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the atlantic coast  •  1931A, p. 2
Feb 16—march 31, 1931

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the 44 days from February 16 to March 31.

     Chronicling the boldest, most dramatic, and most popularly remembered EDSN offensive into the heart of the Atlantic Coast, the documents presented here and in the following pages offer an unprecedentedly fine-grained portrayal of Sandino’s most intensive efforts to integrate the Coast and Costeños into his struggle.  A series of small-scale foraging raids & robberies along the lower stretches of the Coco feed into a swirl of rumors about a big Sandinista offensive in the offing  (e.g., Lt. Benson, 21 Feb) — though even by early March, Guardia intelligence described the military situation as “quiet,” punctuated only by “minor disturbances on the COCO RIVER by small group of outlaws” (3 March).  The last document on this page – an eyewitness account of a Sumu Indian from Musawas on the beheading of Moravian missionary Otto Bregenzer on 31 March by forces under Gen. Pedro Blandón — is supplemented here and on the following pages with similar accounts of the incident, which arguably became one of the EDSN’s biggest strategic blunders on the Coast, alienating untold numbers of Costeños from Sandino’s cause.  Sandino himself was unequivocal about his disdain for the Moravian missionaries, as his Feb 21 letter to Abraham Rivera makes clear.  The page includes four previously unpublished missives by Sandino (21 Feb and 9, 16 & 25 March) that, when read alongside the radiograms and reports of the Marines & Guardia, help to put these unfolding events in a broader context.  The arrest & release of National Assembly Deputy (and secret EDSN General) Adolfo Cockburn also merits close attention (12 & 16 March), as does his connection to the mysterious Henry L. Green (21 Feb).

     Meanwhile across the Coast, deteriorating economic conditions & mass unemployment feed into a sense of impending dramatic social rupture, as illustrated in the “revolutionary circular” found in Puerto Cabezas (28 March) – a circular entirely unrelated to the EDSN, but emblematic of an apocalyptic-millenarian sensibility coursing throughout much of the region’s social fabric, especially nearest the largest export zones.  

     In short, if there was ever a time for a Sandinista breakthrough on the Coast, this was it.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

16 February 1931.
Report on outlaws in Cape Gracias, Col. John Marston, Bluefields. 
 "Operator Cape Gracias reports town in hands outlaws twelve hundred to-day and he has left radio station period Stanley patrol left here twelve hundred period Davis and twenty enlisted from Bluefields to Puerto Cabezas eighteen hundred to-day period Can you send two planes for reconnaissance to-morrow 16116 Feb 1931"

18 February 1931.
Establishment of temporary post at Cape Gracias.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, p. 1.   
"18 February 1931. ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area ¶ To: The Jefe Diretor ¶ Subject: Establishment of temporary post at Cape Gracias. ¶ Reference (a) My radio message #17313 FEB 31 to JD ¶ (b) Radio message #15316 FEB 31 JD to AC EA ¶ 1. During the latter part of last week, the Tropical Radio Telegraph Company became concerned about the conditions reported to its Boston office as existing at Cape Gracias (Cabo Gacias a Dios) and on Sunday, the local manager of the United Fruit Company was ordered peremptorily to send a tug from Bluefields to the cape to take off the operator there. At about the same time, the Governor at Cape Gracias sent me a radio telling me that outlaws were again on the lower river and had murdered six people at Uluwas about eighty miles above the town of Cape Gracias. ¶ 2. While these rumors were discounted considerably by myself, I realized the people at the Cape were greatly alarmed and decided to send a patrol from Puerto Cabezas to investigate conditions there. Upon receipt of orders, the Department Commander dispatched Lieutenant Stanley and ten enlisted men of the Guardia Nacional from Puerto Cabezas at about 1300 Sunday 15 February. At 1400 the same day, the operator on watch in the Bluefields station of the Tropical Radio Telegraph Company receive a message relayed from Cape Gracias through the S. S. Nicarao and the radio station at Almirante in which the Cape Gracias operator stated the town (Cape Gracias) was in the hands of a bandit gang and he was leaving for the bush. Acting upon this information, I decided to reinforce the Department of Northern Bluefields with one officer and twenty men in order to make an effort to destroy or capture the outlaws raiding the lower Wanks (Coco) River, and First Lieutenant Davis and twenty enlisted departed from Bluefields that afternoon. ¶ 3. I have issued orders to the Department Commander at Puerto Cabezas to exhaust every means of making contact with the group on the lower river. The news has just reached this office that the schooner “ULTRAMAR” upon which the Bluefields detachment [...]"

18 February 1931.
Establishment of temporary post at Cape Gracias.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, p. 2.   
"[...] -(2) - ¶ was embarked broke down at Prinzapolka and at this writing the men are proceeding by foot up the coast to Puerto Cabezas where they should arrive this evening. ¶ 4. I can see no advantage in maintaining a temporary post at Cape Gracias except during such periods in which the town is actually threatened by active outlaw groups. The presence of these groups is usually known well in advance (eighteen to twenty four hours) and, if a schooner is at Puerto Cabezas and the weather is not too bad, a patrol can be sent to the Cape in about ten hours. I believe if the bandit group now reported to be on the lower river below Sacklin can be broken up in a sharp contact, few groups will venture again so far to the eastward. If the Department Commander has been able to get a patrol to Kisalaya promptly, I hope that the group on the lower river will be intercepted and possibly broken up. This, at least is the plan I have outlined to the Department Commander. ¶ 5. With reference to the free transportation for the temporary garrison at Cape Gracias, it should be borne in mind that the fruit steamers can land men at the Cape only if the weather is good and then only if the town can send out to the ship and take the men off. This, of course, is impracticable if the town is in the hands of a bandit group. In an emergency and in suitable weather the fruit steamers leaving Bluefields Saturday evening will take free of charge any officers and men we desire to land at Cape Gracias but this free transportation is not available in an emergency. No free transportation has been offered out of Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 6. Unless otherwise ordered, it is my intention to withdraw the temporary garrison at Cape Gracias as soon as conditions on the Wanks River become normal. The personnel situation in this area is too precarious (in point of insufficient numbers) to justify the detachment of one officer and ten men for an extended period. (signed) JOHN MARSTON"

19 February 1931.
Desertions at Neptune Mine, Department of Northern Bluefields.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN.

 

1.     20 February 1931.
Intelligence.  Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.   (NOTE: this report in the TOP 100, Page 62). 
Source: NA127/43A/2d Brig B-2 Repts, 1 Jan-24 Mar 31.

"1. Information elicited from natives, for the most part reliable.  ¶  That the raid of the bandits in January last, under Abraham Rivera as jefe was a mere scouting expedition, made to secure information, procure boats and supplies, get recruits, and test out the Guardia strength.  Arms were also taken from the Indians upon every possible occasion, but it was not the policy of Rivera to offer violence to the Indians or other natives along their route, unless they were known to be Marines or Guardia sympathizers.  ¶  At least two persons were killed, one negro and one Mosquito Indian, although most reports state four persons killed, all of whom were either negros or Mosquito Indians.  These killings were perpetrated by Timoteo Altamirano who was sub-jefe of group under Abraham Rivera.  It was partly on account of these killings that Rivera and Altamirano disagreed. This disagreement resulted in a fight between Rivera and Altamirano, and the latter with four of his friends were kicked out of the group at Waspuk on the way up the river. Rivera, with the remainder of the group, about 30 men returned to Bocay.  ¶  2. Reports from spies and Indians returning from up river (Wanks) state that there are at least 300 bandits, or rather outlaws, of all nationalities in the Patuca river section north of Awawas, and in the vicinity of Kiplapini.  They have a regular outpost on the river near Awawas situated so that it enables them to see long distances both up and down the river.  These outlaws are a particularly bad lot, are well armed, live by cattle raising, and smuggling arms to the people at Bocay.  The outlaws in these sections have no known jefe, although all acknowledge Pedron and Sandino.  Their raids are similar to the last one made last September when Jose Lleset was killed at Aguasbila, and are made more with intention of murder, pillage and private vengeance than in the form of organized banditry.  Timoteo Altamirano was allied with them after his escape from the Line here, following the killing of a Sirian at Snaki on 22 January 1930.  Timoteo Altamirano is a relation of Pedron Altamirano, believed to be a cousin.  The outlaws from the Patuca River-Awawas-Kiplapini section are reported to be ready to join in force the bandits group at Bocay under Rivera for an attack on Puerto Cabezas, the Cape or both.  ¶  3. The bandit group at Bocay has become greatly increased in numbers during the past six (6) months.  The main camp is some distance ..."

