the letter found in the Yacalwas camp, is one of the Castellon girls of Jinotega. Mesa is finding out for us. This might connect the Castellons with the Hernandez brothers and Altamirano. ¶ Luis Deyez, the little man with the withered arm, reported six on the dot. He was told to report again next Friday as per previous orders."

15 September 1928.
"Tell Nicaraguans Americans Eat Babies - Sandino Spreads This Word to Keep Voters from Polls, Marine Major Reports," The Bluefields Weekly.

 

15 September 1928.
Agreement between Major A. LeCarre, Bocay, and Arthur Kittle, Sang Sang.

16 September 1928 (1150).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to CO Marines Bluefields Major A. B. Sage.

18 September 1928 (2015).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, copy to CO Bluefields, CO Bocay.

 

19 September 1928 (1022).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

1.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 1.  
"Dear Mother o’Mine:- ¶ I have here a letter which you sent to Ethel some many weeks ago and which she sent on to me. By sending that it would seem that it must be over two months since I last wrote to you – but it does not seem nearly as long as that to me. Time does go by quite swiftly out here in the woods – and it is probably well for all of us that it does so. ¶ About a week or so ago a plane came over and dropped me the letter which you had addressed to the Rochester. Not only did they give me my own mail, but also several letters addressed to men of the Rochester detachment – who are not with me here, but over instead serving at Tuman, several days travel away. The result of that is that their letters then went to Bocay, then to Puerto Cabezas and by plane to Managua and then finally back to Tuman – a long round-about journey but such is the trails of mail delivery in Nicaragua. ¶ I was surprised to hear of Dad’s . . . "

2.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 2.  
" . . . operation, but it was a pleasant surprise. I am sure that he will feel enough better and be enough healthier to more than repay him for his pains and three weeks in bed at the hospital. He must not overwork this, and I know that he will be careful and realize full benefits from the ‘new man’ feeling he has now. Ethel says the enforced rest has certainly done him good already and that he is looking so much better than for a long long time. ¶ I have today written Dr. Stevenson to send me the hospital bill and also his own statement. You may remember that some time ago when you were in Chester I asked you to let me pay any doctors’ bill which you might incur and I think you should send me all of them. If you have paid the hospital bill and need the money for anything else – moving – house rent, clothing or whatnot – do not be afraid to say so. But I want to settle this doctors’ bill myself and anything else I can do to help you, please. Mother and Dad – don’t be . . . "

3.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 3.  
" . . . afraid to tell me about. I do so little to help you – Mary does so much – and there is so much that I owe to you that I always feel myself very much of a slacker. What is a son for if not to be a part of the family and help out when and where he can so please do not hesitate to write me or tell me when I am closer than writing distance - how and when I can be of a little help to you. ¶ Tonight it is raining again. For about two weeks in August we had excellent weather, no rain, bright sun shiny days, blue skies, white fluffy clouds, and everything that goes to make life in a river country delightful. The upper river is really very very pretty. There are rolling hills, high hills and steep mountain passes that suddenly burst into sight as one turns a bend in the river. Everything is green – of course - too much so, generally speaking, for I have not yet learned to like or appreciate heavy jungle growth with brush and vines and underbrush making an impassible barrier which has to be . . . "

4.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 4.  
" . . . cut with a machete before one can begin to pass though. But further ahead, at Santa Cruz, some sixty miles above here, the jungle begins to disappear and one finds open pine ridge – with tall pine trees and grass under foot instead of brush. Now the rains are starting once more. At present it seldom rains for over a half day – that is, if this day has been a pleasant one – we can expect rains that night or at the latest the following morning - while if the night is clear the next day is usually a wet one. As a result the rivers are rising considerably - the trails are becoming muddy and transportation of all kinds is getting more difficult. ¶ Tomorrow morning I expect to send a boat down river to Bocay. There is a lad in the detachment who perhaps has a case of appendicitis. He has been sick for several days but it is only today that symptoms seemed to point more definitely towards a bad appendix. I do not want to send him back now because to do so will take all of my available boatmen and one of my none too . . . "

5.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 5.  
" . . . many boats so that we will be quite short of transportation here and our activities considerably hampered. However I do not feel like taking a chance on his holding out until our next boat arrives from Bocay. It is now on the way but the exact date of arrival is very indefinite. Up here we have no regular doctor. There is a hospital corpsman – that is a lad who has a knowledge of first aid – of emergency dressings and remedies – and a little of the symptoms of the more common aches, pains, and disease. However, the final determination of whether a man is so ill as to be immediately sent back to the hospital – whether he will be held here for such treatment as we can give and all of that is entirely up to us. So, you can see, I, too, must take some interest in first aid, medical treatment and symptoms – besides being responsible for the health, food, clothing and well being of all the men under my charge. The common belief of the ordinary citizen notwithstanding – the job of being an officer in the service . . . "

6.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 6.  
" . . . is by no means the ever happy go lucky care free, well paid life it is so commonly supposed to be – especially if one tries to do his job somewhere near as well as it should be done. ¶ Our food is getting better all the time. Every ten days, two large transport planes fly over from Managua and deliver about 2000 pounds – a ton – of food. Yesterday we received by the plane routes: baking powder, flour, corn meal, lard, butter, sugar, beans, rice, ham, rolled oats and crackers or hard tack. Some of it is lost each time, but it is surprising how large a percentage of the food dropped is recovered. We have also received milk, jam, syrup and canned fruit and meat by plane although ordinarily these items are brought to us by boats from Bocay. It is a pleasure to see the men get all that they need to eat -–even though it perhaps does not have the variety one would like – especially after they have lived so long on short and unsatisfactory rations. ¶ Our houses are not of the best – but . . . "

