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THE ATLANTIC coast  •  1928A, P. 6
May 8-18, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE sixth PAGE of documents for the first HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 11 days from 8-18 May.

     Most numerous here are official missives on the Wanks River or Río Coco Patrol led by Capt. Merritt A. Edson, and the continuing flurry of radiograms about the EDSN assault on the mining districts.  The assertion in Edson's first message on this page, sent from his camp on the Waspuk River, can be taken as emblematic of the overall thrust of the Marines & Guardia's perception of the political orientation of the Miskitu Indians of the interior:  "INDIANS HERE NEUTRAL."  Also noteworthy is Major Utley's conclusion that during the EDSN offensive into the mining districts, "only a few local people - say twenty or twenty-five - joined bandits [EDSN]" (May 8) — probably an accurate assessment, judging from everything else here.  Lt. Hall's 8-page Weekly Report of Events of 13 May offers a very fine capsule summary of events from the Marines' perspective.  Consul S. J. Fletcher's 10-page report on the Neptune Mine events includes several detail eyewitness accounts of EDSN actions in the district — perhaps most notably, German engineer S. Graae's assessment that "the seizure and blowing up of the mines ... was a result of insane labor conditions and corruption in the mine management."  The 18 May clippings from newspapers in Lima, Peru, suggest the extent to which Sandino's bold assaults on the American mining properties are having their intended effect of echoing across Latin America and beyond.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, coMENius press

8 May 1928 (0650).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

8 May 1928.
Memorandum for General Feland, Managua, from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Replying to the questions asked in your letter 6 May:-  ¶  1. The best information is that no natives were impressed and only a few – say twenty or twenty-five – joined bandits.  ¶  2. The information varies widely as to strength of second troop. My estimate puts it at 100.  ¶  3. Only scattered insignificant supplies of ammunition obtained, except dynamite from which bombs used against EDSON were made.  ¶  4. Reports indicate stamp mill only destroyed in NEPTUNE MINE and most buildings in LA LUZ MINE.  These reports unverified and patrol leaders ordered to report upon arrival.  ¶  5. Latest authentic news of Marshall contained in my despatch of last night, copy enclosed with these papers.  ¶  6. TUNKY is some distance form LA LUZ MINE.  All reports indicate less than an hour’s warning of bandit approach.  If this is correct he could have made his getaway, but reports are that bandits asked first and emphatically for Amphlett, and only after they were convinced he was not there did they seize Marshall.  Had he taken his half hour start he could undoubtedly have escaped. He appears to have stuck by the ship instead and so suffered the consequences.  At the Neptune Mine they had plenty of warning and some came out.  Those natives, Pinedo and others who stayed, were not molested.  ¶  Thank you for your letter.  My general plan briefly is in conformity with my previous mission to deny territory to the bandits.  For this purpose my front line is as given in the other papers – or will be as soon as Linscott gets into position and Taft re-enforces Carroll and Cook who are too weak now.  Then I propose to push into the area between the Waspuc and Wanks as far as my means of applying my patrols permit.  The great difficulty is lack of transportation and slowness with which movements can be made due to time required to move up rivers.  Except in very few cases all travel is by boat – trails are only used when low water, during the dry season, so compels.  ¶  My only reserve now that Walker has started for his support position is my aviation.  I hope that the rumor that my planes were to be out from six to four is unfounded as, due to great extent of territory to be covered, I really should be able to send out two missions daily, and still have two planes I reserve or undergoing overhaul . . . "

8 May 1928.
Memorandum for General Feland, Managua, from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . Can Floyd give me daily or weekly, by radio, information of the other areas’ most easterly posts?  I believe such information would be of great assistance.  ¶  Very respectfully,  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps.  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area."

8 May 1928.
Letter from USMC Major General John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., to Mr. M. B. Huston, Vice President, The Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada, Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, PA.  

8 May 1928.
Memorandum for General Feland, from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.

8 May 1928.
Memorandum to General Feland, from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.

8 May 1928 (0650).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

9 May 1928 (2210).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

10 May 1928 (0900).
Radiogram from Capt. Rose, La Luz Mine, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Howard and Cole safe comma Howard unhurt Cole badly sprained ankle comma piston burnt out and plane crashed and wrecked two miles from here comma HOWARD leaves tonight with Mr. AMPHLETT via PRINZAPOLKA RIVER arriving PRINZAPOLKA Sunday comma transportation requested to HOWARD from PRINZAPOLKA to PUERTO CABEZAS comma COLE remains here period. I arrived LA LUZ 1700 May 7, 1928 comma SANDINO himself was here 29 April 1928 with one hundred fifty men and burnt all but few buildings at mine comma mill here dynamited and destroyed comma SANDINO left a letter in his own handwriting with signature and seal comma copy enclosed period SANDINO left 30 April, 1928 for interior and on 5 MAY, 1928 was reported as having taken trail north from HIYAS period he knew of my coming and left an ambuscade at WAILAWAS but they were withdrawn 3 MAY, 1928 period authentic reports that SANDINO has between 1000 and 1500 mounted men period recommend an outfit be based on HIYAS 35 miles west of here on MATAGALPA trail to cover trail from west from CACAO comma north to BOCAY and from CASULI east in addition to organization based here comma see sketch period General Giron and Aguero reported with bands in PIS PIS AREA period have received several reports that out-of-way movements of our planes give away location of our patrols period I believe seaplane can land in PRINZAPOLKA River in vicinity of WAILAWAS period a trail runs south from BOCAY passes west of CERRO HIYAS to HIYAS and CASULI period a trail runs south from BOCAY through CASAS VIEJAS along ULI River to QUANI period a trail runs south from BOCAY passes west of CERRO HIYAS to HIYAS and CASULI period a trail runs almost direct east from CASULI into CUICUINA period a trail runs south from BOCAY along BOCAY river to COCAO period all reports show probable concentration of bandit bands in area just west of here to BOCVAY River and between CASAS VIEJAS to MATAGALPA trail period two Mexican generals reported with Sandino period. I am taking patrol along MATAGALPA trail west tomorrow period am sending patrol to ASA tomorrow period my radio set and a battery broken beyond repair comma request another by plane period if supplies are to be landed at WAILAWAS request one day advance notice so party can be sent to meet plane period ROSE 0900"

forthcoming

10 May 1928 (1410).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Bureau of Aeronautics, Managua.

11 May 1928 (1630).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.

11 May 1928 (1630).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.

12 May 1928 (1030).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks River Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

12 May 1928 (1623).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, and response from Utley (13 May, 1415).

12 May 1928 (1633).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Colonel R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal.

