Header image
the atlantic coast  •  1929B, p. 2
Oct — Dec 1929

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE SECOND HALF OF 1929 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during October, November & December.

       "So that we poor Indians may receive our rights," reads the petition from the Miskitu of Bluefields to the President of the United States (Oct. 9), one of several documents on this page that illuminate aspects of the struggles of Costeños for their rights of citizenship.  Thanking the USA for sending in the Marines during the recent revolution and soliciting US help in reversing the 1894 Reincorporation treaty that made “the Mosquito Coast” part of Western Nicaragua, the petition offers a fascinating historical narrative that condemns the Nicaraguan Government & emphasizes Miskitu autonomy & independence as its primary political aim.  Another exceptionally revealing document, a circular in English & Spanish produced & distributed by union organizers in Puerto Cabezas and Bilwi on Sunday, October 20, denounces the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company and other large export firms as tyrannical and announces a strike by Miskitu Indians “to break the chains of slavery with which that company holds them, paying miserable salaries” (25 Oct).  The discourse of citizens’ inalienable rights before the state and foreign capital is striking here, especially since the circular makes no mention of Sandino, and concludes with a “viva!” for Sandino’s arch-enemy President Moncada.

       Just as remarkable, the next day (Monday, October 21), US military intelligence catches wind of Sandino handbills in Bluefields & Puerto Cabezas, likely circulating for some days now (11 Nov).  Sandino's appeal thus has no evident effect on the discourse or practices of Bragmans Bluff union organizers.  A week later (29 Oct), US Consul S. J. Fletcher reports that Sandino sent two packages of “revolutionary propaganda” to Dr. Onofre Sandoval and the Comandante de La Cruz on the Río Grande and both were turned in to the authorities.  Sandino is trying to propagandize the Coast, and is reasonable to suppose that some Sandino propaganda made it through the counterinsurgency net.  If so, its message shows no evidence of resonating among Consteños.  Also noteworthy are the 5-page “Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area” by Area Commander Major C. H. Metcalf (21 Nov); the relevant pages of The Bluefields Weekly; and the year-end report by J. A. Fisher of the Moravian Church.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

5 October 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly. 
  "The possibilities of a boom on the Atlantic Coast. By R. M. Hooker. ¶ The Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua is well favored to enjoy a period of prosperity that will bring about its modernization and give its hard working, honest people their just rewards for which they have looked forward with long expectation. We say that this section will enjoy a great financial boom because we know that we possess the best agricultural lands that can be found in Central America. We also have plenty of gold yet to be mined, rubber resources to be tapped, timber to be hewn down and made into lumber, and besides, we expect to have what will make us the most coveted nation on the face of the globe. We refer to the Nicaraguan canal. With these important factors in view there is no need for Nicaragua to become pessimistic over present conditions. ¶ Natives who own lands in various sections of Nicaragua should by all means begin to search in their trunks for their titles, and see that they are in first class legal condition so that when any difficulties arise they will be in no danger of losing their property. Our people must begin to plant and to endeavour to become a small class of independent farmers. To do this will enhance their position in the eyes of the capitalists who will be coming out to spend their money in our country. ¶ It has always been asked how we can do anything to bring capital to Nicaragua. Well, how about advertising Nicaragua to the world and letting European and American businessmen know what kind of a country we have from the standpoint of climate and natural resources. Some of the best lands for the building of towns and cities are left untouched and people inhabit the sickly coastlands that are hot instead of the cooler lands of the rivers and mountains. ¶ Another very essential factor in the understanding and the creation of the new social and economic order in our country is some adequate legislation under which the capitalist and the laborer meet on an equal footing. There is no reason in the world why Americans and Europeans should come in here and make fortunes and the sons of the soil suffer as we have done in the years that are gone. We demand a new social order, higher wages and the employment of Nicaraguans first and then foreigners. We have always been proud that we possess the most democratic little country in the world and we want to keep it that way. The laws of Nicaragua in this respect should be more flexible and foreign capitalists should be made to understand that there are certain rules that must be complied with before they are allowed to treat our people as they feel. This has led to more ill feeling and has hampered production and business in our country more than anything. Employers must organize and laborers must do the same so that when the time for the boom arrives we will be ready to meet it. ¶ Latin Americans are today afraid of capitalists because of mistreatment. In all our dealing with them we have been the losers. We realize that the time has arrived for us to speak our mind on this question. We mean from now on to organize our people and to demand our rights and to lay the facts before our government in such a manner that something must be done. Nicaraguans want money but we do not intend to sell our birthright to get wealth. We want the capitalists to be frank with us. We have the natural resources that they want. They have the money. We must strike a bargain that will benefit us both. Now what we want is the same fair treatment that the American laborers get in the United States. No capitalist can dare tread on his rights and we in Nicaragua are working for those conditions. Spaniards, Creoles and Indians must begin to realise that this is a new day and that all people and races must help themselves and must organize in the defence of what belongs to us. At the same time we must always be tolerant and broad-minded to the capitalist, always remaining firm and steadfast in our conclusions. In the meantime let us look over our property and be ready for the rush."

1.     9 October 1929.
Petition from the Miskitu Indians of Bluefields to the President of the United States, p. 1. Submitted to British Consul Owen Rees, to be forwarded to the United States Government; last page missing.
   "Transmits copy petition sent by the Mosquito Indians to the United States President, giving the history of their race, calling attention to their present day position and expressing the hope that they may fall under the protection of the United States."

2.     9 October 1929.
Petition from the Miskitu Indians of Bluefields to the President of the United States, p. 2.  
" . . . His Excellency H. C. Hoover, President, and the Honorable Government of the United States ¶ May it please your Excellency and most esteemed and Hon. Government. We the Mosquito Indians of the territory known as the Mosquito Coast – extending from the Wanks River to Greytown – a distance of about two [hundred] and fifty miles – but which has been incorporated since 1894 in the republic of Nicaragua – beg to approach your Excellency and Government on a matter of extreme vital importance which concerns us as a people and our beloved country, the Mosquito Coast, praying that your Excellency and Hon. Government will intervene on our behalf, and adjust this affair for us, so that we may enjoy the rights, privileges and advancements as are being enjoyed by modernized counties and peoples of the world. ¶ We are convinced and are quite as linguine that your Government, the most powerful in the world, and one that stands for justice, equity, love, liberty, and advancement, educationally, commercially, and industrially, will give our grievances as set forth, your most earnest and diplomatic consideration, and set accordingly on our behalf, so that we receive those things which by international laws, are our rights and privileges. In consequence thereof we respectfully beg to make the following authentic statements:- ¶ 1 ¶ Be it known that we the Mosquito Indians were a Free and independent race from before the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the western world in 1492 having our own form of government and ruled by our kings. ¶ 2 ¶ That in the early part of the 17th century one of our kings, Jeremy by name, went to Jamaica B.W.I. to the Duke of Albemarle, the governor of the Island, and prayed that his country, the Mosquito Coast be taken under the protection of the English Government as he, the King Jeremy, feared the Spaniards who were then swarming to the western world, which request was granted. ¶ 3 ¶ That it was the Mosquito Indians who befriended the great discoverer and helped him in his sad predicament when he landed at the place, now named Cape Gracias a’Dios. ¶ 4 ¶ That we Indians and our beloved country the Mosquito coast remained under England’s protection until the year 1860; when on the 20th of January of the same year (1860) a treaty called the Treaty of Managua was made between the British Government and Republic of Nicaragua, by which our country the Mosquito Coast was placed under the protection of Nicaragua – we will having reserved to us our rights and privileges of self government - having our ruler whose title was reduced that that of chief. ¶ 5 ¶ That these above mentioned conditions continued until on the 13th of February 1894 – when the Nicaraguan Government overthrew the Mosquito Government, seized our country by force of arms, thus violating the Treaty of Managua. ¶ 6 ¶ That our chief Robert Henry Clarence was by existing conditions forced to seek refuge in the Island of Jamaica, B.W.I. – where he remained until he died. ¶ 7 ¶ That to make sure of having our beloved country here fixed in its deadly grasp, and probably to vindicate and establish its rights of ownership, the Nicaraguan government called delegates of Indians from various villages to Bluefields and by sweet words and glorious promises, together with a free distribution of intoxicating liquors, drew a document called the Mosquito Convention, to which this Nicaraguan Government caused the Indians to affix their names. (Copy of Mosquito Convention enclosed) . . . "

