Header image
the atlantic coast thru 1927, p. 5
sept 18 - nov 29, 1927

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE FIFTH PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE PERIOD THROUGH 1927 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 73 days from September 18 to November 29.

     One of the major themes to emerge here is labor unrest around Puerto Cabezas stemming from Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company's efforts to remove the squatters from the village of Bilway and keep wages low by importing West Indian laborers, and more generally, the unsettled labor conditions at export enclaves all along the Coast. Rumors of Sandino's imminent arrival turn out to be false; the region's simmering unrest stems not from outside agitators but from local labor conditions and local grievances. We see considerable evidence here of various forms of workers' disgruntlement, including strikes, arson, and other forms of direct action. We also see the continuation of paperwork generated by the lawsuit between Albert Fagot of Cape Gracias and Sr. Ibarra; continued local political wrangling in the aftermath of the civil war on the heels of many years of unpopular Conservative rule; reports on local elections in Bluefields and Rama held on Nov. 6; and related matters.

      As before, while Las Segovias seethes in rebellion and violence, Sandino has nothing to do with any of these developments, beyond a few rumors that his forces are near.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

18 September 1927.
Bilway y las Pretensciones de la Bragman: Todo Monopolio es Odioso e Inconstitucional," Diario Moderno, Managua (Hemeroteca Nacional, Managua). 
"Sabemos que hace cuatro días salió de la ciudad de Bluefields, rumbo a Puerto Cabezas, el general Juan J. Estrada, jefe político de aquel departamento. Según nos informan, el general Estrada va con el propósito de hacer que desocupen por la fuerza sus casas y propiedades los habitantes de Bilway, población que queda a corta distancia de Puerto Cabezas; Bilway será entregada a la Bragman Bluff Lumber Company a fin de que aumente el radio de Puerto Cabezas. No somos enemigos del capital extranjero y comprendemos que la Bragman ha hecho muchísimo por el progreso de aquellas regiones; pero no somos partidarios de que a la fuerza se obligue a los duenos de sus predios que desocupen, para entregarlos a una compañía. Denuncias que nos hacen. Personas llegadas de la Costa Atlántica nos informan que la Bragman ha hostilizado en mil formas a los habitantes de Bilway, no vendien doles maderas para sus construcciones a pesar de que las exporta, ni permitiéndoles que desemba quen sus artículos y mercaderlas en el muelle de Puerto Cabezas; tienen que irlas a botar a la orilla del mar - es decir - no se les da acceso al puerto. La Bragman está importando negros antillanos para sus trabajos, dejando en cesantia a los peones nicaragüenses, a quienes se les ha ofrecido dos dolares de salario, y puestos allá solo se les paga uno sesenta, pero con cupones que han de gastar en el mismo Comisariato. Un tratado. El tratado Harrison-Altamirano favorece a los indios mosquitos poseedores y dueños de Bilway, a quienes a la fuerza se quiere hacerlos desocupar aquella población."