12 May 1928.
"Cómo fué dinamitada la mina 'La Luz'," La Noticia, Managua.  
"Formidable explosión ¶ De Bluefields regreso el coronel Julio Vargas, Jefe del Estado Mayor del Presidente Díaz quien hace varios días fue al litoral Atlántico acompañando al periodista norteamericano Mr. Denny, Corresponsal del “New York Times”. ¶ A preguntas nuestras, el coronel Vargas, nos dijo: - ¶ Hicimos un viaje de Managua a Bluefields, de los más rápidos que se han hecho. En tres días y medio nos trasladamos, de Managua a Granada, embarcando en automóvil a Juigalpa y de aquí a caballo hasta el Rama, en donde nos embarcamos hacia Bluefields. El viaje precipitado fue con motivo del asalto de los Sandinistas a los minerales de Pis Pis, cuyos informes deseaba Mr. Danny obligar a mayor brevedad posible. Este periodista continuara embarcado de Bluefields hasta Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Un indio que llego a Bluefields, procedente de Pis Pis y que presencio el asalto de los rebeldes, declaro que la mina “La Luz” fue volada con 25 quintales de dinamita, siendo tan fuerte la explosión, que uno de los molinos fue a caer como a dos mil yardas de donde estaba situada. También uno de los molinos de la “Bonanza” fue volado con dinamita. ¶ Fuerzas americanas salieron de Puerto Cabezas para Pis Pis, con el objeto de evitar mayores daños, pero los rebeldes salieron huyendo. En Puerto Cabezas hay alrededor de 450 marinos y están surtos en aguas de aquel Puerto los barcos “Denver” y “Cleveland”. ¶ El vecindario de Bluefields goza de completa tranquilidad gracias al celo del Jefe de los marinos, Capitán Kendall y del Jefe de la Guardia Nacional Mayor Sage."

1.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "Map Used: HAM MAP OF NICARAGUA, 1924.  ¶  Location of outposts: WAWA CENTRAL, SACKLIN, WASPUC, SANG SANG, AWAWAS RAPIDS, LA LUZ, EDEN, MUSAWAS (ALSO KNOWN AS TULULUK) TILBA, LAXUS, BUCBUC, and PULPA.  ¶  Location of Main Body: Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua.  ¶  Patrols sent out to: May 7th: At 1430 Captain WALKER, Second Lieutenant ROSS, and 50 enlisted men (49 marines and 1 navy), departed for PIS PIS Area, overland, via CUYALAYA River valley.  ¶  May 9th: Captain TEBBS and three enlisted men to head of navigation WAWA River, to investigate report that 17 armed bandits threatened to rob commissary store – returned that day – no signs of bandits.  ¶  May 19th: Gy-Sgt. JONES and four other enlisted marines, departed to investigate reported bandit activities SISIN Farm Area.  ¶  Duty performed: Reconnaissance by patrols and planes, preservation of order, search for arms, ammunition, prevention of recruiting by bandits, and forestalling their procuring supplies.  Patrols have been in contact with bandits twice, once in the vicinity of KUABUL, and once in vicinity of MAROBILA, forcing them to withdraw each time.  The patrols are cutting to a minimum their (the bandits) chance of procuring supplies of food and ammunition by denying them territory and keeping them on the move.  Extensive reconnoitering by patrols, to authenticate trails as shown on maps and to locate trails that actually exist but are not shown on the maps in our possession.  Some supplies have been dropped and communication established with our patrols by dropping and picking up messages by the planes.  Captain Howard made a forced landing May 7th completely wrecking his plane.  This leaves but one plane based here, and consequently curtails the excellent results obtained by this aerial assistance in supplying and communicating with the five large patrols now in the field.  ¶  Condition of trails: Bad (water routes used whenever possible).  Reports received from patrols indicate that although most of the trails are passable, they are in very bad condition as regards movements of troops or supplies . . . "

2.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . Ammunition on hand: 972,000 Rifle, 56,000 Pistol, and 160 Hand Grenades.  ¶  Rations on hand: 16,150 dry rations.  Fresh fruit and vegetables furnished weekly from New Orleans.  ¶  Health of Troops: Good.  ¶  Orders Received: None.  ¶  Messages Received:  6th.  From Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Following unconfirmed information received from HART at TUMA:  ‘A native Cocoa on the Pis Pis trail said he had conversation with the last troop of bandits passing there under IRIAS who were going to join GIRON.  Met three natives 12 miles west of CASULI said they passed 70 armed men on LA CERIA on pis pis trail on 28th and passed 20 on foot on 24th’.  Men under IRIAS cleared CASUM going east on 24th.’  ¶  5th.  From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘Ten miles north of KUABUL.  Bandits reported last night, group of 50 headed for Waspuc.  Retreated up Waspuc after skirmish of four hours ahead.  Hope to intercept tomorrow.  EDSON.’  ¶  5th.  From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘Returned from patrol ISAEMUL five thirty.  All quiet.  Your 8607 2000, give me any designation for boats repeat boats not already used on code.  Also request geographical code this area.’  ¶  8th.  From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘80 men moving Waspuc turned back by us 4th.  Attempted ambush them Neptune trail yesterday failed.  Band proceeding up Waspuc via Pis Pis, believed heading interior via Wiwinak.  Lost all contact. Going Neptune this date attempt secure pack mules.  Probably move Kuabul – Pis Pis mouth – Wiwinak tomorrow.  With mules will abandon boats move by trail Wiwinak – Bodega. Linscott will block Pis Pis River Neptune.  Do not repeat not bomb towns Waspuc River, only source information, guides, boatmen. Indians here neutral. EDSON.’  ¶  9th. From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘C P closed Kuabul noon.  Edson and five going Great Falls to Musawas, two squads Kuabul to Musawas.  Boats moving via Pis Pis Creek and Waspuc same place.  Masawuas [Musawas] shown maps as TULULUK.  Full details on arrival radio at Masawas. EDSON.’  ¶  9th.  From CO Rio Grande: ‘Arrested CARACAS.  Came on ANITA with 7 pm passengers and no sailing list.  ANITA noted suspicious upon arrival by omitting 2 men in small boat loose just before entering river.  Am holding ANITA and passengers waiting orders.  Can send ANITA under guard to BLUEFIELDS if necessary.’ . . . "

3.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   " . . . 10th.  From Co Bluefields: ‘ANITA arrived 1600.  Johnson Canadian formerly employed mechanical department and Ring Dahl, Swedish American formerly construction department, Bragman’s, aboard.  Shall they be held prisoners?  All others aboard natives.  KENDALL.’  ¶  11th.  From Co WANKS Patrol: ‘Your 8605-2350 information Neptune Band about 200 Casa Viejo turned back toward BOCAY about 6th.  My 8606-1515, this band about 70 commanded by MARCOS AGUERRO same as raided Sang Sang in March.  From there overland to MUSAWAS, transferred to boats and started for WASPUC.  Turned back by us at MAROBILA, went up Waspuc taking all small boats so we could not follow.  Now headed Waspuc River – Lakus Creek – Lakus.  Should reach LAKUS 25th.  Warn outpost TILBA expect them 13th or later.  Two deserted SOLUN, 5 at MUSAWAS.  Poorly armed.  All mounted.  Boat operating Pis Pis Area April reported well armed, at least four different bands were in Pis Pis.  Sandino reported La Luz raid in person.  His present headquarters reported high ground west of Bocay in bend shown Wanks.  Believed correct.  Mounted men who raided Neptune April went Bocay via Casa Viejo – Akatulu – Kulum.  Believe no bandits now Neptune Area.  Tell Linscott question N CHRISTIAN MANSEN, half way between Neptune and Big Falls also deserter, native, who went direction Neptune.  My force now blocks trails north from Casa Viejo and east Lakus.  Unable proceed further without mules.  Reported few mules and Pedro.  Will send patrol Sgt. Schoneberge attempt find same.  No mules at Rivas but gained much information trails.  If hard pressed or avoid our outposts bandits cut new trail making continuous contact difficult.  Wish mules can move here to Casa Viejo four days hard trail, Casa Viejo same distance from Neptune.  My C P MUSAWAS.  Request permission hire permanently 8 natives at 50 cents, 2 at $1.50 per day, necessary guide, boatmen, bushmen.  EDSON.’  ¶  11th.  From C.O. Bluefields: ‘Information received armed Sandinistas on headwaters CUCRA River.  Leaving immediately with patrol.  Kendall.’  ¶  11th. From Co Wanks Patrol: ‘Your 8610-1220.  Trail from Neptune to MUSAWAS via Big Falls, requires about 8 hours.  One trail only leading west between KUABUL and WASPUC.’ . . . "