3.     9 October 1929.
Petition from the Miskitu Indians of Bluefields to the President of the United States, p. 3. Submitted to British Consul Owen Rees, to be forwarded to the United States Government; last page missing.
   " . . . 8 ¶ That thirty-four years have passed since the signing and putting into effect this solemn law and convent – the Mosquito Convention – yet not one of the decrees contained therein has been lived up to by the Nicaraguan Government. That the Nicaraguan Government has totally disregarded the Decrees of the Mosquito Convention, and therefore has forfeited all rights and privileges to our country, as set forth in the said document – the Mosquito Convention. ¶ 9 ¶ That in spite of the fact that millions of dollars have been collected as revenues in the Mosquito Coast – the customs alone aggregating about thirty-three million dollars – absolutely nothing has been done by the Nicaraguan Government for the benefit of our country – the Mosquito Coast, and we the inhabitants the Mosquito Indians. ¶ Art, 2, says:- ¶ All the revenues produced in the Mosquito Litoral, shall be inverted in its own benefit. The revenues have not been inverted for the benefit of the Mosquito Litoral. ¶ Art, 3, ¶ The mosquito Indians have been forced to bear arms and fight and to do other military services. (Art, 4,) That taxes have been imposed on the Mosquito Indians which they were compelled to pay. (Art, 5,) That the post of Inspector has not been held by any Mosquito Indian except one, and that very recently. That the post of Inspector has always been, in every place, held by a Nicaraguan Spaniard styled the ‘Commandante’, whose only desire was and is to inflict heavy fines for the most trivial offenses, most of which (fines) went into his own coffers. (Art, 10,) That in consequence of the non-fulfillment of the decrees of the solemn law and convent – the Mosquito Convention, by the Nicaraguan Government, we the Mosquito Indians declare this document the Mosquito Convention becomes null and void and the act of incorporation annulled. (Art, 11,) That we Indians, being unable to fight for our rights and could never think of raising up in arms against the Nicaraguan Government, being extremely powerless to do so. (Art, 12,) And realizing that our beloved country and ourselves are practically going to ruin, and desiring for ourselves and children and the generations to come the blessings and privileges now enjoyed by modern civilized counties. (Art, 13,) And that our heartfelt desire is to be released from the yoke of the Nicaraguan Government – who has deliberately and openly, before the world, disregarded and discountenanced the solemn law and covenant – the Mosquito Convention, which they drew up and signed. ¶  (Art, 14,) Therefore we humbly pray that your most esteemed and Honorable Government will intervente on our poor Indians' behalf and take up the matter with the Nicaraguan Gov't and adjust same so that we poor Indians may receive our rights, as are put forth in our despatch to the Nicaraguan Government. ¶ (Art, 15,) We the Mosquito Indians - hereby too, beg respectfully to express our sincere thanks and heartfelt gratitude to your Excellency and Government for the timely and kind protection offered to us during the recent revolution in this country -- for had the United States Marines, not been seen here many, yea; many of us poor Indians would not be alive to-day. ¶ Art, 16, We may here mention that ourcountry has waste resources, but require development. ¶ A. There is very much gold, silver and copper. ¶ B. There are waste tracts suitable to rice cultivation, from which thousands and thousands of bushels of rice could be harvested each year. ¶ C. There are waste tracts of savannahs very suitable for the cultivation of cotton. ¶ D. Our forests abound with rubber, pine, mahogany and cedar. ¶ E. That our soil is well adapted to the cultivation of pine-apples, bananas, and citrus fruits. ..."  [NOTE: The final page of this petition is unfortunately missing.] 

12 October 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly.  
"Captain R. D. Leach to be tried by Court Martial next week. ¶ Capt. R. D. Leach arrived by airplane from Puerto Cabezas yesterday. Next week Tuesday or Wednesday he will be tried by Court Martial on a charge in connection with the recent wounding of Daniel Sierra. ¶ The Court will be comprised of the following Officers:- Major Metcalf, Major Linscott, Capt. Regan, Captain Simms of the National Guard, Dr. Baker, and Lieut. Hassen Miller. ¶ The trial will take place at the Tropical Club. Whether or not the proceedings will be open to the public will be decided by the president of the court."

19 October 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.  
"Trial of Captain Ralph D. Leach by Court Martial. ¶ On Thursday morning the trial of Captain Ralph D. Leach, who was until recently attached to the National Guard in this area, on charges connected with the wounding of Daniel Sierra on the night of the 30th of August last was commenced. ¶ The following officers comprised the Court: ¶ President, Major Clyde H. Metcalf, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ Other members: Capt. Henry D. Linscott, U.S. Marine Corps; Lieut. Joseph W. Baker, Dental Corps, U.S. Navy; Captain Lewis B. Reagan, U.S. Marine Corps; First Lieut. Amor Le R. Simms, U.S. Marine Corps; First Lieutenant Charles H. Hassenmiller, U.S. Marine Corps; and First Lieutenant Harvey P. Alban, U.S. Marine Corps, Judge Advocate. ¶ First Day (Thursday, Oct. 17th.) ¶ The Court met and the officer to be tried was given the opportunity to show cause why all of the members of the Court wee not qualified to try him. In this case no objection was raised against any member. ¶ All the members of the Court took a solemn oath to try the case fairly and impartially. ¶ The formal charges were read to Captain Leach, who declared himself not guilty. The actual charges will be available for publication in the next issue. ¶ The judge advocate then called Colonel Marston, Senores Carlos Morales and Policarpo Mercado as witnesses. All testified under oath. ¶ The Law of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps under which the trial is being conducted prohibits the general discussion of testimony until the trial is finished, on the theory that witnesses not yet called may be affected by hearing what has gone before, so the actual testimony cannot be produced at this time. ¶ Second Day (Friday Oct. 18th.) On the second day the Judge Advocate continued his case by calling as witnesses Private Andeo of the National Guard, and Señor Francisco Cabrera. ¶ Third Day (Saturday October 19th.) ¶ The Judge advocate concluded the case for the prosecution by calling Daniel Sierra the remaining witness. The case for the defence was commenced by first Lieutenant William Carvel Hall, of the U.S. Marine Corps, the defending counsel, Lieut. Hall called the following witnesses: Messrs. Guillermo Peña, E. Shelby King, J.A. Gerchow, William F. Kirkwood, Col. John Marston, Mr. A. A. Buckner, Dr. Belding, and Corporal Godo Fredo Fernandez of National Guard. ¶ At 11.15 a.m. the Court adjourned until Monday morning of next week at 8.30 o’clock."

19 October 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.  
"Our National Government. ¶ By R. M. Hooker. ¶ As a people we Nicaraguans have hardly any concept of what our National Government should mean to us. We are inclined to be reactionary, to be too quick to overthrow an existing order of government and to endeavour to substitute a new one. As a people we fail to grasp the political meaning of a true democracy, and to realize how utterly impossible it is for us to achieve this end unless we support our government. Senor de Madriaga, the great Spanish thinker, classifies the entire Latin race as too passionate and given to making rapid decisions without much sound thinking. To a certain extent we agree with this philosopher, for we have witnessed this tendency to revolt and stir ill feeling among our citizens. ¶ Our country is at present passing through a crisis. The crisis is none the less serious because of the fact that bloodshed has been avoided. We must now exercise great care or our attempt at progressive legislation will fail. We possess one of the finest constitutions that can be found in the world. We have able men in the important positions in our government. ¶ One great Latin American writer claims that the best form of government for the Latin race is a benevolent dictatorship with an able man at its head, until the people can be taught the principles of self-government. There is much on the side of the writer. He has the thirty four year dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz in Mexico. No government in that country since 1910 has surpassed the guidance of this President. Then, look at Italy. It is true that Mussolini has loosened his grip to a certain extent but he had to organize the government, and to do this he placed himself at its head. Then there is Spain with Primo de Rivera, better governed than she has been under any other administration in the last thirty years. We are also familiar with the Zelaya regime and if we choose to be open-minded we must admit that with all his faults Nicaragua had in Zelaya a fine leader. ¶ Today we are led by a man of deep vision, a thinker, a philosopher, a gentleman, but a man who none the less is possessed of the determination to work out his country’s good. No man who has occupied the presidential chair ever had greater worries than has President Moncada. He has to fight opposition from abroad, opposition from the Conservative ranks and opposition from the Liberal ranks as well. Some criticize him for his inability to make Nicaragua anew overnight. Nicaraguans, from aristocrat to peasant , should now exhibit the finer characteristics of true patriots, and, standing behind their leader, aid him in this his supreme task. ¶ We on the Atlantic Coast are indeed fortunate in the fact that we are so situated that we can organize our people to vote en bloc and almost sway any political program we desire. This one factor we should never forget. We hold the key to many great issues that are to come up in our plan to organize a strong national Government. Costeños from now on are going to know the why and the wherefore of everything. We are going to demand better legislation. We stand firmly for the present government and we intend to see that we are not quietly pushed aside when the time for general reconstruction and modernization comes. Of a change for the better we are confident. We on the Coast must play an important part in the grand forward march. Let it be plainly understood, however, we shall endeavour to secure our rights by constitutional means. In vain will revolutionists of the future look to the Coast for help."

