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the atlantic coast  •  1932A, p. 4
May 1-27, 1932

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   THIS IS THE FOURTH PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE FIRST HALF of 1932 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing documents dated from May 1-27.

     The Sandinista raids of foreign commissaries, mining districts, and Moravian missions continue into May, as does the intensification of the Guardia’s counterinsurgency campaign.  The Department of Southern Bluefields remains relatively quiescent during this period (with "raids" at El Rama undertaken by "local unorganized groups" (Hall, 1 May, p. 5), in contrast to the situation further north, where EDSN strikes and Guardia counter-strikes are ratcheting up in both scale and intensity.  Lt. Surprenant’s exceptionally revealing 4-page report on his two-week "scouting patrol" along the Lower Rio Coco offers a fascinating glimpse into the unfolding battles in this zone (12 May).  According to Surprenant, an EDSN column launches a quick raid against the village of Sacklin on April 30 before heading back upriver, "taking all the Indians’ clothes" with them, as well as eight Indian prisoners, and "leaving the Indians behind them naked."  Surprenant got most of his facts right, including the death of EDSN Sgt. Major Francisco "Pancho" Montenegro, whose death in the Kisalaya assault Sandino also reported (18 May), and there is little reason to doubt his portrayal of the rocky relations between the EDSN and the Indians of Sacklin, some seven months after Adolfo Cockburn's death.  Moravian missionary A. O. Danneberger's anguished letter of 18 May portrays the EDSN as a relentless scourge wreaking destruction & death; prominent in his narrative are the Sandinistas' murder of Karl Bregenzer and plunder at Musawas; their destruction in Tuburus of the church and evangelist's house; and "whether Sandino also aims at the extermination of our mission."

      The extent of the EDSN’s penetration of the zone is highlighted in Guardia 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitán’s gripping combat report of 19 May describing his unit’s two-hour firefight against a group of 60-80 rebels at the village of "Sing Sing" (actually Sinsin, inland from Puerto Cabezas along the Río Likus, a tributary of the Río Wawa), which offers an important window on one wing of the the rebel offensive.

      But the main event is unfolding in the Pis Pis and Neptune mining districts, where upwards of 500 Sandinistas are converging led by Generals Pedron Altamirano, Pedro Antonio Irias, Ismael Peralta, and others.  Second Lt. Earl Gray's combat report of May 27 describes his patrol’s firefights with a large rebel column of some 150 men, reputedly under Generals Pedrón and Peralta, near Neptune Mine on May 21 and again on May 23 — both decisively repulsed by a Guardia counteroffensive that included concentrated use of airpower (27 May).  The battle for the mining district during this week (May 19-26) is the main subject of the page to follow.

      Meantime we learn that the banana industry is holding its own, with ample employment but low banana prices (having dropped to 30¢ per stem from 50¢ two years earlier), and that the Guardia has established a "woman venereal hospital and prison" in Bluefields, presumably to clamp down on prostitution and to address the rising incidence of venereal disease among the troops (Leech, 4 May).

     In short, while Sandino trumpets to "Indo-Hispanic observers" the EDSN’s smashing military successes across the country (18 May), in fact his Army's big offensive is meeting the brick wall of the Guardia Nacional and its cívico allies in the mining districts and nearer the Coast — events toward which the general populace throughout most of the region seems indifferent.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1 May 1932.
Extracts from GN-2 Report Covering the Month of April 1932.
    [NOTE:  These excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 30-page intelligence report covering the entire country. The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]  LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS. ¶ . . .   [p. 4]   (Q) PERFECTO CHAVARRIA. . . . Chavarria until recently had been operating in the Eastern Area mainly along Coco River.   [NOTE: Of the 17 jefes surveyed in this section, none were reported active in the Eastern Area]  ¶  . . .  UNITS IN CONTACT.  ¶  . . .    [p. 6]   21 APRIL.  The Guardia deserters from KISALAYA together with about thirty bandits attacked the cuartel at KISALAYA at 0300. Bandits and deserters were driven off after severe fighting. Bandit casualties four known dead including ex-Sgt. Sebastian Jimenez, the leader of the deserters. Guardia casualties, two wounded including Lieut. Gaitan.   [NOTE: Of 18 contacts during the month, one was in the Eastern Area]  ¶  . . .   [p. 7]   ENEMY STRENGTH AND MOVEMENTS:  ¶  Group of 200 reported as passing two leagues on north side of Rio Grande headed north and thought to be headed for the east coast.  Jefe reported as Pedron Altamirano. ¶  . . .   [p. 8]   Manuel Irias with group, number unknown, reported operating on Rio Siquia near Chontales border, 21 April.  [NOTE:  Of 18 items in this category, none show EDSN activity in the Eastern Area; as seen below, Pedrón’s band was far inland near Matiguás.]   ¶  . . .   [p. 10]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 4 APRIL 1932.  ¶  . . . Bandits that have been hanging around the Coco River near Sang Sang, are reported to have moved up river to Bocay. ¶  . . .    [p. 11]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 11 APRIL 1932.  ¶  . . . Pedron Altamirano and 200 men reported from Chontales as being 2 leagues north of Rio Negro, (in Matagalpa south of Matiguas) on April 1st, moving east.  ¶  . . .  [p. 12]   GENERAL INFORMATION:  ¶  . . . On the afternoon of April 4th, a part of the garrison at Kisalaya mutinied and killed First Lieutenant Charles Levonski, GN.  This mutiny was led by Sgt. Jimenez and after killing Lieutenant Levonski, seriously wounding Lieutenant Reyes, and wrecking the Radio Station, looting the store room and a commissary at Kisalaya, Sgt. Jimenez and 14 men moved up the Coco River.  They took one Heavy Browning, one BAR, two TSMGs, one Springfield rifle, two rifle grenade dischargers, fifteen or more Krag rifles, 26 rifle grenades, 9 hand grenades, 10,000 rounds of Springfield ammunition, 2,000 rounds of cal.45 and 4,600 rounds of Krag.  They went up the river as far as Pranza by boat and then took a trail into Honduras.  It is not believed that they had any understanding with the bandits, but it is considered probable that they will join them.  ¶  . . .   [p. 13]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 18 APRIL 1932.  [NOTE: Nothing on the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 15]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 25 APRIL 1932.  ¶  . . . A group of about 50 including the deserters from Kisalaya under ex-sergeant Jimenez, leader of Kisalaya mutiny, attacked Kisalaya at 0300, 21 April.  Four bandits including Jimenez were killed, guardia casualties two wounded including Lieut Gaitan, commanding the post.  ¶  . . .  A group, number not reported, jefe Manuel Irias, reported operating on Rio Siquia near Chontales border, on 21 April.  ¶  . . .    [p. 16]   GENERAL INFORMATION.   ¶   . . . The severe repulse sustained by the bandits at Kisalaya is believed to have effectively discouraged bandit operations on the lower Coco River for the present.  The Heavy Browning Machine Gun that was recovered from Kisalaya at the time of the mutiny, was recovered by Lieut Gaitan near Pransa.  ¶  . . .    [p. 18]   MISCELLANEOUS.  ¶  . . .   [p. 26]   Information received that the KISALAYA deserters had arrived in the vicinity of Quilali four or five days ago.  That they were trying to get in touch with Sandino and would offer their services to him as a personal bodyguard.  ¶  . . .  [p. 30]  CONSOLIDATED REPORT OF BANDITS CONTACTS OF THE GN FOR APRIL 1932.  ¶  . . . KISALAYA, 21st, Lt. Gaitan, attack on cuartel, 4 bandits killed  [NOTE: Of the 18 contacts listed for the month of April, one was in the Eastern Area.]"