18 September 1927.
"Los Fraudes Conservadores en la Costa Atlántica: Tratan de Engañar al Comander Kendell: Competencia en Navegación y Venta de Hielo - Pasos y Compañía en Favor de la I. P."  Diario Moderno, Managua (Hemeroteca Nacional, Managua).
   "Las elecciones en Siquia ¶ Bluefields, 8 de septiembre—El domingo 4 de los corrientes tuvo efecto la elección de Diputado en el distrito de Siquia, que a causa de la recién pasada emergencia no pudo tener verificativo a su debido tiempo.  Hubo orden, orden completo mantenido por los marinos del destacamento americano acampados en este Litoral.  Pero también hubo fraude, mucho fraude mantenido por el conservatismo temeroso de la derrota.  De antemano el chamorrismo hizo inscribir fraudulentamente a muchos conservadores en su catálogo para tener mayoría; pero al hacerse la elección se constató que el catálogo de los liberales no correspondía con el de los conservadores; éste tenía más inscripciones que aquél.  En el cantón que tuvo efecto tal embrollo fueron recusados los votos fraudulentos.  En otro de los cantones, apareció el catálogo de los liberales mutilado, con dos hojas menos.  Además, a pesar del convenio del Consejo Departamental de Elecciones y el Comander Kendell, especificando los lugares en que únicamente habría elecciones, los conservadores quieren ahora hacer aparecer o que se lleven a efecto elecciones en otros lugares es no comprendidos en dicho convenio, y en donde han pretendido burlar a los liberales alegando que no asistieron a formar parte del Directorio, teniendo que llamar a individuos conservadores que ellos hacen pasar como liberales; y así por el estilo abusos de esta naturaleza ha sido arma que ha empleado el conservatismo para torcer la verdad.  ¶  Tanto el Comander Kendell como el Cónsul Americano tienen información completa de los hechos ocurridos y de este modo y muy a pesar de tanta trama mal intencionada, y del aguardiente sustraído clandestinamente del Depósito de Bluefields para estimular al conservatismo, se considera completamente ganada la papeleta liberal que defiende la candidatura del doctor Onofre Sandoval.  ¶  El tesoro liberal en la Costa   ¶  Se ha establecido una oficina de propaganda que trabaja tesoneramente por la reorganización de liberalismo en la Costa Atlántica, compactándolo de manera que esté bien preparado para que, así como en la guerra supo vencer, salga triunfante también al amparo de la paz en las luchas electorales que se avecinan.  Creemos que, labor de la misma oficina propagandista, ha de ser la creación del tesoro propio del liberalismo costeño, como uno de los puntos más esenciales para llegar al éxito en esas mismas luchas. Más que discursos y hojas volantes, se necesita dinero y más dinero, de otro modo solo al fracaso iremos y más valdría la pena que desde ahora nos acostáramos a dormir . . .  ¶  Acepte, señor ministro Reñazco  ¶  La compañía de Carlos Pasos que hace la navegación entre San Carlos y Bluefields, ofreció al jefe político de esta ciudad conducir hasta aquí la correspondencia q’ viene del interior, y que los ciento diez córdobas que el contratista Galeano cobra actualmente por ese mismo servicio queden a beneficio de las escuelas de este departamento, contribuyendo así a la mejora de los locales que ocupan y que el Gobierno ha descuidado completamente.  No dudamos que el ministerio respectivo ha de aceptar ese contingente en pro de la instrucción pública, que los señores Pasos y Compañía ofrecen tan generosamente y muy llenos de patriotismo.  ¶  Oiganlo Victorino y Mr. Peña  ¶  Muy de placeres se hayan los que viajan a las ciudades del interior o viceversa, pues ahora como se ha establecido un pugilato, de vida o muerte, entre las dos únicas compañías que hacen la navegación de San Carlos a Bluefields, los precios de los pasajes están llegando a su más infama expresión. Anteriormente se pagaba en ese travesía la suma de quince córdobas por persona; ahora cuesta cuatro el viaje de ida y un córdoba solamente es suficiente para hacer de regreso la misma jornada.  ¶  Y tal sistema de matarse las unas empresas a las otras se esta generalizando con gran contento y satisfacción del pueblo que está saliendo ganancioso en estas luchas de capital y de los intereses similares.  Nada menos que ya en esta ciudad las dos fábricas de hielo que existen expended su artículo por precios que están al alcance de los bolsillos más miserables.  Antes costaba la libra de hielo cuatro centavos, después dos centavos, enseguida centavo y medio, y hoy se dan cinco libras por un centavo.  – REDACTOR CORRESPONSAL"

1.     21 September 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.
   "The general state of that part of Bluefields Department in and near Bluefields and Rama and along the Escondido river and its tributaries is calm.  The hatreds and excitement caused by the revolution is disappearing rapidly.  Along the Rio Grande River, particularly at La Cruz and Rio Grande Bar, there is considerable labor unrest, caused by idleness and lack of work as a result of the return from Puerto Cabezas of many men who went there to work for the Bragman's Bluff Lumber Company but have been discharged and returned to their homes.  Incited by ex-revolutionary leaders who are desirous of maintaining political unrest, tradesmen who want the extra money in circulation, and the men out of work, those actually employed by the Fruit Company in banana hauling on the Company's boats have threatened to strike if their wages were not doubled and extra men were not put on to work in the crews of the boats.  In the Puerto Cabezas district there is some unrest due to the discharging of superfluous labor by the Bragman's Bluff Lumber Company, to the rumors of Sandino's nearness in the vicinity of the Pis Pis mines and the presence in Puerto Cabezas of many disreputable characters of the class that always follow on the heels of a large development such has been undertaken at Puerto Cabezas by the Bragman's Bluff Lumber Company.  The situation there is further complicated by the efforts of the [Company] to have removed from the grounds of its concession the native village of Bilway which is composed of squatters on the Company's property, but nevertheless has grown up ..."