7.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 7.  
" . . . they do keep most of the rain out. Planes also brought us these – tent flies which we have opened and which have three or four men under each. The house which is called Poteca had at one time a tiled roof. While Sandino was still quite active here, one of our planes bombed the house and made a direct hit – exactly in the center of the roof. This rather spoiled the tiles - but we have formed some native shingle – large, flat pieces of wood – hewed out by hand and held in place by large wooden pins – which very nicely patched the holes and keeps out most of the water. In this house are the kitchen, pantry (storeroom we call it), sick bay and sleeping quarters of part of the men. Around one camp we have a system of trenches and outside that barbed wire entanglements which are rapidly nearing completion. All in all we are not too very badly situated. The defenses are more or less necessary since we are the only Marine troops within four or five days distance and must depend solely on natives for our own protection. We have, too, a . . . "

8.   19 September 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to "Dear Mother o' Mine", p. 8.  
" . . . radio which connects us with the outside world – so it is not really so bad as it might be. ¶ How long we stay here – problematical – Today I received a letter from the major which seems to indicate that other troops will soon replace us here and we will move elsewhere – but when or to where is not known. It will certainly not be back to Puerto Cabezas or civilization – but to some new place to fix up for someone else. That seems to be the chief role of my men going ahead and paving the way or preparing a house for someone else. ¶ I hope my next letter to you will not be so far from this one or this is from its predecessor. Tell Mary she has not been forgotten either – and she better start fattening the calf for next March, I hope!! With this goes my love to all of you dear people, my best wishes for Dad’s renewed health and strength, and the best of all things to you. ¶ Good night, Mother dear, ¶ Merritt"

21 September 1928 (1745).
Radiogram from Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

22 September 1928.
"Departmental Board of Elections:  Letter of Livingston Cayasso, Secretary Creole & Indian League, Bluefields, July 18, 1928, re Rights of suffrage Mosquito Indians and Creoles, addressed to Gen. McCoy," The Bluefields Weekly.  
"DEPARTMENTAL BOARD OF ELECTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA ¶ September 5, 1928 ¶ From—The chairman, Departmental board, Bluefields ¶ To—The American electoral Mission, Managua ¶ Subject—Letter of Livingston Cayasso, Secretary Creole and Indian League, Bluefields, July 18, 1928 Re rights of suffrage Mosquito Indians and Creoles, addressed to General McCoy. ¶ 1. In compliance with radio 31 August there is returned here with the correspondence above mentioned with the notes attached. ¶ 2. Upon my return from Managua, at the session of the Departmental Board August 26, I informed the Board of the opinion concerning the Mosquito Indians, that is, they enjoyed the same rights as secured to other Nicaraguan citizens by the Constitution and as set forth in the present Electoral Regulations. ¶ 3. The members of the Board expressed themselves as concurring in this opinion. ¶ 4. At the session of the Departmental Board on August 30 while discussing the probable points of objections to be raised against registration and voters the Board, after careful consideration of the laws bearing on the case, expressed the following opinion as to the status of the Creole voters: ¶ (a). All Creoles born in Nicaragua are native born Nicaraguans and have the right of suffrage as such. ¶ (b). Those Creoles who were residents of the former Mosquito Reserve before 1894 acquired the rights of Nicaraguan citizens by the provisions of the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty, and have a right to vote. ¶ (c). All other Creoles are foreigners unless duly naturalized as provided in the Constitution and in possession of their papers. ¶ (d). A Creole may nevertheless be registered in the British Consulate as being of British parentage without prejudice to his rights as a Nicaraguan citizen, but in Nicaragua his obligation and rights are paramount. ¶ The Departmental Board by unanimous vote on August 30 passed a resolution to include this construction of the law in our instructions to the Directorates. ¶ -----a Radiographic message of the 19th of the present month from the National Board of elections has authorized the Departmental Board to put into effect provisionally the above construction of the law."

22 September 1928.
"After November, What?" By R. M. Hooker, Student of the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa.  The Bluefields Weekly. 
"In November of this year Nicaraguans will go to the polls to elect a president, whose election, we are told, will be the first in our turbulent history that will not be marked by bloodshed and unscrupulous political demagogy. The reason for this fair election is the intervention of the U.S in Nicaragua for the purpose of bringing order out of chaos. Frankly, I am not much in sympathy with any power controlling our election. It is painful to national pride, which every real patriot should have for his country. At the same time , however, I realize the importance of our close relation with our great Northern Neighbor; she has pledged to assist us, to keep her word is her duty to us, we have the moral issue, let us wait and see. The significance of this election in this remote corner of the world are twofold. In the first place it will mark a new episode in American statesmanship in the Caribbean area; it will prove to the world the sincerity or insincerity of the U.S in her dealings with this important area. The present action of the U.S . has quit definitely showed the world and Latin Americans in particular that she will not tolerate any dissension at her back door. The United States realize the value and the predominant position that our country will hold in the future. She warns us to be progressive rather than reactionary, and then will end intervention and misunderstanding which tend to create lasting hatred, which are not easily eradicated. The second important phase of this election will either establish or disestablish the fact that Nicaraguans are capable of self-government, whether we know anything concerning the value of the ballot. Many of our critics contend strenuously that we are incapable of self government. They point to the whole century of internecine and fratricidal warfare which has torn our country asunder, they point to our failure in the development of education, in the utilization of our untold natural resources left untouched. It is a gloomy picture and how true! We cannot deny it and continue like an ostrich with her head buried in the sand thinking no one can seize her. As a Nicaraguan I can find a as many arguments to prove that we are capable of self-government if given the right leaders and the same opportunity. Law and order are not the heritage of any select group; they are rather the results of constructive legislation, the education of the masses, and a widespread knowledge of democracy. Nicaraguans going to the polls in November should think seriously why are they voting, and allow their candidate comply with the [wishes] of their fellowmen. I have (?) on the platforms of the parties concerned; platforms are beautiful in themselves but most of the time that is where their beauty ends. My advice to my countrymen then, is to analyze and dissect the platforms and then vote. Government in my opinion should be constructive, it should not be destructive. It should be left into the hands of the people. It should never be into the hands of avaricious leaders or oligarchs whose only desire is to exploit the individual for their own betterment. This has been the united and eternal struggle of mankind,- whether government is made for the people or the people for the government. History shows that the people have always won and the cost has been tremendous,-Magna Carta, the French Revolution, and the Constitution of the United States tell their tale. This has been our greatest force of evil l, it has caused prejudice and cruel disintegration among or people that has left our beloved land desolate and mourning the deaths of our noble sons. If leaders will realize that they are commissioned by the people for constructive efforts rather than for mere selfish aggrandizement then we can prove to our most outstanding critics that we are able to govern ourselves. After November Nicaraguans want to see the construction of a railroad to the Atlantic Coast, they desire a well organized system of education the particularly desire to see 51 per cent of our National Bank owned by Nicaraguans, they also want to see this bank aid the development of agriculture and endeavor to help our farmers. Nicaraguans, especially those on the East Coast, desire a program for the general welfare of the Atlantic Coast. Nicaraguans are also desirous of a more cordial understanding with the U.S. in order to avoid international complications. The party that carries out this program is the party Nicaraguans will place in power."