1.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.
    "A. PERIOD From:  1 April 1932 To:  30 April 1932  ¶  B. STRENGTH OF COMMANDER (7th Company) Officers 12, Enlisted 163  ¶  C. MILITARY OPERATION: Movements.  ¶  1 Apr. Cpl. BARRIOS, Modesto #2501, Pvts. LUQUEZ, Isabel #2522, RUGAMA, Silvestre #2513, trans. fr. 7th. Co. Bluefields to 3rd. Co. (C) Managua. Cpl. CLEVELAND, Simeon #3051, Pvts. TEJADA, Maximo #3033, PEREZ, Espectacion #4744, IEVIS, Grefile #4950, RODRIGUEZ, Antolin #4760, MARTINEZ, Francisco #4953, RIVERA, FLORES #3113, duty Bluefields to establish post at Prinzapolka. Pvts. MARTINEZ, Salomon #3556, RUGAMA, Julian #4899, fr. duty Bluefields to duty Wuani. Lieut. HALL, Gordon, USMC. arrived from U.S. Pvt. LEON Jose #4954 jd, by enlistment.  ¶  3 Apr. Capt. HALL, Gordon; G. N. appointed capt. and duty with 7th Co. So. Bluefields.  ¶  Pvt. CLOUGH, Frederick #4955, jd. by enlistment. Lt. PALACIO, J. P. with 15 enlisted cleared Neptune Mines for Wuani.  ¶   4 Apr. Lt. STEPHENSON, T. M. Lt. Rourke, E. with 6 enlisted on river patrol, Rio Rama, Rio Mico and return.  ¶  5 Apr. VEGA, Benj. 1994 fr. duty Bluefields to duty El Rama, Lt. CURCEY, L. with 12 enlisted cleared Wuani for Siuna and returned.. . . . "

2.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.
    " . . . 6 Apr. Lt. STEPHENSON, T. M. with 2 enlisted on river patrol, Rio Rama, Rio Siquia and returned.  ¶  7 Apr. Lt. ROURKE, E. fr. duty El Rama to temp. duty Bluefields.  ¶  Cpl. ORTEGA, Manuel B. #651, Pvts. MORAZAN, Gonzalo #3340 fr. temp. duty Tunky to Bluefields.  ¶  Cpl. LYNCH, Williams #2425 to duty from furlough. ¶ 9 Apr. Pvt. HERNANDEZ, Pablo #4956 jd. by enl.  ¶  10 Apr. Capt. McAFEE, R. D. trans. fr. 7th. Co. and fr. G.N. to United States.  ¶  Capt. DAVIES, W. W. to temp, duty Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  11 Apr. Capt. HALL, Gordon, assumed command Dept. So. Bluefields, vice Capt. McAFEE, R. D. relieved.  ¶  Lt. STONE, W. J. fr. duty El Gallo to temp. duty Managua.  ¶  Lt. CODY, T. E. (H.) fr. temp. duty Managua to temp. duty Bluefields.  ¶  Sgt. GARTH, K. #2702 with 3 enl. cleared El Gallo on Police mission and returned.  ¶ Lt. STEPHENSON, T. W. with 2 enl. cleared El Rama on River patrol and returned.  ¶  12 Apr. Cpl. MACHADO, Tomas #483, Pvts. CRUZ, Adam #4949, CALDERON Alejandro #3472, fr. duty Bluefields to duty El Rama.  ¶  Pvt. LOPEZ, Mariano #2875 fr. duty El Gallo to duty Bluefields.  ¶  13 Apr. Lt. STEPHENSON, T. M. fr. duty El Rama to temp. duty Bluefields.  ¶  Sgt. RAMOS J. M. #3341, Pvts. OCHOA, Pedro #2894, ASTORGA, Barlan #4813 fr. duty El Rama to duty Bluefields.  ¶  Lt. Curcey L. with 19 enl. and 15 civicos cleared Wuani for Suina.  ¶  14. Apr. Pvt. RUGAMA, Alfonso #4957, jd. by enlistment.  ¶  Sgts. BENLIST, Benj. #2793, TAYLOR, Arthur #2705, fr. 7th Co. So. Bluefields, to 9th Co. No. Bluefields.  ¶  Pvt. QUINTERO P. F. #3847, discharged with B.C.D. by reason of Consejo de Guerra. . . ."

3.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 3.
    " . . . 15 Apr. Lt. STEPHENSON, T. M. fr. temp. duty Bluefields to duty El Rama.  ¶  Cpl. ROLAND, Sebastian #2249, Pvt. RIOS, Emeterio #2247, discharged exp. enl.  ¶  Lt. ROURKE, E. with 10 enlisted cleared El Rama for La Tigra patrol.  ¶  16 Apr. Cpl. ROLAND, Sebastian #2249, jd. by re-enlistment to furlough.  ¶  Lt. ROURKE, E. with 10 enlisted fr. La Tigra to El Rama.  ¶  Lt. STEPHENSON, T. M. with 10 enlisted cleared El Rama on police Patrol to El Recreo and returned.  ¶  17 Apr. Cpl. ANDERSON Joseph #4591, Pvt. ALVAREZ, Eustacio #2273, fr. duty Wuani to duty Bluefields.  ¶  Sgt. MARTINEZ, J. R. #1243, Pvt. VASQUEZ Diego #3429 fr. duty 9 Co. No Bluefields, to duty 7th Co. So. Bluefields.  ¶  19 Apr. Lt. CURCEY, L. returned Wuani fr. patrol to Siuna.  ¶  Lt. STEPHENSON T. M. cleared El Rama for inspection trip to El Recreo, and returned.  ¶  Lt. ROURKE, E. cleared El Rama for inspection trip to Muelle Real and returned.  ¶  21 Apr. Pvt. PILARTE, Nemecioo #4958 jd. by enlistment.  ¶  Lt. ROURKE E. with 10 enlisted cleared El Rama on patrol on Rio Siquia.  ¶  22 APR. Pvt. ACDAMA, Rodolfo #2485 fr. duty 7th Co. So. Bluefields, to duty 3rd Co. (C.) Managua.  ¶  Pvts. ASTORGA, Barlan #4813, CALERO, Maximiliano #4530, GUIN, Saldana #2438, GOMEZ, Adolfo #2443, OCHOA, Pedro #2894, VARGAS, Wilfred #2418 fr. duty Bluefields to temp. duty El Rama.  ¶  Sgt. CHAMORRO, C. #1652 with 10 enlisted cleared El Rama on patrol to El Recreo and returned.  ¶  23 Apr. Sgt. CHAVEZ, A. #58 with 10 enlisted cleared Wuani on river patrol and returned. . . . "