21 October 1929.
Navy Cross, Recommendation for Award to Major Harold H. Utley, USMC.  2nd Endorsement, from the Commanding General W. C. Neville, Managua, to the Major General Commandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C.  
"1. Returned. ¶ 2. In accordance with paragraph three of the basic letter there is no information available on this subject other than that contained in letter of the Commanding General, Second Brigade, U.S. Marine Corps, No. 300-JBH-6d dated 26 June, 1929, and the accompanying papers. ¶ 3. Since the recommendation of Brigadier general Logan Feland, U. S. Marine Corps, in the case of Major Harold H. Utley, U.S. Marine Corps, enclosed with basic letter, refers entirely to services performed prior to events referred to in the letter of the Commanding General. I am of the opinion that the award of the Navy Cross to Major Harold H. Utley, U. S. Marine Corps, in accordance with the recommendation of Brigadier General Logan Feland, U. S. Marine Corps, and approved by Rear Admiral David F. Sellers, U.S. Navy, Commander, Special Services Squadron at the time, should be made. ¶ 4. The Commanding General, Second Brigade, U. S. Marine Corps, was convinced that the apparent disagreement between Mr. John McKay, manager of the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company, and Major Utley and other Marine Corps officers could most quickly and efficiently be checked by transferring Major Utley and certain other officers to other duty and substituting for them officers with whom Mr. McKay had no acquaintance, and this action was accordingly taken in the interest of harmony at Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 5. The town of Puerto Cabezas is practically under the control of the Bragman’s Bluff Lumber Company and under these peculiar circumstances I do not consider it advisable to keep an officer continuously on duty as commanding offer there for a longer period that from six months to one year. At the time of the transfer of Major Utley from the Eastern Area to the Southern Area he had been continually on duty in the Eastern Area for fourteen months and was due for transfer for other duty regardless of the events narrated in the letter. ¶ 6. Subsequently a letter on the subject was received from H. A. Murphy (enclosed), which is self-explanatory. On 4 September, 1929, Major S. G. Moore, U.S. Army Reserve now on active duty in the Office of the Chief of Engineers, and who was employed an engineer in Northern Nicaragua during the period covered by the investigation by the Brigade Inspector, called and stated that the object of his visit was to endeavor to right a wrong done to Major Utley in relieving him of his command. He condemned Mr. McKay, the complainant, in strong terms stating that the charges were framed up, and stated that he was present on various occasions stated by Mr. McKay and that there was no disorder, drunkenness, or improper conduct. ¶ 7. It is requested that any further information on this matter at hand or obtainable be furnished this office, together with your comment, and recommendation as to further action in regard to the withdrawal of approval of recommendation for the award of the Navy Cross. Forward your reply through the Special Service Squadron Commander. ¶ W. C. NEVILLE."

23 October 1929.
Letter from A. E. Webster, Cape Gracias, to Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Dear Major:- ¶ I got up to Sang Sang 8 days after leaving Bragman Bluff, and a few days before I left up there to come down this trip, two of my men, ( Sambos ) came from Bocay, and I found out that what we heard of Pedrón being in Bocay were all l--es, in fact these men reports that he ( Pedrón ) seems to be dribbling away, and he only has a very few followers, and seems to be more in hiding than any thing else, that he had sent a few men out to the main river, to tell the natives to go ahead with their work (plantations ) that he did not expect to bother any more, certainly, this is hear-say from mosquito Indians. ¶ WIth best regards to Capt Shearer, Linscott, Lewts- Hall & Benson & Dr Baker ¶ Yours very truly [signed] A. E. Webster"

24 October 1929.
Memo from Area Intelligence Officer 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, to Brigade Intelligence Officer Capt. Reagan, Managua.   
"1. Special intelligence agents are being employed as set forth below: ¶ CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS: ¶ At Cape Gracias Mr. Albert Fagot, an American, is acting regularly as agent and making periodic reports regarding conditions on the Coco River. Mr. Fagot, with headquarters at Cape Gracias, owns property at WASPUC and maintains close business relations with many natives living and working along the river; through these people Mr. Fagot is able to render excelled reports regarding general conditions along the Coco River from CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS to BOCAY, both inclusive. ¶ THE PIS PIS AND CONCEPTION MINING AREAS: ¶ Lieutenant Benson, now in command of both marine outposts (one at LA LUZ, one at NEPTUNE (BONANZA)) has employed two native agents to make more or less regular trips to north, west and south to personally ascertain conditions and report them. The route of these agents regularly cover WASPUC, BOCAY, GARROBO, CASULI, and QUEPI and POTECA, GUIGUILI and TUMA are visited occasionally. One of these agents is a native traveling doctor, the other a native peddler and merchant trader. They were selected for their reliability, their friendship for the marine forces, their knowledge of the territory and because their normal occupations permit them to make extended tours without exciting suspicion. ¶ 2. It will be noted that the boundaries of each agent’s territory extend into the adjacent agent’s territory thereby enabling this office to compare one agent’s reports with at least one other report. ¶ 3. No special agents are maintained in the southern part of this area, as it is considered that Colonel Marston will cover that sector with Guardia agents; moreover, the southern half of the Eastern Area is in a more stable state than the northern and western parts. ¶ 4. All reports received will be incorporated in routine weekly reports and important matter promptly reported by radio. ¶ W. C. HALL, ¶ Area Intelligence Officer."

1.     25 October 1929.
Memo To All Employees, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   
"TO ALL EMPLOYEES: ¶ I have just seen a circular letter that is being distributed amongst employees of this company urging you to assist the Mosquito Indians who refused to load bananas Sunday, October 20th. ¶ I believe it to be my duty to you, as well as to the Company which I represent to urge that you consider the facts that I present to you before you allow yourselves to be influenced by such inflammatory appeals. ¶ 1. There has been no change made by the Company in the rates of pay or working conditions to justify any discontent amongst employees. ¶ 2. The Company has been for several years improving living conditions in its farms and each year is providing more and improved houses for employees. ¶ 3. You must realize that if the bananas are not loaded aboard the ships, that they will not be cut in the farms and that the farm laborers will suffer a loss as well as the Company. ¶ 4. You, as well as the Company, will suffer loss from any cessation of work, you perhaps to a greater extent than the Company, for what the Company may lose in one way, they will largely regain by saving the wages that would otherwise be paid to you. ¶ 5. This Company is paying as much and more for the same class and quantity of work as is paid by any other company in the Banana business in or out of Nicaragua. ¶ 6. No employee nor group of employees have ever presented to the Management of the Company any complaint that has not been promptly handled and when justified, promptly settled. ¶ 7. Ask those who urge you to quit work, who is going to furnish you employment and who is going to provide you with housing, food and clothing while you are out of work? ¶ 8. Ask those who urge you to quit work if they are employees of the Company and if they are not employees what right they have to ask you to quit your job? ¶ 9. The ones who are urging you to quit work are not employees. They have nothing to lose and perhaps they may gain a job. ¶ 10. If you do not want to work for the Company, you have a perfect right to quit. If you do quit, the Company has an equal right to employ another man for the job that you give up. ¶ 11. The Company is not advising you to quit your work or to move out of your house. Someone other than the Company is advising you to do those things. ¶ 12. The Company is advising you to remain in its employ and to continue to work and draw wages. ¶ Whose advice are you going to follow? ¶ BRAGMANS BLUFF LUMBER COMPANY . . . "

2.     25 October 1929.
Memo To All Employees, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   
[In English]    "TO NICARAGUANS ¶ The moment has arrived . . . ¶ The exploitation of labor has touched its limit . . . . ¶ Now is heard the clear trumpet announcing with lively enthusiasm the liberty of the laborers and the death of the tyrant who with the scepter of capital oppresses the Nicaraguans. ¶ Such are the words which at this very moment with resounding echo and all with one voice we Nicaraguans should sing as we hear the cry ¶ ‘War and the defense of our Rights’ ¶ flung to the skies Sunday last by the Mosquitoes who like the large nations declared a strike against the colossus who is taking advantage of our humility. ¶ To this hour we have done nothing to make the authorities complain, because the strike has been quiet and respectable but yes, we should throw a stigma on those who ignore the cry of their brothers and make of no effect the defense of their sacred rights. ¶ In the United States of North America, where George Washington like a real patriarch knew how to raise and keep in place the sacred flag of liberty and justice, the laboring classes, honest keepers of his doctrines, with gestures clear and worthy know how to defy the abuses of the large factories and companies, which are like the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company in Puerto Cabezas, and pretend that the operator, should earn his food with hard labor, wishing to deprive them of their pleasures to which all humans have a right, each one according to his condition (or means). ¶ Now that the destinies of our country are regulated by a humble but dignified son of the country, we think in good time he will appreciate the forces of our brothers, that only want to break the chains of slavery with which that company holds them, paying miserable salaries. ¶ NICARAGUANS: ¶ Let us confront with honor the necessities of the moment, let us dedicate ourselves to hunting and fishing, which nature provides in this place, will give us our daily subsistence which is all we gain from that company, in that way we will not permit ourselves to be exploited more. ¶ The Union makes the forces . . . . . ¶ Live Nicaragua . . . . . ¶ Live the President, General Moncada . . . "

3.     25 October 1929.
Memo To All Employees, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   
[En Español]

29 October 1929.
"Sandino Propaganda."  Report from Samuel J. Fletcher, American Consul, Bluefields, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 1.  
"SIR: ¶ I have the honor to refer to this consulate’s dispatch No. 109 of October 22, 1929, and to the Department’s telegraphic Instruction of October 23, 1929, with reference to the attempt of Augusto Cesar Sandino to circularize the east coast of Nicaragua with revolutionary propaganda. ¶ Two packages of the circulars dated Merida, Yucatan, United States of Mexico, September 6, 1929, and addressed to individuals in eastern Nicaragua have been delivered by the recipients to the Commanding Officer of the Guardia Nacional at Bluefields. One package was received by Dr. Onofre Sandoval, a prominent lawyer of this port, a former General in the Liberal Army, and at present a Senator in the National Congress for the Department of Bluefields. A second package was received by the Commandante de La Cruz, Rio Grande. Both packages bore Mexican Postage Stamps, canceled with a rubber stamp at Merida, date undecipherable. ¶ In a separate wrapping Dr. Onofre Sandoval received by mail via New Orleans a pamphlet entitled SANDINO ANTE EL COLOSO by Emigdio E. Marabots, Veracruz, Mexico, and published by L. & M., S. en C. – Veracruz. This pamphlet of thirty-six . . . "

29 October 1929.
"Sandino Propaganda."  Report from Samuel J. Fletcher, American Consul, Bluefields, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
" . . . pages, according to the author, was prepared after a number of interviews with Augusto Cesar Sandino during the latter’s visit to Veracruz. The author presents Sandino’s views on the Byran-Chamorro Treaty, reports Sandino’s version of his activities in Nicaragua during 1926, 1927, 1928, and early part of 1929, quotes from Sandino’s correspondence with Nicaraguan and American officials, and inserts copies of his letters to the Anti-imperialistic Congress held at Frankfort, to the President of Argentina and others. Posted to page 1 is a typewritten sheet of corrections. This sheet bears the written signature of ‘A. C. Sandino’ and his usual rubber stamp seal (a bandit, with sword in air, preparing to decapitate a prostrate American marine, and the caption ‘Patria Y Libertad’). Upon receipt of the pamphlet Dr. Sandoval delivered it to the Commanding Officer of the Guardia Nacional, and that official has forwarded it to the Jefe Director of Guardia Nacional at Managua. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ Samuel J. Fletcher, ¶ American Consul."