 

2.     20 February 1931.
Intelligence.   Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2. 

"... up the Bocay River.  The reasons given by natives for the increase in size of this group, are that the concentrated drives by Guardia and Marines in Segovia and Jinotega on the bandit groups have caused many desertions, and that many of these deserters from the bandit ranks have collected at Bocay.  Abraham Rivera is the only known Jefe, but alleges he has been ordered there by Sandino, and that he has been placed there to facilitate the smuggling of munitions, arms and supplies to the bandit groups in Segovia and Jinotega.  A deliberate effort has been made to gain favor with the Bocay Indians with a view to having their support, and has met with considerable success.  The Indians in this region professing themselves ready to take part in any attack on Guardia or expedition to Puerto Cabezas or Cabo Gracias.  What means, exactly, has been used to gain the confidence of the Bocay Indians is not known, but their feelings and sympathies have been cleverly brought over to the side of the bandits.  The presence of several foreigners in this group has been reported; three of them either Germans, Hungarians or Russians, one American, and several Mexicans and Honduranians.  Indians unfriendly to, this group report that some months past, (due to the Indians inability to describe time accurately, it is not known exactly when, but between the middle of September and October) a large shipment of arms was brought up the river in boats to Bocay from near Awawas, having been previously smuggled in through the Patuca river section.  No estimate has been able to be made of the amount of arms or ammunition or the class of arms, but that practically all were in boxes, and the Indians did not see but one box opened up which one contained rifles.  From the description of the boxes some described as being long and flat, (indicating) rifles, others small and very heavy, indicating ammunition, and two or three that might have contained machine guns; there is little doubt that the boxes did contain arms and ammunition.  The Indians state that they did not see the boxes unpacked at Bocay, but that they did see some sent up the Coco River, toward Cua and Santa Cruz in boats.  They also state that Abraham Rivera’s men do not have new arms, nor are they particularly well-armed, many having shotguns of a muzzle-loading variety.  This would indicate that this arms shipment was sent on to Segovia or Jinotega.  ¶  4. The latest reports received came in the 14th, 15th and 16th of February 1931, prior to the details of the raid of Timoteo Altamirano on Ulwas and Sacklin.  These reports are believed to be also reliable, and have been obtained from various Indians.  These reports state that Pedron and various bandit groups in Segovia and Jinotega have been hard pushed in the last drive and have been placed in the position where they must recoup in money, arms etc. or quit.  The successes they have planned and anticipated with the previous reduction in the Guardia were not realized, nor have they been able to collect money in the desired amounts from the coffee planters in the interior. They have planned a concentrated attack on Puerto Cabezas and Cabo Gracias.  This attack to be made by the bandits from Bocay, joined by others from the Patuca river-Kiplapini-Awawas section.  This combined group will come down the river in boats to Kisalaya or Sacklin and attempt to draw a Guardia patrol out of Logtown. If num-  ..."

3.     20 February 1931.
Intelligence.   Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 3.  

" ...ber of group is sufficient, part of them will continue on down the river to Cabo Gracias, sacking the Cape, and capturing all available boats.  If number is not sufficient they will devote their efforts toward drawing a guardia patrol from Puerto Cabezas and wiping it out.  The number this group will have is estimated at from 200 to 250 men including Indians.  Reports very clearly indicate that all boats are being commandeered on the river and more are being built.  This group will march on Logtown, which is the destination as far as the informants know.  All of this described above is to be combined and synchronized with a group, supposedly under Pedron, coming over land through Wani to vicinity of Tunky to Kukalaya and hitting the Bragman Bluff Lumber Companies new construction line near Santa Cruz.  There is a well cut trail through the Kukalaya swamp from the new line.  This group plans on hitting the New Line after the Guardia patrol which the Sacklin patrol has drawn out, have passed out of Logtown.  Then this group will push on into Puerto Cabezas, commandeering all transportation and robbing as they go.  Reports state that there are many spies of the bandits now working on the railroad line here, and that the bandits are in possession of full information and all necessary details.  (Several suspicious persons have been reported in Logtown during the last 60 days) two of them foreigners (Europeans).  The bandits plan on having their adherents in Puerto Cabezas, and on the line attend to such details as cutting telephone lines demolishing radio etc.  All informants state that the bandits show surprising knowledge of things along the line and in Port, and that they have laid their plans systematically and with care and that everything gives signs of the bandits having foreigners to advise and direct them.  The time of this joint attack is stated as any time between the first and middle of March, but the factor which will determine it, will be the conditions of the trails from Tunky through the Kisalaya Swamp to the railroad line.  Informants do not know whether the bandits plan on attempting to raid the mines on the way over or to go around them and conceal their intentions.  ¶  5. A small group of bandits was reported to have captured a native on the Pis Pis trail about 15 miles from the end of the new railroad line.  The native supposed to have been captured has disappeared and all attempts to locate him have failed.  The captured man’s story was that there were about 8 men in the bandit group and that they kept him prisoner over night questioning him as to when the next pay on the line would be, and when the farms on the new construction line would be paid, also information concerning commissaries etc.  The man either escaped or was permitted to go.  No great credence is placed in this report, due to the fact that the motive cannot be found.  But it is a possibility and fits in with the other information.  The so called bandits may very well have been laborers discharged by the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company.  ¶  6. The latest information relative to the bandit attack on Ulwas on the night of February 15th, is that there were seven (7) men in the group, but that the jefe was not Timoteo Altamirano, nor is it known who the jefe was.  They arrived at 1900 15th at Ulwas from up the river. ..."

 

4.     20 February 1931.
Intelligence.   Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 4.

"... Lieutenant Benson, in his report received 19th February, states that witnesses say the bandit group were Honduranians, that they were formerly employed on the railroad line here at Brown’s Camp.  They did no material damage; no verification of any killings done by them has been received.  They fired several shots, stole $26.00 in cash, and scattered a bag of flour over the ground.  They left Ulwas at 2300 February 15, went to Saulala, and from there to Honduras by trail on the 16th February.  Benson reports having thoroughly reconnoitered Kisalaya, Waspam, Ulwas, Bilas Carmen, Saupuca and Sacklin, and proceeding down river by trail to Wasla and Kum. News reached Lieutenant Benson from up river concerning the four guardia deserters from Neptune Mine, who have been reliably reported as having passed Waspuk 15th February, and gone up river to Honduras.  Benson will probably reach Logtown tonight.  ¶  7. This latest report of bandits on the Wanks appears now to have been tremendously exaggerated and distorted by all our informants.  I believe that our informants have gained their ends, partially at least, when we sent a patrol to Cabo Gracias.  It is my belief that during the remainder of the dry season we will have many repetitions of these reports, and also that we may expect more serious events than heretofore.  I firmly believe that attempts will be made on commissaries along the railroad line and perhaps on the pay train, and very probably in sufficient force to be successful.  An attack on Puerto Cabezas, I believe unlikely, although a well commanded and organized force could reach here without detection during the dry season, and the loot that they would get would be well worth it.  Particular pains are being taken to protect the Pay train, the Guardia car being protected by boiler-plate, and the Guard strong enough to make any, but an attack in large force unsuccessful.  ¶  8. With the present patrol in Cabo Gracias I believe we can solve some of our troubles on the river providing that they can be kept there during the dry season.  I recommend that steps be taken to procure gasoline, out of bond, for use at Cabo Gracias, and that a boat be placed at the disposal of the Guardia in Cabo Gracias for periodic patrols up river.  Under these circumstances, with the cooperation of the people in Cabo Gracias, we could patrol at least a part of the Wanks without undue expenses, and thus gain timely information of bandits on river, and perhaps obviate these expensive expeditions which accomplish little, and are inclined to make the bandits laugh at our inability to catch up with them.  At present the expense of hiring a boat with crew etc. for up river is exorbitant, but had we the gasoline free of duty, the boat rent free, and a crew who could be fed by Guardia during their time of duty, (hence a civic crew) we could accomplish something.  The Governor and people of Cabo Gracias should do this for the protection afforded, and I believe could be compelled to do so without stirring up too much trouble.   /s/ H N STENT "  