4.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 4.
    " . . . 25 Apr. Lt. STONE, W. J. fr. temp. duty Managua to temp duty Bluefields.  ¶  26 PR. Lt. ROURKE, E. returned fr. Rio Siquia patrol to El Rama, with 10 prisoners.  ¶  27 Apr. Pvts. ASTORGA, Barlan #4813, MANZANO, Santiago #3852 VARGAS, Wilfred #2418, GUIN, Saldana #2438, OCHOA, Pedro #2894, CALERO Maximinio #4530, fr. temp. duty El Rama to duty Bluefields.  ¶  Pvts. GARZON, Jesus #4809, FERNANDEZ, Luis #4951, CRUZ J. L. #4954, RUGAMA Alfonzo #4957, fr. duty Bluefields to duty El Gallo.  ¶  Lt. STONE, W. J. fr. temp. duty Bluefields to duty El Gallo.  ¶  Pvt. HERNANDEZ, Pablo #4956 awd. 5 days B. and W.  ¶  29 Apr. Sgt. RUGAMA, Fernando #195, Pvts. RUIZ, Manuel #2682, GOMEZ, Pedro #2064 fr. duty Bluefields to duty 3rd. Co. (C) Managua.  ¶  10 enlisted cleared El Rama for river patrol on Rio Siquia, Rio Mico, Rio Rama.  ¶  MILITARY DUTIES PERFORMED:  ¶  There have been persistent reports from El Rama since the 15 of April that bandit groups are operating in that district along the Rio Mico, Rio Siquia and Rio Rama.  All reports of bandits activities have been investigated, patrols have pursued as far as the border of Chontales and guards have been kept at the fruit loading points along these rivers during cutting and loading.  Report of patrol forwarded by Area Commander.  ¶  Active patrol has been carried on from Wuani and Neptune Mines.  One of these patrols from Wuani met with success in destroying bandit camps at Casa Vieja and points along these trails. Report of patrol forwarded by Area Commander.  Regular training schedules have been carried out.  ¶  POLICE OPERATION:  ¶  Total on hand as of last report 26, Total confined during month 87, Total released during month 64, Total remaining on hand 49 . . . "

5.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 5.
    ". . . GENERAL POLICE CONDITION:-  ¶  Twenty one arrests were made by patrols from El Rama, who apprehended all local men involved in the raids and robberies in that district.  All cases are still under investigation, awaiting witnesses.  Otherwise police conditions are good.  Very few arrests are made by outposts. Those made are for minor offenses only.  ¶  INTELLIGENCE:-  ¶ 1. General state of territory occupied: Quiet.  Reports from patrols in El Rama indicate that the raids made in that district were by local unorganized groups.  Those arrested declared that they were forced into these raids and robberies by an organized band. Investigation revealed that a group of about 5 lead by one Irias did cross the Chontales border, force local river men into service with them, raided as far as La Tigra and returned to Chontales leaving their local groups behind.  It is not thought that this is any attempt at organized banditry in this district, rather that it is in an attempt to rob at this favorable time when banana cutters are bringing in their stems and selling them at river commissaries.  Reports from Wuani and Neptune Mines after constant patrolling of these district, indicates a quite area.  ¶  MILITARY SITUATION:-  2. There has been nothing of enemy activities in the Department for the past month to indicate future operations or upon which to estimate enemy activities.  It is reasonable to assume that there will be attempted repartitions of local raids similar to that of La Tigra, for it is getting close to the wet and inactive season and last minute attempts are bound to occur.  All district commanders are on the alert for such occasions and it is doubtful that any attempt can succeed.  ¶  ECONOMIC CONDITION:-  3. The people of the Wuani area are anticipating the rainy season, which will give opportunities to all people to wash gold, rather than the usual very few who are able to wash gold continuously with their own artificial water supplies.  There are two groups of prospectors who state they will get an average of 150 oz. of gold monthly.  This is considered to be a fairly large amount, supposedly more gold than has ever been panned previously in this area. . . . "

6.    1 May 1932.
Monthly Report of Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Capt. Gordon Hall,  Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 6.
    "A.xx

1.    May 1932.
"Forced Down in the Jungles of Nicaragua," Staff Sgt. Gordon W. Heritage, The Leatherneck, May 1932, p. 1.  

2.    May 1932.
"Forced Down in the Jungles of Nicaragua," Staff Sgt. Gordon W. Heritage, The Leatherneck, May 1932, p. 2.  

3.    May 1932.
"Forced Down in the Jungles of Nicaragua," Staff Sgt. Gordon W. Heritage, The Leatherneck, May 1932, p. 3.  

1.    4 May 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, Month of April, 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
   "Reference: General Order No. 140, 1929.  ¶  A. PERIOD FROM: 1 April, 1932.  TO: 30 April, 1932.  ¶  B. STRENGTH OF COMMAND. Commissioned Officers 29, Enlisted Men 325  ¶  C. MILITARY OPERATIONS.  1. Movements of Patrols, Guardia Nacional, and other service personnel.  ¶  Apr. 1 Two amphibians, Lieutenant DAILEY, Lieutenant PARMELEE, USMC., pilots, Lieutenant LUCE and Corporal WILSON, USMC., passengers arrived from MANAGUA. Disembarked passengers, cleared for PUERTO CABEZAS.  Arrived.  ¶  First Lieutenant HALL, Gordon, USMC., joined from US. Appointed Captain Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua and assigned duty as Department Commander, Southern Bluefields.  ¶  Apr. 2 Two amphibians, lieutenant SAUNDERS, Lieutenant WEIR, Lieutenant BINNEY, USMC., pilots, arrived from PUERTO CABEZAS, embarked two passengers (Lt. LUCE and Cpl. WILSON, USMC.), cleared for MANAGUA. Arrived.  ¶  Lieutenant PALACIOS, Justo P., GN., and patrol cleared NEPTUNE MINE for WUANI.  ¶  Apr. 3 Lieutenant PALACIOS, Justo P., GN., and patrol arrived WUANI from NEPTUNE MINE.  Nothing to report. . . . "

2.    4 May 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, Month of April, 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.  
   " . . . On the night 26-27 April, 1932, Eustace M. Campbell, former bookkeeper at the Bluefields branch of the Banco Nacional de Nicaragua, escaped.  Every effort has been made to recapture Campbell but to date no definite information has been obtained as to his whereabouts.  ¶  On 24 April, 1932, Victor Simmons, civil prisoner escaped from custody.  Simmons had been a trustee for some time and had been recently convicted by the civil courts for the unlawful killing of a prisoner while he (Simmons) was a Raso in the Guardia Nacional, serving at EL GALLO.  To date no definite information has been obtained as to Simmons whereabouts.  ¶  2 INTELLIGENCE.  ¶  1. General State of Territory Occupied. Quiet.  There were constant rumors that bandit groups were operating in both the Northern and Southern Department during the entire period covered by this report.  Patrols were constantly checking the reports as they were received without result.  This together with the fact that there was no damage done in either department by bandit groups, it is not unreasonable to believe that with one exception all these rumors were perhaps due to the activity of small local groups.  On 4 April, 1932, fifteen Guardia led by sergeant Jimenez, deserted (See reports in this connection), and traveled northwest on the COCO RIVER to PRANZA where they left the river and followed trail generally north from that point.  When this group left the river at this point they abandoned one heavy Browning Machine Gun, which was later recovered by Lieutenant RODRIGUEZ, GN.  This same group reinforced by about thirty-five bandits attacked KISALAYA on 21 April, led by ex-sergeant JIMENEZ. JIMENEZ and three others were the known dead in this contact.  All contact with this group has been lost since that date.  ¶  E. Military Situation:  - Other than the contact at KISALAYA, the activities of the bandits have been very limited. There is nothing upon which to base an estimate as to the probable intentions of the bandits during the month of May.  ¶  3. ECONOMIC SITUATION: -  The banana industry continues to operate to almost maximum capacity affording work to the large majority of local laborers.  The purchase price of fruit from the independent planters along the rivers is thirty cents against fifty cents two years ago.  The Pearl Lagoon Canal which was built to encourage rice planting in the area of Big Lagoon and the town of Pearl Lagoon is practically completed.  The Canal is one mile long and connects Pearl Lagoon and the Caribbean Sea with a branch of the Rio Escondido which empties into the . . . "