4 November 1929.
Mosquito Crisis, report of.  From F. G. Patchen, by direction from Jefe Director GN, to Major C. H. Metcalf, Bluefields.  
"1. The following communication from the Private Secretary of the President, is quoted in translation, for your information and appropriate action: ¶ ‘Managua, October 16, 1929. – To the General D. C. McDougal, Jefe Director, G. N. – Campo de Marte, Managua. – Dear General: - I have the honor to quote you the copy of what the Jefe Politico of Bluefields says regarding the crisis through which the Mosquitos of the region of Monta, are going, in order you will order what it is convenient: - ‘Obeying your order expressed in letter of 4th September last, I am directing the Police Agent of Monta, asking his information regarding the crisis through which the Indians complain to be going, and this functionary answers the office which I am quoting: -- ‘Manta, October, 1, 1929. – Sr. Jefe Politico and Commandant of Arms, Bluefields. – In reply to your note of the 23 September last, I have a critical condition due to the lack of work and to the bad harvest of their plantations this year reason why they are suffering hungry. To my judgment what is making this people suffer more is the lack of powder and ammunitions and lead which due to the regulations on same cannot be obtained here. The Indians live most of the hunting. It is truly that we are suffering hungry in this city even the employees of the Government for we are in October and we have not yet received any salary, and as we have to attend our obligations there it is not time to attend fishing or to dedicate ourselves to plantations. – Respectfully, - Eugenio Rose, Police Agent.’ – Respectfully, (s) Carlos A. Bravo, Private Secretary.’ ¶ F. G. PATCHEN, ¶ By Direction."

7 November 1929.
"The Defeat of General Duarte," La Información, Bluefields (translation).  
"On Sunday, 3rd of November, the election for local authorities occurred in this city for the term 1930-1931. This is the first time, we can say, that Local Elections in Bluefields have been carried through with all cleanliness and with the strictest liberty. ¶ The Guardia Nacional complied with their duty. They were neutral and impartial. All the voters had complete liberty and guarantee to vote in favor of the candidate he sympathized with. The Guardia Nacional of this city have gained the applause of the people of Bluefields. We make known this detail with the greatest satisfaction, while we tribute our homage of admiration to Colonel John Marston, to Captain Chester A. Davis and the other officers of the Guardia Nacional. ¶ The Electoral Directors also conducted themselves correctly during the civic contest. Both the favorers of Duarte as those of Connor could deposit their votes without any impediment. We give our applause to the Directors and especially to the Presidents, Dr. Plutarco Rostran and Mr. Leonidas Mayorga. There were 419 citizens at the electoral boxes. 237 voted at the North Canton and 192 voted at the South Canton. ¶ The Candidacy of General Eliseo Duarte triumphed with a total of 289. 130 citizens voted for General Nasman Connor, giving Duarte a majority of 159 votes over Connor. ¶ General Duarte strenuously celebrated his triumph on Sunday with bombs, rockets, yells, music, and liquor. But in our conception what Gen. Duarte celebrated was his political funeral, if you will permit us the phrase. ¶ General Duarte will be Major of Bluefields by the goodwill of TWO HUNDRED AND EIGHTY NINE CITIZENS. And this, is clearly seen, cannot be called the legitimate and genuine expression or goodwill of the city of Bluefields. ¶ During the Presidential elections last year, Bluefields deposited 1438 liberal votes in the ballot boxes. North Canton 739, South Canton 699. In local elections of preceding years up to 1927 votes were cast. The votes have never been lower than 800."

1.     9 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1. 
"Hecho escandaloso cometido por dos Guardias. ¶ El Miércoles 6 de los Corrientes, a las diez de la noche, los individuos José Abraham León y Manuel Zelaya, Guardias Nacionales ambos, obligaron a los chinos de la casa de comercio “Law Pan” situada en la esquina de las calles Hodgson y Las Casas, frente al Colegio de La Divina Pastora, a que les abrieran las puertas del establecimiento, donde se introdujeron, tomaron licor, poterías y otros artículos de la tienda. ¶ Cuando el dueño del establecimiento vió que su casa estaba siendo saqueada por los guardias del orden, corrió a dar parte de lo ocurrido a casa del Señor Juez de Policía don Baltazar Gómez, que dista como cincuenta metros de la casa saqueada y quien inmediatamente se puso en marcha, habiendo encontrado en el corredor de la casa cuyas puertas tenían abiertas, a los dos Guardias Nacionales, quienes muy frescamente cenaban con los productos de lo que acababan de robar. ¶ En presencia de lo ocurrido, el señor Juez Gómez se dirigió en busca de los jefes de la Guardia, encontrándose con el Capitán Amor Sims, al que puso en autos de lo que sucedía, y quien, incontinenti, se puso en marcha, en busca de los delincuentes, habiéndolos capturado momentos después. ¶ Al día siguiente por la mañana, el señor Juez de Policía informó al Jefe de la Guardia Coronel Marston, de todo lo ocurrido, dando cuenta al señor Juez de lo Criminal del Distrito, para el debido enjuiciamiento de los delincuentes. ¶ El Coronel Marston mandó despojar inmediatamente a los guardias delicuentes, imponiéndoles severos castigos disciplinarios para ejemplo de sus compañeros, poniéndoles a continuación, a la orden del Juez de lo Criminal del Distrito. ¶ Es de aplaudir la actitud del señor Juez de Policía don Baltazar Gómez, así como la de los Jefes de la Guardia y especialmente la del Coronel Marston, quienes proceden con verdadero celo y actividad al castigo de los delincuentes, siendo más severos con los miembros del cuerpo a ellos encomendados para garantía de la sociedad. ¶ Encarecemos muy especialmente al activo Capitán Davis, la vigilancia de la ciudad después de las diez de la noche, especialmente en la parte menos central , que está más expuesta a los malhechores."

