Header image
the atlantic coast  •  1931A, p. 6
May 8-15, 1931

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE SIXTH PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the 13 days from May 8 to 20.

     The page opens with a series of missives between Secretary of State Stimson, US Minister Hanna, and the Guardia’s Jefe Director Gen. Matthews on the feasibility of providing more troops to protect the properties of Standard Fruit Company, and trying to puzzle out who will pay for it.  In the end, as the exchanges continue here & on later pages, Standard Fruit agrees to pay the lion’s share, essentially buying protection from the state for its properties on the Coast.  It’s a fascinating case of an imperial state working cooperatively with big capital to promote the geostrategic interests of the former & the economic interests of the latter.

     But the page’s highlight has to be the 20-page eyewitness narrative by Englishman Austin Murphy, timekeeper at Vacarro Farm, who was briefly held prisoner by the rebels during their April offensive & very nearly executed for being an American – and probably would have been, were it not for the intervention of Blandón himself, whose garb & personage Murphy describes in exquisite detail.  Also included here are two of Sandino’s letters to his highest officers in the wake of the offensive, one never before published.  His contention that his troops did not take Puerto Cabezas because “no tiene ninguna importancia para nosotros” is not convincing – of course he’d have preferred to have taken the city.  The new Eastern Area Commander Col. Wynn offers a detailed 7-page report on the events of April that should be read in combination with similar reports on previous pages.  The page’s final document, a complaint by the Miskitu Indians of Bilwi against the sindico appointed by the Nicaraguan government, makes clear that despite all the revolutionary violence & tumult of the previous weeks, the region’s indigenous peoples remain focused on the issues of political & cultural autonomy vis-à-vis the “Spaniards” of the west, pursuing the same struggles for communal rights & cultural dignity that have engaged them for decades.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

8 May 1931 (1800).
Telegram from Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, to US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua.   

8 May 1931 (2000).
Telegram from US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, to Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, p. 1.

8 May 1931 (2000).
Telegram from US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, to Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, p. 2.

8 May 1931.
Letter from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, p. 1.   
"8 May 1931. ¶ My dear Sir: ¶ I return herewith the copy of a telegram from the Secretary of State on the subject of a proposed additional military force for the protection of the property of the Standard Fruit Company which you referred to me yesterday for comment and recommendation. ¶ I have made a thorough study of this matter and am of the opinion that the plan proposed by Mr. Moss is feasible and I recommend that the necessary steps be taken to place his plan into operation. ¶ The Standard Fruit Company may be informed that the force of regular guardia now on duty on the East Coast of Nicaragua and in the vicinity of the property of that company will not be reduced as long as the present total authorized strength of the Guardia Nacional is maintained. ¶ It should be thoroughly understood and agreed upon that all special classes of guardias, employed as an auxiliary force in the regular Guardia Nacional will be required to sign a contract of enlistment with the Guardia Nacional and will come under the complete control of the Guardia Nacional, but in consideration of the fact that the Standard Fruit Company furnishes the funds for the payment and maintainance of this special force, the Guardia Nacional will agree to retain this force on guardian defensive operations and such limited offensive military operations as are necessary to protect the property and the lives of the employees of the Standard Fruit Company. ¶ The employment of an airplane presents some difficulties but is believed the plan can be made to work to the mutual interest of the company and the Guardia Nacional. The operator and mechanic will of course be required to sign a contract of engagement with the Guardia Nacional agreeing that all military operation shall come (under ) the strict control of the Guardia Nacional. The operator will be required to be licensed and satisfy the Jefe Director, G.N. as to his skill and training in the operation of military aircraft. It is probable that a former Army, Navy or Marine operator could be employed who would possess the necessary qualifications. It should be bourn in mind that ¶ -1- [...]"

8 May 1931.
Letter from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, p. 2.    
"[...] the operation of aircraft is at least very expensive. In this connection, I suggest that the State Department take up with the Navy Department the matter of authorizing the Commanding Officer, Aircraft Squadrons in Nicaragua to furnish bombs and other ordnance material for use by the plane under the control of the Guardia Nacional. ¶ The expense of fifty special guardias will be as follows:
$20.00 per man initial outfit of clothing. ¶8.00 “ “ ¶ “ “ “ equipment. ¶ 28.00 X 50= $1400.00 for initial clothing and equipment. ¶ The monthly expense will be ¶ $14.00 pay per month per man. ¶ 6.20 rations “ “ “ “ ¶ 1.80 clothing “ “ “ " ¶ 22.00 X 50 = $1100.00 ¶ The figures do not include any estimate for arms and ammunition or any expense for housing of guardia. The arms and ammunition can for the time being be furnished by the Guardia Nacional from surplus stock without charge and it is understood that the housing will be taken care of by the company in buildings which they already have. The rations estimate is based on a $.20 per day rations and any expense in excess of that due to local conditions would have to be met by the company. ¶ I am, Dear Sir, ¶ Very truly yours, ¶ C. B. MATTHEWS ¶ Division General, ¶ G.N. de Nic., ¶ Jefe Director. ¶ The American Minister,¶ American Legation, ¶ Managua, Nicaragua."

8 May 1931.
First Endorsement, Report on Conditions, Department of Northern Bluefields, Puerto Cabezas, by Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua.   
"FIRST ENDORSEMENT ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 8 May 1931 ¶ From: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Subject: Report on conditions, (Department of Northern Bluefields, Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua). ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ 2. The present authorized strength of the Eastern Area does not permit the distribution recommended in paragraph 5 of the foregoing letter. ¶ 3. The Department Commander, Northern Bluefields, has been authorized to enlist thirty (30) of the additional men recently authorized for the Area. It will be difficult to obtain that many (---) year enlistments. If any enlistment can be obtained in Southern Bluefields, the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company has agreed to transport them free of charge in drafts of ten or more, to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 4. In addition to the present strength of Northern Bluefields, and the increase authorized, ten (10) Municipal Guardia have been authorized for Puerto Cabezas to be paid and maintained from the proceeds of the .10 cent tax on each litro of aguardiente, which was approved by the president on 20 April 1931. ¶ 5. During my recent visit to Puerto Cabezas, and after conferring with the Department Commander and Mr. Bronson, Manager of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company, I authorized Captain Inman to enlist twenty (20) Municipal Guardia for duty at Logtown and vicinity, property of the Lumber Company. These twenty (20) Municipal Guardia are to be paid, clothed, and fed at the expense of the Lumber Company, but are to be under absolute control of the Guardia as specified in the form of agreement furnished by Guardia Headquarters. ¶ 6. The present strength of Northern Bluefields is seven (7) officers (one-Captain Schwering on leave) and seventy-one enlisted. With the increases authorized and when obtained the strength will be seven (7) officers, ninety-one (91) enlisted Guardia and thirty (30) Municipal Guardia which is considered ample to handle any situation that may arise. ¶ C. A. WYNN"