2.      21 September 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.
   " . . . into a town of about 800 natives some of whom have considerable influence amongst the Company’s employees.  All of the foregoing trouble is largely engendered by economic conditions rather than political although the Liberals have attempted to make political capital out of the unrest and to keep affairs in a chaotic state in order to lay the dissatisfaction and unrest at the doors of the Conservative administration.  ¶  b. ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS FORCES.  ¶  The attitude of the population towards the forces continues to vary from opposition through tolerance to approbation.  The radical and unlawful elements are opposed to the forces.  The great majority of the Liberals and Conservatives are tolerant.  A few of the better educated and traveled classes as well as many of the shopkeepers are open in their approbation of the forces.  ¶  c. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.  ¶  Economic conditions are fair in the Bluefields District.  The banana demand in the States is higher this summer than usual and that has made for good conditions here in the banana business.  Although work is not over plentiful here the extra labor has gone to other fields leaving plenty of work for those that remain.  The mahogany cutting is at an end for this season as is most of the driving and loading although a few of the contractors are still driving logs in the upper rivers and waiting for another flood to get the remainder of their logs down river.  Gold mining is at a standstill on account of the high cost of provisions, labor and transportation up river to the mines.  Early in October the contractors will make new contracts for mahogany and the majority of them are now hunting suitable tracts to cut over the next season or have gone to the interior to denounce the tracts they have previously located.  ¶  Although there is the normal amount of work in the banana industry on the Rio Grande the excess labor there is having a bad effect as outlined in subparagraph 2 of paragraph 1.  ¶  (Fresh fruits are coming into Bluefields from Corn Island and Pearl Lagoon is constantly increasing quantities.  They are of excellent quality and command good prices.)  It is believed economic conditions will improve in the Bluefields and Rio Grande district soon, due to opening up new mahogany cuttings on the Kurringwas River next season. . . . "

3.     21 September 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.
  " . . . d. ATTITUDE OF THE PRESS.  ¶  The attitude of the press continues to be tolerant.  ¶  e. FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION.  ¶  There is not any friction between troops and civil population as a whole.  During the past week a native criminal in Puerto Cabezas was shot by a Marine and killed while attempting in company with three companions to murder a negro.  The rest of the gang led by the man who was killed, six in number left Puerto Cabezas surreptitiously the same night.  They had previously killed a steward from off a civilian steamer in Puerto Cabezas.  There has been no hard feeling engendered by this among the respectable elements of the population and in fact most of them seem glad that it has happened as it had a salutary effect on the rest of the criminal class in Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  f. POLICE OPERATIONS.  ¶  During the past week the Marines have discontinued policing the streets in Bluefields and have turned that duty over to the native police force which has been issued seven pistols for the officers and patrolmen actually on duty.  In both Puerto Cabezas and Bluefields the Marines keep a reserve ready to assist the police if necessary.  A force of Marines has also been left in Wawa Central sixty miles into the interior from Puerto Cabezas to assist the newly organized police force there.  ¶  g. MILITARY OPERATIONS.  ¶  On Sunday, September 11 a patrol of 1 Sergeant and eight men was sent at midnight from Bluefields to Rio Grande Bar aboard the Cuyamel Company’s gasoline tug, Rover with order to prevent damage to the American property and interests on the Rio Grande due to the troubles there.  From Thursday to Saturday two patrols of two men each went up the Rio Grande on the Power Barges of the Cuyamel Company picking up bananas with orders to maintain order aboard and prevent damage to American property and interests.  The remainder of the patrol stayed at Rio Grande Bar.  ¶  On Monday September 12 at midnight fourteen Marines and two machine guns were despatched aboard the gasoline Tug B. W. Waite to Puerto Cabezas as reinforcements to the detachment of Marines from this company garrisoning that place.  These reinforcements were sent in response to a request from Lieutenant Connette as it then appeared due to an attack on the Commandante at Rama Central that Sandino’s forces were nearing Puerto Cabezas.  On Thursday September 15 the Tulsa arrived at Puerto . . . "

4.     21 September 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 4.  
" . . . Cabezas, and landed her Marine Guard while the remainder of the 51st Company Marines on duty there went out to Wawa Central to reinforce the patrol of eight men sent out there Monday from Puerto Cabezas. The rumors of Sandino’s presence in that locality proved false and the trouble was found to be personal animosity towards the Commandante at Wawa Central for overtaxing the laborers and general malfunctions in office by that official. ¶ h. POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ The election of deputy from the District of Siquia which occurred in Rama and Vicinity Sunday September 4 on the official count of the ballots by the Departmental Council of Elections at Bluefields, Sunday September 11 resulted in a victory for the Conservative nominee by 23 votes. ¶ Political activity has lapsed temporarily in this Department except in Bluefields and Rama where the preparations for the Local Elections in October are going forward. The nominees in Bluefields for Mayor are as stated in the previous report. In Rama the tickets are as follows: ¶ [table: LIBERAL: Alcalde Proprietario Carlos Fornos, Alcalde Suplente José Matamoros, Regidor José Manuel Angulo, Regidor Suplente Alfonso Montano, Regidor Suplente (Unknown), Syndico Leonardo Cajinas ¶ CONSERVATIVE: Alcalde Proprietario Francisco Salgado, Alcalde Suplente Padre Nicano Obando, Regidor Syriaco Brenes [Ciriaco Brenes], Regidor Suplente Guillermo Soto, Syndico Jose Dixon [José Dixon] ¶
] ¶ In view of the facts that the votes in Rama in the election for Deputy was tied, and that the Conservative ticket is comprised of older, more respected, and better liked men than the Liberal ticket it is believed that the Conservatives will win the election in Rama. ¶  Donald J. Kendall"