4.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.   " . . . 11th.  From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘Current Moravian Mission Map as follows: Waspuc River, WAILACA instead of KIMABEL, no settlement at WAILACA as indicated.  At Junction Waspuc and Pis Pis, village of SOLAN.  On Upper Waspuc, show MUSASWAS halfway between DAVIDTA and ISAMUL on north side river.  No village at ISAMUL.   Northern branch running via PAUSWAK is Waspuc River, southern branch via TUKULUK-Wiwinak is CASCA River.  Rivers above Musawas navigable small boats only.  TULULUK uninhabited.  ALALIK is south of Guadalupe Rivers.  On Pis Pis Creek, YAPUKITANG RAPIDS should be half way between SOLUN and KUABUL instead of above KUABUL as shown.  Village shown as BODEGA believed to be CASA VIEJO.  Following trail: From Pis Pis with Great Falls north to Kuabul – SULUN, to MUSASWAS, and to ALALAK; east to TUNKI – TILMATUPIA; south to La Luz – Wani; west to MATAGALPA, and to CASA VIEJO.  From SOLU: North to UIMAK – WALIAKA – WASPUC, and to KISALAYA; east to KUKUPININE – WAWA river – Cabezas; west MUASWAS – PAUSWAK – LAKUS CREEK – LAKUS, and to MUSAWAS – ALALAK – WIWINAK – CASA VIEJO.  From CASA VIEJO northwest to PIU – BOCAY, and to AKATULA – KULUM – BOCAY.  From PIU north to PIU River – LAKUS Creek – LAKUS.  From LAKUS northeast ASANG, SAN CARLOS, and SANG SANG.  Am sending rough sketch via Capt. Porter.  If you have fairly accurate map PIS PIS Area giving location mines, request copy.  EDSON.’  ¶  13th: From CO Wanks Patrol: ‘Your 8612 0200.  Reference my 8611 2545.  CASA VIEJO and BODEGA on KULI Creek identical.  From MUSAWAS to CASA VIEJO about 4 days travel.  From Neptune to CASA VIEJO about 4 days travel.  Both trails mountainous and hard going.   Time estimate conservative.  Neptune – Casa Viejo trail reported good condition with considerable traffic.  MUSAWAS – CASA VIEJO fair condition. Information trail south of line PIS PIS – CASA VIEJO – BOCAY very poor believe trail from LA LUZ north along ULI River – Head Pis Pis Creek – CASA VIEJO about 5 days travel.  Unconfirmed.  Believe trail southwest CASA VIEJO – AKARTULU – BOCAY River to MATAGALPA Trail, unconfirmed.  Well traveled trail CASA VIEJO – BOCAY leading west. EDSON.’  ¶  12th:  From Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Your 8612-0410 just received.  Aviation will make reconnaissance asked tomorrow if possible and drop your orders to ROSE and LINSCOTT.  DUNLAP has patrol near south of PUTECA to block return of outlaws, will order him to extend operations from COCO if possible.  Congratulations on good work.  Can you send supplies to BOCAY if 4 or 5 squads of DUNLAP’S troops can reach there?  Answer.  FELAND.’  ¶  Messages sent: 6th: To Comdr Secbrig: 1930 the 4th, advance guard Edson’s patrol gained contact with about 60 bandits about five miles north of ULMUCWAS, at MIROBILA.  No Casualties.  Bandits armed with rifles and bombs.  Edson moving southwest for . . . "

5.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.   " . . . BODEGA via WIWINAK.  Map reference Moravian Mission Station Map furnished Rowell.’  ¶  5th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Edson made contact with about forty bandits at 1930 the 4th near Pulpa.  No Casualties.  Native Boat Crews deserted but Edson is continuing to southwest. UTLEY.’  ¶  6th.  Drop mag to CO WANKS Patrol: ‘Edson made contact with bandits in number from 10 to 40, near MAROBILA the evening of the 4th.  Edson has been ordered to move via WIWINAK on BODEGA.  You will move promptly to EDEN preparing to support EDSON, as about two hundred (200) bandits have been reported as being either at BOCAY or CASA VIEJO.   Please signal the plans ‘YES or NO’ with regard as to whether or not Lieutenant RANCK has joined you.  There will be dropped to you, with this message, a marked map and dope sheet regarding trails in your vicinity; also a personal message for Lieut. Ranck.’  ¶  6th.  Drop message to Lieut. Ranck: ‘It is desired that you expedite your movement and join Captain Linscott as previously arranged, as soon as possible.’  ¶  6th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Reference Ham Map my patrols and outposts now occupy the line AWAWAS – BUC BUC – PULPA near SISKA – near VAGAWATLA – EL GALLO.  Pulpa, Siska, Vacawatla patrols closing on Casa Viejo, not shown on map.  Please advise your eastern front line.’  ¶  6th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘May 3rd contact and reconnaissance Rio Grande from ROSKIKAPIN to AULA AULA and PRINZAPOLKA from mouth to WALPASICSA.  No bandit activities noted.  5th contact and reconnaissance general line Wawa River – Coco River to WASPUC returning via Cape Gracias A Dios.  Landed at Waspuc.  No bandit activities noted.  Details as per your 8605-1423 will be furnished when known.’  ¶  6th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Air reconnaissance up Kukalaya River to Pis Pis Area made contact with Linscott’s patrol near YAGALTARA.  No bandit activities noted.’  ¶  7th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Edson with about 32 men made contact with 50 bandits the 6th, about 10 miles north of Kuabul headed for Waspuc.  They retreated up the Waspuc after 4 hours skirmish Edson following.  No further details.’  ¶  7th.  To Co Wanks Patrol: ‘Planes leaving now to locate and harass bandits.  Have drop message for you.’  ¶  7th.  Drop Message to CO Wanks Patrol: ‘The aeroplanes will give you all the information possible of the bandits.  We have a fairly reliable report that about 80 men moved on Waspuc from the vicinity of Neptune Mine a few days ago.  Captain Linscott with 50 men left Englesing’s New Camp (which is located northwest of TILBATUTIA on . . . "