8 May 1931.
Military League of the Department of Bluefields, from Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields.   
"References: (a) Dispatch, this office #09101 May 31, (b) Resolutions adopted by the League, 28 April, 31 (c) Your letter, this subject, 2 May 1931, (d) Guardia Hdqts. Letter of Instruction No. 2- 1931, 27 April 1931.  As far as the Guardia Nacional is concerned the League should be treated as a social organization, similar to some of the Leagues, legions and associations with former military backgrounds and principles as a basis, and, while their ardor and offer to assist in operations against bandits on the east coast should not be discouraged, no armed military unit, other than the Guardia will be permitted.  This headquarters agrees with the belief of the Area Commander as to the values of an auxiliary defensive organization and expresses the hope that members of the Military League as individuals will enlist as "Civicos" for that purpose. Reference (d) must be applied in each case. ... /s/  W. Sheard by direction"

1.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 1.   
Title page.

2.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 2.   
"On Saturday, April 11, 1931, at about 1:30 P.M., I was at switch No 5, Moss Farm, superintending the loading of bananas, when news came to me that bandits had burned Logtown Commissary, and has also killed Captain Harlan Pefley and wounded Mr. William Selser. I did not believe it at first, as the party bringing the story was a Jamaican negro who I considered very unreliable, and thought he wanted to scare us from loading fruit. ¶ However, about twenty minutes later, I was told by Mr. Gantz, Overseer of Vaccaro Farm, to hurry to Vaccaro Farm House and get away on a fruit train that happened to be picking up fruit near there at the time. I went as directed, threw a few necessary articles into a grip, boarded the train and reached Tigne Junction at about 3:00 P.M. where I met Cathey Wilson, Acting Superintendent of the Tigne District, William H. Bond, Jr., O.H. (Pinkey) Wilson and Moises Sagastume, who were all bound for Port (Puerto Cabezas). ¶ We were delayed waiting for a train carrying a Guardia detachment that was coming from Port at the time. Meantime, J.H. Bryan, Percy Davis, and J.W. Lloyd were still at D’Antoni Farm, so I volunteered to take a motor car, after the fruit train pulled out, and bring these men to the Junction. This I accomplished, after which we waited for about half an hour for the Guardia train to pass. ¶ At about 5:00 P.M. we were standing on the tracks at the Junction getting ready to board the two farm motor cars to come into Port. It was raining and we all had raincoats on. I mention this as these long coats proved to be a great hindrance to our running a few minutes later. About five minutes after the Guardia train . . . "

3.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 3.   
" . . . had passed us on its way to Logtown, shooting suddenly started, to our great surprise. Everybody ran, the majority towards the pasture, but I made for the mule shed of Moss Farm. I was bending low as I ran, and a shot stuck the heel of one of my boots. Upon reaching the mule shed, I hid myself under some fruit pads. The bandits ran along shooting, hurling bombs and cursing, and although I could not move nor see anything, I could hear them chopping up somebody with their machetes, and firing continuously. Shortly after the shooting began, I heard a voice apparently of authority giving orders to the bandits to pursue to the woodlands, some distance away, the people who had composed the group at Tigne Junction. I was afterwards to learn that this voice of authority was that of the bandit leader, Pablo Blandon. About dusk, the firing and bomb-throwing ceased, and the bandits came to the mule shed where I was hiding. They received orders to proceed to the Moss commissary, about 300 yards from the mule shed, and loot it. One of the men was ordered to bring mules and pack-saddles for loading the loot. A patrol was left around the mule shed, and I heard them say that all roads from Tigne Junction were guarded by bandits. ¶ About 10:00 P.M. that night, I heard the Guardia train returning from Logtown. When the bandits heard the train they dashed for cover, evidently near the Moss Trestle nearby. A little later I heard shooting, and after about five minutes the Guardia train retreated, - I suppose to Logtown. ¶ The bandits then sent a detail to remove some rails on the trestle and to burn it while the remainder continued their work . . . "

4.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 4.   
" . . . of packing and dispatching mules laden with loot from the Moss Commissary. ¶ About 1:00 A.M. Sunday morning, I heard two bandits, who evidently had come from the Commissary where the General was, giving orders to two others to proceed to burn down the mule shed where I was still in hiding. The two were making their way to the Commissary for kerosene to carry out the order, when another one intercepted them and told them to leave it until morning, as they needed men to help pack the mules and take them to Logtown before dawn. ¶ Nothing further transpired until daybreak, except that those off duty were sleeping alongside of me, and from their conversation it seems that three of them had been sent to Mr. Strickland’s house to get him. They apparently had been severely reprimanded by General Blandon for their failure to capture Mr. Strickland, and proceeded to describe what they would do to Mr. Strickland if they caught him. They would, first of all, cut off his ears, then his hands, then his nose, and little by little they would cut him to pieces, and finally stab him. One of these bandits boasted that he had killed six different men in machete fights in Honduras. Another said he also had killed several men with a machete, and the third said he had killed two or three, and they all agreed it would be a pleasant job, in which they had had ample experience, to entertain Mr. Strickland in the manner described. One of them asked if the fruit train that had left at 4:00 P.M. with refugees would reach port, and received the reply: “No more port, our brothers are already below waiting to intercept them. . . . "

5.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 5.   
" . . . ¶ At daybreak, or about 6:00 A.M., Sunday April 12th, all the bandits appeared to have gone away, and everything was quiet around the mule shed. I did not come out from my hiding place, however, fearing there still were some sentinels on guard around the place, but after about an hour, hearing no voices nor footsteps, I decided to crawl outside and look around. If found everything still and quiet, - so much so that I stood up and had a good look around, and failed to see any signs of life. However, I saw a short distance away the bodies of several dead. I figured that with two commissaries looted and so many people murdered, that the bandits would now make their way back to the Wanks River via Logtown. Presuming this, I went down to where some of the dead lay (I say “down” as it was on a downward slope toward the bed of a creek nearby) with an idea of making arrangements to carry them to the railroad track where they would be put on the Guardia train and carried to Port. I was leaning over the body of William H. Bond, Jr. when suddenly a pistol was shoved into my face, and the man behind it began cursing me. I stood up and pushed his hand down and asked him what he was doing. I then told him I was looking for his chief. He told me the Chief was up on the hill, so I asked the bandit to take me to him. We went to their ambush on the hill, where I met General Pedro Blandon. The bandit Chief was of medium stature, rather heavily built, dressed in khaki uniform with leather puttees, a straw hat with red and black band, the edges of its wide brim deco- rated with pendants of bright red balls, and around his neck a red band black kerchief held in place by a sea shell through a hole in . . . [two lines obscured] . . .  "