22 September 1927.
Letter from S. Milon, Providence RI, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields. 
 "Honorable Sir: ¶ Your message by Mr. Nat Kloch has just been received. Please send me instructions concerning evidence required. ¶ I should like to state a few facts that may help some. ¶ General Viquez in personal witness that I was shot while forced on a commission by his command on May 20th, 1926. General Viquez took statement of these facts and personally promised me to see that I was compensated for the damage. ¶ General Arguello was in charge of Rama when my house was destroyed. He knows all the details of how it was broken down and used for Firewood, Coffins, and for building Camps on the hills. Considering this, I should think that the same General Gustavo Arguello would be the proper witness to sign these papers of mine. If I had to go to Managua to remind him of these things that would entail a lot of expense that I can’t afford. Why couldn’t these facts be brought to his recollection and have him sign the papers there in Managua by mail? If it should be so necessary to get other officials that was in Rama at the time I could get a few here. ¶ As to the Looting of the two houses that had my things, everybody in Rama can be my witnesses, and some who are in Bluefields now. ¶ Should I be deprived of my property, my tools by which I made an honest living, because of the various obstacles that are being put in the way by the Commission of Reclamas, making it more inconvenient for me to get my money? I am just now down and out and can’t undergo any further expense. My only hope is in you that you will try your utmost to get this money for me. ¶ I am awaiting your instruction at the earliest moment. ¶ Yours truly, . . . "

24 September 1927.
"Peligroso Incendio en Puerto Cabezas: Millón y Medio de Dólares Escapó de Perder la Bragman Bluff Lumber Company," Diario Moderno, Managua (Hemeroteca Nacional, Managua).  
 "El 9 de los corrientes, a la media noche, fue alarmada la ciudad de Puerto Cabezas con un incendio que se inició en las ricas propiedades de la Bragman Bluff Lumber Company valoradas en millón y medio de dólares y donde trabajan centenares de nicaragüenses y muchos extranjeros, éstos como empleados principales. ¶ Solo 3.500 dólares ¶ El fuego sólo destruyó una casa-bodega cuyo valor es de 3.500 dólares. ¶ Debido a la actividad de la policía nacional y americana y del pueblo, pudo solocarse el incendio sin que causara más daños de los apuntados. ¶ Se cree que en el hecho haya mano criminal; y no ha faltado quien diga a Mr. Veitch, gerente de la Bragmann – según nos informan – que los responsables del incendio son quizás la gente de Bilway que no quieren a la compañía por el litigio que sostienen por los terrenos. Naturalmente que el más responsable, en tal caso, en el Gobierno, que tarda en fallar en este asunto. ¶ Sin embargo no falta quien diga que el incendio es obra de individuos extranjeros que residen en Puerto Cabezas. ¶ La sombra de Sandino ¶ La noche del 11 del corriente, Alejandro Ramírez, por asuntos amorosos, dió muerte a Castón Gómez e hirió gravamente a Aurelio Sasso. ¶ Con motivo de estas cuestiones salieron de Bluefields para Puerto Cabezas los marinos norteamericanos que vigilaban la primera población, pues circulaban las noticias más alarmantes, como la de un levamiento militar en Puerto Cabezas; que habían ultrajado la bandera americana y que el general Augusto C. Sandino se encontraba en Wawa. ¶ Por supuesto que todo era producto de la fantasía popular."

28 September 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields (p. 1 only).  
 "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in the reference: ¶ a. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Bluefields district calm. Rio Grande district quieting due to continued presence of Marine patrols, and of Mr. Baker, Nicaraguan manager Cuyamel Fruit Company who has delivered an ultimatum to strike promoters and discharged malcontents among company employees . Puerto Cabezas district quieting. ¶ b. ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES ¶ Unchanged since last report . ¶ c. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Improving throughout Bluefields department due to increased demand and higher prices for bananas in the United States necessitating employment of more banana cutters and loading crew; rise in price of coconuts bring about increased shipments and necessitating more labor and opening up of new mahogany cuttings and contracts with organization of new logging crews. ¶ e. ATTITUDE OF PRESS. ¶ Continue to be tolerant . ¶ e. FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION. ¶ None reported. ¶ f. POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ Although the Marines are no longer regularly policing the streets of Bluefields patrols were called for twice during the past week to stand by to lend aid . . . "

28 September 1927.
Message re Albert Fagot, from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua.  
 "(True reading of Code Message sent to the American Legation, Managua, September 28, 1927). ¶ PM MINISTER, Managua, September 28, 3 P.M. ¶ Albert Fagot wishes to ascertain if it is possible for you to intercede in his behalf in the case referred to in my report of August 10. ¶ McConnico."