6.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.   " . . . the Moravian Mission Map, about three days from the Neptune Mine) yesterday for the Neptune Mine with orders to re-enforce you.  Captain Rose with 50 men is on the Prinzapolka River moving towards La Luz Mine and now is probably near WANI.  Captain Walker with about 40 men is moving today on Eden Mine and will probably arrive there in about a week.  All of the patrols are concentrating, preparing for a drive on the bandits wherever found.  You will remain in contact with the bandits on your front forcing them to the south.  If necessary supplies will be dropped by aeroplane.  Establish radio communication with me daily.’  ¶  7th.  To Comdr Secbrig: ‘Patrol of 2 commissioned 49 marine enlisted and 1 Navy enlisted left at 1450 for Pis Pis Area.’  ¶  8th.  Drop message for Captain Rose: ‘Edson was in contact with about 40 bandits on the 5th near GUABUL.  They retreated westward.  The bulk of the bandits are still believed to be in the area between BOCAY and mining districts.  Edson with about 35 men is covering trail at GUABUL.  Linscott, with about 50 men, should reach Eden Mine the 9th.  Walker moved out today for Pis Pis area over Linscott’s route.  Two amphibian planes are now based here for liaison and bombing.  All patrols are converging on bandit areas to prevent their escape to the west or passage to the east.  You will ascertain and report whether or not any bandits have returned towards MATAGALPA or JINOTEGA via your area.  You will block the westward trail and reconnoiter and report on a reported trail that goes to BOCAY via CASA VIEJO from your area by way of the ULI River basin.  You will investigate and report on bandit activities at La Luz Mine.  If a landing place can be located near you, an electrician will be sent to repair you radio.  If not, you will return the radio to PRINZAPOLKA.  The planes will reconnoiter for a landing place and report to you their findings.  At WANI there is a native named JESUS CHAVARRIA who I reported as a capable guide.  He recently had been robbed by bandits.  His name is supplied by Adrian and Alfred Pineda who said that he would be a good guide.’  ¶  8th.  To Co Wanks Patrol: ‘Block route to west from present position.  Questions your 868-0652 answer later.’  ¶  8th.  To Co Marines Rio Grande: ‘ Arrest General Humberto Caracas upon arrival.  Leaving here tonight.  Description slight medium size, half Indian, dark trousers, white shirt, straw hat, gold watch chain worn on belt.  Transfer to Bluefields as military prisoner.  ¶  9th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Daily report.  Unverified information not repeat not credited about 17 robbers with shotguns vicinity of SISIN Farm which is near AUYAPINI today threatening to rob commissary . . . "

7.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.   " . . . TEBBS and 3 men at Wawa Boom, location of richest commissary store.  Railroad Line Wawa Boom – Wawa Central patrolled during night by motor car patrol.  Tebbs and patrol moves up Wawa River to head of navigation morning 9th.  Edson collecting transportation preparatory to moving west up KUABUL – Mouth of Pis Pis Creek – Wiwinak reports bandits heading for Wiwinak for interior, reports no bandits ISAEMUL, reports Indians neutral and supplying information, guides, location.  Air reconnaissance 9th to vicinity head Uli River.  No bandit activities noted. UTLEY.’  ¶  9th.  To Comdr.  Secbrig: ‘Daily report.  Air reconnaissance LA LUZ Mine today shows mine building completely destroyed.  Another building across trail from mine building collapsed and their building some distance away, probably residence of Amphlett, totally destroyed, apparently by fire.  Prinzapolka Patrol, Rose commanding, in position La Luz blocking mouth Matagalpa, La Luz, and Neptune trails.  A native boatman from Wawa patrol arrived Puerto Cabezas reported as having been wounded accidently by a marine while cleaning automatic rifle in no serious danger.  One General Humberto Caracas arrested by my order at Rio Grande Bar charged with recruiting for bandits in Puerto Cabezas Sector.  Was enroute to south on sailing sloop with 6 others.  Additional charges passengers not shown on ships papers and attempting to land small boat before entering river.  Edson now moving on TULULUK.  Tebbs patrol returned Mission completed.  Reports all quiet and no signs of bandits.  UTLEY.’  ¶  10th.  To C.O. Bluefields: ‘The ANITA with crew and 7 passengers being sent to you from Rio Grande under guard as military prisoners.  Confirm the men especially General Humberto Caracas and hold the boat.  Confer Downing in regard to disposition ANITA under custom law.’  ¶  10th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Daily report.  Patrol of 5 enlisted left 1650 with 10 days supplies to investigate reported bandit activities Sisin Farm Area. 18 Palestinians released from confinement account lack of conclusive evidence.  Edson has reached Tululuk.’  ¶  11th:  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Daily report.  Flight made Waspuc, no bandit activities noted.  Tuft and 40 enlisted have arrived Waspuc.  One squad ordered reinforce Carroll at AWAWAS.  Cook and 4 enlisted with supplies, join Edson.  3000 rations left 1100 for Waspuc.  Kendall reports patrol investigation headwaters CUCRA River found all quiet.’  ¶  12th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Edson at TULULUK reports about 200 bandits vicinity BOCAY, about 70 headed for LAKUS.  He believes SANDINO’s headquarters high ground west of BOCAY which in the absence of either information seems logical.  Best area for my operations lies west of WASPUC River and south and west of Wanks River.   Desire to contain bandits in this area by pressure of Rose and Edson from the south, otherwise they will undoubtedly withdraw in that direction if trails reported exist.  Edson blocks trail north from Casa Viejo and east . . . "

8.   13 May 1928.

Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 8.   " . . . Lakus.  Outpost WAWAS being strengthened.  Linscott at Neptune.  Walter 2 days from Neptune.  Rose at La Luz.  Conway unable to fly for about 2 days due to strained ankle.  Howard not repeat not back from La Luz.  Have radio communication with Edson only, in order to best dispose my force request aerial reconnaissance today for trails in area Casca, Bocay, Casa Vieja, La Luz, and recruits sent me to radio.  This area closer to Ocotal than to Puerto Cabezas.  Further request my order on receipt this information be dropped to Rose and Linscott. UTLEY.’  ¶  12th.  To Comdr. Secbrig: ‘Matteson reports MACAMTACA is savannah comprising all open country between GRANDE and PRINZAPOLKA Rivers also name of creek incorrectly located on Ham Map of 1924.  Correct position at top first bend of Rio Grande above Kansas City.  Commandante La Cruz stated BAIBA near YAPAUNDA is biggest cattle owner has about two hundred head, JOSK VALLES has about 80 head at ranch near there, also cattle of ROYAS roam in same area. UTLEY.’  ¶  W. C. Hall ¶  1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Area Intelligence Officer."