6.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 6.   
" . . . been a sword, but from the width of its scabbard I judged it to be a fancy machete; and from his pistol holster protruded the grip of a .45 Colt automatic. He immediately started cursing me as a hated American, and wanted to know what I was doing there. I informed him I had been sleeping at Vaccaro Farm the night before, had heard shots fired, and had come down merely to see what it was all about. He told me that they were cutting up Americans and that he was going to cut me up also. He made a sign and from the ambush appeared two bandits. These same two bandits, some years ago, had worked for me. They told the General that I was a good “patron”, and had always treated them well. But, said the General: “That makes no difference, he is a d—d American”. One of the two said “No, General, he is a German”. ¶ During the conversation, we could hear the Guardia train coming from Logtown, so the General ordered me, as a prisoner of war, into the woodland where their camp was located. There my captors proceeded to search and rob me, relieving me of a penknife, a watch, and $275.00 in money, that I had saved for “emergencies”. I had no gun then or later. I was placed in the charge of an armed orderly and told that at the least false move I made, I would be shot. In about five minutes more they had organized themselves to give fight to the Guardia, while I concealed myself behind a large tree. When the Guardia train came close to the north side of the Moss Trestle, from which some rails already had been removed, it came to a halt and the bandits opened fire, which was promptly returned by the Guardia. The latter seemed to have the correct range as three bandits were killed. . . . "

7.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 7.   
" . . . In taking their position, the bandits had crawled through the barbed wire fence separating the woodland from the pasture, and taken their position on the edge of the pasture, where there was little cover. The hotness and accuracy of the Guardia's fire evidently surprised them, and they began stumbling over and cursing each other in their confused efforts to get back through the fence and into the woodland again; but when this melee was at its height the Guardia train commenced backing away, the Guardia fire became ineffective and very soon ceased. Then they succeeded in getting back through the fence to their camp again, they decided to retreat from there. I asked my guard what they were going to do with their three dead companions; he answered roughly and with appropriate epithets that "The buzzards will take care of them". ¶ We started through the woodland toward Vaccaro and D'Antoni Farms. The General led the way, followed by eight bandits. The second chief kept about fifty yards behind with another eight men, and the third chief about the same distance behind the second with the remaining fighting men. I was left in the rear with the Sumu Indian contigent and a man they called the "Commandante", who, as I found later also acted as the General's secretary. We walked single file and no talking was allowed. At times when they would hear a noise or see someone, all would drop down on their stomachs, and after waiting about five minutes, proceed again. ¶ When we had come about opposite (South) of Vaccaro Farm House we turned toward it, cleared the woodland, and entered the bananas, heading for this Farm House. On arriving, they searched the Farm House, where I had some clothing, shoes, camera and other things. . . . "

8.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 8.   
". . . What they didn't want, such as books, papers, work clothes, bed linens, etc., they left to be burned with the house. I was in the office while this search was proceeding and one bandit, an ugly looking cutthroat who undoubtedly was as vicious as he was ugly, and who, I believe, had been drinking, conceived the idea that I was trying to get away. He was outside the office door. Suddenly, he drew his machete, and I knew that he was going to attack me, so I grabbed the door and slammed it shut. His thrust drove the point of his blade an inch or so through the door. I called for General Blandon, who came downstairs, and told him what this man had done. He was vexed with the man and ordered him outside. They then set fire to the Farm House and proceeded to the Vaccaro Commissar. Here, the place had already been looted by "home talent", and very little was left for the bandits. This so enraged General Blandon that he swore that upon his return every "mozo" (laborer) on Vaccaro Farm would be killed. ¶ After gathering up what they could from this already looted Commissary, they set this building on fire also. They also sent a detail to set fire to some of the nearby houses of teh disrespectful mozos who had "beaten them to it". ¶ We then proceeded southward across the pasture towards the bananas. After we had all entered the bananas, we heard the buzz of approaching airplanes. This seemed to take the bandits by surprise. Evidently they did not expect it. From then on it was a question of getting to the woodland, dodging from banana mat to banana mat and under fallen trees. I, with my guard, was fortunate in getting beneath a big fallen tree and lying lengthwise of it. . . . "

9.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 9.  
 " . . . The planes evidently had sighted us, for they come down low, dropping bombs and using their machine guns. After a while, the planes passed over to the other side of the railroad, and this gave us an opportunity to make good progress toward the woodland. When I came out from my hiding place, I looked on the upper side of the log I had been hidden under, and there were markes of at least eight machine gun bullets on it. However, none of the bandits were injured in this airplane attack. After coming from under the log and making some further progress toward the woodland, we heard the planes coming over again, and I sought another safe hiding place, when I was ordered by the armed guard, who was always with me, to move on. I objected, telling him that it was dangerous for us to move just then and asked him to share with me my hiding place. My failure to promptly obey his order enraged him, and while lying prone on the ground, he struck me a vicious blow with the butt of his rifle, in the back just below the ribs and to one side of the spine, fortunately not where any bones would be broken. Immediately thereafter he became alarmed at the closer approach of the planes, and dived into the same hiding place with me. We finally reached the woodland at about 4:30 P.M. Once there, a good hiding place was found, and we remained there until dusk. ¶ Here I was told to change my clothes with a bandit, including my shoes, which I did. Also I was stood up, and with a keen-edged machete waving very near my throat, was told to say "Viva Sandino". The bandit waving the machete informed me very convincingly that at any moment he might decide to chop off my head. Naturally, I did not lose any time saying "Viva Sandino", and although my voice . . . "

10.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 10.   
" . . . Was pretty husky, managed to say it loud enough to be understood. I was then allowed to sit down and rest. ¶ During this interval, the bandits were counting their looted money. One of them, who had $74.00, asked me to show him the difference between a $2.00 bill and a $5.00 bill, as he could not read, and evidently was not accustomed to having money. They appeared to have among them about $500.00, this not including what the General had taken. ¶ During all this time the airplanes had been hovering around, and it was nearing dusk. All of a sudden, one of the bandits came over to me and told me to stand up, which I did. He then aimed a blow at me with the butt end of his pistol. Fortunately, I was able to throw my head back far enough that only the bridge of my nose received a slight, glancing blow, which, though very painful, did not, knock me out. He then took the pistol and waved it to and fro under my nose, and told me he was going to kill me, and also commanded me several times to say "Viva Sandino", which I did as often as was required. After a time his arm became tired and this "fun" was over. ¶ Orders were given by the General to proceed to D'Antoni Farm, as the airplanes had gone away. We reached D'Antoni Farm about 7:00 P.M. that evening, but strange to say, they did no looting. There was only one small house here for the farm "mandador" and as they appeared to be in haste to reach and loot the Louisiana Farm Commissary, they may have considered this house not worthy of their attention. They conversed with some mozos who sympathized with them, . . . "