Thanks to Pleet Initiative-funded Lebanon Valley College student-researcher Nicholas J. Quadrini for his transcription of this document.

5.     20 February 1931.
1st Endorsement of Capt. Stent Intelligence Report of 20 Feb., Col. John Marston, Bluefields, 23 Feb., to Jefe Director GN, p. 5.
   "This report of conditions in the Department of Northern Bluefields is of interest though it is believed that the description of the threatened attack on Cabo Gracias and Puerto Cabezas is purely conjecture and probably entirely imaginative, I do believe, however, that the activities of the "gun-runners" are properly described and these may account for the influx of new arms reported to be in the hands of the organized bandit gangs in Segovia and Jinotega."

20 February 1931.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, conveying radio message from Cape Gracias via Lt. Stanley. 
 "1. The following radio was received on the night of 17 February 1931 by the radio operator at Cabo Gracias, and was sent in code to this office by Lieutenant Stanley:  ¶  Jefe Sandinistas Cape Gracias Radiografieme detalles ocupacion aprovechen. (Garbled INALAMBRICO) comuniarse prensa mundial fraternalmente signed NORBERTO SALINAS DE AGUILAR."  ¶  2. It is apparently a result of the rumored capture of Cabo Gracias by the bandits.  Salinas de Aguilar is believed to be an ex-newspaper man connected with Tijerino."

1.     21 February 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"21 February, 1931 ¶ Subject: Patrol Report. ¶ Reference: (a) Verbal orders from Department Commander dated 16 February 1931. ¶ 1. In compliance with reference (a) a patrol consisting of two (2) Offices, thirteen (13) enlisted Guardia, one (1) civilian guide, eight riding animals and one pack animal cleared LOGTOWN for KISALAYA at 0600 February 17, 1931. Events of each day are set forth below: ¶ 16 Feb. Cleared PUERTO CABEZAS for LOGTOWN at 2320. ¶ 17 Feb. Arrived LOGTOWN 0400, cleared LOGTOWN for KISALAYA at 0600, arrived KISALAYA at 1645. Native of KISALAYA disclaimed any knowledge of bandits activities. Spent night in KISALAYA. ¶ 18 Feb. Cleared KISALAYA for SACLIN and intermediate towns at 0700. Passed WASPAN at 0830. Arrived ULWAS at 0930. Seven rebels, four of them Guardia deserters from Neptune Mine and the other three brothers named GONZALES from SANTO DOMINGO, arrived ULWAS at 1925 February 15th and departed up river at 1945 same date. They robbed the commissary of ABRAM MARTINEZ of $24.00 in cash and clothing valued at $102.30. This group had stolen an outboard motor from WASPUC, paddled silently down the river and robbed the commissary. At 1945 they returned to their boat, started up the river under power, and went as far as SANTO DOMINGO the same night. Approximately two hundred (200) shots were fired through the roof of the commissary. Departed ULWAS 1200, passed SAUPUCA at 1430, passed BILWASKARMA at 1530 and arrived SACLIN1600. Dispatched runner to WASLA and KUM for information. Spent night in SACLIN. ¶ 19 Feb. 0300 runner arrived from LOGTOWN. 0900 runner returned from WASLA and KUM with information that all was normal in that vicinity and that there had been no bandits there. [...]"

2.     21 February 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- ¶ Subject: Patrol Report ¶ 20 Feb. Cleared SACLIN 0230 arrived LOGTOWN 1130. Departed LOGTOWN 1330 arrived PUERTO CABEZAS 1845. ¶ 2. This group of robbers slipped down the river from WASPUC under cover of darkness. They spent the day of the robbery, February 15th, in a creek about two hours paddling above ULWAS. On the night of February 15th they left their camp, paddled to ULWAS, robbed the commissary, and returned up stream under power. The Guardia deserters were in uniform even to hat cords and escutas and carried their rifles, belts and bayonets. They stole only clothing and cash. ¶ 3. It was ascertained that upon our arrival in KISALAYA an Indian left there and went to SANTO DOMINGO and passed through WASPUC at 0300 February 18th taking the trail from there which skirts the western side of CARATASCA LAGOON and leads to the mouth of the PATUCA RIVER. This information is believed absolutely reliable. ¶ 4. Although no empty shells could be found in the vicinity of MARTINEZ commissary I was reliably informed that they were of the same type as our ammunition (Krag Combat Ammunition). ¶ 5. The morale of the Patrol was excellent. Upon our arrival in KISALAYA none of us had been to sleep for thirty-six hours and we had walked approximately forty miles, through a blazing sun with no rest whatever. The only complaining from any member of the Patrol was that we did not obtain contact with the bandits. ¶ (signed) W. W. BENSON ¶ 1st Endorsement, 21 February 1931. ¶ DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS, PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA. ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Area of the East, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua. Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. Forwarded. (signed) H. N. STENT"

3.     21 February 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. W. W. Benson, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] 1st Endorsement. ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA, GUARDIA NAIONALDE NICARAGUA, ¶ Bluefields, 23 February 1931. ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area ¶ To: The Jefe Director ¶ Subject: Patrol report (BENSON patrol, 17 February 1931, out of PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶1. Forwarded. ¶ JOHN MARSTON."

21 February 1931.
Case of military prisoner William C. Chesser alias Henry L. Green alias Tom Petty alias John Smith.  Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.

21 February 1931.
Case of military prisoner William C. Chesser alias Henry L. Green alias Tom Petty alias John Smith.  Capt. H. N. Stent, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.

21 February 1931.
Statement of Miskitu Indian Rosa Robinson of Ulwas, Nicaragua, witnessed by Capt. C. Darrah, Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua.  
 "It is known by myself and all of the Mosquito Indians who are living along the Wanks River, that Adolfo Cockburn is a friend of the bandits, that he knows all of their plans and expeditions etc. which he keeps mostly under cover.  ¶  With Abram Rivera's group he was over friendly Rivera told him, that he (Rivera) would soon be down the river again with as many men as there is rice in a bag, and that he was going to go on to Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  Cockburn also told the Indians, that if any of them notified the authorities, that Sandino (who is also planning to be on the next expedition) when he was in command of the Port, would have them all killed. They plan to be back down the river some time in March.  ¶  Also there is a colored man who all the people only know as doctor living is Waspam, is connected with the bandits.  Bluffing the people by telling them, he was appointed Governor of that region by Rivera on his last trip down. Is threatening the Indians every chance he gets.  ¶  Rivera had a large flag with him on his last trip down the river, and the following is a description of same:--  ¶  A square in upper left corner w/ skull & cross swords.  The rest of the flag was red.  ¶  /s/ Her Mark X Rosa Robinson C. R. Darrah"