22 October 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in the reference: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Bluefields Department calm. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES. ¶ Tolerant. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Improving because of endeavors of Cuyamel Co., to produce more bananas and therefore putting more laborers to work on its plantations on the Rio Grande and the new contracts for mahogany causing the employment of more lumberjacks. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS ¶ Ignoring tolerance. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION ¶ None. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ Bluefields District, efficient. Puerto Cabezas and Wawa Central, marines are aiding native police as also in the La Cruz and Rio Grande since Thursday. Civilian police alone . . . "

22 October 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.
   " . . . unable to cope with lawless elements in Puerto Cabezas and Wawa Central and threats on life of conservative fiscal agent in liberal community of La Cruz making it necessary for Marines to police that place. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS ¶ None. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION ¶ On Wednesday, 19 October the Jefe Politico of this department requested the undersigned to send a marine with the native policeman to avert disorder or bloodshed while the policeman was searching a Native house for two registers of voters in which the secretary of the conservative party for the central canton of this city was said to be illegally inscribing voters. On the return the registers were inadvertently left in this office but were immediately turned over to the Criminal Judge and receipts for same secured, as they would be needed by him as evidence when the charges were preferred. From the appearance of the books it seems that illegal registry of conservative voters had been practiced. Outside of this incident the campaign for the municipal elections in Rama and Bluefields on November 5th has proceeded without incident during the week reported on herein. ¶ Donald J. Kendall."

26 October 1927.
Letter from J. A. Fagot, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.
    "Dear Mr. McConnico: - ¶ I beg to enclose letters of L.S. Mena and Messrs. Zepeda and Guandique, the lawyers handling the case for the Albert Fagot Company. ¶ As the secretary of the Supreme Court did not answer Mr. Mena, he is enclosing Guandique’s letter of notification regarding the court decisions, dated July 14th; accordingly, that must be the approximate date of the decision. ¶ Mr. Mena bases his claim of injustice on the fact that the Supreme Court did not allow his brother’s protest on the records, claiming that he (Mena) being Albert Fagot’s attorney, should have done so himself. The fact of the matter is, that Mr. Mena was first, a political prisoner and afterwards, was chased out of town. The opposing lawyer, as well as the Court, being cognizant of this fact, took advantage of it to throw out the protest made by Dr. Mena’s brother in his absence. ¶ The history of the case, however, dates back to 1920. Mr. Ibarra, in whose favor the case was decided, was Commandante at a place called Waspook, on the Rio Coco or Segovia. He signed two contracts for mahogany with The Albert Fagot Co. One, to be worked himself, the other to consist of purchases of mahogany from Indian cutters. The cutting by the Indians was illegal, but due to his position and influence, he was able to get away with it. His claim is based on the logs cut by the Indians, part of which he delivered, part of which remained in the creeks. ¶ We believe that Mr. Mena’s protest should have been allowed, thereby giving him an opportunity to properly protect our interests. ¶ Respectfully yours, ¶ J. A. Fagot."

1.     29 October 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in the reference: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Quiet. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES ¶ Tolerant. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Less favorable, due to the fact that only two of the mahogany companies have commenced operations and those two on a reduced scale only, whereas, in past seasons contracts have been awarded and work commenced by all companies prior to this time. There is some doubt as to whether or not the remainder of the companies will attempt to operate at all this coming season. This attitude has caused a general weakness and uncertainty in all business along this coast except the banana company which continue increased activities noted in the past several reports. The Bragman Bluff Lumber Company shows lessened activities in its lumbering business which contributes to the weakened business conditions along the coast; although this company continues its efforts to get larger acreage planted with bananas. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS ¶ Tolerant. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION ¶ None. . . . "

2.     29 October 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ Bluefields district efficiency and discipline of the policemen is good and continues to improve, although, due to the lax attitude of the Director of Police crimes and corruption is on the increase in Bluefields itself. Puerto Cabezas continued active cooperation of the marines with the civilian Director of Police, Louis Castro, in Puerto Cabezas had a deterrent effect upon crime there and is causing migration of many of the disturbing elements to other parts of the coast. Rio Grande: at the request of the Jefe Politico the Marine force at La Cruz, Rio Grande assisted the civil authorities of that place in arresting and bring to Bluefields the men who have attacked or threatened the Fiscal Agent sent there and who have attempted to maintain disorder on the Rio Grande. These men were placed at the order of the Criminal Judge and process of law was instituted against them by the Jefe Politico. The fact that the Jefe Politico took this action against members of his own political party and the presence of Marine force actually in La Cruz itself has made a great improvement in the formally unsettled or threatening conditions along that river. A Marine force at the request of the Department Criminal Judge assisted the negligent, insubordinate, and inefficient local agent of police at Pearl lagoon in rounding up and bringing to Bluefields for trial the members of the gang of negro Liberals who have controlled and terrorized that locality for some years and I believe who have assassinated not less than five people in the last two or three years. Although the arrest and bringing to trial of the believed assassins has had a settling effect on the remainder of the discordant elements in that locality, nevertheless, it appears from reports of proceedings of the trial of these men by Dr. Jacinto Leon that he intends to whitewash them of their crimes which according to common talk and belief here included the brutal and devaulting murder of an American John Bolton and his Nicaraguan common law wife, Doreth Fox. Puerto Cabezas, Wawa Central, and La Cruz are now being policed by Marines in view of this inability of the civilian police to successfully cope with the lawless element in those places. The patrol which made the arrests in Pearl Lagoon also searched that locality for arms and found nothing more than three worn out shotguns, one sporting rifle, and a Vickers machine gun belt filling machine. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS ¶ Puerto Cabezas detachment continues its outpost at Wawa Central and La Cruz Detachments now maintain patrols on the Rio Grande River. . . . "