23 September 1928 (1515).
Radiogram from Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

1.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, report by Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, 2nd Endorsement, p. 1.  
"Enclosures: 1 Copy of claim of Dr. J. Oliver Thomas. ¶ 2 Copy of claim of Captain W. H. Anderson. ¶ 3 Statement of Captain Kendall Re enclosure (1). ¶ 4 Statement of captain Kendall Re enclosure (2). ¶ 5 Letter from Dr. Thomas to Mrs. Ana Crowdell Re protest to British and American Consuls. ¶ 6 Letter from Dr. Thomas to Mrs. Crowdell Re services of Thomas with Revolutionary Troops. ¶ 7 Letter from Edward L. Ingram to Mrs. Crowdell. ¶ 8 Letter from Dr. Thomas to Mrs. Crowdell. ¶ 1. Returned. ¶ 2. Mr. Rees, the British Consul at Bluefields has been here about 20 years in that position it is believed. He lives at the boarding house of Mrs. Ana Crowdell, who is believed to be an octoroon from Grande Cayman Islands. He appears to be completely under her dominance. She is a chronic revolutionist and an advocate of the Pan-Negro movement. Mr. Rees under her tutelage, during the entire time I have been here has been most prompt to seize upon every pretext and minor incident to embarrass me whenever he could favor the Nicaraguan Liberal party in any way. Most of the negroes here who were in the revolution and claim dual citizenship of Great Britain and Nicaragua have been particularly favored by the support of Mr. Rees. The loading of the arms at False Bluff on or about May 17th was reported to me by an Englishman who has been a resident of Nicaragua since his early youth when he was shipwrecked on this coast. During the Revolution he was capture by Naaman Connors who is now in jail at Bluefields after being captured with arms near False Bluff on March 23, 1928, as recounted in my statement regarding Dr. Thomas’ claim. This Englishman was given 100 lashes on his bare back and his wife was raped by George Benham, another negro who was the second of Connor and was captured with him by the Marines and is now in jail at Bluefields. As far as can be ascertained Mr. Rees never took any official action in this Englishmen’s behalf although Mr. Rees has suggested to some of the Senior Marine Officers here that Connors and Benham should be released from jail. It is believed that Mr. Rees never took any action in behalf of this Englishman because he is a white man and his sympathies in politics are with the Conservatives, if for either side. ¶ 3. Enclosure 5 is a letter from Dr. J. Oliver Thomas to the above mentioned Mrs. Ana Crowdell in which he requests her to protest to (both) the British and American Consul. ¶ Enclosure 6 is another letters from Dr. J. Oliver Thomas to Mrs. Crowdell which substantiates my statement in regard to Dr. Thomas’ services with the Revolutionary Troops and also indicates Mrs. Crowdell’s close relations with the Creoles (Bluefields negroes) . . . "

2.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, report by Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, 2nd Endorsement, p. 2.  
" . . . Enclosure 7 is a letter from Edward L. Ingram, another Bluefields Creole, to Mrs. Crowdell which indicates her connections with the Creoles as Ingram is a Creole, and at the time the letter was written was Paymaster General of Moncada’s Army at Rio Grande Bar. ¶ Enclosure 8 is a letter from Dr. Thomas to Mrs. Crowdell which indicates the connections of Dr. Thomas with the revolution as also that of Mrs. Crowdell and the intimacy existing between them both and Mr. Rees as shown by the remark ‘Regards to our dear old friend Mr. Reese.’ ¶ These enclosures were taken from the mass of correspondence found at Mrs. Crowdell’s house when her house was searched by the undersigned for arms and a number of pistols and some ammunition was found there. There were also there at that time a number of documents in her possession which indicated more clearly the way in which she had been using Mr. Rees, the British Consul, in favor of the revolutionists. However none other of these documents were kept by the undersigned as it was not anticipated at the time that there would ever be any necessity of disclosing the British Consuls’ activities in behalf of the Negro Revolutionists. ¶ 4. It is believed the foregoing will elucidate Mr. Rees interest in the claims concerned and indicate the truth or untruth of the claims and also explain Mr. Patterson’s failure to take action regarding them. ¶ Donald J. Kendall . . . "