3.    4 May 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, Month of April, 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.  
   " . . . the Bluefields Lagoon.  The rice planter is thereby enabled to bring his commodity to Bluefields by canoe eliminating the expense of transportation across the Savannah between Pearl Lagoon and Haulover.  The future of the rice industry is somewhat questionable in view of the fact that imported rice is cheaper on the coast than that raised in Pearl Lagoon.  ¶  4. SANITARY CONDITIONS: - A woman venereal hospital and prison was established due to the initiative of the Guardia on 13 April.  The prison fund is sufficient to pay the rest of the house, the Sanidad supplies the medicines and equipment, and the Municipality pays the salary of the matron.  Bluefields has long been in need of a venereal hospital since the Charity Hospital has no facilities for care of such cases.  ¶  5. Political Situation: - Quiet.  The wide rift between factional groups in the Liberal Party would seem to become more and more pronounced.  The division had its inception when the Sacasa followers failed to get the support of the pre-administration group; was further aggravated by the adverse ruling on the plebiscite held by the Sacasistas in February and developed into open hostility with the second Liberal plebiscite in April.  This latter plebiscite was completely dominated by the small local group of administration adherents.  Several political meetings by both the opposing Liberal factions were held during April.  All meeting were orderly.  The Conservative Party held its caucus for the selection of cantonal clubs 24 April.  Subsequently a convention elected the Junta Directive of the departments and delegated to the National Convention.  All meetings of this party had a very small attendance.  Meetings were orderly.  ¶  6. No friction has been reported between the Guardia and the civil population.  The press continues a friendly attitude towards the Guardia.  ¶  7. Weather: - Weather conditions have been very good and favorable for patrolling. River and coastwise transportation schedules have been regular.  Visibility for air reconnaissance has been very good.  There have been some light showers during the month.  ¶  8. Condition of Telephone and Telegraph Communications: - Civilian Tropical Radio Telegraph Company – Excellent.  Guardia KISALAYA from 4 April – NONE. Guardia Neptune Mine – has experienced considerable trouble with condensor during the month and communication has been very limited.  ¶  9. Condition of Roads and Trails – Good.  ¶  F CONFISCATION OF ARMS.  ¶  See Departmental Reports. ... "

4.    4 May 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, Month of April, 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 4.  
   " ... TRAINING.  ¶  Except where interfered with by patrolling, training schedules have been maintained.  Discipline except at KISALAYA has been satisfactory.  ¶  MISCELLANEOUS.  ¶  On 1 April, the Jefe Politico made an inspection trip to PEARL LAGOON via motor boat.  ¶  Guillermo Pena, manager of the Banco Nacional de Nicaragua, Bluefields, shot and killed himself on 23 April.  Consensus of opinion seems to be that the act was the result of certain irregularities found in the accounts of the bank.  ¶  Luis Arturo Molieri, took charge as manager of the Banco Nacional de Nicaragua, Bluefields, on 25 April.  ¶  Juan J. Santamaria and Lino Garcia, civilians, were found to have qualified for the Military Academy and cleared via boat for Managua on 28 April.  ¶  L. L. LEECH"

1.    12 May 1932.
Information gathered from my scouting patrol this Area, Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.  
  "1. There is a group of thirty six bandits and fourteen Guardias (Guardia Deserters from Kisalaya) now in this Department.  They raided Sacklin a small town on the Coco river the 30th of April, taking all the Indians clothes, house hold effects that they could carry and leaving the Indians behind them naked.  They also took eight Indians from this town prisoners (but later in the following 4 or 5 days most of them managed to escape).  They then proceeded to Sandy Bay where they robbed the commissary and killed the commandante.  Then headed in the direction of the lines passing Curey, Swaura, both places on the Oolang river.  These bandits are under General Francisco Morales, Coronel Estrada, Coronel Salinas, (Salinas being ex-guardia deserter from Telpaneca) and Coronel Jimenez ex-guardia deserter from Kisalaya.  They have two Sub-Thompson, one BAR., and one rifle grenade, the rifle grenade having about ten to fifteen bombs for same.  ¶  2. I verified that there is fourteen (14) guardia deserters from Kisalaya with this group. The following guardia deserters carry the following ranks.  Vivian Hernandez is a major, Julio Salazar is adjutant to General Morales, Salmeron, Pontoja, and Gudiel are Lieutenants.  ¶  3. In the contact at Kisalaya with Gaitan the man that was killed and thought to be Jimenez was Pancho Montenegro, in appearance he was very similar to Jimenez, being very white, about the same height, same hair, and a good set of teeth, also carrying on his chin a mole, while Jimenez carrying one but this mole was in the corner of his mouth.  This made the identification appear very similar.  Pancho Montenegro also had an old burn on his arm with [which] was noticed on the dead man.  There is no doubt that this information is correct and that Jimenez is still at large.  ¶  4. When the guardia killed Levonski in Kisalaya they proceeded no further than Laimus where they sent a courier to Mocorum a town in Honduras.  The message was sent to Rafael Blanca (a bandit commandante) Jimenez stating his plans of joining forces with them.  In Pranza, Blanca answered it and arrangements were made where this group met General Francisco Morales who had just come down the river from Bocay.  They met and went to Mocorum.  Later they went into the Banana Line at Moss Farm and Louisiana with the intention of robbing Vacarro commissary.  The . . . "