13 May 1928.
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"DAILY REPORT TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH STOP THE NATIVE REFERRED TO IN DAILY REPORT OF THE NINTH DIED THE ELEVENTH STOP A BOARD OF INVESTIGATION WILL BE ORDERED STOP EDSON REPORTS FOLLOWING ADDITIONS TO MORAVIAN MISSION MAP QUOTE CASA VIEJA SAME AS BODEGA STOP MUSAWAS JUST EAST OF TULULUK STOP MUSAWAS DASH CASA VIEJA TRAIL REQUIRES FOUR DAYS STOP NEPTUNE DASH CASA VIEJA TRAIL REQUIRES FOUR DAYS STOP BELIEVES TRAIL FROM CASA VIEJA DASH AKARTUJU DASH BOCAY RIVER LEADING WEST STOP WELL TRAVELED TRAIL CASA VIEJA DASH BOCAY LEADING WEST STOP UNQUOTE ALSO REPORTS ABOUT TWO HUNDRED BANDITS MOVED CASA VIEJA TO BOCAY SIXTH STOP ABOUT SEVENTY RETURNED UP WASPUC NOW HEADED NORTH LEAD BY MARCOS AGUERRO STOP TWO BANDITS DESERTED NEAR YAPUWA FIVE AT MUSAWAS COMMA POORLY ARMED ALL MOUNTED STOP"

15 May 1928.
Letter from Gen. Logan Feland, Managua, to Colonel R. H. Dunlap, Ocotal.  
"My dear Dunlap:  ¶  As you have undoubtedly noted, recent reports indicate the probability that the bulk of the outlaws are in the valley to the BOCAY River. They may plan to remain in hiding wherever they are or some move may be contemplated by them.  In any event, it appears probable that your next activities will be by troops stationed in Eastern SEGOVIA.  ¶  Floyd is sending you copies of the following dispatches:  a. Utley’s 8614-2144 (May 14, 1928) to me, in which his intentions are stated.  ¶  b. My 8615-1133 (May 15, 1928) to Utley, in which I approve his (Utley’s) plan and state that ‘Movement of force from Northern Area down COCO held in abeyance waiting information’.  ¶  I note from copies of dispatches received that you are preparing to send a detachment down The COCO probably as far as BOCAY.  I regard as important that you continue preparation for such a move, as the situation may require same soon.  ¶  There seems NO doubt that you have cleaned up SEGOVIA pretty thoroughly; and, now, that future activity will most probably be required of troops along your Eastern line, will you please keep your Eastern garrisons as strong and as mobile as practicable.  ¶  Sincerely yours,  ¶  LOGAN FELAND."

16 May 1928.
Message from A. C. Alero O., Bluefields, to Civil Relations Officer, Bluefields.  
This message, with an internal message dated 24 April from the Police Inspector of San Pedro de Pis Pis, describes the EDSN attack on the La Luz mines and surrounding areas in mid-April.

16 May 1928 (1812).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"YOUR 8614 1935 STOP SCHONEBERGER LEAVES AS ORDERED ZERO SIX HUNDRED SIXTEENTH STOP LINSCOTT ARRIVED PANAMA MINE TODAY STOP WILL DELIVER ORDERS LINSCOTT AND WALKER STOP REPORT FROM ENGLESING AT NEPTUNE ONE FIFTY WELL ARMED AND TWO HUNDRED POORLY ARMED BANDITS LEFT BOCAY TOWARDS SANTA CRUZ MANY (ANY) SUPPLIES AND CATTLE COMMA NOT CONFIRMED STOP EXPECT LEAVE HERE FOR BOCAY VIA CASA VIEJO MONDAY 21ST STOP IF WALKER CANNOT GET MULES ONE DAYS HIKE SEN.. TO MUSAWAS COMMA TWO DAYS VIA MY BOATS TO WASPUC NO OTHER AVAILABLE WILL SO INFORM HIM STOP SCHONEBERGER GOT TEN PACK ANIMALS FROM FERNANDO NUTIEROS COMMA NEPTUNE MY USE STOP HAD TO USE SLIGHT PRESSURE STOP NO DAMAGE STOP WANTS HUNDRED PER ANIMAL STOP WILL PROBABLY COMPLAIN TO YOU STOP EDSON 1812"

1.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 1.  
"I have the honor to report that on the morning of May 2, 1928, this consulate received word of the second invasion of the Pis Pis district by the followers of Sandino.  These raiders, between sixty and eighty, unlike the first group (this consulate’s letter of April 28, 1928) were poorly organized, and among their number were several Sumu Indians armed with shotguns and machetes . . . "

2.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . They arrived at the La Luz y Los Angeles Mine on April 24, under the command of Marcos Aguero, which they destroyed on the same day by discharging 25 cases of dynamite taken from the company’s storehouse.  The second group again ransacked the company’s commissary and private homes and then departed for the Bonanza Mines.  ¶  The attached copy (Enclosure No. 1) of the sworn statement of Arturo Pineda gives details of the two attacks on the Neptune Mine of the Bonanza group.  There is also attached a copy (Enclosure No. 2) of a receipt given by the first group of Sandinistas.  As of further interest to you I am sending the original of a memorandum (Enclosure No. 3) prepared by Mr. Crane, a construction engineer at Puerto Cabezas, and a letter (Enclosure No. 4) said to have been written by the father of Augusto Sandino to a relative in Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  Second hand information received in this consulate indicates that at the time the marines were ascending the river from Cabo Gracias, on one occasion Sandino was but two miles ahead of them at luncheon with a family of Moravian missionaries.  According to the wife of the missionary (a German) Sandino spoke bitterly of the action of some of his followers in committing robberies and atrocities of which he disavowed all knowledge especially with the wanton destruction of the La Luz and Neptune Mines.  ¶  This consulate has been unable to learn anything of the whereabouts or welfare of Marshall, the last heard from him being of the date April 24, 1928 . . . "

3.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 3.  
" . . . A rumor reached this city today that 50 raiders had been sighted near Rama on the Escondido river.  A patrol has been sent out to verify the report and should the rumor prove true the remainder of the garrison here will be sent to engage them.  ¶  Your obedient servant,  ¶  Samuel J. Fletcher,  ¶  American Consul.  ¶  Enclosures:  ¶  1. Copy of sworn statement of Arturo Pineda.  ¶  2. Copy of a receipt given by Sandino’s General.  ¶  3. Memorandum prepared by Mr. Graae,  ¶  4. Copy of letter signed by Gregorio Sandino . . . "

4.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 4.   
" . . . Bluefields, Nicaragua.  ¶  May 18, 1928.  ¶  ARTURO PINEDA, a native of Nicaragua resident of Bluefields, 27 years of age and unmarried, being sworn according to law deposes and says that for some time he has been in charge of the commissary at the Neptune Mine the property of Bonanza Mines Company, situated in the mining district of Pis Pis, Department of Bluefields, Republic of Nicaragua.  ¶  That at 2 o’clock Sunday morning April 15, 1928, a special messenger from La Luz Mine brought the news that Sandino’s army had looted said mine and was on its way to Neptune, thereupon the Inspector of Police, the superintendent of the mine with the other employees and workmen of the mine (with the exception of myself, Fred Delft (German) and five colored men not waiting for the arrival of the soldiers to reach the mine at about 8 a.m. ran to the bush for safety.  ¶  That a detachment of Sandino’s army numbering about 200 men on horseback under command of General Manuel N. Giron R., reached Neptune mine at 3 p.m. Sunday, April 15, 1928.  ¶  Colonel Rodriguez who had command of the advance guard asked me in Spanish where the Americans were.  I told him there was nobody here but me and I was in charge of the place.  These two soldiers searched my person after which the Colonel asked me if the company had any arms and ammunition.  I told him that Mr. A. H. Head must have taken same.  ¶  There he and some soldiers went to the commandancia and . . . "