3.     29 October 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.  
 " . . . POLITICAL SITUATION ¶ The political situation is quiet outside of Bluefields and Rama where the campaign for the local elections of November 6th continue, although in a quiet way. On October 27th a patrol of five men was sent to Guadalupe in the Rama District where the greatest dissatisfaction with the conduct of the elections of September 4th occurred and where there has been some maneuvers between the two political factions to procure their own Agent of Police for that place in order to control the elections there. It is said that the Jefe Politico has appointed country judges in the various polling places while the Conservatives have attempted to counteract this move by getting the Administro of Government to appoint Conservative Agents of Police in those communities. It is rumored that they intend to dispose the Internal Revenue Squad on post in those places to aid in counteracting the influence of the Liberal Judges appointed by the Jefe Politico. ¶ DONALD J. KENDALL"

8 November 1927.
Special weekly East Nicaraguan coast information bulletin for week ending 5 November, 1927, L. B. Green, USS Rochester, Special Service Squadron, Enroute Cristobal, Canal Zone.
   "1. The following report of information, messages and despatches are quoted for your information: ¶ BLUEFIELDS: On 7 Nov. this garrison inspected by the Squadron Commander. Conditions were satisfactory. No disturbances during the recent elections. 51st Company (less Puerto Cabezas detachment) is distributed as follows: ¶ Bluefields – Capt. Kendall – 29 enl. marines, 1 enl. navy. ¶ El Bluff – 7 enl. marines ¶ La Cruz – 2d Lieut. Carroll – 16 enl. marines. ¶ Rama – 11 enl. marines. ¶ RIO GRANDE: Area quiet. None of La Cruz detachment are stationed here. One armed guard travels on daily trip of Cuyamel Fruit Company boats. ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS: Squadron Commander arrived in Rochester on 6 Nov. and proceeded to Wawa Central. Detachment at Puerto Cabezas inspected by Squadron Marine Officer. The area is quiet. ¶ 2. No report of any disturbances along the east coast involving the military forces. ¶ L. B. Green, 2d. ¶ By direction."

1.     9 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in the reference: ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Quiet. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES ¶ Generally tolerant to good. Attitude of Conservatives on the surface is good but there is an under-current of opposition becoming manifest on the part of the Conservatives due to their realization that the forces are really neutral rather than in their favor and their consequent anxiety over the probable loss of power in a free and honest election. The attitude of the majority of the Liberals in improving also due to their dawning realization that the forces are neutral and their belief that for the first time in the history of Nicaragua there will be a free and honest election. However along the negro Liberals who are readers of Markus Garvey’s publications, with their antagonistic articles there is a strong feeling of opposition to the Marines which they attempt to conceal, however, probably at the behest of the Liberal party leaders. In certain localities such as Puerto Cabezas which was formerly the seat of Dr. Sacasa’s Government, La Cruz on the Rio Grande which was for many months the Headquarters of Moncada’s Army and Pearl Lagoon where the Liberals won the victory which defeated the Conservative forces on this coast, recent activities of the Marines in apprehending criminals and attempting to overcome the boasts and threats of the natives that only Liberals could live in those localities and that no Conservative or foreigner would be permitted to stay long or leave those places alive has wakened opposition to the Marines. However as these steps were taken at the request of the Liberal Jefe Politico of this Department and with the . . . "

2.     9 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . approbation and endorsement of the Liberal party leaders who did not desire the good name of the Liberal party endangered by the activities of such fanatics and radicals it is believed that their attitude will soon change when they find public opinion is against them and that they have no support in their opposition to the Marine Forces even from their own party leaders. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Economic conditions on this coast are now extremely serious due to the face that the Mahogany companies have given but very few contracts and are expected to almost completely retire from business on this coast. If this occurs it is not believed that the banana companies and the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company with its yellow pine lumber business and railroad construction can possibly absorb the extra labor. If such occurs Indians formerly working in the logging crews will go back into the hills and continue their existence without difficulty but only a small number of the Spaniards from the cutting crews can be absorbed in the banana plantings and practically all the negros who have been occupied in operating power boats in the mahogany business and stevedoring the mahogany ships will be without a sense of livelihood. Some of the younger ones can return to their house in Grand Caymans Islands or Jamaica but the majority of them are older men who have spent their lives here and own small properties in the towns and their situation will be very severe. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS ¶ Tolerant. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION ¶ No serious friction but some small and unfounded complaints growing out of desire of guilty parties involved in the cleanups of Puerto Cabezas, Pearl Lagoon, and La Cruz to shield themselves and detract attention from their own misdemeanors. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ Bluefields native police continue policing the city. Although there are small complaints from time to time from Liberals who are arrested and attempt to conceal their derelictions by claiming they were arrested for political reasons, nevertheless it is practically always the case they have committed some breach of the law which in itself justified their arrest. Contrary to the belief expressed in this report a week ago the trial of the Pearl Lagoon assassins is progressing satisfactorily and it is . . . "