11.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 11.   
" . . . and we proceeded down the railroad track to Tigne Junction, where they burned down the Moss Farm House and some laborers' quarters. We then proceeded along the railroad track towards Louisiana Farm, which was reached at about 9:30 P.M. Here they broke open the Commissary, and proceeded to bale up goods for dispatch to the Wanks River. I was appointed to supervise the packing of all medicines, and had a bandit assigned to me to do the work. Evidently, with the exception of the General and his secretary, I was the only man in the party who could read. I performed the task assigned to me, and then had to write out the bills of lading of the various goods to be "shipped" to the Wanks River. They did not pay much attention to such foodstuffs as flour, beans, etc., leaving this for the mozos of the farm. ¶ There were three Chiefs and these divided some of the plunder among themselves, and also offered me a small share, - two bottles of vermouth, two ladies' dresses, two bottles of perfume, two good shirts, two pairs of good trousers, and a fancy alarm clock, evidently to pay for my services as packer. They drank all the wines and beer, the men particularly indulging in this pastime, the chiefs too busy supervising the packing of goods. The bandits on sentry duty would leave their posts and come into the commissary for beer and other drinks, and the ones engaged in packing left their work frequently to pass out bottles of beer and other liquors, not omitting to help themselves generously. The rank and file of the bandits got very drunk and some of the sentries left their posts to enter the laborers' houses and steal clothing, money and jewelry. . . . "

12.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 12.   
" . . . When General Blandon knew of this, he threatened a court-martial when we should reach Logtown. As events transpired, there was no need for the court-martial. When they had finished looting this Commissary, they burned it. The chiefs then took possession of a motor car that had been left on the line, and with their private plunder, proceeded to Logtown, leaving the rank and file, with myself, to walk it. We reached Logtown about 3:00 A.M. Monday morning, April 13th, and I was told that I could take a sleep. At daybreak they decided to catch a hog, kill it and have a feast, since all the time I was with them, a piece of bread and cheese had been our only repast (being full of beer, wines and pillaged knick-nacks, they did not seem to be very hungry). While the hog was being scraped and dressed, the remaining pack-mules were dispatched, in charge of Sumu Indians, for the Wanks River. A special messenger, mounted on a good mule well saddled and caparisoned, was also sent with dispatches in which they claimed a great victory, of having killed twelve Americans, looted four Commissaries, burned two farms houses and annihilated the Guardia. I think this messenger also carried the money that had been stolen. ¶ While waiting there, the General came over to me and asked me what I was going to do, so I told him all I wanted was to get away. He told me that they were going into dangerous places and he thought it better to let me go, so I thanked him and was on my way, when he called me back and told me I had better carry a passport from him. His secretary wrote one out and Blandon signed it, slowly and laboriously as one unaccustomed to writing. It is reproduced on another page. . . . "

13.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 13.   
" . . . General Blandon handed me the passport and I was starting to go, when we heard once more the ominous drone of airplanes (Boy, that got'em). There was a grand commotion. All rushed into houses. (These houses were close to the water tank at Logtown). I made my way quickly southward to the woodland, and within five minutes more the airplanes started their bombardment of the bandits. I could see nothing from where I was and kept going, my only thought being to get to safety. My course was in the direction of Louisiana Farm. After passing through the woodland and reaching the bananas of this farm, I saw, across on the railroad a detachment of Guardia proceeding on foot towards Logtown. This was about 9:30 A.M. An airplane passed over and dropped a message to them after reading which, they hurried on. Evidently, it was information of the location of the bandits. I walked on and reached the Louisiana Farm headquarters about 1:00 P.M. Here I decided to await the return of the Guardia and go with them to Puerto Cabezas. The Guardia returned to this Farm about 4:00 P.M. and shortly thereafter continued back to Port. ¶ While at the Louisiana Farm and before the return of the Guardia to Port, I was instructed by Captain Wood, commander of the Guardia, to return to Logtown to identify and bring in the body of General Blandon. I told the Captain I had had enough, and would like to return to Port as soon as possible. Lieutenant Darrah remarked in the Captain's presence that I had had a hard time and he tought I should be brought to Port, as probably more bandits would be lurking in the district. The Captain called a Jamaican negro and told him to go over to Vaccaro Farm and see if he could find any of the bandits. This journey would occupy at least forty-five minutes for the . . . "

14.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 14.   
" . . . negro to arrive there not mentioning the time it would take him to return (even with bandits after him). But in less than a half hour the negro was back with the assurance that "Ah shuah didn' find none o'fem bandicks, suh". Lieut. Darrah still was dubious, but Captain Wood said he wanted to get back to Port, and told me I would have to go and get that body, and he would send a car as far as Snaki Bridge (eight miles distant from Logtown) to carry it to Port. ¶ I remained at Louisiana Farm that night, and on the following (Tuesday) morning about daybreak, left with a pack-mule for Logtown (followed the railroad track) to see about getting the body of General Blandon. I reached Logtown about 7:00 A.M. and proceeded to look at the bodies of the dead bandits, of which I counted eighteen, and was standing over the body of General Blandon, when out of the bush came four of the bandits who captured me once more. They asked me what I was doing, and I told them I was on my way to Sandy Bay and thence to Puerto Cabezas. The man who addressed me was second to General Blandon in command, and his name, Colonel Jose Navarro. They seemed quite upset to see their Chief dead. Evidently they had no previous knowledge of his death. It is part of their tactics, when attacked, for a few of them to quickly hide in the bush and remain on watch until something further develops. My arrival was probably the first development after the fight of the previous day. I told this Colonel that since his Chief had been good to me, I thought it would be a good idea to bury him. He immediately agreed, but no shovels could be found about the place, so it was suggested that the body be burned. We all got busy gathering up sticks and wood and burned the corpse, which already had been partly eaten . . . "