21 February 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Gen. Pedro Blandón  (photocopy of original unpublished letter taken from Gen. Blandón's body).  
"Cuartel General del Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua.  21 de Febrero de 1931.  ¶  Señor General Pedro Blandón,  ¶  Campo de operaciones.   ¶  Muy apreciable hermano:  ¶  Fueron en nuestro poder sus dos muy atentas notas en las que se sirvio participarnos de los combates y de su permanencia cerca de 'Las Vegas.'  ¶  Suponemos de que ya habrá recibido nuestras otras comunicaciones, inclusive la en que se le ordenaba su inmediata reconcentración a este Cuartel General, en unión de nuestros hermanos Generales Pedro Altamirano e Ismael Peralta.  ¶  Ultimamente hemos tenido noticias de nuestros dos hermanos Peralta y Altamirano, de que salieron en la jira de que con anterioridad Ud también sabía.  ¶  En esa virtud mi querido hermano:  Sírvase Usted con las fuerzas a sus órdenes, pasar en el termino de la distancia a este Cuartel General de nuestro Ejército, en donde recibirá nuevas instrucciones y parque posiblemente para reforzar a esa Columna.  Nuestro hermano Francisco Estrada, actualmente está curandose unas ulceras en Honduras.  Pués bién hermano:  El viaje de Ud con sus fuerzas a éste Cuartel General de nuestro Ejército, deberá de hacerlo por el Campamento del hermano Capitán Fulgencio Pérez.  En los casos de que Ud se encuentre por la Concordia, Yalí, o San Rafael del Norte, sírvase venir con sus fuerzas por los Campamentos de 'El Ojoche' y desde allí llegar por cordillera que esta establecida, a este nuestro Cuartel General.  Suponemos de que sabrá cumplir al pié de la letra, estas instrucciones; pues en otro caso se hará Ud responsable a las consecuencias.  Un sincero abrazo para todos nuestros hermanos que le acompañan allí.  Sinceramente vuestro hermano, Patria y Libertad   /s/  A. C. Sandino      P.D. Nuestro hermano el Sargento Mayor Ladislao Palacios, permanece en 'El Arco' con una fuerza armada de nuestro Ejército, para establecer líneas de comunicaciones, desde 'El Arco' hasta el lugar denominado 'Los Araditos', el la jurisdicción de la Ciudad de Estelí.  Vale. [Original document with seal.  Lt. WOOD, from body of Blandón.  RG127/38/30.  See also IR31.05.01: 3-4, in RG127/43A/29]

21 February 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN, to Sr. Cnl. Abraham Rivera, Río Coco, p. 1.  
"... La cuestión de los sacerdotes en el Río Coco, y la inclinación al hueveo de nuestros muchachos. Posiblemente que nosotros llegaremos a tener la oportunidad de controlar militar, civil y religiosamente a nuestra República.  En aquellos felices días para nuestro pueblo, tendrá lugar entre nosotros un análysis de todo lo que nos estorbe para el progreso humano, y eso será barrido por nosotros con escobas de bayonetas.  En esta vez me refiero a los sacerdotes que están en el Río Coco. ..."   Published in Augusto C. Sandino, Pensamiento vivo, vol. 1 (Managua, 1984), p. 163.

21 February 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN, to Sr. Cnl. Abraham Rivera, Río Coco, p. 2. 
  Published in Augusto C. Sandino, Pensamiento vivo, vol. 1 (Managua, 1984), p. 164.

3 March 1931.
Excerpts from Record of Events, Eastern Area, February 1931.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.

3 March 1931.
Excerpts from Record of Events, Eastern Area, February 1931.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

5 March 1931.
Telegram from Pilar A. Ortega, Sub-Secretario de la Ministro de Gobernación, Managua, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.   
"Managua, 5 de marzo de 1931. ¶ Sr. Jefe Director de la Guardia Nacional. ¶ Presente: ¶ Para su conocimiento y para que resuelva lo que crea conveniente, me permit ranscribirle el siguientge oficio: ¶ “PALACIO NACIONAL.- Managua, D.N. 4 de marzo de 1931. – Senor Ministro: Para su conocimiento y fines que juzgue convenientes, me doy el honor de transcriber a Ud. El siguiente oficio: “Managua, 1o. de marzo de 1931.- Senor Ministro.-: La persistencia de las amenazas de partidas de bandoleros sobre la ciudad de Cabo Gracias a Dios de que varias veces he informado verbalmente a Ud. Y que dieron lugar el envio de un piquete de la Guardia Nacional para proteger las vidas y las propiedades de los moradores de aquel lugar, y el temor de que la proteccion que esta fuerza del Gobierno pueda cesar si el destacamento se retirara, ha motivado que nuestra oficina principal de Boston me haya dado instrucciones para rogar la atencion de Ud. A la necesidad de que el referido destacamento no sea retirado y que permanezca alla mientras las circunstancia indiquen su necesidad. Como Ud, bien sabe el gobierno al celebrar con la Compania el contrato para las instalaciones inalambricas le exigio como una necesidad imperativa la construccion de una estacion en el Cabo Gracias a Dios, en interes solamente del Gobierno como que los servicios que ella prestaria serian exclusivamente para las oficinas del mismo, dado que la escasez de poblacion en aquel lugar no justificaba una instalacion con fines puramente comerciales. La fraccion final de la Clausula VI del contrato de 6 de agosto de 1921 dejo constancia de ello al consignar: “Con el fin de abrir comunicaciones con el Cabo Gracias a Dios y en atencion a los ventajosos y casi exclusivos servicios que la estacion en ese lugar prestara al Gobierno, permitira este. . . . .etc.” Ahora la Compania tropieza con la dificultad de asegurar a los operadores de aquella es- [...]"

5 March 1931.
Telegram from Pilar A. Ortega, Sub-Secretario de la Ministro de Gobernación, Managua, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] acion la conservacion de sus vidas y de proteger ella misma su instalacion, pues la intranquilidad de los moradores de aquella region, afligidos por la persistencia de las noticias de que los bandoleros aprovecharan la primera oportunidad paa asaltar la poblaion y echarse sobre la estacion y destruirla, hace temer naturalmene que al alejarse la proteccion ya suministrada por el Gobierno, corren grave riesgos las vidas de los operadores y las propiedades de los particulares y principalmente los extranjeros. Y no son de dudarse los incalculable perjuicios que vendrian a la Compania y sobre todo al Gobierno, si llegara a hacerse imposible conseguir operadores, o si la estacion fuera destruida. Esto ultimo, sobre todo concluiria definitivamente con el unico medio de comunicaciones rapidas que existe actualmene entre el interior de la Republica y aquella region. Es por eso que nuestra oficina principal me ha dado instrucciones para rogar a Ud, una especial consideracion del asunto, y para pedirle que la proteccion sea mantenida con la permanencia de un desacamento de la Guardia en aquel lugar suficiente para garantizar tanto la vida de los operadores como la instalacion radiografica, cuyo desmantelamiento si la proteccion cesara, traeria incalculable perjuicios a la Compania y al Gobierno mismo. Y especialmene me encarga preguntar a Ud, si puede asegurar a su personal que debran cesar sus temores, pues una declaracion del Gobienro sobre el proposito de mantener la proteccion ya acordada a nuestra solicitud, calmaria la justa ansiedad de los amenazados. Y anticipando a Ud, y al Gobierno los agradecimientos de la Compania y los personales mios por las disposiciones que seguramente ha de dictar en atencion a lo expuesto y por la promesa de hacerlo que le ruego se sirva trasmitirme, quedo respetuosamente del senor Ministro su muy obsecuente y seguro servidor, (f). Salv. Guerrero M., Representante de la Tropical Radio Telegraph Company.- Al Senor Dr. Antonio Flores Vega, Ministro de Fomento y Obras Publicas.- S.D.”.-- Del Sr. Ministro con muestras de mi mas alto aprecio y distinguida consideracion, muy atto. Y S.S., FERNANDO CORDOBA, Ministro de Fomento por la ley.—Hon. Sr. Mtro. De Gobcn., y Anexos, S.D.—“ ¶ De Ud. Atte. Y S. S. ¶ (signed) Pilar A. Ortega ¶ SUB. SRIO. De la Gobernacion."