2.    12 May 1932.
Information gathered from my scouting patrol this Area, Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.  
  ". . . activities of the Guardia Nacional in this section because so strong that they were forced to leave, via Logtown, Cuyutini, across the Lecus River, across the savannahs, crossing the Ulwas and Saupuka trails and entering the Bilwascarme trail and following this trail about six miles below Bilwascarme where they switch into the Sacklin Trail and entered Sacklin, raiding and robbing these poor Indians, stealing all their property, rob a little commissary which was the property of Edwardo Arana [Eduardo Araña] (a man that buys bananas off the Indians and sells them the Bragman Bluff Co.) and left Sacklin with most of the Indians absolute naked and took eight Indians prisoners with them.  They then went to Sandy Bay where they also robbed two large commissaries and killed the commandante of this place and the last heard of them they were headed towards Cuyutini to rob Browns Camp Commissary but it is my opinion that for a while they will not be active because they have quite a bit of stolen property to dispose of.  They also claim that they will not leave this Department for at least six months.  ¶  5. General Sandino and Pedron Altamirano were at Bocay during April.  Sandino has or had at this time about one hundred men poorly armed; Sandino is in the best of health.  A prisoner that I had captured and confess to me he was a bandit swore by all that is holy and good that Sandino is alive.  He said that he seen him in Bocay in April.  I use very strong means and told this man that I knew that Sandino was dead but even then he claimed I was wrong.  There is no doubt in mind now that Sandino is alive although I had been hoping that he had died of some disease.  This group that are with Sandino are under the impression that they are trying to save the country from the invaders and that their robbing is a purely a necessity.  Abram Rivera, General, and Colonel Chavarria were also in Bocay. Last heard of Sandino is that he was at Chipotillo.  General Abram Rivera is at Marana and Chavarria at Andrez Tarra, both places on the Coco. Pedron Altimarino was last known to be in the Pis Pis Area.  ¶  6. The two guardia Flores and Alvarez went to Honduras passing thru Ouka a small town in Honduras and with the intention of going to the banana company there for work.  There is a strike there at present.  Rumors in Honduras say there is another revolution brewing.  One of the leading factors of it seems to be the strike at Ceiba.  The town in name Mocorum is a hangout for all bandits wishing to stay there.  It is about a days hike from any point from Saulala on the Coco to Kipla Pini on the Coco.  ¶  7. Two bandit spys were captured by me. From information I gained from them I believe very good and reliable information, in the contact that Lt. Gaitan had at Cuyutini seven (7) bandits were killed, and one severely wounded and he died shortly after. Chavarra has sworn he would get Gaitain for this.  In my contact in Laimus, nine (9) bandits were killed and two wounded and both died before they got to Waspook.  These two contacts took place mine on Saturday morning and Gaitans on Tuesday morning. In Levonski’s contact at Browns Camp only on bandit was killed.  The last attack on Kisalaya . . . "

3.    12 May 1932.
Information gathered from my scouting patrol this Area, Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 3.  
  " . . . three (3) bandits were killed, one severely wounded and five others wounded.  These were all taken up to Mocorum. Kisalaya is a sore spot to the bandits.  When this group return from Mocorum and went to the lines, they sent back four men who fire several shots into Kisalaya and ran off.  ¶  8. In this Department which is so large a spy is certainly able to get information but there is a large drawback and that is after he does get it, it takes so long to get in into Headquarters.  If I had had ten or fifteen guardias at two instances on this scouting patrol I could have made the bandits dance a merry tune.  But for fear of our lives and the position we held rather than be a dead hero I kept quiet.  ¶  9. This trip consisted of about two weeks.  I left Puerto Cabezas and went out to Lecus River. From there I cleared for the Wanks.  Below Bilwas Carmen I ran into the tracks of the group that rob Sacklin.  I went into Bilwas Carmen and down to Sacklin and after investigating I proceeded immediately to Kisalaya where I offered my services to Gaitan.  As he could not clear a patrol out as he had only one sub-thompson the others being two BMGs and a Lewis, I then left Kisalaya with my two guardia and one civilian and went as far as Bilwas Carmen where I crossed over and went into Honduras.  From there I got to a little town name Auca and form there I went to Mocorum.  I had gained reliable information that a man by the name of Jones had a automatic which belong to one of the guardia that deserted Kisalaya.  We reached Mocorum and I sent my civilian into town to gather information.  A guardia patrol of Honduranians had come into town the day before and when they seen this spy of mine they became suspicious and followed him back to where we were. Upon seeing us they opened fire but we quickly retreat and manage to get away.  I then proceeded back towards the Wanks where I arrived at Wira Pani.  Here there were nothing to show bandits had been there lately.  I went to Prenza were Gaitain found the BMG but found nothing.  At this time we had not eaten for two days.  We found a few bananas here and next morning built a bamboo raft and floated down to Kisalaya where we eat.  From there we went down to Waslaw where rumors were the bandits were crossing over to Honduras but arriving found that this was false.  I captured one spy there but he was killed in trying to escape.  From there I went to Andres where also information seem to be that the bandits had gone there.  All quiet.  I then went to Cabo Gracias where another spy was captured.  We had one pistol with 14 rounds and a cutacha.  We had been sent by the bandits to gather all information possible from here. How many commissary guardias etc.  This man was shot while trying to escape from me while being questioned.  I then returned to Puerto Cabezas for further orders from Managua.  This group of Guardia deserters from Kisalaya are with this group of bandits under General Francisco Morales.  They are well armed, and a dangerous group and I will have to admit very small chance at present of getting any of them.  I have made a request to start a civico branch on the Coco during this emergency and believe I will have a better chance to get these beggars. . . . "

4.    12 May 1932.
Information gathered from my scouting patrol this Area, Lt. E. J. Surprenant, Puerto Cabezas, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 4.  
  " . . . 10. Gaitan has certainly restored the faith of the Indians in the Guardia but they are sort of bewildered by the swing the bandits have taken in robbing Sacklin and Sandy Bay without any Guardia patrol doing anything.  I firmly believe that the way a strong patrol leaves Kisalaya to go below.  Kisalaya is going to be hit again by the bandits.  With the civicos I start up below Kisalaya we will have the bandits guessing.  If they go to Cabo Gracias I shall be right behind them.  If they rob any town below Kisalaya the same will be.  With my civicos who shall all be pick man and with spies that will let me know hours before the bandits get near me I believe that there will be a hold up on this brutal raiding and robbing of these Indians. As strange as it seems if I ever go back up to Waspook I shall have in the neighborhood of three hundred (300) Indians.  ¶  11. Outside of this bandit group that has these guardia deserters the rest of the bandits in this department are poorly armed.  It would be a great opportunity to hit them now and drive them out.  ¶  12. Out of the twenty five Guardias that were in the mutiny at Kisalaya, 7 return to Puerto Cabezas.  Two (2) Alvarez and Flores went to Honduras.  Tecero came to Moss and ran away.  This amounts to ten.  That would leave 15 guardia deserters.  Now there are 14 with General Morales.  I could not get definite information but heard that one guardia was killed in the battle of Kisalaya and buried. Another is that these fourteen guardia killed him and buried him near Prenza.  ¶  E.J. SURPRENANT"

1.    18 May 1932.
Boletín de noticias del Ejército Defensor sobre operaciones en el mes de abril, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, A los observadores Indohispanos, p. 1. 
 (Source: A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 220)    " . . . El 4 de abril del presente año, los ex guardias pertenecientes a las fuerzas enemigas en Kisalaya, Costa Atlántica de Nicaragua, se sublevaron contra los filibusteros yanquis, quienes les comandaban.  Ellos, para conseguir la finalidad del plan que se les encomendó, dieron muerte a un teniente Charles Lebos, de nacionalidad yanqui, e hirieron al subteniente Carlos Rayo.  Como fruto de la sublevación mencionada, nuestro Ejército recibió lo siguiente: 21 rifles Springfield y Lewis, entre ellos algunos lanza-bombas, 21 granadas, una ametralladora Thompson con 1 600 tiros, 5 000 tiros de Springfield, una escuadra N° 45 con seis magazines, una ametralladora Browning, una ametralladora Bron-Colt con un competente equipo, 9 000 tiros Lewis; todo esto fue entregado por los ex guardias Sebastián Jiménez, Felipe Briceño H., Francisco López y Aurelio Flores, quienes actualmente se encuentran al servicio de nuestro Ejército. Las armas fueron recibidas por los generales Estrada y Morales y el coronel Sócrates Sandino. . . . "  [NOTE: Sandino's reference here to the death of the yankee "Charles Lebos" probably refers to Charles Levonski, killed in the Kisalaya mutiny; there is no other USMC death during this period that comes close to Sandino's spelling.]