3.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, Statement of Capt. D. J. Kendall in re Claim of Dr. J. Oliver Thomas, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . Statement of Dr. J. Oliver THOMAS. ¶ Dr. Thomas is a Doctor of Pharmacy and is also Catechist and Director of the Anglican Church Mission at Pearl Lagoon, where his house is used as temporary mission quarters. He states as follows:- ¶ On April 19th last Lieut. Carroll with several Marines entered and searched his house, alleging that he had rifles and machine guns in its possession, and that they had orders from Capt. Kendall to search him and his house and to arrest him if necessary. No arms were found. ¶ Whilst at Pearl Lagoon one of these marines struck a police officer and the incident, as also the search of Dr. Thomas house was reported to the Editor of the ‘Bluefields Weekly’. ¶ Dr. Thomas subsequently visited Bluefields and went to see Capt. Kendall complaining of the way he had been treated. Capt. Kendall insisted that he had arms hidden and that that was why he was staying at Pearl Lagoon; he added that he had been so informed by certain men whom he had captured with arms in their possession and who were then in jail. The incident of the Marine striking a police officer was then referred to and Dr. Thomas stated that both he and his son witnessed the incident. The Marine was summoned and admitted that he had ‘had a fuss’ with the man, but denied striking him. Capt. Kendall then ordered Dr. Thomas to be put in jail for ‘telling lies on a Marine’. Mrs. Thomas afterwards visited Capt. Kendall and her husband was released after 48 hours in jail, Capt. Kendall telling him that he was a mischief-maker and that he had hidden arms. ¶ While in jail Dr. Thomas was able to speak to three of the men who were said to have informed Capt. Kendall about him, and all three denied having mentioned him to Capt. Kendall. ¶ Dr. Thomas now claims the sum of Five hundred (500) U.S. Dollars as compensation for ‘false charges brought against men and illegal search of my premises and holding us up to ridicule and false imprisonment by United States Marines in Nicaragua’. ¶ The above statement is based on a letter written by Dr. Thomas on May 12 last to Mr. Rees, the British Consul at Bluefields and forwarded by that officer to this Legation. Mr. Rees subsequently reported that ‘As Dr. Thomas refused to go back to Pearl Lagoon unless he had some kind of security that he would not be molested in future, I accompanied Canon Miler to see and have a talk with the new Commander who came to relive Capt. Kendall.’ ¶ British Legation, ¶ MANAGUA, ¶ July 3, 1928 . . . "

4.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, Statement of Capt. D. J. Kendall in re Claim of Dr. J. Oliver Thomas, Bluefields, p. 4.  
" . . . Statement of Captain W. H. ANDERSON. ¶ On March 8th Captain Anderson wrote to H.B.M. Consul at Bluefields stating that on February 23rd the U.S. Marines stationed at the Bluff searched his boat, broke open a cupboard and confiscated two revolvers and a Winchester rifle, arms which he had carried for many years on the boat for the protection of himself, his boat and its passengers and cargo. Capt. Anderson was himself put in prison and had to pay a sum of fifty dollars to obtain his release. He claims the return of the firearms and the $50. ¶ Copies of the letter were forwarded by H. M. Consul on March 9th last to this Legation and to the Foreign office in London. In his covering letter Mr. Rees stated that Capt. Anderson is a British subject but that his boat is on the Nicaraguan register; he also stated that he himself went with Capt. Anderson and his Lawyer to see Capt. Kendall, of the Marines. They were told that there was no charge against Capt. Anderson and that the Marines had acted as they did because the captain had refused to leave port on a certain day at the request of the Major who was in a hurry to reach Puerto Cabezas and that the Collector of Customs became suspicious; the vessel was consequently searched but nothing was found except the arms. Capt. Anderson’s lawyer told Capt. Kendall that ‘the right to sail as a captain on a vessel carries with it the right to have arms on board for protection.’ ¶ Mr. Patteson, my predecessor who has in charge of this Legation when Mr. Rees letter was received, does not seem to have taken any action in the matter, but I have now received a despatch from the Foreign Office calling for a report on the case. In particular the Foreign Office enquired whether there are any regulations in force which forbid the carriage of shipboard, or at any rate on board Nicaraguan ships, or arms even though only for protection purposes, and also whether the Nicaraguan authorities or the United States Marines were the parties responsible for the seizure in question. ¶ British Legation, ¶ MANAGUA, ¶ July 3, 1928. ¶ /s/ M. Stanford London ¶ Charge d’Affairs . . . "