8 March 1931.
"Carta del doctor Pedro Pérez Gallo al Jefe de la Guardia Nacional de Bluefields sobre derechos y garantías ciudadanas."  Newspaper clipping, La Prensa, Managua, 21 March 1931   (in three separate images).   
"CARTA DEL DOCTOR PEDRO PEREZ GALLO …¶ Puerto Cabezas, Marzo 8 de 1931, Senor Coronel John Marston ¶ Jefe del Area del Este ¶ Guardia Nacional. Bluefields. ¶ Muy distinguido Coronel Marston: ¶ Desde que vine a ejercer mi profesion en esta ciudad hace un ano, distintas vces he tenido que llevar mis oficios ante los jefes de la Guardia Nacional en defensa de los derechos de ciudadanos que por causas que no son necesario referir han caido presos, por lo que recurren a mi solicitando mis servicios profesionales. ¶ Con pena me he venido dando cuenta de que tales jefes ven con desagrado que tome la defensa de esas personas; aunque,a decir verdad, caballeros como el distinguido Capitan Mr. John C. Wood, al fin y al cabo han reconocido que mi actitud, en defensa de los derechos a mi confiados, es nada hostil a los fines que la Guardia persigue, sino como una consecuencia logica de los derechos legales que ejercito por mi profesion, y por iguales derechos de las personas que he defendido. Ultimamente, siempre en ejercicio de mi profesion, he tenido que llevar representaciones ante el actual Jefe Capitan Mr. Herlen Pafley; y por informes fidedignos que he tenido, y por mi propia observacion, he llegado al convencimiento de que soy ingrato para el y que ve en mi actuacion obstruccion a los intentos que persigue. ¶ Penoso es para mi haber llegado a ese convencimieno, porque vienen a mi imaginacion dos ideas: o que los jefes de la Guardia ignoran por completo el alcance de nuestras leyes, o queriendo irrespetarlas no admiten mas razon que la que creen les asiste, con menos precio irritante del derecho public que ellos deben defender y apoyar. ¶ En los ultimos dias de la semana que acaba de pasar, he tenido que defender los derechos de libertad de los senores Guillermo Amaya, primero, y del Diputado D. Adolfo Cockburn, despues. Tales derechos fueron violados en la acepcion estricta de la palabra, sin ponerme a considerar quien es el infractor. ¶ En el caso del Diputado senor Cockburn, tambien me abstengo de comentarlo, porque su prision fue un hecho que por si solo clama contra los procedimientos de las autoridades que intervinieron en su arrresto; y si es que me veo en la necesidad de citarlo, es para que se vea que causa es la que he defendido, y no se diga que me hago cargo de defender hechos inmorales o a criminals vulgares y detestables,y, que por aceptar esas defensas, ello constituye para mi una deshonra, por lo que deba merecer aun el desprecio de las mismas autoridades ante quienes lleve mis gestiones. ¶ Aun con todo, Sr Coronel Marston, usted sabe que el sagrado derecho de defensa, conquista Hermosa de los derechos del hombre, no se puede privar a ninguna persona, por convicto que se halle de su culpa. El Artifice Divino, y Legislador Supremo, para castigar las dos primeras infracciones cometidas en el mundo, presto defensa a los infractores y despues de haberlos oido dicto sus sentencias inmutables. Y si la Perfeccion Divina permitio defensa a los culpable, no obsante que los hechos eran de su pleno conocimiento, por que los hombres, sujetos a errores y adictos a querer cometer arbitrariedades, no han de permitir tambien su defensa a los que caen bajo la potestad de su autoridad? ¶ No dudo, Sr. Coronel Marston, que usted ha de convenir conmigo, que las autoridades muchas veces saltan los diques de la ley y abusivamente se lanzan soberbios contra los derechos de los asociados. Entonces se hace necesario la defensa de los oprimidos, manifestando, siquera un gesto de protesta, debil al parecer, pero fuerte por el sustentaculo legal violado abusivamene por la autoridad desordenada. ¶ Entiendo que un pais en donde no se permite el derecho de defensa, ese pais ha pasado a la categoria de pais en conquista, lo cual repugna con las ideas modernas de la epoca, ahora que la Democracia se posesiona del mundo, y va recogiendo los viejos pergaminos de gastadas noblezas, y los blasones de las casta privilegiadas , en cuyo movimiento, tambien he querido creer, va a la vanguardia la patria de Washington y de Lincoln. ¶ Pero cuando he visto que en el ejercicio de mi profesion he llegado a la Oficina de los Jefes de la Guardia de esta ciudad, y se me cierran las puertas de las celdas donde estan recluidos mis defendidos, alegandoseme que estan incomunicados (con menosprecio de terminantes disposiciones constitucionales) francamente he sufrido amargas decepciones, no por lo que a mi respecta, sino al ver un derecho violado y la Constitucion desgarrada en su Majestad. Augusta Constitucion que he querido ver en mi Patria con aire de Soberana y con la voz de Pueblo libre hiriendo implacable con su reproche mudo pero vibrante la cara soberbia del mal funcionario. ¶ Si las autoridades bajo su mando procedieron dentro de los limites de la ley, yo seria el primero en respetar ese limite,como soy el primero en protestar con el respeto y comedimientos debidos, cuando veo que ales autoridades no cumplen con el juramento que prestaron de observar la Constitucion y las leyes, y respetar los derechos y las libertades del pueblo, indudablemente sucede, porque no tienen nociones de nuestro derecho publico, como he dicho. ¶ Debe tener seguridad, Coronel Marston, que en el ejercicio de mi profesion y en defensa de los derechos a mi confiados no quiero nada gracioso de las autoridades, bien sean del orden judicial o del adminisrativo; y si tal cosa sucediera, tendria el mas triste concepto del funcionario inescrupuloso que, para congraciarse conmigo, arrebatara el derecho de los demas. Como tambien me molesta ver funcionarios que quieren cubrir sus maldades, y aun su venalidad,conel manto de la ignorancia. ¶ Esta carta, senor Coronel Marston, se concreta a pedirle muy respetuosamente, que tenga la bondad de hacer conocer a sus subalternos , en esta ciudad, que (---) pleno derecho de defender los intereses que se me confien, mientras (---) sea merecedor de la venia que (---) –tro mas alto Tribunal de (---)—cia me ha concedido; y que (---) actitud, dentro de los limites (---) (---) que siempre he man-(---) y debe mantener, porque si bien he jurado respetar la ley, no es de obstaculizar en manera alguna la accion energica de la Guardia, ya que estoy claro, de que cuando la Guardia ejerce su mision dentro de las normas legales y constitucionales, yo tambien me siento protegido, y en este sentido estoy deseoso de colaborar con ese Cuerpo, en la medida de mis facultades; asi como tambien me siento lastimado cuando imperan hechos contrarios, aun cuando no sea yo el inmediatamente perjudicado. Muy respetuosamente, su servidor atento, Pedro P. Perez Gallo, Abogado.--"

1.  9 March 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Sgt. Major Ladislao Palacios, El Arco, p. 1.   
"Cuartel General del EDSNN, 9 de Marzo de 1931.  Señor Sargento Mayor Ladislao Palacios, 'El Arco'.  Muy apreciable hermano:  le envió con la presente, una cajita parque de infume, para el rifle de esa clase y que Ud tiene.  Proximamente le enviaremos parque de pistolas, pues ya esta en nuestro poder y solamente falta que los correos lleguen a este Cuartel General.  Toda la Costa Atlántica, esta prendida por nuestras fuerzas, al mando de los hermanos Generales Altamirano, Peralta, Adán Gomez, y Pedro Antonio Irias.  Los hermanos Generales Estrada, Juan G. Colindres y el Coronel Quintero, están por entrar con gente armada a nuestro Cuartel General.  En el case de que Ud se entreviste con alguno de nuestros jefes expedicionarios; sírvase solicitar de ellos, una suma de pesos, para que igualmente se sirva Ud procurar en alguna forma, comprar un par de botas ..."