15.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 15.   
" . . . by dogs. While we were doing this, I told Navarro that I was in a pretty bad fix, because if I went out on the road to Sandy Bay I might meet some of his people who did not know me, and if I went back through Louisiana Farm I knew I would be met by about a hundred Marines who were now on their way to Logtown. This information startled him, and after a few words with his companions, they decided to make tracks for the Wanks River, and left me alone. This was about 9:30 A.M. Tuesday, April 14th. ¶ I then decided to beat my way down to Port through the woodlands, but decided I must be careful, since Navarro had told me they had six sentinels at Tigne Junction. It therefore seemed that I must try to work my way to the upper side of Tigne Junction, back of the burned Moss Farm House, to get up the Wawa River in some way and cross it there, whence I would be able to make Tungla Farm. Tuesday night, I slept in the bush and on Wednesday morning proceeded very slowly, hiding here and there, and made Tigne Junction about 4:00 P.M. ¶ From my hiding place I saw, on Thursday morning, April 16th, one of the bandits walking down the railroad track toward Tigne Junction, armed with two pistols, so decided to remain quiet and in hiding. I remained in hiding all that day (Thursday) and all the following day until about 2:00 P.M. Friday afternoon, when I looked out and saw Lieutenant Cursey [Curcey] with a squad of Guardia, and Mr. Beardsley accompanying them, so took courage and walked out to them. They told me to accompany them as they were going to Louisiana Farm and then right back to Port. I returned with them to Port on Friday night, April 17th at about 8:00 P.M. . . . "

16.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 16.   
" . . . ¶ OBSERVATIONS: ¶ The bandits do not fight in a large group. They send out six or eight men and commence fighting, and as soon as the Guardia replies, they cease firing and return to the woodland. Meantime, six or eight more of them have proceeded further back into the woodland and fire several shots. This is done to give the impression that there are many more bandits than there really are. All the time I was with this gang, there were actually only twenty two fighting men and ten Sumu Indians in their party. They are continually on the march. The only time they come out into the open is when they are sure a patrol is past them and they can do what they have in view before the patrol's return. I am speaking of railroad patrols. ¶ The thing they DON'T like is the airplane. ¶ Judging from the character of these bandits, they are nothing but a lot of cutthroats and murderers, with nothing to lose and all to gain. ¶ I might add that in the fighting on Sunday morning, three men who had been working for the Company were taken by the bandits from Moss Farm, to help fight. I have not seen them since. Also when we reached Vaccaro Farm, two men were brought from D'Antoni Farm, and when through looting and burning the farm buildings, the bandits sent them back to D'Antoni Farm. Thus, as regards men, they have no difficulty in getting all they want, but it seems to me that rifles and ammunition are the things they are most short of. ¶ General Blandon had an automatic rifle and ten of the men had Winchester rifles. These Winchesters were the now out-of-date .38 . . . "

17.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 17.   
" . . . caliber repeating, hand lever arms, using the cartridges designed for black powder before the advent of smokeless. The others of the party I was with had shotguns, some single, some double barrel, about half of each kind I should say. These were breech loading shotguns in which they used brass shells. Some were armed with pistols that had been stolen from the Farms and taken from murdered Americans. They also carry home-made bombs, made from a tin can (tomato or fruit tin) packed with dynamite, detonating cap and short fuse. While at Louisiana Farm and they were searching laborers' houses, they obtained ten sticks of dynamite and two boxes of caps. The Sumu Indians with this gang were not armed (except with machetes) and evidently were taken along in the capacity of laborers. All the bandits carried keenly sharpened machetes. ¶ From what I was able to overhear, they have headquarters up the Wanks River, with plenty of farms and "potreros" (pastures) and I understand it is at a place called Tilba, not far from the Honduran border, and about a hundred miles by river from Saclin. They have recently cut trails which probably would shorten the distance to about sixty miles. It has been stated that the rainy season now approaching will preclude further attacks. I doubt this. The chief difficulty they would find in the rainy season would be the navigation of the Wanks River. The rainy season might hinder them to some extent, but with new trails cut, they can travel by land, and while mud might be an inconvenience, I doubt if they would consider it much of a hindrance. And why the new trails if not to prepare ahead for the rainy season? ¶ The bandits were dressed in old dirty trousers of khaki, drill, . . . "

18.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 18.   
" . . . or similar material, original color undeterminable, any sort of shirt available, native hard leather shoes, dirty widebrimmed hats of straw, fiber, or similar material, and each wore a hatband of red and black (some appeared to be all red). Around their necks they wear a red kerchief with black border. Upon the approach of airplanes of Guardia, they would quickly remove this insignia (hatband and kerchiefs) and put same in their pockets. Also when sending a message, the messenger would remove his insignia and go unarmed like any of the farm laborers might go, to divert suspicion of him being a bandit. Their spies and messengers carry neither insignia nor weapons nor anything to indicate their character or mission and in all probability there are several of them in Port and on the farms. Having this in mind care should be taken in telephone conversations on the line, and in conversation in the presence of any one, even children. ¶ The bandits had a boy, presumably a son of one of the laborers of Moss Farm, with them at the time of the attack, who informed them of the names of the men composing the group of Tigne Junction. I could hear him in a childish treble telling the bandits the names of those in the party, and believe he was one of two or three boys I had noticed hanging around before the attack occurred. I do not know his name nor could I recognize him as I was in hiding in the mule shed when I heard him talking. They missed me, and I heard them going all about, shouting and looking for me, cursing and yelling: "Where is that ---- ---- ---- Murphy". I also heard them yelling and asking profanely for Cathey Wilson and James W. Lloyd, . . . "

19.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 19.   
" . . . who made good their escape. ¶ Every bandit in the party I was with, excepting General Blandon, had one or more machete scars on his face, most of them having several scars, and a few of them numerous scars crisscrossed over each other. ¶ Blandon described the laborers of the farms as "slaves of the d--d Americans" and stated that the Company is a "bloodsucker" taking everything out of Nicaragua and putting nothing back, in other words, exploiting the poor Nicaraguans". It is believed some emissaries of the Sandinistas are among the farm laborers preaching this stuff, to gain recruits for the bandits and perhaps foment a strike, and after this coming pay-day it is not improbable that a few laborers may show up missing, who are now waiting only for their pay. ¶ Blandon stated that the main object of the bandits under his command was to keep the Company from operating by repeated harrying tactics, making sudden forays upon the farms so as to keep everyone in a state of nervousness and uncertainty, never knowing when trouble might start nor where and KILL EVERY AMERICAN THEY COULD, in addition to looting and destroying American property. There is no question but that the bandits are after American[s] and American property. Why they took me for a German I do not understand, as I do not resemble a German either in appearance or speech, and am very much what my name implies. Of course, no one in the party spoke German, so my ability in that respect had to be taken for granted. ¶ I am of the opinion that if no effective steps are taken to . . . "