5.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 5.  
" . . . searched the place finding a few rifles, the property of the Nicaraguan Government that were there for the use of the Police Inspector.  Then they asked me where was the Inspector of Police and the employees of the mine.  I answered that they left early in the morning on their way to Bluefields.  ¶  At this time General Giron with his staff arrived and immediately asked for me and ordered me to open the Commissary and show him around which I did.  ¶  He went up to my room first and when I opened my trunk for examination he found ten shells for a 25 caliber rifle, the property of the company which he took.  ¶  Then we went to Mr. Mansen’s (Norwegian) room who was sick and in bed and while the General was questioning him the soldiers took his watch, fifty dollars in cash, a rain coat and a pair of lace boots.  General Giron made no effort to restrain them from this robbery.  ¶  A visit was next made to Mr. Napoleon’s room and after a fruitless search for ammunition and arms a rain coat was all they took therefrom.  ¶  Next was Mr. Warnick’s room the President of the company who at that time was in Philadelphia, Penna.  They asked for the keys to his trunk and two valises and as I did not have them the lock of the trunk was broken there a 45 caliber Colts automatic pistol was found which they appropriated.  ¶  Our next visit was to the office where a general search was made finding another 45 caliber Colts automatic pistol which was confiscated.  ¶  I was then asked for the combination of the safe which I did not have.  The General then went for Mr. Delft and . . . "

6.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 6.  
" . . . another mechanic who at the order of the General broke the hinges and the combination and got some ammunition for the two pistols.  ¶  Then on to the Commissary and while the soldiers were helping themselves to anything they wanted the General called for Mr. Delft and asked him how much gold was in the boxes, his reply was he did not know.  The General sent for two black men John McPherson and Felipe Benard and asked them to melt the gold and he would pay them.  He wanted the gold to be ready on Monday afternoon before dark, which was done and the amount of bullion taken was 344 ½ ounces he giving me a receipt therefor.  ¶  The soldiers under command of Colonel Sanchez and General Giron in the meantime etc. drank and gave out things in the Commissary to a lot of stragglers.  All with the exception of 20 soldiers left at midnight for Lone Star where they had a camp.  ¶  On their way from La Luz Mine the army stopped at Lone Star, subsequently coming to Neptune Mine.  ¶  Before the General left he gave me orders to leave the doors of the Commissary open and to let everybody have what they wanted; saying because it was American property they wanted to destroy everything belonging to the Americans, this was said in the presence of the soldiers.  ¶  The 20 remaining soldiers had instructions to see that the people got everything they wanted from the Commissary by order of General Giron and they made a clean sweep of the contents.  ¶  Monday the 16th orders came from General Giron to send some provisions to Lone Star Mine and to get enough flour to have bread for the soldiers and stragglers which was done . . . "

7.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 7.  
" . . . by me.  ¶  At eight o’clock Tuesday morning the 17th General Giron came from Lone Star Mine (abandoned) which is about two miles from Neptune and asked me how much powder (dynamite) we had on hand and he was told about sixty cases which he took making three piles thereof and burned it up.  ¶  After eating breakfast they put a case of dynamite into the Ball Mill and blew it up using 25 feet of fuse to enable everyone to get out of danger so as to avoid killing or injuring any persons when the dynamite exploded after this performance they separated for Lone Star Mine.  ¶  In the meantime the General sent three soldiers to Panama Mine accompanied by Andres Leiva and Ascencion Figueroa where the Company’s mules were in hiding and helped themselves to six taking a pistol from Wederburn then to the Bodega (Warehouse) at Aguas Caliente taking all the merchandise there then for Lone Star with their plunder.  At the same time taking Jose Moncada along to care for the mules.  ¶  About six p.m. Sunday April 29th another contingent of some 80 soldiers under command of Marcos Aguero came to the mine and took from the Commissary whatever was left and departed in the direction of Waspook river.  ¶  And further deponent sayeth not.  ¶  (Signed) ARTHUR M. PINEDA.  ¶  American Consulate,  ¶  Bluefields, Nicaragua.  ¶  Sworn to and subscribed by ARTHUR M. PINEDA, before me at the American Consulate, this the 12th day of May, 1928.  ¶  SAMUEL J. FLETCHER,  ¶  Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua.  ¶  Service No. 128. . . . "

8.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 8.  
" . . . TRANSLATION.  ¶  BONANZA MINES COMPANY.  ¶  Mr. Arthur Pineda was directed to place at the orders of the forces of the Liberator whatever may be necessary for its sustenance and as this property belongs to Americans who are the cause of this expedition we take for our use merchandise which we are in need of and the existing gold which amounted to 344 ½ ounces.  ¶  For Country and Liberty.  ¶  (Signed) GENERAL MANUEL M. GIRON R.  ¶  Neptune, April 17, 1928.  ¶  Service No. 123 . . . "

9.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 9.  
" . . . ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE SEIZURE OF AMERICAN OWED MINES OF THE PIS PIS DISTRICT, NICARAGUA.  ¶  After the first news poured out about the capture by Sandino’s forces of the Pis Pis Mine group, it was evident that the news spread in the American press were very tendentious.  ¶  A closer investigation has revealed facts which have to be taken into consideration before making a national affair of it.  ¶  The seizure and blowing up of the mines was not alone a political action, but was a result of insane labor conditions and corruption in the mine management.  ¶  The very fact that the Fletcher family of New York, of which Ambassador Fletcher is a member, and Ambassador Fletcher’s brother-in-law, Mr. Martin, how Superintendent of the Commissary at Puerto Cabezas, and formerly Superintendent of the La Luz Mine, is no reason to hide the truth and give the entire affair a political aspect.  The laborers at the mine are paid $1.50 a day.  From this salary is taken $0.75 for food, $0.25 for medical services per day.  Remaining 50 cents to take care of clothing and feeding the families.  ¶  Cash is never seen, the company paying its laborers through credit in its commissaries where the humblest necessities of life are manifold overcharged.  The laborer, working 10 hours a day has no chance of making a headway but remains a slave, always dependent and in obligation to his creditors, the commissaries.  ¶  The miners in this and many other ways deprived of making even a modest living have had good reason for revolt . . . "

10.   17 May 1928.
Reports on Neptune Mine events, US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, p. 10.  
" . . . and found in Sandino’s movement a splendid opportunity to take revenge over their former superiors.  ¶  There has been a great reason for revolt and it would be advisable for the federal government to look into these affairs, so little creditable for American prestige in Central America.  ¶  (Signed) S. GRAAE,  ¶  May 14, 1928.  ¶  Puerto Cabezas."