2.  9 March 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Sgt. Major Ladislao Palacios, El Arco, p. 2.   
" ... altas, para mi uso personal.  En numero de ellas es 38 1/2 o 39.  Sería mejor de que nos hiciera el servicio de comprárnoslas,  él 'Generalito' o don Luis. Cualquiera de ellos podría entrevistarse con el Coronel Joaquín Lovo yo confío en esos tres hombres, aunque ellos esten entre el enemigo.  El Coronel Lovo tiene mi medida.  Las fuerzas que salieron bajo las ordenes del hermano Teniente Coronel Perfecto Chavarría están teniendo grandes triunfos.  Tambien nuestro hermano General Salgado, José Leon Díaz, y Ortez han tenido exitos. La mayor parte de los comisaritos de las companias yankees en la Costa, han sido incedidiados por nuestras fuerzas. Sinceramente vuestro hermano, Patria y Libertad  /s/  A. C. Sandino   [Original document, 2 seals, excellent condition, never before published.  NA127/38/30]

3.  9 March 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Sgt. Major Ladislao Palacios, El Arco, p. 3.   
Guardia transcription of letter. Captured by Sgt. Ayala, 19 Jan. 1932 at Labranza.

12 March 1931.
Letter from US Legation (?), Managua, to Minister of Gobernacion, Managua.  
"12 March 1931. ¶ To the Minister of Gobernacion, ¶ In answer to your inquiry relative to Senor Diputado Suplente for the District of Cabo Gracias a Dios don Adolfo Cockburn, I have the honor to inform you that the Jefe Politico of Bluefields received an order on March 1, 1931, for the arrest and deportation of Sr. Cockburn. The Jefe Politico accordingly issued an order, in writing, to the Jefe de la Guardia, Bluefields, for the arrest. ¶ Upon receipt of that order the Jefe de la Guardia, Bluefields dispatched an officer of the Guardia to senor Cockburn to escort him to Puerto Cabezas where he was held. As soon as it was learned that senor Cockburn was a Diputado Suplente he was released. ¶ Senor Cockburn was suspected of being in league with the bandits and his activities at the time of his arrest strongly pointed to association with one Henry Green, an American who illegally possessed a pistol, stole two shotguns, another pistol and some mules, and started for the river openly stating he was going to join the bandits. Green was pursued, captured and has since been deported from the country. It is positively believed that the Jefe de la Guardia, Bluefiedls, was not aware of the fact that Cockburn was a Diputado Suplente when the order for his arrest was received from the Jefe Politico. With all consideration, beg to remain, "

16 March 1931.
Letter from Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, to US Minister, Managua.  
"HEADQUARTERS GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 16 March 1931. ¶ My dear Sir: ¶ In reply to your letter of March 13th relative to the arrest of Senor Adolfo Cockburn, Diputado Suplente for the District of Cabo Gracias a Dios, I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a letter submitted to the Minister de Gobernacion containing information similar to that you seek. ¶ This headquarters does not know whether the President was aware of the fact that Senor Cockburn was a Diputado Suplente, and you are advised that as soon as the Area Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, learned of Cockburn’s congressional status and radioed that information to Guardia Headquarters requesting confirmation of the President’s order to arrest and deport senor Cockburn, the Minister de Gobernacion directed his release. ¶ I am, dear Sir, Very sincerely yours, ¶ C. B . Matthews, Brigadier General, G.N., Jefe Director. ¶ TheAmerican Minister, ¶ American Legation, ¶ Managua."

16 March 1931.
Credentials.  Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General EDSN, to Gen. Pedron Blandón, EDSN.  
"CREDENCIAL DE REPRESENTANTE PERSONAL DE ESTE JEFATURA SUPREMA, A FAVOR DEL HERMANO JEFE EXPEDICIONARIO DE NUESTRO EJERCITO, GENERAL PEDRO BLANDON, EN JIRA MILITAR A NUESTRA COSTA ATLANTICA.  El suscrito General y Jefe Supremo del EDSNN, extiende la presente Credencial de Representante Personal de est Jefatura Suprema de nuestro Ejército, en la jira Militar a la Costa Atlántica, al hermano Jefe Expedicionario de nuestro Ejército, General Pedro Blandón, quien va facultado a ponerse en contacto con las personas que simpatizen con nuestra lucha Libertadora en Nicaragua.  Dado en el Cuartel General del EDSNN, 16 de Marzo de 1931, PATRIA Y LIBERTAD /s/ "   [original document w/ seal. Taken from body of Blandón by Capt. Wood.  NA127/38/30]

18 March 1931.
Conditions in the Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.

18 March 1931.
Conditions in the Eastern Area.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

1.  22 March 1931.
Patrol Report, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, El Gallo, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"From: ¶ Second Lieut. (TEMP) Leonard Curcey, GN.¶ To: The Department Commander, GN, Bluefields. ¶ Subject: Patrol report. ¶ Reference: (a) Verbal Orders from Department Commander dated 15 March, 1931. ¶ 1. In compliance with reference (a) a patrol consisting of two Officers, twenty (20) enlisted guardia, two (2) civilians, and four (4) pack animals cleared EL GALLO for Prinzipolka at 0930 March 15, 1931. Events of each day are set forth below:- ¶ 16 Mar. Cleared El Gallo for Tungla and immediate Hamlets at 0930. ¶ 18 Mar. Arrived at Tungla 1900. Spent night there and the next day obtaining all possible information as to whereabouts of bandits, Information obtained is as follows:- ¶ “On or about 1230 March 1, 1931 a Bandit group of about one hundred and sixty (160) men under the leadership of PEDRO ALAMIRANO, of which only half of them were armed with rifles, four machine guns, little ammunition and the rest with machetes, entered the town of TUNGLA, They left at or about 1630 and camped two hours outside of Tungla on the road to Cuicuina and from there they left for Cuicuina with their destination Cuicuinita, Quepi, Isla Grande and to San Pedro, On the Rio Gande. They robbed a Mr. Lawrence Newball (Creole), Juez de Mesta Steven Budeara, Alvira Valles, and Sebastian Jiron. Mr. Newball was operating a small store in which he had about Three Hundred ($300.00) dollars worth of groceries and other articles and the other people mentioned suffered the loss of their personal clothing, shoes and trinkets such as gold finger rings and gold necklaces, Mr. Lawrence Newball and the Juez de Mesta mentioned a woman, known as Patricia Moncada, who at one time lived in Tungla and because of her conduct and petty robberies was forced to leave the town, as the woman who instigated and persuaded PEDRON and his gang to go to Tungla as there were a lot of rich inhabitants and a few stores and that their trip would be well worth it. Mrs. Patricia Moncada can now be located in Siuna. ¶ 2. The following is a list of names of people who live in JINOTEGA were PEDRO ALTAMIRANOS group:- Lino Rizo, Candelario Altamirano (Pedron’s brother), Pablo Vilche, Ramon Martinez, Pedro Irias, Abraham Rivera, ¶ Mr. Lawrence Newball further states that while Pedron and his gang occupied the town on March 1, 1931 they heard a gasoline motor boat coming up the river and that Pedron got his men together and ordered them to get ready to leave at [...]"