3.     9 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.  
" . . . believed that the culprits against whom public opinion and the burden of proof is overwhelming will shortly be remanded to a jury for trial. Although principals in the disorders at La Cruz were released under bond to keep the peace it is believed that this will be sufficient punishment and warning to prevent reoccurrences. Marines continue to assist local police in La Cruz, Puerto Cabezas and Wawa Central. A notable decrease in machete slashings and shootings has occurred in all parts of the department except in the country back of Puerto Cabezas which is difficult on access from the coast, but where the culprits have an easy means of escape over the border into Honduras. No unauthorized allowance of rifles and ammunition has been issued to the Governor of the territory of Cabo de Gracias, who is an extremely fearless and efficient official, in the hopes that he may be able with their aid to cut down the movements of smugglers and criminals back and forth through his territory from Honduras into the Puerto Cabezas district and return. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS ¶ Puerto Cabezas Detachment continues its outpost at Wawa Central and La Cruz detachment continues patrolling the Rio Grande River. La Cruz Detachment is patrolling that vicinity in search of the arms hidden nearby by Liberal soldiers on returning to that locality after the forces were disbanded. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION ¶ The feature of the political situation was the Municipal elections campaign in Rama and Bluefields which together with the elections themselves are included in a separate report. ¶ Donald J. Kendall"

1.     9 November 1927.
Report of elections in Bluefields and Rama held on 6 November, 1927, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"1. The first move on the offensive in regard to the election campaigns for municipal elections in Rama and Bluefields occurred early in October when Carlos Pasos, the Liberal Jefe Political, unearthed an old appointment of Colonel Trinidad Gutierrez as Agent of Police of Guadalupe and ordered the post turned over to him. T he next about a week later was to appoint Juez de Canton in the outlying cantons of Rama and Bluefields in the hope that they might influence the elections there. The Conservatives counteracted this by securing from the President reappointment of Louis Mongrio a conservative as Agent of Police at Guadalupe and appointment of Conservatives as Agents of Police in the small outlying cantons of Bluefields and Rama thus due to the fact that Police Agents have Judicial Powers, automatically relieving the Juez de Cantons which were appointed only in places where there were no agents of Police. On October 25th the “theft” of one hundred litros of guaro from the Nicaraguan Bonded warehouse in Bluefields was reported. The Director of Police, the Administrador de Rentas, and the Delegate of Hacienda combined to raise a hue and cry over the “theft”. In doing so they searched the Chinese store, imprisoned an innocent negro and questioned managers of some of the American Mahogany Companies about movements of their boats on the night when the loss occurred. However two barrels of guaro arrived at Rama two days before the Elections and the Marines policing Bluefields election day closed up several places which were dispensing free guaro under the auspices of the Conservatives, to the Voters. On October 27th a patrol of five Marines was sent to Guadalupe to maintain order there, before and during the Elections, as it was feared that trouble might occur there due to the attempts of both parties to ensure control of the Agency of Police and the fact that the incumbent at that time, Colonel Trinidad Gutierrez of the Liberal forces formerly occupying that place, might attempt to unearth and move away some of the arms and ammunition known to the hidden there by the Liberals and which it has been impossible thus far to discover. On October 31st these men were relieved by a patrol of three Marines and returned to Bluefields under arrest where they were awarded Deck Courts for Drunkenness, regaled by the fiscal Agent in Rama, with guaro. . . . "