20.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 20.   
" . . . drive these bandits from the Wanks River section they will follow out the plans of General Blandon as above stated, and the farms will be subject to surprise attacks, looting and very probably further killings. ¶ For a future attack, it is my guess that they might pass up Logtown entirely and strike the railroad line at Kilometer 43, crossing the nearby savannah at night and concealing themselves in the woodland near Km. 43 before daybreak. This could be accomplished without any one else having knowledge of their approach or of their presence until they chose to strike. ¶ In addition to those whose names are mentioned in the caption of this narrative, three more persons were killed by the bandits on this foray before the gang reached Logtown. They were J.P. Phelps, John L. Pennington and H.P. (Rip) Davis, whom the marauders surprised North of Logtown early in the morning of April 11, 1931 and mercilessly slaughtered, giving warning to all nearby residents that burial be denied the bodies; thus making a total of fourteen victims, of which nine were American citizens, one (Sagastume) Honduran, one (Ramirez) Nicaraguan, and three (Manning, May, and Roper) Jamaicans, therefore, British subjects. ¶ The foregoing narrative has been carefully read by me, and is a true and faithful report of my experiences occurring on the days and dates therein mentioned. ¶ Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, May 9, 1931 ¶ AUSTIN MURPHY"

21.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 21.   
[facsimile of safe conduct pass issued to Austin Murphy by Gen. Pedro Blandón]

22.     9 May 1931.
"An Eye Witness' Account of Attack of Sandinista bandits at Moss Farm on April 11, 1931, by Austin Murphy, Timekeeper of Vaccaro Farm, Who Was Captured and Held Prisoner by the Bandits," p. 22.   
"MAP OF TIGNE JUNCTION & IMMEDIATE SURROUNDINGS TO ILLUSTRATE NARRATIVE OF AUSTIN MURPHY. ALSO SHOWING LOCATIONS (APPROXIMATE) WHERE BODIES FOUND"

9 May 1931.
Conditions at Cabo Gracias.  Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua.   
"1. On 5 May 1931 I flew to Cabo Gracias in one of the amphibian planes for the purpose of obtaining information as to conditions there.  ¶  2. Normal conditions are rapidly being resumed.  Most of the inhabitants have returned to their homes and occupations and the presence of the Guardia have given them a feeling of confidence and safety.  ¶  3. ABRAHAM RIVERA with a group of between forty (40) and sixty (60) men raided and looted Cabo Gracias on 14-15 April 1931.  No one was killed or harmed and no damage was done to buildings except at the radio station, where the radio was put out of condition by destruction of the set.  The radio operator has not returned to Cabo Gracias but it is believed that he will return as soon as the necessary spare radio parts are received.  ¶  4. It is estimated that between eight and ten thousand dollars ($8,000 and $10,000) worth of merchandise was taken from the several stores, part of which was covered by a receipt signed by ABRAHAM RIVERA.  ¶  5. I discussed with the acting Jefe Politico the question of organization of a civico unit. He thought that eight (8) or ten (10) reliable men could be found who would join such a unit.  Other prominent men in town stated that it was doubtful if anyone would enlist as a civico unless the Guardia guaranteed to permanently retain a guardia post there.  None of the men I talked with were willing to enlist for the reason that should the guardia be withdrawn, they would be in grave danger from the bandits for having cooperated with the Guardia.  I feel certain that no more than ten (10) reliable men could be induced to join a civico unit and their effectiveness in case of emergency is extremely doubtful. ..."

9 May 1931 (1300).
Telegram from US Minister in Managua Matthew Hanna to Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington, p. 1.  
 "... For reasons apparently unknown to Colonel Wynne [sic] it will not be practicable to increase the Guardia at Puerto Cabezas with Guardia forces elsewhere on the East Coast. If the Standard Fruit Company desires the Guardia for protection of its property increased by 50 men (and we are of the opinion that this is a reasonable increase to obtain the protection which the Company appears to desire), the increase should be made as set forth in my telegram no. 67.  The total increase of 50 men can be sent from here via Lake Nicaragua, the San Juan River and the East Coast as soon as this matter is definitely settled.  These"

9 May 1931 (1300).
Telegram from US Minister in Managua Matthew Hanna to Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington, p. 2.  
 "These men will be trained Guardia ready for service on their arrival at Puerto Cabezas and will be replaced here by new enlistments. The cost of transportation will be approximately 20 dollars per man and we understand it will by paid by the company. The hazard of transporting men to the East Coast by airplane has increased with the advent of the rainy season and we deem it undesirable to take this hazard unless a more urgent military situation arises. Hanna"

9 May 1931.
Letter from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Most Excellent Mr. President José María Moncada, Managua, p. 1.   
"CUARTEL GENERAL GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA¶ Managua, Mayo 9, de 1931. ¶ Most Excellency President of the Republic of Nicaragua. ¶ Your Despatch: ¶ Most Excellent Mr. President:= ¶ It is highly honorable that I recommend to your Excellency Sergeant Adrian Saenz and the Rasos Felicito Cruz and Levy Pinnock, members of the Guardia Nacional of Nicaragua, that they be granted the Medal of Merit of the Republic, in recognition of the value of heroism displayed by them in the face of the enemy in an enclosed position during a desperate fight. ¶ On the 11th of April of this year, Captain Pefley Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, having received notice that a group of sixty bandits were marauding in the immediate vicinity of Logtown, Department of Bluefields , immediately cleared Puerto Cabezas with a Detachment of seven Guardias and a civilian named W. Y. Selzer, employed by the Bragman Bluff Lumber Co., among whom were sergeant Adrian Saenz, Raso Felicito Cruz and Raso Levy Pinnock. ¶ Upon arrival at Logtown they met a group of about sixty bandits looting the Commissary of the Bragman Bluff Lumber company, and immediately formed a line of skirmishers to attack them. Upon the arrival of this line to a distance of about 200 yards from the commissary, the bandits being concealed in the bush and beneath and behind the buildings around the commissary, opened fire on them, resulting in Captain Pefley, and Mr. Selzer being mortally wounded, in the first burst of fire. The remaining Guardias under the command of Sergeant Saenz answered the fire in an efficient, and brave manner. The bandits with an overwhelming number rushed out, trying to capture Captain Pefley and Mr. Selzer, but the Guardias with distinguished bravery and in a vigorous burst of well directed fire forced them to retire into the bush. The bandits advanced and attacked strongly for the second time with the same intention of capturing Captain Pefley and Mr. Selzer, but they were driven back each time by the strong resistance and determined valor from this small detachment of Guardias under the command of Sergeant Saenz. ¶ After the third attempt Sergeant Saenz ordered his detachment to concentrate the maximum fire on the bandits, in order to cover and protect their movements, and along with the Rasos Felicito Cruz and Levy Pinnock in a daring [...]"