2.  22 March 1931.
Patrol Report, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, El Gallo, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] once that the guardias are coming up. It is very evident that he is not very anxious to make contact, that his robberies are only made at places where he meets no resistance that he is short of ammunition. Mr. Lawrence Newball also states that Pedron and his band are not looking for anybody except Machos, Machistas, President Moncada, Ex-President Adolfo Diaz and Emiliano Chamorro. ¶ 3. The Captain of the Gasoline boat running from the mouth of the Prinzipolka river to Cuicuina informs me that there are no bandits at all at Cuicuina and that reports and rumors he got there are that Pedron and his band were headed for the interior via trail to Matiguas on or about 12 March, 1931. He also states that the number of unarmed men traveling with Pedron were headed back toward the interior with loot using pack animals and men. ¶ 20 Mar. Cleared Tungla for Savannah at 0630 and arrived at 1530 camped there for the night. ¶ 21 Mar. Cleared Savannah for Sixiquas and 0630 and arrived at 1730 camped there for the night. ¶ 22 Mar. I and two enlisted Guardias proceeded down Sixiquas Creek toward mouth of it which empties into the Rio Grande to a Mr. Molinero where there is a telephone and called Captain Shaughnessey and reported to him that the trails for San Pedro via Pal Punta were all closed in and impassable, that they had not been travelled any in five or six years. That the mules (pack animals) I had were in pretty bad shape, including three members of the patrol, and that I could not continue via trail but suggested that I go by river in boats after the pack animals and the three members of the patrol had been sent back to El Gallo. The Captain directed me to get entire patrol to mouth of Sixiquas creek that he would arrange to have company boat come for us. Arrived El Gallo at 1230 March 22, 1931. ¶ 4. The trail from Muy Real to Savannah is in very bad shape, the first day patrol had to cut its way through almost half the way. The second day trail on savannah was in excellent shape except that no trail along Prinzipolka river to TUNGLA and there again we had to cut our way through to Tungla, reaching Tungla at 1900 March 18, 1931. On our way back patrol made good time because of fairly good trails. ¶ 5. The only evidence of Bandit Camps was found two hours out of Tungla on trail to Wani and Cuicuina. The Camp spread over a large area and very certain that the group was in the neighborhood of about one hundred and sixty (160) or more. ¶ 6. Knowing that they had left on March 2, 1931, which meant that they had about 16 days start on us and from the message I have received from Captain Shaughnessey of rumors and reports he had received that they were in San Pedro and on their way down the Rio Grande river over land, I decided to start back over the Savannah toward San Pedro and cut them off. I notified the Captain of my decision via runner. The natives disclaimed having seen any sign of armed groups and that no sign of any camps having been occupied on trails over Savannah to Sixiquas, Natives claim that any strangers seen would have been immediately reported to the military authorities at El Gallo. [...]"

3.  22 March 1931.
Patrol Report, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, El Gallo, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 3.    
"[...] 7. Enclosed herewith receipt Mr. Lawrence Newball obtained from PEDRO ALTAMIRANO for goods taken from his store. Mr. Newball would like to have said receipt returned to him after it has answered the purpose of the authorities. Mr. Lawrence Newball can be reached at Tungla, Prinzapolka River and in care of H. R. Gross. ¶ /s/ L. CURCEY. ¶ ----------------- ¶  Recibimos de don Lauranan Newball la suma de C$300.00, trescientos pesos de cordoba en articulos de mercaderias que tenia en su establecimiento. ¶ Todo lo recibido fue distribuido en el ejercito defensor de la Soberania Nacional de Nicaragua, y que esta bajo mi mando. ¶ Tungla, Mar 1, de 1931. ¶ Patria y Libertad ¶ /s/ Pedro Altamirano /s/ Pedro A. Irias; ¶ Jefes Expedicionarios."

4.  22 March 1931.
Patrol Report, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, El Gallo, to Col. Marston, Bluefields, p. 4.   
"Recibimos de don Laureana Newball la suma de C$300.00, tres cientos pesos de Cordoba en articulos de mercaderias que tenia en su establecimiento. ¶ Todo lo recibido fue distribuido en el ejercito Defensor de la Soberania Nacional de Nicaragua, y que esta bajo mi mando. ¶ Tungla Marzo 1o. de 1931. ¶ Patria y Libertad ¶ /s/ Pedro Altamirano ¶ Jefe Expedicionarios ¶ /s/ Pedro A. Irias ¶ P.A.I."

25 March 1931.
Orders from Gen. A. C. Sandino, Cuartel del EDSNN. Señores Jefes de Reten y Escalones de la Cordillera 'Emiliano Blandon.' 
 "Sus Campamentos. Mis Queridos hermanos: Ruégoles que al sólo recibo de la presente, hagan salir violentamente un correo al siguiente Escalón, hasta hacer llegar con la velocidad de un rayo a los Campamentos del hermano Emiliano Blandon, esas correspndencias que van para los hermanos Generales Francisco Estrada y Carlos Salgado P., quienes actualmente se encuentrán con sus respectivas fuerzas en aquella cordillera, y se les dá órdenes. Confío que cumplirán fielmente con lo que aqui les encomienda.  Nuestras fuerzas a que me refiero, no han tenido ningúna novedad en la gira que efectuaron al interior y vienen muy contentos y llenos de un vivo entusiasmo por los triunfos que alcanzaron en varios sangrientos combates que sostuvieron con el enemigo. Sinceramente vuestro hermano. PATRIA Y LIBERTAD /s/ A. C. Sandino"   [original document with seal.  NA127/38/18]

28 March 1931.
Patrol Report, Lt. L. Curcey, La Cruz, District of Rio Grande, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields (two images), p. 1.   
"GUARDIA NACIONAL DISTRICT OF RIO GRANDE LA CRUZ NICARAGUA ¶ 28 March 1931 ¶ From: District Commander. ¶ To: The Department Commander, GN, Bluefields. ¶ Subject: Patrol Report. ¶ Reference: (a) Verbal Orders from Department Commander dated 23 March 1931. ¶ 1. In compliance with reference (a) a patrol consisting of (1) one Officer and nine (9) enlisted guardias cleared El Gallo at or about 1400 March 25, 1931 Events of each day are set forth below:-- ¶ 23 Mar. Cleared EL GALLO for San Pedro and Hamlets via Rio Grande River by PitPan at 1400. Arrived at Pal Punta at 1900. Natives on way up had not seen any sign of organized bandits but reports and rumors had excited them very much and very glad to see Guardia. ¶ 24 Mar. Cleared Palpunta at 0550 and arrived at Aula Aula Rio Grande River at 1600. Natives rather nervous but had seen no movements of organized bandits. At Salutara about a league below Aula Aula I received information from one Reducindo Mendoza, 16 year old Sumo Indian that While at Wani on or about February 28, 1931, Pedrone and his band had held him for a day and ordered him to get some mules to be used as pack animals to carry away loot, he started after his mission but run away reaching Salutara on or about 16 March 1931 and gave his reason for running away as wanting nothing to do with Bandits. Juez de Mesta there Ramon Rizo spoke well of him and vouches that he told the truth. This Mendoza boy also informs me that Pedron and his bandits had said something of leaving for Quepi and then to the interior. ¶ 25 Mar. Cleared Aula Aula at 0600 and arrived at Palpunta at 1800, interrogated all of the natives there and they disclaim any knowledge of bandits in and around Pal Punta. Jiranamo Zelaya who is the proprietor of a large Finca and live stock there and claims that rumors had reached him that they were to come to Palpunta. But he believed that this information was merely heresay and not authentic. He placed no value to this information because it had come from one of the Suma Indians in that locality. ¶ 26 Mar. Cleared Palpunta at 0530 and traveled northwest on Tuma obtaining no information of organized bandits having been in that District but that a large group was reported as having crossed the Tuma river at a point two days above Palpunta and headed toward Matiguas for the interior on or about 15 March 1931. With this informaion I decided that the Bandit group had no intention of coming down the river and turned back for our Headquarters, El Gallo arriving at a place known as Salutar on the Rio Grande river, at 1830. Too dangerous to continue trip. Slept there for the night. ¶ 27 Mar. Cleared Salutara at 0550 and arrive at El Gallo at 1400. ¶ 2. All natives on the river promised to notify the military authorities immediately upon any knowledge of armed Bandits movements. [...]"