5.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, Statement of Dr. J. Oliver Thomas, Bluefields, p. 5.  
" . . . Statement of CAPTAIN DONALD J. KENDALL, USMC, ¶ in the CLAIM of Dr. J. Oliver Thomas. ¶ The records of the British Consulate in Bluefields state that John Oliver Thomas was born at Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua, in 1869 and that this profession is that of ‘medico’. Pearl Lagoon having been in the Mosquito Reserve, Thomas together with the other inhabitants of that Reserve became Nicaraguan Citizens when in 1893 the Mosquito Reserve as a result of the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty came under Nicaraguan control. On Sept. 5, 1914, Thomas registered in the British Consulate in Bluefields. He is of the class of negroes who although they are Nicaraguan Citizens, at least while in Nicaragua, and who always vote in Nicaragua and take part in the Nicaraguan Revolutions, nevertheless when in trouble always rush to secure and usually receive the best efforts of Mr. Rees to free them from their difficulties under the pretext that they are British subjects. ¶ Dr. Thomas first came to my notice when confined in the active jail in Bluefields which was at the time under Marine Control due to lack of any organized native police here. He was confined there for several months on the charge of embezzlement and at length was released due to the efforts of friends in his behalf. These same friends now state that he has never made any effort to repay the money that was advanced to free him from the charges of embezzlement of the funds of an old man whose estate he had charge. While Thomas was in jail it came to my notice that he had served not only as a doctor with the revolutionary army but also had actually born arms in the last revolution here. ¶ After his release from jail through the settlement out of court of the charges of embezzlement he went to Pearl Lagoon and although only a pharmacist stared to practice medicine as a doctor. ¶ After the battle of Pearl Lagoon December 24, 1926, Thomas was according to his statements to me in charge of the clearing up of the battlefield, burying the dead, and collecting the arms left on the field. In the fall of 1927 while Lieutenant Carroll was at Pearl Lagoon investigating the assassination of an American by eight negroes there Thomas stated to me that he could recover and turn in to me at least 25 rifles and probably could secure many more and turn them in if I would get him the office of Agent of Police at Pearl Lagoon. ¶ When Naaman Connors together with three other negroes were caught at False Bluff on March 23 with a Machine Gun, 64 rifles, and about 5,000 rounds of ammunition preparing to embark them on a boat to go to Sandino or to Honduras, two of the negroes stated to me that Dr. Thomas had some guns at Pearl Lagoon that he had been preparing to ship at the same time they were going to embark theirs. Another native caught with ammunition in his possession near False bluff about April 7, 1928, also stated to me that Thomas had guns in his possession at Pearl Lagoon. Other civilians from Pearl Lagoon reported to me at various times that Thomas had a number of loaded shells for a 37 millimeter gun in his home at Pearl Lagoon. Lieutenant Carroll was therefore sent over there to search Thomas’ premises for them . . . "

6.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, Statement of Captain W. H. Anderson, Bluefields, p. 6.  
" . . . Then Thomas came to me in Bluefields complaining about the search the Agent of Police of Pearl Lagoon had a warrant out for him for perjury in connection with the incident where Thomas charged the Marine with striking the Agent of Police at Pearl Lagoon. I questioned the Agent of Police about the affair as well as the Marine accused of striking him and the rest of the Marines who were stationed at Pearl Lagoon at the time. All denied any blows having been passed in the argument. Thomas stated at that time that he had not witnessed the affair himself but that his 12 year old son had seen the blows struck from a distance and had told him about it. ¶ Inasmuch as a warrant was cut for Thomas for perjury in connection with the affair I retained him in jail at Bluefields. Mrs. Thomas came to see me at my office and claimed that her husband had not been aiding her to pay the expense of his family and that they were in very poor circumstances, and very much in need of financial aid from him. So I agreed to let him out after 48 hours so that he could go to work and be of some financial assistance to his family but that I would exact from him a promise of future good behavior and a promise to refrain from sending any further false articles to the local newspapers concerning the Marines. In the meantime I arranged to have Dr. Thomas watched on his return to Pearl Lagoon in hopes of finding out where he had the arms and ammunition hidden. I succeeded in getting the charges of perjury against him quashed and after his promising to keep the peace in the future and not to send in for publication any unfounded articles against the Marines he was released. ¶ I left Bluefields for leave in the United States very suddenly about May 10, and heard nothing further about the case until I returned, June 30. Early in July an English resident at False Bluff told me that on or about May 17th a black schooner lay off False Bluff during the night opposite the point where the trail from Pearl Lagoon comes out to the beach. At daylight when he walked down the beach to see what her boat was loading from the beach the boat crew jumped in their boat hurriedly and went above the schooner which hauled anchor and put to sea at once. When he arrived at the place where the boat had been loading he found a burlap bag with about 800 rounds of ammunition in it and there were palm branches laid down the beach over which wheeled objects had been dragged leaving tracks like those of a 37 millimeter gun. The loading went on at the same point where it was reported to me that Thomas had intended to load his arms on the same night when Connors and the other Creoles were caught. ¶ DONALD J. KENDALL . . . "

7.   24 September 1928.
Claims of Dr. Thomas and Captain Anderson, Statement of Capt. D. J. Kendall in Re Claim of Capt. W. H. Anderson, p. 7.  
" . . . Statement of CAPTAIN DONALD J. KENDALL, USMC, ¶ in the CLAIM of Captain N. H. Anderson. ¶ The Schooner L. M. Anderson was searched by Marines and a Nicaraguan Customs Officer at El Bluff, Nicaragua, on February 23, 1928 and all the arms aboard were confiscated. A short time before this Major Utley of the Marine Corps and several enlisted men were about to sail for Puerto Cabezas aboard her but they were told late in the afternoon of the sailing date that she would not sail until the next day. So they returned to Bluefields. In the night she attempt to sail suddenly, without them, but was prevented from doing so. The next day she was about to sail but when the Marines arrived at the Bluff to go aboard her Capt. W. H. Anderson again postponed the sailing and the Marines went on another boat and she sailed shortly afterwards. It appeared therefore that the Captain desired to sail without any Marines aboard, and in view of that fact she was regarded with suspicion. ¶ At the time attempts were being made to run arms from the vicinity of Bluefields to Cabo de Gracias for further transportation to Sandino or to Honduras for the revolution brewing there. Accordingly the policy of searching all boats leaving from the Bluff for arms by the Marines and for other contraband by Nicaraguan Customs authorities was inaugurated. During the search of the Anderson for arms on February 23, Capt. Anderson refused to open the cupboard on his vessel and it was broken open and two pistols and a Winchester rifle were found. These were seized and he was turned over to the Chief of the Native Police at Bluefields with the charges against him of having arms in his possession. They fined him and released him. He then came to my office and I told him that if he had settled his case with the native authorities that there were no further charges against him. When he complained about lack of protection for his vessel without arms I told him that his own suspicious actions and very evident desire not to sail with any Marines aboard his schooner had brought about the search of his vessel and otherwise he would not have been bothered. ¶ The search was made under authority of Decrees #45 and 46 of the President of Nicaragua dated June 3, 1927, which Decrees the Marines had orders under Force Orders #20 of June 5, 1927 to assist in enforcing. The search was made by combined Marines and Nicaraguan Forces under orders of both the Marines and the Nicaraguan Customs Authorities. When as a result of his case the Marine Force at Bluefields was informed that ship masters would be allowed to carry arms aboard their vessels for protection of passengers and crew Capt. Anderson was informed by the undersigned that his arms could be returned to him on application at the Barracks. As the undersigned was on leave in the States for several months after this it is not known whether or not Capt. Anderson ever applied for or received the arms in return. ¶ DONALD J. KENDALL"