9 May 1931.
Letter from Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua, to Most Excellent Mr. President José María Moncada, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- …displayed valor they safely withdrew outside and saved Captain pefley; and without measure of the risk involved these three brave guardias safely withdrew for the second time and saved Mr. Selzer, both rescuers executed in the face of overwhelming fire of an overwhelming number of bandits. Having determingly achieved his purpose Sergeant Saenz ordered one of his number to carry Captain Pefley and Mr. Selzer, both mortally wounded but still living to Puerto Cabezas, sending information at the same time to Lieutenant Darrah of the event and asking for reenforcements, and with a small contingent of troops remained covering the retirement of the evacuation of the wounded and heroically sustained his position until the arrival of the reenforcements. ¶ The actions of these guardias reflects and exalts glory and honor to the Republic of Nicaragua and to the Guardia Nacional for which all the sons of Nicaragua should feel proud, and should profoundly appreciate the services for these faithful and loyal servants of the government, services that were incomparably above and beyond the call of duty of a soldier, for this, I repeat my recommendation that they be decorated by your Excellency with the Medal ofMerit of the Republic. ¶ Respectfully yours Mr. President ¶ C. B. MATTHEWS"

10 May 1931 (1020).
Radiogram from Jefe Director GN Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua, to Jefe de la Guardia Bluefields.   
"TROPICAL RADIO TELEGRAM ¶ TO JEFE DE LA GUARDIA BLUEFIELDS 10 May 1931. ¶ INFORMATION HAS BEEN RECEIVED FROM STATE DEPARTMENT THAT YOU HAVE INFORMED THE STANDARD FRUIT COMPANY OF PUERTO CABEZAS THAT YOU WOULD INCREASE GUARDIA THERE BY TWENTY NINE REGULAR GUARDIAS IF THE COMPANY WOULD PROVIDE FUNDS FOR MAINTENANCE OF TWENTY ONE ADDITIONAL GUARDIAS PERIOD ADVISE FROM WHAT POSTS YOU INTEND TAKING THE MEN FOR THIS PURPOSE PERIOD DO NOTHING FURTHER REGARDING THE MATTER UNTIL FURTHER ORDERS FROM HERE PERIOD HAVE ADVISED AMERICAN MINISTER GUARDIA WILL ACCEPT PROPOSITION MADE BY STANDARD FRUIT COMPANY TO MAINTAIN FIFTY ADDITIONAL GUARDIA AND ONE AIRPLANE PERIOD DETAILS OF THE PLAN WILL BE FORWARDED UPON COMPLETION OF NEGOTIATIONS WITH GOVERNMENT PERIOD MATTHEWS 10210 MAY 31. ¶ Walter G. Sheard, ¶ by direction."

10 May 1931.
CIRCULAR PARA TODOS NUESTROS JEFES EXPEDICIONARIOS, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN, p. 1.  
(SOURCE: Alejandro Bendaña, La mística de Sandino, p. 187)    "... Más detalles sobre nuestras acciones en la costa.  ¶  Durante tres días nuestras tropas ocuparon los suburbios de la ciudad de Puerto Cabezas, despues de destruir cinco puentes de la línea del ferrocarril y dos trenes usados por las fuerzas enemigas que se rindieron cuando trataban de reforzar los otros destacamentos del enemigos atrincherados en los lugares donde estaban nuestras tropas.  ¶  El comisariato de la Compañía Bragman Bluff fue abierto por nuestras tropas y puesto a disposición de los trabajadores de ese lugar.  ¶  Nuestras fuerzas se tomaron Cabo Gracias a Dios y ocho horas despues los aviones bombardeaban la ciudad sin causar dano alguno a nuestras tropas.  Nuestras tropas no atacaron Puerto Cabezas porque no tiene ninguna importancia para nosotros ya que lo que queríamos era controlar por un tiempo necesario todos los campos de explotación de la compañías yankis en ese lugar.  Lo logramos y alli todo es destrucción.  Tambien fueron s CHALEQUEADOS doce altos funcionarios de las companías y una gran cantidad de guardias nacionales traidores.  ¶  La única desgracia que tenemos que lamentar es la muerte de nuestro querido hermano General Pedro Blandón y de su sobrino Tomás, víctimas de una bomba que estalló sobre ellos lanzada por los aviones. ..."

10 May 1931.
CIRCULAR PARA TODOS NUESTROS JEFES EXPEDICIONARIOS, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN, p. 2.  
(SOURCE: Alejandro Bendaña, La mística de Sandino, p. 188)    "... Es posible que el General Humberto Caracas sea asignado Jefe Expedicionario a cargo de las tropas que operaban bajo el mando de Pedro Blandón. ..."

10 May 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSN, to Señores Generales Carlos Salgado, Miguel Angel Ortez y Guillen, José Leon Diaz y Coronel Perfecto Chavarria, Campo de Operaciones Militares. 
 (SOURCE: NA127/E38/Box 30, photocopy of original, first page only.)   "Queridos hermanos:  ¶  En esta misma nota me permito contestarles las cuatro suyas que se han servido enviarnos a este Cuartel General, de las cuales nos hemos impuesto detenidamente.  ¶  En los momentos que les escribo la presente, nos sentimos altamente ocupados, en virtud de los movimientos militares que se han estado desarrollando en estos momentos en nuestro Costa Atlantica.  ¶  Sin embargo, no he querido dejarles de contestar para manifestarles lo siguiente:  ¶  En atencion al gran exito alcanzado por nuestras columnas en gira militar por nuestra Costa Atlantica, se ha dispuesto; extender el asenso de General de Divicion, al hermano General de Brigada, Pedro Altamirano.  ¶  Tambien se há dispuesto reconoser por numeros a nuestras diferentes columnas expedicionarias, y las que responderán en el orden siguiente:  ¶  Columna No 1, es la que opera bajo las ordenes del General de Divicion, Pedro Altamirano.  ¶  Columna No 2 General de Divicion Carlos Salgado.  ¶  Columna No 3 . . . General de Brigada Pedro Antonio Irias.  ¶  Columna No 4 . . . General de Brigada Miguel Angel Ortez y Guillen.  ¶  Columna No 5 . . . General de Brigada José Leon Diaz.  ¶  Columna No 6 . . . Coronel Efectivo Abraham Rivera, sobre el Rio Coco.  ¶  El Coronel Perfecto Chavarria, está ordenado por esta Jefatura Suprema de nuestro Ejercito, a reconsentrarse a este Cuartel General, despues de haber entregado las armas al General José Leon Diaz o en el Reten de el Ojoche.  ¶  En otro caso, si el Coronel Chavarria, siente pena de regresar desarmado a este Cuartel General, en ese caso, se le deberá de permitir de que se reconsentre a la mayor brevedad posible, a este Cuartel General de nuestro Ejercito.  ¶  Con los numeros mencionados anterior serán denominadas nuestras columnas expedicionarias, por lo que se ordena a todos nuestros Jefes expedicionarios . . ."

1.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.   
"

2.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

3.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.

4.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 4.