2.     9 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2. 
"Court Martial of Captain R. D. Leach. . . (continued) . . . ¶ . . . with reference to the question of instructions from Col. Marston on the making of raids, clearing (sic) up vagrants, etc., I can certify that in my position as police Judge I gave Capt. Leach instructions to the streets cleared of loafers according to law. If these orders are according to law, I believe Col. Marston knows of them. In answer to the question if Col. Marston did to my knowledge and in my presence complain of these instructions, I do not know if he was present, but he was in agreement with the arrest of loafers. In his capacity as Chief of Police Capt. Leach did have authority to arrest loafers. In answer to the question if head authority to arrest in his capacity as Departmental Commander of Southern Bluefields (reply to question was not heard). ¶ The law regarding persons being out on the streets is that in time of martial law no one may walk the streets after hours. In time of peace all persons may walk in the streets all night, except suspicious persons. In conformity with the law all dances in public and private houses may go on until 10 p.m. After that they have to pay a tax to the Municipality and the Board of Charity. This does not apply to clubs. There they may dance till 12 p.m. On the morning of the 31st of August this year Carlos Morales, Francisco Cabrera and Hernan Cortez were not brought to me. ¶ CROSS EXAMINED BY THE PROSECUTION. ¶ On or about the 31st of August the city of Bluefields was not under Martial Law. ¶ The witness received the usual caution not to discuss the evidence. ¶ CHESTER ARTHUR DAVIS. ¶ Chief of Police of Bluefields, testified as follows:- I recognize the accused as Capt. R. D. Leach. I have been in Bluefields since the 3rd of August. I perform the duties of Chief of Police and Prison Officer, chiefly under the supervision of Capt. Leach. I am in charge of the Police Guard on the Streets. The Police are armed with 38 caliber pistols. Ammunition is issued when they are going on duty. Young Springer’s reputation is not good. His name is Franklin, Capt. Leach did prefer charges against Springer, Cortez, Sierra and Cabrera on the morning of the 31stt of August, 1929. They were not taken before the Police Judge. They were released by the orders of the Area Commander, before a thorough investigation was held. ¶ The witness received the usual caution. ¶ MR. J. M. O’BRIEN (JR), sworn, testified as follows: I am resident in Bluefields and am Cashier for the United Fruit Company. I recognize the accused as Capt. Leach. I saw him on the night of the 30th August at the Atlantic Hotel. He was perfectly sober. I have known him for about 6 months. I have known him as possessed of a reputation for sobriety and peacefulness and coolness. ¶ BY THE COURT. I do not know what he was doing between the hours of 12 and 2 on the night of August 30th. ¶ The witness received the usual caution. ¶ CAPT. A. LE R. SIMS of the National Guard was taken as a witness in order to produce G.O. No. 41 of the national Guard, dated Sept. 1927; also No. 22 dated 1st August 1927. ¶ LIEUT BOLES of the National Guard was then called to state his knowledge of certain facts in connection with a charge brought some time ago against a member of the National Guard for unjustly shooting and killing a prisoner whom he was sent to apprehend at Rio Grande Bar. He stated that on the Guardsman being tried he was acquitted and that the finding of the Court was approved by the Area Commander. ¶ This closed the case for defence. ¶ The accused then read his statement which follows here: ¶ WRITTEN STATEMENT READ BY THE ACCUSED ¶ In submitting my case I am willing to accept the decision of the court on the evidence adduced. On the night of August 30 and 31, 1929, I felt that my official capacity of Department Commander required certain action on my part. After having been involved in a small brawl which was forced upon me against my will, I confined some of the persons involved and took official action towards apprehending others. This lead to the arrest of Sierra and his escape. ¶ After calling upon him to halt, and there being no other means to prevent his escape, I fired my pistol in an attempt to cause him to stop. At this time no other method appeared to offer any likelihood of success, and in my position as an officer of the marine Corps and of the Guardia Nacional I felt called upon to take extreme measures in the maintenance of law and order by attempting to prevent the escape of my prisoner. While the remaining prisoners were being confined one H.F. Springer, junior, became abusive and caught hold of me, forcing me to use force before he allowed himself to be properly confined. ¶ With regard as to whether or not I was justified in making these arrests, I believe it is common knowledge that any Guardia Officer is justified in making an emergency arrest anywhere in Nicaragua. The court’s attention is respectfully invited to my military history which is in evidence before this court. RALPH D. LEACH, First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. ¶ WRITTEN OPENING ARGUMENT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE ¶ The court has been furnished with a complete transcript of the testimony given before it with the exception of that of the witnesses who have appeared this morning. That (?) I am sure fresh in the memory of the members. All members have had ample opportunity to read the report carefully. It is therefore unnecessary for the judge advocate to make a detailed summary of the evidence. The judge advocate considers that it would be presumptuous to him to attempt to influence of him to advise the court on the exercise of that function, which belongs to the court alone; the weighing and evaluating of evidence. He will therefore continue his remarks to a consideration of the legal aspect of this case. ¶ In respect to the first charge and the specification there under little need be said regarding the law. No accurate yardstick has yet been devised to determine what degree of intoxication will constitute drunkenness within the meaning of Naval Law. The decision depends upon the circumstances, the individual, the (?) Members of the Naval Service can have no respect for legal quibbling over technicalities. Every member knows what is expected of an officer of the service at any time. The question for the court is merely, did the accused act as an officer should act, and if he did not, was such failure the result of indulgence in intoxicants. In arriving at this conclusion the court may properly consider the opinions of observers, the actions of the accused, and their own justifiable inferences. ¶ A decision in the second charge and the specifications thereunder turns on the phrase “without justifiable cause.” The word willfully means at law nothing more than that the act was committed by an individual who knew what he was doing and was a free agent. See naval Digest of 1916, page 646. The word “maliciously” is not used in its strict dictionary meaning. At law it is presumed that an act is malicious when that act is wrongful and is done intentionally. Se Naval Digest of 1916, page 347, Section 276 of the Penal Code of the United States prohibits an individual from striking, beating, or assaulting another. There are of course situations where individuals have been held justified in using force to the injury of the right of freedom in person, property, and the pursuit of happiness which is the basis of all law. Such justification falls in two (continued on page 5) . . . "

3.     9 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 3. 
"Court Martial of . . . . (continued from first page) ¶ classes. The first is self defense and the second the right of a police official to apprehend offenders. Both of the justifications are hedged about by legal provisions. As a general rule the individual may never take the law into his own hands. He may, however, if imperiled, meet force with force, but then only in an extremity when no other recourse is available, and then only to the extent necessary to secure his own person or property. For a discussion of this point see naval Digest of 1916 under the heading of Manslaughter and under Justifiable Cause. Incidentally, it is noted that mere words never justify an assault. A police official is also compelled by law to exercise reasonable restraint in effecting arrests. As a general proposition he may use only such force as is actually necessary. At common law a police official can endanger life only when an offender is apprehended in the actual commission of a felony, a felony being defined as one of the serious offenses punishable by forfeiture of life or property, and later as one punishable by imprisonment in a penitentiary with the corresponding loss civil rights. ¶ Is a Marine Officer a police official within the meaning of the law? As far as the performance of his duties within the limits of the United States is concerned the answer is definitely no. Not only has the constitution authorized the organization of an army and a navy in distinct paragraphs from those delegating police powers, but the legislatures have shown themselves so jealous of the assumption of police power by the armed forces of the country that in no case may federal forces be ordered into a state for the protection of life and property be exclusively federal, without the express invitation of the Governor of the State. The cases arising out of the Pullman strikes and riots in Chicago are in point in this question. ¶ It is conceded that a member of the military forces of the United States may absorb certain police functions when operating outside the limits of the United States. But he may do so only when there is an absolute necessity, and such necessity is invariably made the basis for the declaration of military control. In the Eastern Area of Nicaragua at time of the commission of the acts now under consideration by this court the normal civil authorities were in the full exercise of their functions. No state of war existed between the United States and any other power. Martial law had not been declared either by the United States (scarcely a possibility considering the definition of Martial Law) nor was a military government in existence. Under such circumstances how can a member of a branch of the military force of the United State justify the apprehending of a civilian, no matter with what limited exercise of force, let alone the use of a firearm in the prevention of the escape of such a prisoner? But let us assume that military necessity justified the arrest, in the extent that it justified a military official in assuming the functions of a civil official. Is not such official, when performing a civil act, compelled to observe the law governing the conduct of civil officials? ¶ In this particular case however the accused was a member of the Guardia Nacional of Nicaragua performing duties in accordance with an agreement between the United States and Nicaragua. Any officer of the National Guard of Nicaragua is both a military and a police official, the first when military necessity such as the presence of armed bandit bands of other groups hostile to the government demands, the second exclusively when there is no such necessity. In Bluefields on or about August 31, 1929, the Guardia Nacional was performing police duty exclusively. It is conceded that the accused in his capacity as a police official had a right to make arrests. ¶ However, if he relies on his duty as a police official to justify his interference with the freedom of civilians he must be held responsible for the observance of the regulations made by proper authority for the guidance of police officials of Nicaragua and such regulations specifically forbid the use of firearms in the making of arrest of civil offenders unless such offenders be armed and the life of the officer is in danger. ¶ The accused is being tried under the laws of the United States it is true, and in the last charge specifically under the twenty second article for the government of the Navy. Nevertheless since that article includes offenses not specifically mentioned elsewhere and covers the violation of state, federal, and municipal law, it is contended that evidence that the accused violated Nicaraguan law in his conduct as a police official is sufficient to establish the charge. ¶ HARVEY B. ALBAN. First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Judge Advocate. (To be concluded next week)."

11 November 1929.
Sandino Situation, Handbills by Sandino in Bluefields & Puerto Cabezas, Major Fred T. Cruse, San José.  
"The enclosed handbills by Sandino appeared at Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas about October 21st. As Sandino was admitted into Mexico upon his agreement not to indulge in political activities, this is a clear violation of that agreement. ¶ In these circulars he again attacks Adolfo Diaz, Emiliano Chamorro and Jose Maria Moncada. ¶ Toward the end of October these circulars also appeared in Corinto and Leon. ¶ Report No. 559 ¶ . . . Source - Native Intelligence. . . . [handwritten note at bottom:] Copy of hand bill on MC Digest - 30 20"

14 November 1929.
Party Affiliations of Guardia.  Memo from Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Major C. H. Metcalf, Bluefields.  
"1. Ascertain without delay the political affiliation of every Guardia in your Area prior to enlistment and submit a report thereof to this office. This information should be obtained secretly and without arousing curiosity or suspicion or causing uneasiness. In cases of doubt, give names of men to these Headquarters (in the event they enlisted in Western Nicaragua) for inquiry at man's home town. It is suspected that Civilian political agitators have attempted to corrupt Conservatives and Chamorristas in the Guardia. Men of these affiliations should be watched.  ¶  2. All information relative hereto will be considered SECRET."   [NOTE: The order to destroy the "Secret Files" in late 1932, just before the Marine Corps withdrawal, suggests that these "secret party affiliation of the Guardia" files were destroyed.]