25 September 1928.
Letter from from Capt. A. DeCarre, Bocay, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca.

26 September 1928 (1522).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

27 September 1928 (2153).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua, with copies to COs of Bocay, Poteca, Garrobo.

28 September 1928 (2351).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, CO Poteca, to CO Bocay, copied to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas, and CO Garrobo.

29 September 1928.
"The Die Is Cast," The Bluefields Weekly.  
"The die is cast and Nicaraguan conservatism is now face to face with a condition that must have already begun to cause the leaders of the party serious misgivings as to a way out of the dilemma in which they are placed before the eyes of the world, but more especially before the people of the Americas, that had for so many years been led to foster a false idea as to the right of conservatives to rule in Nicaragua. ¶ The people of a democracy most naturally expect that the minority must of necessity give way to the majority and consequently when the Conservative party of Nicaragua was able to hold the reigns of Government for nearly two decades, during which time several presidential elections have been held with the Conservative Party always coming out victorious, and having their resulting regimes recognized and respected by the other nations of the world, it naturally followed in the minds of the people of other parts, that the right to rule was with that party. ¶ Liberal protests and denouncement of frauds at elections invariably received the “cold shoulder” from those before whom their protests went. And conservatism was able thus to continue treating with the most sickening contempt the great majority of the people of the state. It would have been an easy matter for Liberalism to have rightened the evil by having recourse to arms long before 1926, but holding due regard for the treaties and compacts in which it was clear that revolutions would not be allowed to prosper by those having to do with the other side of these treaties and compacts, there was nothing to do but abide the time when, through force of circumstances conservatism Would so discredit itself as to fall out of grace through the workings of its own sins. ¶ But the die is cast and conservatism has but one course now to pursue. The cards have been laid out and the first day’s play has had the result of showing to all who wishes to see that the Conservative’s majority bluff has passed away forever. ¶ There is a phrase that Nicaraguans like very much to use: “En el camino se arreglarán las cargas”. (Things will adjust themselves on the way). And indeed, it is this phrase that the Conservatives had in mind when they accepted, rather, asked for President Coolidge’s good offices through his representative, Colonel Stimson, at Tipitapa to bring about peace on condition of free elections in 1928. Accustomed as they have always been to deceive in the most artful manner, and harboring a ridiculous belief that the Government of the United States was irretrievably lost in love with their winsome party, it would soon after swallow some tendered bait, whereby the Tipitapa agreement would find a place in the scrap heap. Conservatism never for moment really took the agreement seriously; they firmly believed it a trap of Colonel Stimson to allure Moncada into turning over his arms. Devoid of all political ethics Nicaraguan conservatism could not credit any other government with that value in its assets. ¶  The only course we see under the circumstances for the Conservative Party to pursue is to accept with as much grace as they possibly can, the tremendous expose to which they have been subjected and, with a resolution to make atonement for their past sins get into a school of ethics and strive to understand that: “the mills of the gods grind slowly but they grind exceeding fine”. ¶ The result of the first day’s inscription in the Interior showed 3 to 1 in favor of the Liberals and here is how it stands on the Atlantic Coast at this writing: ……totals: Liberals 3305, Conservative 687, total: 3992…..¶ According to the above report of the citizens inscribed on the first and second days of inscription in the Cantons heard from the Liberal party registered 82.79%; the Conservative arty 17.21 per cent. Al indications point to the fact that the Conservative Party will not register very many more on the Atlantic Litoral. ¶ NOTE: As we were going to press we received the following advice of inscriptions on the 23: Wounta 113 Liberals, 3 Conservatives; Tungla 110 Liberals, no Conservatives."