28 March 1931.
Patrol Report, Lt. L. Curcey, La Cruz, District of Rio Grande, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields (two images), p. 2.   
"[...] 3. Trip north on Rio Grande was rather hard on account of the current and the many falls but worked hard and pushed through so that we might make contact or get on trail of bandits, their whereabouts and concentration. I received information that their concentration Headquarters is at Isla Grande but had left there for the interior. It is also known that Pedron and his band was at Isla Grande on or about March 6, 193. ¶ 4. Trip coming down was very easy excepting unloading our provisions at Aula Aula and Salutara Falls which are considered very treacherous. Current helped considerably and cut our trip down in half of the time it took going up. ¶ 5. It is very evident that they are short of ammunition and their aim is to get some by hitting small outposts under Guardia control. ¶ 6. This Suma Indian boy Mendoza also informs me that many of Pedron’s men are armed with shotguns and that during the time he was detained by this group he noticed two men counting ammunition and noticed that there was about 300 hundred rounds between them which I judge was to impress the boy that they had plenty of ammunition but truthfully only had this 300 rounds for the entire group which is an average of about three to five rounds per man in the group. ¶ 7. Conditions in the upper river are bad and fever very prevalent. ¶ (signed) L. Curcey ¶ 1st. endorsement. ¶ DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS,GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA. ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. 6th. April 1931.¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional, Managua, Nic., ¶ Via: The Area Commander. ¶ 1. Forwarded ¶ (signed) W. J. STONE"

28 March 1931.
Revolutionary Circular.  Report by Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, on revolutionary circular in Bluefields & Puerto Cabezas, "Vaticinio Que Acerca la Hora de la Revancha de Un Pueblo".   
"28 March, 1931. ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area ¶ To: The Jefe Director, ¶ Subject: Revolutionary circular.¶ Enclosures, ¶ 1. I am enclosing three copies of a revolutionary circular which were delivered by Julio Vega of Puerto Cabezas to the Department Commander in that place. The circulars were given to the master of the schooner “Emperatriz” by an alleged unknown man in Bluefields for personal delivery to Vega in Puerto Cabezas. The matter is now under investigation. ¶ JOHN MARSTON ¶

VATICINIO QUE ACERCA LA HORA DE LA REVANCHA DE UN PUEBLO ¶ Se toma lo que sigue del diario “Excelsior”, de Mexico: ¶ “ El doctor Max Hanff, cuyas predicciones acerca de las revoluciones en los paises sudamericanos y acerca de las catastrofes naturales en Inglaterra y en otras partes, SE HAN CUMPLIDO EN FORMA QUE HA SORPRENDIDO AL MUNDO, formula nuevos vaticinios. ¶ “El distinguido medico aleman fue enrevistado ayer por nosotros. Se manifestaba satisfecho de que se hubieran relizado caso CON EXACTITUD MATEMATICA, los diversos pronosticos hechos por conducto de “Excelsior”. Nos dijo que su vaticinio con respecto al Brasil, se ha cumplido asombrosamente. Igualmente el tremendo huracan que azoto la costa de Inglaterra receintemente, FUE ANUNCIADO POR EL DESDE EL MES DE JUNIO. ¶ “Lo interrogamos sobre los sucesos que haya podido derivar de la Cabalistica en los ultimos dias, y nos declara lo siguiene: ¶ “El ano proximo (1931) HABRA DIFERENTES REVUELTAS EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DEL NORTE. El parlamento de la Union Americana sera disuelto y las relaciones de los Estados Unidos con Francia, seran muy tirantes. El numero de los desocupados aumentara en forma gigantesca en los Esados Unidos y ocurriran muchas quiebas y “cracks” financieros , que causaran la ruina de numerosos bancos y afectaran las condiciones economica de Mexico. ¶ “DENTRO DE MUY BREVES MESES ESTALLARA LA REVOLUCION EN CENTRO AMERICA. Posiblemene Honduras y Costa Rica sean los primeros paises que se vean envueltos por ella. ¶ “Adopta una actitud meditativa el sabio aleman y agrega: “Mis studios me permiten afirmar que los Estados Unidos TENDRAN CONFLICTOS CON ARGENTINA, BRASIL o alguno de los mas importantes paises de la America del Sur. ¶ “En Cuba hay descontento entre los militares y si hoy el gobierno ha logrado aparentemente dominar la situacion, en marzo o en abril del proximo ano sera tal la agitacion que se puede dar por seguro que caera el regimen de Machado. ¶ “Yo sigo sosteniendo—concluye—que la nueva Guerra mundial, mas cruenta que la de 1914, surgira a fines de 1931 o a mas tardar en los primeros meses de 1932.” ¶ Para el pueblo nicaraguense; ese pueblo que esta sufriendo el flagelo de una situacion ignominiosa y desesperante, como no tiene paralelo en su historia y a la que lo han llevado sus falsos apostoles de los dos partidos cavernarios que se disputan la pitanza del poder: a ese pueblo le llega el eco de esa profecia, que abre las puertas de la esperanza de su reivindicacion en una justiciera revancha que, al para que lo restituya en su reputacion hoy vilipendida, lo ponga en condiciones de castiar a esos falso apostoles ahorcandolos sin conmiseracion en los arboles de las plazas publicas, ya que por cruel que parezca esta expiacion, ES LA UNICA QUE CABE, dada la magnitud del dano y las proyecciones del delito y LA UNICA TAMBIEN QUE ESTA EN CONSONANCIA CON LA MASCULINIDAD DE UN PUEBLO CONSCIENTE. ¶ Que asi sea, o que el pueblo nicaraguense continue en su esclavitud ante quienes (primero los jefes conservadores y despues los jefes liberals) le han entregado al extranjero como se entrega un hato para que reciba palos, puntapies, bofetadas y todo genero de atropellos inicuos, hasta la misma muerte. ¶ El unico remedio para Nicaragua esta en la horca en cada poblacion y para cada politico que en alguna forma haya propiciado o este propiciando la ocupacion de este pais por la fuerza armada yanqui. ¶ El yanqui se va a ir pronto y la “Guardia Nacional” va a ser reducida, y esa sera la hora de que cada arbol de los parques de Managua y las otras ciudades, sea adornado de un senor de esos que ahorco a su propio pais. ¶ El remedio, pues, va estar en la mano, en una cuerda ensebada y en que cada cuatro hombres se encarguen de cada tarea. ¶ !Entiendes, lector del pueblo!"

31 March 1931.
Fitness Report on 1st Lt. E. E. Shaughnessey, USMC, for period 1 Oct 1930 - 31 March 1931.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 1. 
(Source: John Marston Papers, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington VA).

31 March 1931.
Fitness Report on 1st Lt. E. E. Shaughnessey, USMC, for period 1 Oct 1930 - 31 March 1931.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, p. 2. 
 (Source: John Marston Papers, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington VA).

31 March 1931.
A Report of Br. Bregenzer's Death Given at Tuburus by an Eye Witness, a Sumu Indian from Musuwas.   Br. A. O. Dannenberger, n.d., Moravian Archives.  
(Undated, describing events of March 31, written a week or so afterward.)

   

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