1.     16 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1. 
"Nationalization of the Railroad ... "Moravian School Notes ... The Harvest Festival of the Moravian Church"

2.     16 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2. 
"Court Martial of Captain R. D. Leach - Verdict Complete Acquittal on All Charges . . . ". . . Mention has been made of “res gestae”. I submit that the remarks made to Mr. Kirkwood to the effect that he, Lieutenant Leach, had been set upon by ruffians is competent evidence to show the character of the incident referred to, and as such cannot be lightly disregarded. ¶ Please note the personal appearance of the various witnesses for the prosecution as compared with the appearance f the witnesses for the defense. The witnesses for the defence include the most reliable citizens of Bluefields, both American and Nicaraguan, as well as persons from other classes of life. ¶ With regard to the wounding of Sierra I refer the court to his own testimony. He admits that he was in the act of violating the laws of the city, when apprehended. He admits that he attempted to escape. ¶ Place yourselves in the position of Lieutenant Leach that night. You are Department Commander and among other things are responsible for the preservation of good order in this city. On your way home from a dance you are set upon by thugs. In your official capacity you proceed to round up all suspicious characters on the streets. You discover a group lurking on the streets at an early hour of the morning in violation of well known regulations for the conduct of inhabitants. You do not know who they are. They may be bandit agents, they may be escaped convicts; true, they may be peaceful citizens but in any case they have no right to be lurking in dark corners at that hour. Of course it later developed that they were not bandits but that fact was not known at the time. However one of this group has been shown to be a habitual thief, who by his own confession was on the streets at that hour “searching for food”. In conformance with the spirit of the major mission of the Guardia Nacional, namely the maintenance of law and order throughout the length and breadth of Nicaragua, you arrest them all and one attempts to escape. Immediately your worst suspicions are justified. You call upon him to halt; he does not stop. I claim that any marine officer with any pride in his profession would at this point exert every means in his power to stop this escaping criminal: I say criminal for escaping from arrest is not a mere misdemeanor but is in itself a felony. Would any o f the officers of this court have permitted him to escape unmolested? The regulations of our service provide for just such occurrences: the regulations require that the escaping prisoner be fired upon. The orders are: “If a prisoner attempts to escape the sentinel will call HALT. If he fails t halt when the sentinel has once repeated the call, and if there is no other possible means of preventing his escape, the sentinel will fire upon him.” Also: “Every man of the guard should do his part in detaining a prisoner who attempts to escape”. ¶ These orders for sentinels certainly apply with full force and effect to officers in the performance of their duty. ¶ How long would the dignity and honor of the marine Corps be upheld if these particular orders were relaxed? In cases such as the one now in issue it has been held that the firing is done under the performance of an obligation to prevent the escape y any means, and that the shooting in such a case constitutes no offense for it is a lawful act. ¶ If the escaping prisoner in this case had been a well known bandit chief Lieutenant Leach would have been decorated for his actions. Just because this man happened to be a mere thief, does the same act resolve itself into a crime? ¶ From an impartial study of the record of proceedings I find that certain facts have been established. It will be noted that this very brief summary includes the entire prosecution as well as the defense. ¶ Colonel Marston stated that conditions were quiet in this vicinity and the primary function required from the Guardia here was merely that of civil police. No matter what local conditions seem to indicate the primary mission of the Guardia Nacional is the suppression of banditry and the maintenance of law and order: the methods used are as varied as the immediate circumstance of each incident require. You cannot arbitrarily state this or that—each case must be handled as the judgment of the persons on the scene indicate. ¶ I will not impose on the time of the court by discussing the charge of drunkenness. That has been fully covered by testimony, most of which has been emphatically to the effect that Lieutenant Leach was not intoxicated. The testimony of Policarpo Mercado only brought out the fact that there was some trouble between one Cortes, one Springer, and Lieutenant Leach. This incident is better described by Jose Antonio Andeo who clarifies the situation by showing that Springer was the aggressor –not Lieutenant Leach. Next we reach the testimony of Francisco Cabrera . He testified to Sierra’s arrest and to incidents at the jail. It will be noted that the material averments of the second specification of the second charge are not mentioned. The arrest “of this witness” testimony will be considered in connection with that of other witnesses. Doctor Belding testified as an expert. The substance of his testimony was to the effect that he examined one Daniel Sierra the latter part of August and that Sierra had a bullet wound cause by a hardened or jacketed bullet of about 38 calibre. It is noted that this wound scar is not shown to have any direct bearing on this case except by implication. ¶ Before discussing the testimony of Sierra I wish t invite the court’s attention to certain facts; at the time of his arrest “Sierra was drunk, very drunk.” I cannot reconcile this fact with his apparent ability to remember everything that happened on the night in question. Also Sierra has a bad character and reputation, the local judge here knew him and has testified “that the truth is not in him”. ¶ Sierra admits his offenses and his escape and appears to believe that he should have been allowed to escape unmolested. Please notice that both Sierra and Cabrera testified very positively and in detail as to certain incidents but their stories do not agree in many particulars. Both apparently hold a grudge against Lieutenant Leach which is apparent by their manner of testifying and have also lessened the weight of their testimony by failing to confirm each other’s story. The story told by Sierra is most improbable which can easily be explained by his unfamiliarity with the truth in addition to his drunken condition. Sierra made much of a wound upon his head which has been described by the hospital corpsman who treated it as a “scratch”. ¶ I have already touched upon the testimony of Mr. Kirkwood with regards to the affray in front of the Cuyamel office. (Continued on page 6)."

3.     16 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 3. 
"Court Martial of Captain R. D. Leach - Verdict Complete Acquittal (cont.) . . . (Continued from page 3) Colonel Marston, as a witness for the defense, (on page 32 in answer to question 13) set forth a history of the duties performed by Lieutenant Leach in Bluefields. After having been Chief of Police of this city for some months it is obviously needless for the Department Commander to relinquish all control when that duty was assigned to a junior officer. In the eyes of the people Lieutenant Leach was still Chief of Police and as Department Commander he certainly had certain rights and responsibility in connection with the police of the city. ¶ The testimony of today’s witnesses is still very fresh in our minds and it is unnecessary to review it. I ask for a full and honorable acquittal for charge one. I ask for a full and honorable acquittal for charge two on the grounds that no evidence tending to reflect adversely on Lieutenant Leach has been submitted. In fact the testimony shows that here was an energetic officer engaged in the duties of his office in a very able manner. ¶ I ask for a full and honorable acquittal of charge three for the reason stated above and also on account of the fact that specification two of this charge appears to be an unwarranted duplication of charges as well as not being proved at all. ¶ William C. Hall First Lieutenant , U.S. Marine Corps, Counsel for the accused ¶ WRITTEN CLOSING ARGUMENT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE ¶ The judge advocate merely repeats that if the accused was acting as a marine officer under the conditions existing in Nicaragua at that time, he had no legal right to make an arrest of any civilian, let alone to use the intimated force relying on the usual orders for sentries over prisoners as his defense. If the original arrest as a marine officer were justified then probably the usual orders for sentries might apply but where the original method is unlawful, subsequent adherence to the form of orders received is not defense. For a discussion of this subject see Court Martial Order number 4, Series of 1929. If on the other hand the accused made his arrest purely as a local official he is then bound to use normal and everyday judgment in the use of force necessary to effect arrest. Bound by the common law of the United States not to arrest civil offenders he cannot justify one half of his act by reference to another law and then rely on a provision of the first law to justify a violation of the second on which he has already relied. ¶ Harvey B. Alban First Lieutenant, U.s. Marine Corps, Judge Advocate ¶ VERDICT OF ACQUITTAL ¶ Capt. Leach has been acquitted on all the charges."

1.     22 November 1929.
Cover letter of "An Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua To Determine Most Suitable Disposition of Marines Therein Under Conditions Existing November 20th, 1929."  Report of Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Enclosures: (2) ¶ 1. There is transmitted herewith an estimate of the situation in the Easter Area as of November 20th, 1929, to determine the most suitable disposition of Marines therein to accomplish the mission of Marines in Nicaragua. ¶ 2. Marine outposts on the Coco River were evacuated in May of this year by order of the Commanding General. ¶ 3. The enclosed estimate of the situation is submitted for your consideration. If the Marines are to remain in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua for some time to come, it is believed that our mission can be accomplished better by changing our disposition in accordance with the recommendation made in the decision of the enclosed estimate of the situation. ¶ 4. In connection with the distribution of Guardia in the Eastern Area, it will be noted that there is a large number of officers and men disposed at Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas. This disposition is not believed to be necessary for the safety of these two points. The expansion of the Guardia in this area seems to have been definitely halted by the fact that men cannot be rationed on the Guardia ration allowance in certain parts of the Eastern Area. Due to this fact certain posts have been withdrawn and plans have been abandoned to occupy other posts such as Cape Gracias where the Guardia are really needed. . . . "

2.     22 November 1929.
An Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua,  Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
". . . ¶ 1. MISSION. As deduced from various instructions and inferred from situation. ¶ a. To assist the regular and acknowledged government of Nicaragua to maintain law and order and prevent organized resistance thereto. (includes supporting the Guardia). ¶ b. To protect lives and property of Americans and other foreign citizens. ¶ c. To take appropriate caution against organized banditry in any phase encountered. ¶ d. To collect military information throughout the Eastern part of Nicaragua. ¶ 2. OPPOSING FORCES. ¶ a. Own forces. ¶ 1. The Eastern Area is occupied by about 100 Marines organized as the 20th Company, 5th Regiment, with Headquarters at Puerto Cabezas, and are disposed as follows: ¶ Puerto Cabezas: 7 Officers - 64 Enlisted Marines, ¶ La Luz: 1 Officer - 17 Enlisted Marines, ¶ Neptune: - 11 Enlisted Marines, ¶ Prinzapolka: - 2 Enlisted Marines. ¶ Radio stations are in operation at each of the above places. ¶ 2. The Guardia Nacional of the Eastern Area of Nicaragua with Headquarters at Bluefields, have garrisons in this area as follows: ¶ Puerto Cabezas: 5 Officers - 51 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Wawa Central: - 7 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Bluefields: 9 Officers - 72 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Punta Gorda: - 5 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Rama: 1 Officer - 15 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Guadalupe: - 4 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ La Cruz: 1 Officer - 19 Enlisted Guardia, ¶ Tumarin: - 4 Enlisted Guardia, . . . "