29 September 1928.
"Rama Notes," The Bluefields Weekly.

29 September 1928 (1022).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

29 September 1928 (1702).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

29 September 1928.
Statement of 1st Lt. G. W. Shearer, USMC, in case of James Hibbert of Bilway (Bilwi), p. 1.  
"At about six p.m. on the evening of February tenth or eleventh, it was reported to me that there was some trouble in a canteen in Bilway. I immediately sent the Provost Sergeant, Sergeant Frederick G. Lewis, U.S. Marine Corps, to investigate and report. In about a half an hour, Sergeant Lewis returned and reported that there had been a fight in the canteen operated by Hibbert, and that a civilian employee of the Brabman Bluff Lumber Company by the name of Lee Arnold, Private Shockley, U.S. Marine Corps and several other Marines had been involved, but upon his arrival at the canteen everything was quiet. I ordered Sergeant Lewis to return and make an examination of the premises and to note whether there had been any damages and to ascertain the amount of such and to obtain witnesses if possible. Upon the return of Sergeant Lewis, he reported that so far as he could see there had been no damage done, but that Hibbert claimed that a lantern had been kicked off the ceiling, and other damages that he claimed would amount to about forty dollars ($40.00). He reported that he had questioned neighbors of Hibbert’s as to any commotion or row and that he could not get any information. The next morning I sent for Mr. Arnold and questioned him about the matter and he admitting being drunk in Hibbert’s place and that anything might have happened. He also stated that he accepted full responsibility and that the Marines were not at fault and that he would pay any reasonable amount to satisfy Hibbert. I told him that Hibbert claimed forty dollars ($40.00) and this amount Arnold gave me for payment to Hibbert. I then proceeded to Hibbert’s place accompanied by the Commandante to make an investigation and I instructed the Commandante to appraise any damage that might have been done and that Mr. Arnold was willing to pay for same. Upon the arrival at Hibbert’s shack of two rooms, nothing out of the ordinary could be noticed and Hibbert pointed out to the Commandante several things that he had claimed that had been broken in the fight. I cannot remember the items, but the Commandante appraised all damages at twenty eight dollars ($28.00). This amount was offered to Hibbert which he refused to accept. In going through the backroom it was noted that Mrs. Hibbert was in bed and Hibbert claimed that she had been struck in the fight. We sent for a native doctor and gave him orders to attend Mrs. Hibbert and to submit the bill to Mr. Arnold. About four days later, the doctor submitted a bill to Mr. Arnold for ten dollars ($10.00), which was paid and receipt obtained. The doctor was asked if this would be the final charge and if Mrs. Hibbert was well. He replied in the affirmative and stated that she need no further treatment. While making examination of Hibbert’s place, Hibbert claimed that a sum of money had been stolen from a cigar box under the counter. I questioned Mr. Arnold and the Marines about this and they were all emphatic in their denial of taking anything whatever. In my opinion, Hibbert is taking this . . . "

29 September 1928.
Statement of 1st Lt. G. W. Shearer, USMC, in case of James Hibbert of Bilway (Bilwi), p. 2.  
" . . . opportunity to take advantage of the fight that occurred in his place to make claim for damages in excess of the value that could be realized by the sale of his place as it now stands. ¶ GEORGE W. SHEARER . . . "

30 September 1928 (1112).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, CO Coco Patrol, Poteca, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

1 October 1928 (1123).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, copy to CO Bocay.

2 October 1928 (0933).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, CO Poteca, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, copy to CO Bocay.

3 October 1928 (1600).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

3 October 1928 (2330).
Radiogram from Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Major Sage, CO Bluefields, copy to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

4 October 1928.
Letter from Capt. A. DeCarre, Bocay, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 1.  
"My dear Edson:- ¶ Am sending you two boats this morning – rations as per enclosed list. ¶ Regarding the retention of Indians up there. Thompson is going up the Bocay River tomorrow to get you some ‘SU MOO’ medicine. The Indians around here seem to be afraid of getting killed – while working for you some of them already refuse to go up river because you have kept these men you have now – now please understand me – that I am explaining this all to you – because it is only your ration supply – that I am concerned about. There is a man by the name of JESUS – who I have promised personally – that you will not hold. It seems that he was with Sandino, is scared to death – that he will be shot – if he is caught up there. Let him come back – because I ‘lose face’ with the Indians here if [?] . . . "

4 October 1928.
Letter from Capt. A. DeCarre, Bocay, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Poteca, p. 2.   
" . . . detain him. ¶ I have plenty of rations here now I will keep sending them forward until you say stop. ¶ Burns and [?] are here so I expect to leave soon. ¶ My very best wishes to Pollock and Cook and don’t work too hard – you have done enough already. ¶ Sincerely, ¶ A. DeCarre"

4 October 1928.
Letters from Major Hans Schmidt, Managua, to "My dear Edson," Poteca, and "My dear Colonel Dunlap," Managua.  
"My dear Edson:- ¶ The following is quoted from a letter from Colonel Dunlap received this date: ¶ ‘Navas and Jackson believe that there is an outpost of Sandino east of the Mine Americana between there and La Pas (Kenyon MAP) (I have directed that these maps be sent you). If reinforced Jalapa can approach the area from the trails running east from Jalapa Region to the Coco. San Albino if reinforced can approach the area from the mouth. Edson is committed to an approach up the Congejas. This combination would insure a clean up of the area—would block Sandino’s escape to Honduras and movement south. If it does nothing else, may develop Sandino’s based and result in the destruction of stores. I should like to back up Edson and also make a more complete job while about it. Edson’s movement may block retirement of enemy forces or again he may get the full force of the enemy contact. In the latter case the movement from this side will not be able (probably) to give him actual reinforcement in case of need. I think he should be cautious to go slowly and not too afar.’ ¶ This General approved this plan and aviation will put you in touch with Colonel Dunlap so that the movements may be properly coordinated. When planes make contact with you they will be directed to drop this and then to go Ocotal with another drop. They will then return for anything you may desire to communicate to Colonel Dunlap. ¶ If you have any questions either ask Colonel Dunlap or us and we will endeavor to answer. Will keep you informed of all Bandit news. ¶ Best of luck, ¶ Sincerely, ¶ Schmidt, ¶ B-2. ¶ My dear Colonel Dunlap: ¶ The General has shown me your letter and his answer thereto. I have this date sent you Edson itinerary. This evening I am sending him the information contained in your letter with as much of the plan outlined therein as I could and also word that the General has approved your plan. ¶ In addition I have told Edson that air service is to provide the liaison necessary and for him to acquaint you with his plan. I believe it would be highly desirable to give him some additional details of your plans when you have worked them out. ¶ If there is anything else you think of that I should do please let me know. ¶ Kindest regards, ¶ Very sincerely, ¶ Schmidt"