17 May 1928 (2000).

Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.   "TO: COMDR SEOBRIG MANAGUA.  ¶  FROM: COMDR EASTERN AREA.  ¶  8617 YOUR 8617 DASH 0952 AND 8517 DASH 1042 STOP SEE MY REPORT OF EVENTS APRIL FIRST TO SEVENTH AND INTELLIGENCE REPORT SAME DATES STOP FOLLOWING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OBTAINED TODAY COLON MRS B T MULLER FORCED TO GIVE ONE HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS UNDER THREAT OF BEING TAKEN ALONG WITH OUTLAWS BUT OTHERWISE UNHARMED STOP MRS MULLER WIFE OF AMERICAN MAHOGANY CONTRACTOR WHO WAS ABSENT AT TIME STOP SHE HALF SPANISH HALF INDIAN STOP THESE OUTLAWS ONLY LOOSELY ALLIED WITH SANDINO AND CAME DOWN COCO PRIOR DESCENT ON MINES TAKING PROVISIONS AND COLLECTING STORES STOP OUTLAWS HAD GRIEVANCE AGAINST MULLER BECAUSE HAD GUIDED EDSON STOP TOOK MRS MULLER INTO ROOM DEMANDING SHE PAY HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS STOP SHE SAID SHE HAD NO MONEY SUGGESTED THEY TAKE CATTLE INSTEAD OUTLAWS REFUSED STOP TOLD HER TO GET MONEY OR GO WITH THEM STOP MRS MULLER WENT TO NEIGHBOR WITH WHOM HUSBAND LEFT MONEY AND GOODS AMOUNTING FIVE HUNDRED FROM NICARAGUAN STOREKEEPER SAID THE ABOVE INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM DENNY WHO OBTAINED IT FROM MRS F E SCHRAMM WIFE OF MORAVIAN MISSIONARY AT SANG SANG COMMA WHO FURNISHED MRS MULLER WITH THE MONEY STOP MRS SCHRAMM DID NOT WANT HER NAME USED STOP DOUBTFUL IF THESE BANDITS WHERE ONLY LOOSELY ALLIED WITH OTHERS AS AGUERRO WAS REPORTED AS ONE OF THE LEADERS STOP 2000"

17 May 1928 (2030).

Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.   To COMDR SEOBRIG MANAGUA FROM COMDR EASTERN AREA INFO: CO WANKS PATROL  ¶  8617 DAILY REPORT MY PROBLEM HERE MAINLY ONE OF SUPPLY AND COMMUNICATIONS STOP AVIATION ONLY RESERVE FOR OPERATIONS IN REAR AREAS SHOULD LOCAL BAND OF ROBBERS BE ORGANIZED COMMA AND MY EXTREME LEFT IS WEAK STOP SHOULD HAVE TWO MORE PORTABLE REPEAT PORTABLE FIELD RADIO SETS OPERATING ON BATTERIES AND THREE MORE QUALIFIED OPERATORS STOP IF I BUILD THE SETS CAN QUALIFIED OPERATORS BE TRANSFERRED HERE QUESTION LAST DETAIL OPERATORS REQUIRED TWO WEEKS INTENSIVE TRAINING BEFORE CAPABLE OF HANDLING INDEPENDENT STATION STOP CLEVELAND ANCHORED OFF PUERTO CABEZAS TODAY STOP TWO OPTION LOVE EIGHT PLANES JOINED AT SIXTEEN HUNDRED STOP TEBBS PATROL INCREASED BY FIVE MEN STOP UTLEY 2030

18 May 1928.
Receipt for $50 to Lt. W. C. Hall, from "Raunimau" and "Henobeba", witness Henry Watt (interpreter & cousin of the accused).  

18 May 1928 (1213).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"To COMDR EASTERN AREA FROM COMDR SECBRIG MANAGUA  ¶  8618 CONTEMPLATED TO DIVERT TWO OFFICERS AND ONE HUNDRED MEN EXPECTED ON USS BRIDGE TO YOUR AREA STOP SUGGEST THAT FIFTY NINTH COMPANY BE FILLED COMMA ALL SHIPS DETACHMENTS BE FILLED STOP NECESSARY PERSONNEL FOR YOUR HEADQUARTERS BE PROVIDED FOR COMMA AND ANY EXCESS BE PLACED IN FIFTY FIRST COMPANY STOP PLEASE GIVE YOUR RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO PERSONNEL DESIRED LANDED AT PUERTO CABEZAS AND AT BLUEFIELDS RESPECTIVELY STOP FELAND 1213"

18 May 1928 (1615).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.  
"To COMDR SEOBRIG MANAGUA  ¶  FROM COMDR EASTERN AREA  ¶  8618 WILLIAM PIERCE AMERICAN NEGRO DISCHARGED EMPLOYEE LUMBER COMPANY UPON BEING REFUSED PAYMENT UNTIL TOOL ACCOUNT ADJUSTED RETURNED TO LOGGING CAMP COMMA SHOT AND INSTANTLY KILLED ROY BYRD AMERICAN SUPERINTENDENT LOGGING CAMP WHO WAS UNARMED COMMA AND SEVERELY WOUNDED LEONARD ALLYN TIME KEEPER STOP ALLYN DREW IN DEFENSE OF BYRD BUT GUN JAMMED STOP  ¶  LOCAL AUTHORIES EVIDENTLY IMPOTENT STOP MARINE PATROLS FOLLOWED AND ARRESTED PIERCE THREE DAYS LATER COMMA FINDING HIM ASLEEP STOP PIERCE HELD AS MARINE PRISONER STOP LOCAL FEELING AMONG FOREIGN ELEMENT OUTWARDLY CALM BUT UNDERCURRENT AGAINST PIERCE WOULD PROBABLY CAUSE TROBLE IF HE WERE LEFT TO GUARD OF POLICE STOP GENERAL OPINION HERE NICARAGUAN COURTS WILL NOT CONVICT OR IF CONVICTION OBTAINED PIERCE WILL ESCAPE STOP CAN ANY SPECIAL LAW COMMA EDICT COMMA OR COURT COMMA BE INVOLVED WHICH WILL GIVE REASONABLE ASSURANCE ADEQUATE PUNISHMENT QUESTION UNLESS OTHERWISE DIRECTED WILL TRANSFER PIERCE TO BLUEFIELDS BY BOAT SATURDAY OR SUNDAY STOP UTLEY 1615"