3.     22 November 1929.
An Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua,  Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
". . . Rio Grande Bar: - 8 Enlisted Guardia. ¶ Total: 16 Officers - 185 Enlisted Guardia. ¶ 3. Duly elected or appointed Nicaraguan officials are functioning more or less efficiently throughout the Area. In the La Luz - Neptune Mining Area the performance of duty of the local Commandantes and other civil officials is supervised when necessary by the Commander of the Marine outposts in that vicinity. In the remainder of the Area where there are no established Marine or Guardia posts, there is no satisfactory supervision and in most cases these officials function very unsatisfactorily. ¶ b. Enemy forces. The forces which tend to operate against the accomplishment of the several missions set forth above are as follows: ¶ 1. Sandino with his staff according to reports has, as recently as October 14th, been in Merida, Yucatan, with the intention of returning to Nicaragua the first opportunity to fight against the established government. ¶ 2. Outlaws and bandit groups now in Nicaragua are located principally in the north-central part of the country. ¶ 3. Possible racial trouble. This danger is especially important in the vicinity of Puerto Cabezas and other points in the Eastern Area where large foreign developments have taken place. The companies concerned have imported a large number of West Indian and other foreign labor, which is very much hated by the native inhabitants. ¶ 3. SITUATION TO BE CONTENDED WITH. ¶ a. Critical points in the Area. ¶ 1. Puerto Cabezas and railway extension to the northwest. Probably most valuable single foreign investment in Nicaragua. Supports population of 10,000 - with present dispositions, protection in every way assured. ¶ 2. Foreign developments in the vicinity of Bluefields. Two large American Fruit Companies and numerous smaller companies. Important Custom House and Bank. With present large Guardia post thereat, protection seems well provided. ¶ 3. La Luz Mining Area. What was previously a valuable American investment was practically destroyed by Sandino. Only remaining property of value is about four (4) miles of pipe line, a few tools, and a few buildings of small value; and surface deposits of gold scattered over a number of square miles. Native population in vicinity about seventy five - no Americans. . . . "

4.     22 November 1929.
An Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua,  Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.  
". . . 1. Present disposition which is well known. ¶ 2. Same as present disposition with reduction of strength at La Luz, and establishment of additional post at Cape Gracias. ¶ 3. Same disposition as at present with additional post established at Cape Gracias, taking necessary men therefore from Puerto Cabezas. ¶ b. Analyses of plans open to us. The present plan appears to provide more protection than is warranted at the La Luz Mine. As will be noted in paragraph 3 (under sub-paragraph a. 3) above, the American owned property in that vicinity is of little value. The pipe line in question which is the only single item of any considerable value could be destroyed only be an enormous amount of labor or by the use of an enormous amount of explosives. The proposition of protecting private property against individual placer mining and trespassers does not appear to be a proper mission for Marines in this country. It is believed that the parties concerned -- the Fletcher interests, a former President of Nicaragua, and other individuals -- should be expected to provide their own protection in this connection. As noted above the population in this vicinity is very small and would probably be still smaller if the Marines were removed therefrom. As long as a post of the present size is maintained at La Luz a long and expensive line of communications must be maintained from Puerto Cabezas via Prinzapolka and the Prinzapolka River. It is the opinion of the Commander, Eastern Area that this post could be entirely eliminated without seriously affecting the carrying out of the mission of the Marines in Eastern Nicaragua. ¶ Plan 2. By occupying Cape Gracias an outpost would be established which would deny that place to Sandino and other disaffected individuals who would attempt to use it as a place of entry into Nicaragua. It would furnish a convenient base from which a Marine patrol could board one of the several available power boats and proceed up the river to the limit of power boat navigation. There appears to be at present little expectation of the Guardia occupying this region. With Marines at Cape Gracias the present menace of Sandino’s return to Nicaragua would, it is believed, be considerable reduced. Sandino is known to have attempted to use Cape Gracias as a base for distributing his propaganda up the Coco River. Certain intercepted radios in the past few weeks have indicated that other hostile individuals contemplate the use of Cape Gracias as a point of return to Nicaragua. ¶ A marine outpost at Cape Gracias with occasional patrols up the Coco River could give considerable supervision to local civil officials which events in the recent past have indicated would be necessary. As a means of assisting to maintain law and order it is believed that this outpost could accomplish more than is being accomplished by the Marine outpost at La Luz. . . . "

5.     22 November 1929.
An Estimate of the Situation in the Eastern Area of Nicaragua,  Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.  
". . . By using all or part of the strength of La Luz for the establishment of this outpost the present reserve strength at Puerto Cabezas could be maintained where living conditions and conditions for training men are far more satisfactory than in any outpost position. ¶ Plan 3. Establishment of additional outpost with men taken from Puerto Cabezas. This plan would not, it is believed, be satisfactory for the reason that the available reserve at Puerto Cabezas would be reduced below a satisfactory strength. Training of men, which has been carried on during the past few months would be less satisfactory. ¶ In connection with any of the above plans to occupy Cape Gracias with a small Marine post, the problem of communication thereto would be comparatively simply. There is normally at least one schooner sailing from Puerto Cabezas to Cape Gracias each week. There is a commercial radio station at Cape Gracias. The expense of maintaining this line of communication would be considerable less than the line of communication now maintained to La Luz. ¶ DECISION. To recommend to the Commanding General that the garrison at La Luz be either eliminated or reduced to half its present strength, and that an outpost of approximately ten (10) men be established at Cape Gracias."

23 November 1929.
GN-2 Memorandum from Monthly Record of Events of Eastern Area for Oct. 1929, Major F. G. Patchen for Major W. G. Sheard, Managua.   
"Sandino circulars and one copy of Sandino pamphlet received from Mexico via United States Mail by certain individuals in Area and turned in to this Headquarters. Both highly incendiary. Special report made and copies forwarded to Jefe Director."

23 November 1929.
GN-2 Intelligence Memorandum, Dept. of Bluefields, Major F. G. Patchen, Managua.  
"1. The following is an extract from the monthly Record of Events of the Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, for the month of October: ¶ 2. Intelligence. ¶ (a) department territory Quiet. A theft of 400 lbs. of blasting powder from the magazine of the Bragmanns Bluff Lumber Company was reported. Investigation shows that the account was probably considerably less. This powder has been ground into shot gun powder. The samples have been secured from Indians who had purchased it from a man who came to the farms during the month. The name is unknown as yet but all evidence points to an inside job, and, certainly there is nothing to indicate that the theft is other than ordinary thieving. ¶ (b) Military – none. ¶ (c) Economic conditions. ¶ The strikes took place among the dock employees of the Bragmanns Bluff Lumber Company during the period. The first caused a slight tie up in the loading of vessels and some small fights among the crowds in town. The additional patrols were closed in town and there were no further disorders. The following Sunday a general strike was called by means of a proclamation a copy of which is attached. There was no disturbance, however, and with the exception of a few extra men in town there was no appreciable effect from the publication of the proclamation. Investigation has revealed that at no time has there been any material complaint on the part of the laborers. Three men who are not employed by the Company in any capacity organized the first strike and if they did not write the proclamation calling for the second at least were instrumental in posting and distributing copies. It is believed that the strikes are not evidence of unrest but were organized with the hope of some slight concession from the company and thereby gaining political prestige particularly among the Indians. ¶ (d) Friction between Guardia and civil population. None. ¶ Civil attitude toward Guardia excellent. ¶ Press attitude – No local press. ¶ (e) Considerable local interest in forthcoming local elections as this will be the first time local officials have been elected here. Little interest in National politics. ¶ F. G. PATCHEN ¶ Major, G.N., ¶ For GN-2"

27 November 1929.
Invitation to Track Meet from Major C. H. Metcalf, Puerto Cabezas, to Mr. Luis Castro, Secretary, Social Club of Puerto Cabezas.

30 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 1. 
 "Epidemic of Smallpox Has Broken Out In Rama - Doctors from Sanitary Deparatment and National Guard Off To the Scene —¶ Shortly before going to press we received news that an epidemic of small pox has broken out in Rama. On Friday Dr. Alvarez of the Sanitary Department and Mr. Moises Cole of the same institution left for the locality. Today Dr. Belding of the National guard left for Rama to assist in coping with the situation. We trust that with the prompt action which the authorities have taken the epidemic will be confined to that one area, and that it will be soon overcome. . . . ¶ The American Legion. ¶  On Thursday afternoon, the Bluefields Post No. 2 of the American legion held its first meeting in the salon of the Tropical club.: the following gentlemen were present.—Col. John Marston, Major H. D. Linscott, Chief of Police C. A. Davis, Mr. W. Kirwkod, Mr. Moises Cole, Mr. ---Coe, Mr. Hector Lopez, Mr. Bowker, and Capt. A. LeR Sims. ¶ The meeting was introduced by Mr. Wm. Kirkwood. The preamble of the organization was read and adopted. The motion that the post be named the Bluefields Post No. 2was unanimously carried. It was moved by Mr. Coe, seconded by Major Linscott and carried, that in Article 2 it be inscribed that one of the objects of the local organization was to promote peace and goodwill between the United states and Nicaragua. After the reading of the constitution it was moved by Col. Marston, seconded by Capt. Sims and carried, that the constitution be adopted as read. The following officers were elected in the usual constitutional manner: Commander—Chief of Police Chester A. Davis.—Vice-commander—Major Linscott; Post-Adjutant Mr. Bowker; Executive committee—Col. John Marston. Capt. A. Sims and Mr. E.S. King. It was also decided that the presence of seven members would be necessary to form a quorum. The meeting then adjourned. . . . ¶  HELD BY BANDITS FOR RANSOM ¶  Mrs. Oscar Allestadt, an American Missionary who was kidnapped by bandits ner the Honan Hupsch Border, has been released unharmed. The bandits are however holding the Rev. Mathias Crewtzin, another of their victims. They have reduced his ransom to $3,000.00."