2.    18 May 1932.
Boletín de noticias del Ejército Defensor sobre operaciones en el mes de abril, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, A los observadores Indohispanos, p. 2. 
 " . . . El 21 [de abril] fue atacado por nuestras fuerzas, al mando del general Morales, el nuevo destacamento enemigo acantonado otra vez in Kisalaya.  En esta vez el enemigo se encontraba más fuerte, pero siempre fue desalojado después de una hora y tres cuartos de encarnizado combate.  De nuestra parte lamentamos la muerte de los hermanos sargento mayor Francisco Montenegro, capitán Zeledonio Gutiérrez, teniente Marcelino Rugama y la del joven estudiante de la Universidad de León, Nicaragua, Octavio Oviedo.  Los generales Morales y Estrada continúan su marcha sobre el interior del Atlántico.  También tenemos fuerzas de reserva en el mismo litoral.  En el mencionado combate resultaron heridos: teniente Rafael César Zamora, Orlando Baldizón y Santos Godoy. . . ."

3.    18 May 1932.
Boletín de noticias del Ejército Defensor sobre operaciones en el mes de abril, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, A los observadores Indohispanos, p. 3. 
  " . . . Bajas de nuestra parte: . . . Kisalaya: 4 muertos, 3 heridos . . . "

4.    18 May 1932.
Boletín de noticias del Ejército Defensor sobre operaciones en el mes de abril, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, A los observadores Indohispanos, p. 4. 
 " . . . Bajas del enemigo: . . .  Kisalaya: 16 muertos, 10 heridos . . .  ¶  . . . Elementos bélicos avanzados del enemigo: . . . Kisalaya: 21 Rifles, 3 Ametralladoras, 21 Bombas, 15 600 Parque, 1 Pistola 45 . . . "

5.    18 May 1932.
Boletín de noticias del Ejército Defensor sobre operaciones en el mes de abril, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, A los observadores Indohispanos, p. 5. 
 

18 May 1932.
Letter from A. O. Danneberger, Yulu, Nicaragua, to the Bretheren of the S.P.G. 
  "Dear Brethren:-  ¶  Ever since the bandits made their first assault which caused the cruel murder of Br. Bregenzer, it has been very difficult for the missionaries, whose duties necessitate their travelling to and staying at some inland station, to know how to act in face of the many reports of the activities of the bandits which reach his ears continually.  Having done quite a bit of travelling and having spent most of my time during the rather perilous year at an inland station I am in a position to state how these reports can be valued.  I must say that nine out of the ten are nothing but wild rumours, and even the 10th report, although based on truth, is greatly exaggerated.  However, not knowing which of the many reports if going to be true, it will be understood that the tranquility in our work has suffered immensely.  If we only knew Sandino’s and his adherers attitude towards our mission.  Everybody knows that his attacks are in the first place directed against the Americans as the intruders in the political affairs of Nicaragua.  But we do not know whether Sandino also aims at the extermination of our mission.  Most of our missionaries think so, and the murder and plunder at Musuwas seem to confirm their opinion.  Threats are reported to have been made against the individual missionaries, but it is not sure whether they had been made by the bandits or whether they have originated in the minds of the Indians who are anxious for the safety of their missionaries.  The bandits have visited quite a number of our stations and out-stations and although in almost every case it was reported that they had been looking for the missionary, yet to me it seems strange that they did not harm the mission property, when they did not find the temporal owner.  A Spaniard will not rest until he has taken his revenge in some way or other.  At the last attack in Sandy Bay they took all Mr. Hurlstone’s goods, but they did not enter the mission house, nor did they any injury to Mr. Hurlstone himself, although they must have known that he was keeping services every Sunday.  It should be mentioned that Tuburus was totally destroyed, including the new church and the evangelist’s house; but at that time the bandits were enraged because they found nobody in the village and were thus hampered in their advance down the river towards the railway line.  ¶  There seems to be no hope for an improvement of this most unfortunate situation.  At present the various political parties are involved in a lively propaganda for the election in Nov. Dr. Sacasa is a favorite, not with all, but with many liberals and with the Indians. But even his eventual nomination for the presidency will apparently not solve this bandit problem, for according to a notice in "La Patria" Sandino published a communication which contained an insult against Dr. S.  The same paper reports that Pedron, one of Sandino’s generals, shot his colleague, the general Caracas, because he expressed sympathy for Dr. S.  ¶  What shall the missionary do in this uncertain situation in our missionfield?  The abandonment of the stations of the upper Wangks was unavoidable, as the bandits have taken possession of the territory. But what of those places which are in danger of being taken unawares?  Shall the missionary leave his flock and seek a place of safety, such as Bilwi or Bluefields?  Or shall he keep his post trusting in the Almighty God and Father, without of course running into danger blindly?  And if in this case, something should happen to him, will he be accused of tempting providence and of mistaken bravery?  I might mention that this superintendent of the agricultural department and the inspector of the line, with whom I have travelled repeatedly, are making frequent trips to the end of the line.  The superintendent over the banana farms on the new line, whom I married lately to a German Moravian, lives with this wife right amongst the farms and, although the National Guard is near enough to be on the spot in case of an attack, he yet is in constant danger of being assailed by loitering groups who are becoming a greater pest and danger than the organized Sandinistas.  ¶  I am asking these questions because I know they will help you to understand our position and will meet with your sympathetic and prayerful interest which will help us decide what to do in the hour of danger and perplexity and thus insure the continuation of our Master’s work in Nicaragua.  ¶  With cordial greetings,  ¶  yours very sincerely,  ¶  (signed) A. O. Danneberger"

1.     19 May 1932.
Informe de contacto con un grupo de bandoleros en "SING SING", Puerto Cabezas, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.

2.     19 May 1932.
Informe de contacto con un grupo de bandoleros en "SING SING", Puerto Cabezas, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.

3.     19 May 1932.
Informe de contacto con un grupo de bandoleros en "SING SING", Puerto Cabezas, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.

4.     19 May 1932.
Informe de contacto con un grupo de bandoleros en "SING SING", Puerto Cabezas, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4.

5.     19 May 1932.
Informe de contacto con un grupo de bandoleros en "SING SING", Puerto Cabezas, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 5.