18 May 1928 (1800).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks Patrol.

18 May 1928 (2015).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

18 May 1928.
"La Intervención militar norteamericana en Nicaragua," El Comercio, Lima, Peru (USDS 817.00/5748), p. 1.  
"Ha habido un nuevo combate en la región de Jinotega, saliendo de Quilalí, cerca de Lago Real.—Han muerto un americano y un guardia nacional resultaron heridos. Managua, mayo 17 (Associated)—Ha resultado muerto un marino y otro herido, ignorándose hasta ahora los nombres de ambos, y el capitán Robert Stewart Hunter, de Kansas, resulto herido y muerto un soldado de la guardia nacional, cuando una patrulla formada por 25 soldado de infantería de marina y 10 guardias nacionales, posiblemente el lunes pasado, en una operación que emprendieron saliendo de Quilalí hacia lo más denso e inaccesible de la región de Jinotega, cerca de Lago Real, en el río Cua, a 45 millas al NE de Jinotega empeñaron combate contra una partida formada de 60 a 75 bandidos, a las órdenes de José León Díaz. ¶ Los bandidos tuvieron cinco muertos y cinco heridos, aunque la opinión en el cuartel general de la brigada norteamericana es que las bajas de los rebeldes son mayores. ¶ La única forma en que se mantiene comunicación con las fuerzas de infantería de marina es por medio de aviones, pero la inaccesibilidad de la región hace que las comunicaciones se realicen con dificultades. ¶ La patrulla aérea esta comandada por el capitán Robert A. Archibald y ha hecho vuelos sobre el sitio en que se encuentra el destacamento de infantería de marina y les ha dejado caer medicinas y útiles quirúrgicos. En la brigada se dice que la patrulla Americana no había emprendido ninguna expedición sino que estaba realizando su trabajo ordinario de patrulla, por disposición de su jefe, el mayor Keller E. Rockey. ¶ Se ha enviado columnas de infantería de marina al sitio de los sucesos para ayudar a los atacado y continuar la persecución de los atacantes, a través de la difícil región de Para. ¶ Los heridos serán recogidos y enviados inmediatamente a Quilalí, pues el destacamento cuenta con suficientes mulas para esta operación. Sera necesario hacer un viaje de tres o cuatro días a través de una comarca difícil de cruzar, para conseguir el transporte de los heridos a Quilalí, de donde serán transportados por avión a Managua. ¶ La brigada informa que las bajas del lunes incluyen el marino muerto en acción contra los bandidos desde el 27 de febrero. José León Díaz es hondureño, un individuo de Buena educación y que tiene bastante experiencia en la Guerra de guerrillas y se le considera con una mentalidad mucho mayor y más preparada que la de muchos generales, bandidos que infectan estos países. ¶ En octubre del año pasado, durante la actual revolución y antes de que los marinos americanos llegaran, ataco a una guarnición del gobierno de 30 hombres solamente con quince de los suyos. ¶ Díaz tiene fama también como ladrón de Ganado, contrabandista y otras prácticas inherentes a su oficio de bandolero; ha estado operando en Nueva Segovia, en las vecindades de Somoto y se dijo hace poco que contaba con 200 hombres bien armados. ¶ Bajo la constante presión de la infantería de marina la banda de Díaz se ha dividido en dos partes o tres, pero hace poco que estos grupos realizaron su fusionamiento en territorio de Nueva Segovia. ¶ Se dice que Díaz es un hombre muy cruel cuando asalta a ciudadanos pacíficos. Se afirma además que en el combate reciente se ha visto al general guatemalteco Jirón, a quien se le acusa de haber comandado a los rebeldes que hicieron volar las minas “La Luz” y “Bonanza”. Se cree que Díaz salió de Nueva Segovia en febrero pasado y se reunió con Sandino en Para. ¶ La brigada afirma que la falta de informaciones definitivas acerca del encuentro de la patrulla a ordenes del capitán Hunter con los bandoleros se explica por el hecho de que los bandidos, bien organizados y armadas han sido perseguidos por los marinos hasta regiones prácticamente inexplorados y porque las operaciones se realizan en la frontera y en una región desconocida. ¶ El terreno es tan difícil que hasta los naturales del pais se ven en apuros para el transporte, puesto que no pueden usar mulas de carga y tiene que acudir al uso de cargadores o bueyes. ¶ La selva allí es tan espesa que los aviones, a veces están buscando días y días antes de poder avistar algún destacamento Americano y poder distinguir a las tropas que combaten (--------------------------------------------------) marino muerto y dos heridos. Han salido más aviones, pero hasta a las ultimas horas de la tarde de hoy no habían regresado con nuevas informaciones. ¶ Los nombres del marino muerto y de los heridos, no se conocen todavía. ¶ De Managua han salido dos aviones anfibios hacia la costa oriental y serán empleados para reconocer y explorar los ríos y lagunas. ¶ Un avión de transporte que salió de Miami en lamina de hoy, ha llegado a Tela, en Honduras, en donde (-------------------------) Managua, el día de mañana. ¶ Managua, mayo 17.—(United)—Un marino de los Estados Unidos, un guardia nicaragüense y cinco rebeldes resultaron muertos , y un marino, un soldado y cinco rebeldes heridos, en un encuentro ocurrido el dia 1o. de este mes, entre un contingente de 25 marinos y diez guardias nicaragüenses, con 75 rebeldes que actuaban bajo las ordenes de José Díaz, en las cercanías de Peña Blanca. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, 17 de mayo.—(United Press).—el jefe de los rebeldes, general Sandino, ha dirigido una comunicación al gerente de la mina “La Luz”, Henry Amphlett, en la que hace la declaración de que destruyo ese establecimiento minero “para hacer más tangible nuestra protesta contra la invasión que los Estados Unidos han realizado al territorio de Nicaragua”; y hace la advertencia de que si las fuerzas de infantería norteamericana no son retiradas del pais, los ciudadanos norteamericano que residan en el territorio no contaran con seguridad para sus vidas, pues los que sean capturados estarían expuestos a ser fusilados. ¶ Se informa que Sandino ha acampado a doce millas de la mina “La Luz”. Puerto Cabezas, 17 de mayo.—(United Press)—Sandino declara en su carta dirigía al gerente de la mina “La Luz” que desde hace mucho tiempo creía que el pueblo norteamericano no estaba de acuerdo con el abuso cometido en Nicaragua por el gobierno de Calvin Coolidge; pero “me he convencido, agrega de que los norteamericano generalmente aplauden la intromisión de Coolidge en mi pais y es por esta razón que todos los norteamericano que caigan en nuestras manos habrán llegado a su fin”. ¶ Agrega Sandino que el gobierno del presidente Coolidge es responsable de la “horrible y desastrosa situación que actualmente prevalece en Nicaragua” y expresa que la única resolución honorable que el gobierno de los Estados Unidos podría adoptar seria el retiro de sus fuerzas, “permitiendo así que los nicaragüenses elijan su propio gobierno nacional. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, 17 de mayo.---(United Press).---Henry Amphlett, ciudadano británico que ha tenido a su cargo la gerencia de la mina de oro “La Luz”, llego aquí el jueves y ha traído . . ."

18 May 1928.
"La Intervención militar norteamericana en Nicaragua," El Comercio, Lima, Peru (USDS 817.00/5748), p. 2.  
" . . . una carta que le escribió Sandino, en la que esto hace la inculpación de que los Estados Unidos llevan a cabo una invasión guerrera en Nicaragua. ¶ “Esto se hace, dice Sandino, sin otro derecho que el de la fuerza bruta. Salvo que los Estados Unidos ordenen el retiro de sus piratas de nuestro territorio, no habrá garantía y para los norteamericanos que residen en Nicaragua.” ¶ Puerto Cabezas, 17 de mayo.—(United Press.) – Amphlett ha dado a conocer que los sandinistas invadieron tres veces el establecimiento minero que estaba a su cargo. En la primera se apoderaron de una gran cantidad de equipo, provisiones, una buena cantidad de oro e hicieron prisioneros a los nativos que se encontraban en las minas; en la segunda vez colocaron pelandos de dinamita con las cuales causaron daños materiales; finalmente, en la tercera incursión, incendiaron todos los edificios, excepto dos, quedando el establecimiento arruinado en su mayor parte. ¶ Amphlett ha declarado que se dirige a Nueva York, por unos pocos días para conferenciar con los dueños de la mina, a fin de que estos lleven su reclamo ante la consideración del departamento de Estado. ¶ Managua, mayo 17.—(United)---Los aeroplanos fueron los primeros en informar a los marinos la posición de Díaz y ordenaron el ataque. Díaz intento sin éxito una emboscada y en el encuentro, los marinos abrieron el fuego mortal arrojando a los rebeldes de su escondite. Llegaron del distrito refuerzos para los marinos, los cuales continúan en la persecución de las dispersas fuerzas rebeldes."

18 May 1928.
"Comunicado de Sandino al Gerente de La Mina La Luz," La Prensa, Lima, Peru (USDS 817.00/5748).

 

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