30 November 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly, p. 2. 
 "THANKSGIVING DAY, By R. M.Hooker. ¶ Once again the hearts of our North American neighbors are turned on the celebration of the Thanksgiving festival. This is one of the most unique of festive days set apart by the American people in commemoration of the founding and preservation of their native land by Divine Providence. ¶ The first Thanksgiving Day was indeed a propitious occasion. A small number of stout-hearted persevering, religious people were forced to leave their native land. The land they had adopted was a most cruel one. They had to fight against the rigors of a cold and bleak climate. The soil was unyielding. They encountered wild beasts and savages, but yet this little band of endeavorers decided to continue in their struggle for the ideal that they had in mind. ¶ At the first harvest they gathered in the fruits of the field that they had secured with their crude methods of farming. They decided then to hold an assembly and thank God for having preserved them from famine and cold. Such was the first Thanksgiving Day in the little colonial settlement of bleak New England. ¶ As years passed the American people were united into the strong nation that they are today. This custom of Thanksgiving was at first solely a new England Festival, but a united nation soon said that it was an essential factor in the life of any nation to have a day set apart to give thanks to God. For this reason it was made a National Festival and now as each anniversary comes around the President of the U.S. makes issue of proclamation voicing the sentiments of the entire nation. ¶ We in Latin America congratulate our North American neighbor on her great festive occasion, in the hope that the spirit of the first thanksgiving will always remain the ideal of the American nation now that it has become a great World Power. ¶ For the benefit of our readers we publish a Thanksgiving Address of Pres. Roosevelt. ¶ THANKSGIVING DAY PROCLAMATION, 1905 ¶ By Theodore Roosevelt ¶ When, nearly three centuries ago, the first settlers came to the country which has now become this great republic, they found not only hardship and privation, but terrible risk to their lives. In those grim years the custom grew of setting apart one day in each year for a special service of thanksgiving to the Almighty for preserving the people through the changing seasons. The custom has now become national and hallowed by immemorial usage. We live in easier and more plentiful times than our forefathers, the men who with rugged strength faced the rugged days; and yet the dangers to national life are quite as great now as at any previous time in our history. It is eminently fitting that once a year our people should set apart a day for praise and thanksgiving to the giver of Good and at the same time that they express their thankfulness for the abundant mercies received, should manfully acknowledge their shortcomings and pledge themselves solemnly and in good faith to strive to overcome them. During the past year we have been blessed with plentiful crops. Our business prosperity has been great. No other people has ever stood on as high a level of material well-being as ours now stands. We are not threatened by foes from without. The foes from whom we should pray to be delivered are our own passions, appetites, and follies, and against these there is always need that we should war. ¶ Therefore, I now set apart Thursday, the thirtieth day of November, as a day of thanksgiving for the past and of prayer for the future, and on that day I ask that throughout the land the people gather in their homes and places of worship, and to render thanksgiving unto the Most High for the manifold blessings of the past year, consecrate themselves to a life of cleanliness, honor, and wisdom, so that this nation may do its allotted work on the earth in a manner worthy of those who founded it and of those who preserved it. . . . ¶  Weekly Selections from Scripture (Contributed by Rt. Rev. Guido Grossman) . . . Notes from Puerto Cabezas . . . "

14 December 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly.  
"CHEER UP JEREMIAH!  ¶  Now-a-days we hear a great many Jeremiads being recited concerning the retrogression of the Creoles of the Coast. We hear a lot about what was done in the grand old days when the Creoles wee a factor to be reckoned with. We hear of the many men in our midst who are possessed of ability, tact and courtesy to conduct business successfully and we wonder why it is that others are coming in and doing all the selling while we stand outside and sweat to obtain the money to spend as the consumers. We are holding on to the rough end of the pole. We do not like it, but what are we to do to better our lot? Well, let us look and see what some of our country-men around the corner are doing. ¶ Not very long ago someone realized the possibilities of developing a rice industry in Pearl Lagoon. Accordingly efforts were made to get the people to cooperate, and a rice huller, engine and thresher were obtained. The villagers were encouraged to plant rice. It is only recently that all the instruments were got into efficient working order but now they are giving good results. Led by the brains of the Young Men’s Christian Union in Pearl lagoon, which said Union incidentally, owns the largest rice field up there, the Pearl Lagoon people have established a rice industry which is growing daily. They have already made several shipments to the Bluefields Mercantile Company. They are expected to send down another this week. Next year they hope to extend their operations. In a conversation with the Rev. Hedley Wilson we gathered that in increasing numbers people are becoming interested in rice cultivation and several are making enquiries as to the possibilities of growing it on a profitable scale in Pearl Lagoon. We predict a prosperous future for this village. And what will have brought about this happy state of affairs? Simply the vision of a few men who realized that it was possible for the inhabitants of Pearl Lagoon to become independent by their own efforts. We believe that Rev. Fr. Wolff was among the initiators of the scheme. To proceed , these men did not “make dreams their masters”. They thought, they spoke and they acted. We have thought a great deal. We have spoken too. Have we acted? Have we endured the hardships which give birth to success? Have we faced the sneers and criticisms of others? If we think we have, and still have not succeeded, there are but two alternatives open to us. We must either keep on chanting our lamentations or quit ourselves like men, and set to work more seriously than ever to work out our deliverance. Remember this! If we do not lift ourselves, all other people are too busy looking after themselves to set us on our feet."

21 December 1929.
The Bluefields Weekly.  
"PEARL LAGOON NOTES. Dedication of organ in Moravian church. Sunday, December 15th, 1929, will long be remembered in Pearl Lagoon. It marked the climax of the efforts on the part of the Moravians there to secure a new organ. The old organ had been a very good one, and had survived one hurricane and a couple of revolutions. For years it had been giving trouble, especially since the last revolution, so it had to be laid aside. The knowledge that the new organ would be consecrated free of debt was the cause of added joy to the occasion. ¶ Promptly at 3 o’clock in the afternoon the service was begun, the Rev. Hedley Wilson officiating. The following was the order of service: Organ prelude by Mr. Jas. Cuthbert; Hymn, “Now Thanks we all our God”; Prayer by Rev. B. Garth; Anthem. “He maketh peace” (Caleb Simper); Lesson: Ps. 149 and 150; Hymn.”In humble grateful lays”; Responsive reading for the dedication of the organ: Hymn, “Praise the Lord, His glories show”; Sermon, text: s. 15, 4: Anthem. “The voice of singing” (W. Mason); Hymn, “Sing hallelujah, praise the Lord” ; Benediction; Postlude. ¶ At the service beginning at 6;30 p.m. the choir have special music. The Rev. F.B. Garth occupied the pulpit. Mr. Jas. Cuthbert and Rev. H. Wilson took turns at the organ for the rendition of the anthems. . . .  ¶ PUNTA GORDA NOTES. ¶ Dr. Boles of the National Guard and Mr. Humberto Hernandez R. of the Sanitary Department came down here last week to investigate the small pox epidemic. ¶ Four cases have been discovered, and they were all members of the same family, living at Virginia. ¶ The complaint is in a very mild form. About six hundred people have been vaccinated. The others will be vaccinated by Dr. Mayorga, who has authority from the Sanitary Department to deal with the situation and to see that all persons who embark or disembark here have been recently vaccinated. . . . ¶ VIBRATION FROM PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ Capt. John C. Wood G.N. ¶ Being duly apprised that Guardia Nacional had a new officer enrolled as its head at this port, we interestedly wended or foot-steps thither to welcome the newcomer, Capt. John C. Wood, who on our arrival received us mot courteously at this new bivouac with that unruffled refinement and polish expressive of the western gentry, in which niche he holds a prominent place. ¶ On exposing our mission, we gathered from this reserved office, that he is a son of San Francisco, California, the largest and most important city on the Pacific slope of the American continent, founded the latter part of the eighteenth century by Spanish Franciscan monks from Mexico, when the English colonists on the Atlantic coast declared their independence from Great Britain. ¶ Thru other channels we gained the information, that he was fostered and trained at the world famed Leland-Stamford, the august University, which has given to the American people a Hoover and other eminent figures. ¶ To this modest exponent of goodwill, we extend our heartiest greetings."

31 December 1929.
Letter from Albert Fagot, Cape Gracias, to Lt. W. G. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Sir; ¶ Confirming my letter of the 14th, wish to report that Indians from the upper river reports an other bunch of Bandits, above Bocay, but on further investigation, I have been unable to substantiate this rumor, I believe that it is false. ¶ Nothing else to report. Except the expected arrival of a new Governor and Judge for this District. ¶ Respectfully, [signed] A Fagot"

1.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 1.

2.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 2.

3.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 3.

4.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 4.

5.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 5.

6.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 6.

7.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 7.

8.     31 December 1929.
Annual Report for Haulover and its Filials for the Year Ending December 31, 1929, by J. A. Fisher, Moravian Church, p. 8.

 

 

PREVIOUS     NEXT 

 

 

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8