20 May 1932.
Letter from A. O. Danneberger, Puerto Cabezas, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA.
    "Dear Brother Gapp:-  ¶  Since writing the enclosed letter addressed to the Directors of the S.F.G. my wife and myself have come to Puerto Cabeza (Bilwi).  We had disturbing reports about the bandits having come to our out-station Sisin and to ascertain the truth we came here.  Coming out to the railway line we heard that the National Guard had engaged the bandits in battle quite close to our church and that the church building was partly damaged through a bomb which was thrown from an aeroplane.  These reports were confirmed when we reached Bilwi.  The evangelist and his family are safe.  ¶  Two days ago the whole town was greatly excited.  Somebody brought the news that 300 bandits were approaching Bilwi.  As usual it was a false rumour.  However, it brought an increase of marines, national guards and aeroplanes, and a torpedo boat arrived promptly.  ¶  Br. Stortz had left the day before for a visit to Dakura and Sandy Bay.  Mrs. Stortz and her two little ones are here in Bilwi and they will probably remain here for quite a time.  They are quite safe here.  We are not so far away and can come over any day in a couple of hours.  Mrs. Danneberger and myself intend to return to Yulu tomorrow.  We will of course be very careful, and next week we will come back to Bilwi for our monthly visit.  ¶  The rainy season is setting in and this should put a stop to the activities of the bandits.  However, in their desperate condition they will probably not so easily be kept back by rain and floods.  The situation for our Indians is most deplorable. I have never seen so much starvation in the more than 23 years which I have served in the country.  The big company with all the privileges which it offered to our Indians during the last years has taught the Indians to depend on them instead of their provision groups; exceptional big floods during the last rainy season have destroyed lots of their plantations; bandits are doing away with their cattle, and so our Indians are harassed all-round.  Most of them are working hard during this dry season.  We hope it will not be too late.  Any help which the government or any other party could render would be unadequate to meet the present need.  We hope and pray that our Indians will come out of this tribulation a better people, more industrious, more ambitious and more honest too.  ¶  Hoping to hear from you in the near future, I am  ¶  with best regard to you and Mrs. Gapp  ¶  Sincerely yours ... "

20 May 1932.
Report of my patrol, 2nd Lt. J. Ernesto Rourk A., Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.
   [NOTE: This is an English translation of Rourk's report; the Spanish original appears immediately below.]   "1. By orders of the District Commander I cleared here the 13th of May, 1932 for Muelle de les Bueyes, Rio Mica, to pursue a group of bandits that was said were operating near that place.  We cleared here at 9:00 AM, in the Company’s Motorboat and arrived at El Recreo about 10:30 AM.  From there the motorboat returned to Rama and we got some sailors and small boats and cleared there at 11:30 AM.  We arrived at Presillitas at 8:00 P.M. where we camped. We cleared there at 6:00 A.M.  On our way I was informed that the bandits had arrived at Paso Lajas and El Coral in a number of about 30, armed with old rifles, shotguns and pistols.  Among them was a guardia who is said to be a deserter who deserted from Acayapa, Chontales.  His name is Policarpo Francesca, from Honduras. We arrived at Muelle de les Bueyes at 7:30 P.M. where we camped.  There I knew that the guardia from Chontales in a number of 6 guardias under the command of Lt. Antonio Tercero had arrived as far as Presilla Grande and from there they cleared for Santa Tomas and on their way there were informed that the bandits were six hours walking ahead of his patrol, but getting near up to the place the guide, who was a bandit, made them last their way in the mountains.  We arrived at Guatuza at 7:45 PM where we camped.  We cleared from there at 5:00 AM and arrived at Las Mangas at 6:00 PM.  From there I sent a Telegram to the District Commander of El Siquia.  There I was informed that the Guardia from Chontales were pursuing the bandits and these were near San Pedre of Lavaga.  Knowing this I thought best to return and cleared there at 5:30 AM taking another road and passing through El Ayote, Paso de Lajas, El Canoja, and Chillmate arriving at Muelle de les Bueyes at 5:00 PM. where we left the animals we occupied for the patrol.  We camped there and cleared at 5:00 AM for Rama and arrived at El Recreo at 7:30 PM, where we camped.  We cleared the following day at 5:45 AM and arrived at El Rama at 9:00 AM.  ¶  E. ROUKE"

20 May 1932.
Report of my patrol, 2nd Lt. J. Ernesto Rourk A., Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields (2 images), p. 2.   (Second image: 1st Endorsement by Col. Leech, 25 May)

22 May 1932.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, a los generales Francisco Estrada y Juan Santos Morales, Costa Atlántica Nicaragüense, p. 1.  
(Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, p. 225)

22 May 1932.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, a los generales Francisco Estrada y Juan Santos Morales, Costa Atlántica Nicaragüense, p. 1.  
(Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, p. 226)

23 May 1932 (0930).
Radiogram on Lt. Earl Gray contact with Pedrón near Neptune Mines.   
"8622 LIEUTENANT GRAY WITH FIFTEEN GUARDIA HAD CONTACT WITH PEDRON ALTAMIRANO AND GROUP OF ABOUT ONE HUNDRED FIFTY AT FOURTEEN THIRTY MAY TWENTYONE AT POINT NEAR NEPTUNE MINES BANDIT CASUALTIES UNKNOWN GUARDIA CASUALTIES NONE CAPTURED FROM BANDITS FOUR RIDING ANIMALS WITH SADDLES 0930"

23 May 1932 (1600).
2nd radiogram on Lt. Earl Gray contact with Pedrón near Neptune Mines.
   "8624 LT GRAY WITH COMBINED GUARDIA AND CIVICO PATROL OF TWENTY MEN HAD CONTACT LASTING THIRTY MINUTES ONE MILE WEST OF NEPTUNE MINES ON MAY TWENTYTHREE WITH LARGE BANDIT GROUP UNDER PEDRON ALTAMIRANO THIS GROUP HAS BEEN THREATENING GUARDIA POST THERE FIGHTING VERY INTENSE UPON RETURN OF PATROL TO NEPTUNE MINES CUARTEL WAS ATTACKED BY ANOTHER GROUP FROM NORTH ATTACK REPULSED PLANES BOMBED AND REDISPERSED BANDITS BREAKING UP FURTHER ATTACK BANDIT CASUALTIES SEVENTEEN KILLED NO SERIOUS GUARDIA CASUALTIES 1600"

25 May 1932.
Reporte de contacto con intencion de ataque, Oficial Comandante de la Guardia Nacional, Distrito de la Mina Neptuno, J. A. Somarriba M., al Comandante del Departamento de Bluefields del Sur (2 images).
   (second image: 1st Endorsement by Col. Leech, 11 June)