5.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 5.  
"... INTELLIGENCE.  1. The general state of the territory occupied, was quiet at the end of the period, but with possible threat of another raid on CAPE GRACIAS from HONDURAS on the NORTH.  2. Military Situation: There are no known active bandit grups in the Area, proper, but it is believed that the withdrawn bandit forces are now at BOCAY with captured supplies from commissaries.  It is also believed that a part of ABRAHAM RIVERA group are in HONDURAS, NORTH of CAPE GRACIAS.  It is the opinion of the Area Commander that ADOLFO COCKBURN, the so called "King of the Coco River Indians", and probably justly termed, was an active agent and participant for and with the invading bandits; that his control and activity over the Indians in the SACLIN region, was, alone, responsible for the BLANDON force to actually reach, sack and burn LOGTOWN without Guardia knowledge of his approach.  With the increased strength of Guardia and Municipal Guardia in PUERTO CABEZAS, the establishment of small Guardia Post at CAPE GRACIAS, and the approach of the rainy season, it is not considered probable that further immediate demonstration will be made on the East Coast towns, with the exception of CAPE GRACIAS, where bandit raid is only barely probable.  It is considered probable that raids will continue on small Indian settlements in SACLIN vicinity of the COCO RIVER, but that ADOLFO COCKBURN'S stores will not be touched as in the past."

6.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 6.

7.     11 May 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, April 1931.  Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 7.

11 May 1931.
Letter from Asst. Sec. State Francis White to Acting Sec. of Navy Charles Francis Adams III, Washington DC, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT OF STATE ¶ WASHINGTON ¶ May 11, 1931. ¶ The Honorable ¶ The Acting Secretary of the Navy. ¶ Sir: In order to afford better protection to its properties in the region of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, the Standard Fruit and Steamship Company has informed the Jefe Director of the Guardia Nacional of Nicaragua, through the Department of State, that it will furnish an airplane and pay for the upkeep thereof if satisfactory to the Guardia Nacional. ¶ A reply has been received from General Matthews, through the American Legation in Nicaragua, saying that it is believed a plan of this sort can be made to work to the mutual interests of the Company and the Guardia Nacional. The operator and mechanic will be required to sign a contract of engagement with the Guardia Nacional, agreeing that all military operations shall come under the strict control of the Guardia Nacional. The operator will be required to be licensed and satisfy the Jefe Director as to his skill and training in the operation of military aircraft."

11 May 1931.
Letter from Asst. Sec. State Francis White to Acting Sec. of Navy Charles Francis Adams III, Washington DC, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- ¶ aircraft. General Matthews suggests it is probable that a former Army, Navy or Marine operator could be employed who would possess the necessary qualifications. General Matthews further suggests that the State Department take up with the Navy Department the matter of authorizing the commanding officer of the aircraft squadrons in Nicaragua to furnish bombs and other ordnance material for the use of this plane under the control of the Guardia Nacional. ¶ I have the honor therefore to inquire whether it would be possible for the Navy Department to comply with this request of General Matthews. ¶ Very truly yours, ¶ For the Secretary of State: ¶ (signed) Francis White ¶ Assistant Secretary"

13 May 1931 (1800).
Telegram from Sec. State Henry Stimson, Washington DC, to US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua.   
"Your 73 May 12 12 noon.  You may discuss the matter with the Nicaraguan authorities.  Standard Fruit Company asks that you expedite the early arrival of reenforcements at Puerto Cabezas and the Department will be glad to have you do so.  ¶  Moss just before sailing for Mexico yesterday telegraphed that he is advised by Brownson his personal representative at Puerto Cabezas that rainy season probably will not start before June 1st and his frank opinion is that bandits are known to have sufficient river equipment to move at will regardless of weather conditions and that rumors are persistent that they intend to return in increased numbers and with better equipment with the intention of taking Puerto Cabezas.  Stimson."

15 May 1931.
Petition for removal of Sindico Gladston Bilbans, from Salbador, Ester Fedrico, Letie Ferderico, Godfrey Williams, Cebard Salvador, Casimiro Fauch (?) of The Miskito Indian Community of Bilwi, Nic., to the Honorable Colonel Wynn, Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nic., p. 1.   
[with extensive marginal commentary by D. C. Brooks.]    "Because the British Government has left the protection of us Miskito Indians, on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua into the especial care of your American Government.  ¶  The undersign Miskito Indians, lawful representatives of this Community of Bilwi, humbly comes into your presence to day, praying that you give us audience; and hear us pour out a small portion of our present day grievance, to wit:  ¶  This village of Bilwi, has a headman who is called a Sindico, after the fashion of the spanish element, who created him Sindico.  ¶  Now, this man was not put into office by us Indians, whose is the prerogative to do so, but was put in office by a bunch of spanish element to suit their political views.  This Sindico in question is not a resident of Bilwi.  He belongs to a village called, Krukira (20) miles twenty miles to the north of our town.  The Bilwi Indians do not want him here, because the very fact of him not being one of us, he is against us, we are asking you to have the matter so adjusted with the Governor of Bluefields that this Sindico, Gladston Bilbans, be at once removed, and be replaced by the man we Indians want, because he is daily taking our birthright away from us, which the Lord of Heaven and earth has given us.  ¶  To with:  He has unknown to us, Bilwi people, just leased, taken away, and transferred to one, Pio Arguello, twenty-five Hectareas of our lands.  This lot of land is including all of our past, present, and future plantations and all land cultivatable for the future; for a term of ten years.  ¶  We are therefore asking your high authority to make a proclaimation, stating to the world, and all who it may concern, that the plantations and cultivation land belonging to us Miskito Indians are looked upon as sacred ground, and not negociable, and that this Pio Arguello's deal is cancelled, and is none effect.  ¶  There is a Covenant extant, a treaty made by England and Nicaragua, in which much protection is promised to us, but 36 years has passed and until this day, we are sorry to recall the fact that not a thing has been done for us; on the contrary we are suffering, and in danger of our lives.  We Miskito Indians are clamoring for the Americans to sever us from our bonds, from this Nicaraguan yoke, give us as before our reservation, and hold the sole rights of protectorate given by us. ..."

15 May 1931.
Petition for removal of Sindico Gladston Bilbans, from Salbador, Ester Fedrico, Letie Ferderico, Godfrey Williams, Cebard Salvador, Casimiro Fauch (?) of The Miskito Indian Community of Bilwi, Nic., to the Honorable Colonel Wynn, Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nic., p. 2.   
" ... ¶  Dear Sir: we pray, that you take this serious matter in all its details seriously into your high, and esteem consideration and as quick as your highness find it opportune for our welfare, we humbly ask that you remember us with an answer (especially we pray you) for the settlement of the Sindico Gladston Bilbans.  ¶  We are your most humble petitioners, The Miskito Indians."  [six signatures]

 

PREVIOUS     NEXT

 


A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8