7 October 1928 (0400).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Coco Patrol at Congojas Mouth, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

7 October 1928 (1430).
Radiogram from Capt. A. DeCarre, CO Bocay, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

9 October 1928 (2045).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

15 October 1928.
Letter re James Hibbert of Bilway, from Gen. Feland, Managua, to British Consul, Managua, p. 1.  
“In reference to your letter dated 10 July, 1928, enclosing copies of memoranda from the British Charge d’Affaires at Managua regarding the claims of several British subjects resident on the east coast of Nicaragua for compensation for alleged injuries suffered by them at the hands of American Marines, the following information is submitted: ¶ (a) Re claim of James Hibbert of Bilway, Puerto Cabezas, investigation discloses that Lee Arnold, a civilian employee of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company assumed full responsibility for the disturbance created in Hibbert’s cantina on 16 February, 1928, and offered to make a financial settlement for any reasonable claim that was submitted. The native commandante investigated the matter and appraised all damages reported by Hibbert at $28.00. Hibbert refused to accept payment in the amount of $28.00 but allowed Arnold to pay $10.00 as payment in full for medical treatment received by Mrs. Arnold for injuries she is alleged to have received in the above disturbance. Although Hibbert had originally asked for compensation in the amount of $40.00 it is believed that he now hopes to secure a settlement far in excess of the actual damages by endeavoring to make the matter an official one. ¶ (b) Re claim of Doctor J. Oliver Thomas of Pearl Lagoon, the record of the claimant shows that he not only actively participated with the Nicaraguan revolutionary movement in 1926, but since that time has been connected with individuals attempting to smuggle arms to bandit forces and has by his radical actions been a disturbing element among the Creoles on the east coast. Furthermore, it is believed that the activities . . . ”

15 October 1928.
Letter re James Hibbert of Bilway, from Gen. Feland, Managua, to US Minister, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . of Thomas in support of revolutionary movements in Nicaragua as disclosed by personal correspondence of Thomas and now in possession of these headquarters are of such a nature as to create a doubt as to his right to protection as a neutral English subject. I am of the opinion that any confinement or embarrassment Doctor Thomas suffered at the hands of Marines was the result of his own pernicious activities and he is not entitled to compensation. ¶ After due consideration of all the circumstances in the above cases, it is my belief that neither Mr. Hibbert nor Doctor Thomas have any cause for action against the United States and I cannot approve their claims. ¶ It is hoped that the above information is of such a nature as to enable you to base a proper reply to Mr. London’s memoranda."

15 October 1928.
Letter re schooner LM Anderson, from Gen. Feland, Managua, to US Minister, Managua.  
"Referring to your letter of 10 July, 1928, enclosing a claim submitted by the British Charge d’Affaires regarding the alleged illegal search of the schooner “L. M. ANDERSON” at El Bluff, Nicaragua, on 23 February, 1928, I have the honor to inform you that the activities of this vessel aroused the suspicion of the Nicaraguan Customs authorities and the Marines assisted the local authorities to search the vessel. ¶ Captain Anderson refused to open a cupboard on his vessel with the consequent result that it was opened by force and the two pistols and one rifle contained therein were confiscated and held by the native Chief of Police at Bluefields, Nicaragua. Captain Anderson was fined by Nicaraguan authorities for a violation of Nicaraguan law but was informed that the arms would be returned to him upon his application to the Chief of Police and his assurance that the arms were for the protection of passengers and crew. ¶ With reference to the last paragraph of Mr. London’s memorandum regarding this incident, it is suggested that the British Charge d’Affaires communicate with the Nicaraguan Government for complete information and copies of current regulations governing the carriage on shipboard of arms and ammunition. Rulings in such matters are made by the Nicaraguan authorities but when opposition and evasion are encountered by local native authorities it is considered the duty of our forces to assist in preserving law and order.”

16 October 1928.
Letter re claim of William N. Ricketts, George Marchall, Rober W. Brown & Ernest Thomas, from Gen. Feland, Managua, to US Minister, Managua.  
"With reference to your letter of 10 July, 1928, enclosing a claim forwarded by the British Charge d’Affaires at Managua on behalf of William N. Ricketts, George Marchall, Robert W. Brown and Ernest Thomas, I am glad to be able to transmit information regarding this matter which has just been received by these headquarters from the commanding officer of Marines on the east coast of Nicaragua. ¶ It appears that the above named men were endeavoring to leave Nicaragua when they were detained and held for investigation because of the fact that they were not in possession of the necessary and required papers of identification. At the time they were detained there was a determied effort by lawless elements on the east coast to smuggle weapons and ammunition to bandit groups operating in Nicaragua and suspicion naturally attached to any individual travelling without proper credentials and any delay or embarrassment that the above persons suffered was the natural and inevitable result of their own neglect and failure to comply with the law and regulations governing persons leaving and entering Nicaragua. ¶ Therefore, in view of the circumstances I cannot consider the claims of the above individuals as the basis for any actions against the United States.”

17 October 1928.
Air Mission for Thursday, Oct 18, Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.  
"1. One plane flight to Bluefields. Plane at disposal of Captain Rose (probably make reconnaissance of SAN JUAN river). ¶ 2. Memo. for Lieut. Conway: Captain Rose also has been granted permission to divert the returning planes for a military mission southern sector if he so desires. ¶ 3. Memo. to Area Quartermaster: freight for Bluefields may be sent."

 

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