1.    27 May 1932.
Detail of activities since 18th May, 1932, to present date, 2nd. Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Dept Commander, Bluefields, p. 1. 
   "1. On the morning of the 19th, received a report that a large group bandits were in the vicinity of Wauni and Siuna.  It was generally assumed in Neptune that the bandits were a long way from this District, however finqueros were coming in bringing all their possessions but would not give any information regarding location or even infer that there were bandits in the area.  Their manner was very strange and unusual. We dispatched a runner to try and discover the disturbances.  About ten thirty same morning a native came running into Neptune very excited and reported a group of three hundred men under Pedron Altamirano about an hour and a half from Neptune Mines.  Also reported another group about one hundred fifty under Jefe Peralta.  Native stated both groups were advancing on our station.  Considered immediate offensive action impractical as our automatic weapon was with patrol in Tunky and further believed the reported circumstances necessitated the defense of the Mine, primarily, until we could further ascertain just what the situation might be.  The people living in the Mine of course got terribly excited and with some difficulty they were quieted and assured of their safety.  Dispatched a runner to Tunky patrol notifying them to return to the Mine and expect trouble en route.  Also started runner to Wauni who was captured same day. Formed heavy guard throughout night.  ¶  2. Morning of the 19th, patrol returned from Tunky with nothing more than rumors.  Sent two men to try and reach Wauni, and attempt to get definite information location of bandits.  One of these men was captured, the other escaped and returned Neptune, bringing authentic data on bandit groups.  Dispatched one more man to Wauni who reached there and reported to Lieut. Curcey.  Throughout night a machine gun or automatic weapon was fired twice.  Up to the morning of the twenty first I still could not get any direct location of bandit forces.  In the afternoon of the twenty first I cleared with ten Guardia and five Civicos to ascertain and verify reports and to be able to give Curcey an accurate point when he arrived as I was expecting him then.  My direction was due south of NEPTUNE to destination of largest group, it was about six miles to this place and when we were about half way I ran up to the guide and ask how much further to go.  He told me and I turned half around to motion the patrol on when I glanced through the bush and saw five armed men pass slowly by and looking direct at me.  For a minute I thought it was Lieut. Curcey’s civicos.  I flank the patrol through the bush, which was very heavy, and found another now well worn trail alongside of a very steep hill, right angles to our original one.  Patrol gathered together in the trail and we ran to . . . "

2.    27 May 1932.
Detail of activities since 18th May, 1932, to present date, 2nd. Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Dept Commander, Bluefields, p. 2. 
   ". . . catch up with this group (then the trail showed evidence of many having past).  The bandits opened fire on us at about thirty yards.  The growth was so large that we could not see but only a few of them, however from their position and amount of firing I estimate about six hundred fifty, but I do not believe Pedron was in this group as was previously reported.  Patrol was unable to ascertain any bandit causalities if any at all.  There were no Guardia casualties.  We captured three mules and one horse all equipped for riding, with saddles.  Patrol then cleared for the Mine and when we were within half mile heard rifle and pistol shots to our right and left. Then the heavy browning from our Cuartel was fired. I assumed the Mine was being attacked so proceeded cautiously and fast to do what I could.  On arrival, however found out Lieut. Somarriba, who was manning and holding that position, had fired at a small group that were soon creeping along toward the Cuartel.  These bandits were dispersed.  Lieut. Somarriba remained in the Cuartel on the hill to hold that position and I took up a station in the lower part of the town with ten armed guardia and civicos to maintain a guard over the trails and ravines.  Sergeant Garcia was placed on the other hill overlooking Neptune to take care of that point using the “BAR” there, being the most effective position for it.  Bandits fired on him during the night and he routed them with about five minutes fire.  My position was not bothered.  ¶  3. Morning of the twenty second, planes came over and bombed area south, south by southwest and east.  Particularly they hit a group almost square, who was reported to be Peralta and group.  A woman he had captured along with her husband reported that Capt. Mulcahy and planes killed five including her husband but she escaped and reported to me, stating that the group had been completely scattered.  I received other similar statements almost identical from natives who had been hiding from the bandits in that vicinity.  At this time I had SGT. GARCIA and a ten man patrol over to the Company Bodega to confirm a report of a group in that location.  When he arrived the building had been partially looted but bombing cleared them out.  In the afternoon Somarriba cleared with twenty men to the Eden Mine on report of main group passing through there.  The main group had passed through.  It was about four o’clock so he returned to the Mine. While Somarriba was in that vicinity, we heard a very heavy fire for about ten minutes, and assumed he was in contact with them, but on his return found that it must have been “Gonsales” and group, who had been to our north, not recognizing Pedron and opened fire.  Throughout the night we kept the same position as stated above.  ¶  4. Activities had quieted during the night and on the twenty third bandits were reported to be taking the Biltigni trail and leaving.  Believing they could not travel fast with the stolen cattle, I cleared with a patrol of twenty Guardia and Civicos leaving from Neptune went over a longer trail but which I thought would not take me between the big groups and get in front of both of them to the north.  I slipped my patrol out and by one as secret as possible and formed them a mile west of Neptune.  We had hardly gone two hundred yards, when they opened fire on us in the open trail but thickly wooded on each side.  My point which in this firing position became the right flank was forced . . . "

3.    27 May 1932.
Detail of activities since 18th May, 1932, to present date, 2nd. Lt. Earl T. Gray, District of Neptune Mine, to Dept Commander, Bluefields, p. 3. 
   ". . . into hand to hand conflict to get out of and gain combat position.  Pedron blew a bugle during the contact and at the beginning called out (Now I have you Macho, you and all of your dogs) as interpreted by patrol.  The contact lasted for an hour and a half and we killed known seventeen bandits.  There were no serious Guard casualties.  I was dazed for a few minutes by bomb explosion close to me and three men were slightly cut by machetes.  No one shot, some grazed but it did not bother them.  I tried to get their automatic weapons and the bugle, but they got away.  Captured three more riding animals and saddles, little correspondents and pick up some of their spent and good ammunition.  Planes arrived just as I got back to Neptune and the Cuartel was again firing at group in rear of the Mine.  During my contact the power plant was being attacked at Big Falls but Civicos dispersed them from that point.  Planes again hit the right spot to the West and am certain they created causalities from the mess of torn flesh and blood found in that area.  Bandits to the south fired on plane with machine gun or automatic weapon when planes fired machine guns.  The airplanes were a decisive end of the bandits contemplated attack on Neptune Mines.  ¶  5. On the twenty fifth I again cleared with a combat patrol of twenty two, to meet Curcey at the Star Mine and continue after bandits.  About twelve noon a native appeared, who was identified and well known in this vicinity, and reported that at ten o’clock a group had passed into his place and robbed him of everything.  I cleared for that district and the house had been torn up.  The man’s mule and some cattle were stolen.  Proceeded to the Piz Piz Bodega did not locate group and returned Neptune after dark.  Lieut. Curcey arrived the next afternoon, twenty sixth and reported many large camps en route from Wauni.  Lieut. Curcey cleared this morning, twenty seventh for bandits.  Believe he will get them too.  ¶  6. I am very positive that no bandit force can ever enter the Neptune Mines as long as there is a good armed force here.  ¶  7. Official contact reports being forwarded next mail.  ¶  8. These recent bandit activities were the most unusual and perplexing than any I have ever seen in Nicaragua.  ¶  9. Bandit Jefes were as follows: Pedron Altamirano, Pedro Irias, Simon Gonzalez, Peralta and a Col. Pineda. All of them were identified.  ¶  E. T. GRAY

27 May 1932.
Valuable Services Rendered by Aircraft Squadrons, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields.  

1.    27 May 1932.
Resume of Events in the Eastern Area during Period May 18-28, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1. 

2.    27 May 1932.
Resume of Events in the Eastern Area during Period May 18-28, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2. 

3.    27 May 1932.
Resume of Events in the Eastern Area during Period May 18-28, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3. 

 
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