2.     9 November 1927.
Report of elections in Bluefields and Rama held on 6 November, 1927, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.   
" . . . On November 3rd a patrol of four men was sent to Rama and two each to Recreo and Motaca with orders to preserve peace and observe the Elections in those places. ¶ 2. On November 3rd the Jefe Politico and the Director of Police in Bluefields, that it was the desire of both candidates, and themselves, that the Marines police the polls and the streets of Bluefields, and that the Native Police be withdrawn from the streets election day to avoid any clashes or imputations of police pressure during the elections. The same day the liberal sector of the Departmental Council of elections furnished the undersigned with a signed statement from the Secretary of the Council, Mr. Salter a Conservative, sending the following cantons for the Elections. ¶ [table] ¶ The results of the elections as far as known are as shown after the cantons. In the Bluefields the voting did not commence at El Bluff until 12:00 noon and the Agent of Police was President of the Directorate, therefore the results were not published and the elections will probably be repeated November 13th. At Rama Key the ballots did not arrive due to the failure of the motor launch in which they were being sent and the election will be held there November 13th. Although Punta Gorda which lies about thirty miles to the southward of Bluefields on the coast was not specified by the Department Council as a canton, nevertheless, a ballot box has come in from there. Its contents are not known, inasmuch as the scrutiny of the votes will not be practiced until after November 13th, when the ballots are received from El Bluff and Rama Key. It is rumored that voting also occurred in Cucra River and that the ballots will be brought in by the Conservatives. Both Punta Gorda and Cucra River was said to be almost unanimously Conservative. In Rama District, returns from Posos Redonda which is several days paddle up Siquia River have not been received. The ballots from Motaca which went strongly Liberal were being returned to Rama in the same canoe in which the Marine patrol from that place returned to Rama. About half way down the Conservative President of the Directorate who had the ballots in a rubber canoe bag left the motor canoe taking the ballots with him into his own canoe which was towing astern . . . "

3.     9 November 1927.
Report of elections in Bluefields and Rama held on 6 November, 1927, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.   
" . . . and returned to Rama therein. The motor canoe went up the Mico River to Recreo to bring down the Marines from that place to Rama. On Monday morning at Rama the Mayor asked the Marines from Motaca for the ballots, the Conservative President of the Directorate having claimed that he left them with the Marines. This was disproven however, by testimony of members of both parties and the President of the Directorate was sent to Bluefields for confinement awaiting trial on charges of destruction of the ballots; brought by the Liberal candidate for Mayor of Rama. ¶ 3. At Bluefields the Jefe Politico and both candidates requested that the ballot boxes be deposited at the Marine Barracks until the scrutiny is performed as they had no secure place to keep them. The ballet boxes are now here at the barracks awaiting the scrutiny after November 13th. ¶ 4. On Friday November 4th the Conservative President of the Central canton was ordered confined by a jury which tried charges against him of illegally inscribing voters. ¶ 5. In Bluefields during election day Liberals frequently complained that Conservatives in many cases did not permit Liberals who were inscribed to vote. In carrying out my mission of observing the election in several such cases I went to the cantons to find out whether or not the men actually were inscribed. In a number of cases I found out that the men were inscribed in several different cantons and were not allowed to vote for that reason while in other instances due to differences in age of the man attempting to vote it was clear that the would-be voter was not the man who inscribed himself. In other cases the age of the incumbent voter and the fact that he admitted having lived all his life in Bluefields and was a negro showed that he came under the provisions of the Harrison-Altamirano Treaty and therefore was not allowed to vote. The Conservatives contend that negros resident in Bluefields before the date of the treaty are not Nicaraguan citizens and therefore not eligible to vote. While the Liberals claim that this treaty confers on the negro residents here before the date of the treaty all privileges of the Nicaraguan citizen and therefore the right to vote. As a matter of fact these same negros while most vociferous in their claims of their right to vote are nevertheless the first to claim English citizenship when they are in trouble of services to the Government or taxes are demanded from them. In some few cases inscriptions seemed to be correct and when any information regarding the reasons for not having permitted to vote was sought by the undersigned the President of the Directorate would state that they had not tried to vote previously and would then accept the vote. Although I explained to the President of the Directorate at each canton that I had no right nor desire to interfere in any way but would appreciate an opportunity to observe and verify the truth or falsehood of the complaints that were brought to me nevertheless since the election I have heard of some complaints by . . . "

4.     9 November 1927.
Report of elections in Bluefields and Rama held on 6 November, 1927, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 4.   
" . . . Conservative members of the Directorate that I force them to accept certain votes. Although probably upwards of three hundred of the negro Liberals were absent from Bluefields during election day loading banana ships or mahogany ships, nevertheless, practically every negro who is registered voted, except in a few cases where young boys were detected trying to vote for men twice their years. ¶ DONALD J. KENDALL"

14 November 1927.
Cable from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"Sir: ¶ I have the honor to report that the American Consul at Bluefields, Nicaragua, on August 10, 1927, transmitted to the Legation a request from Mr. Albert Fagot, an American citizen residing at Cape Gracias, that the Legation assist Mr. Fagot in connection with a case recently decided against him by the Supreme Court of Nicaragua. It appears that Mr. Carlos Hernaldo Ibarra had brought suit against Mr. Fagot in connection with a contract for cutting mahogany and cedar and that the suit had been decided against the latter, first in the local court and then by the Appellate Court at Bluefields. When the decision of the later court was rendered, Mr. ¶ Fagot’s . . . "

14 November 1927.
Cable from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Sec. State, Washington D.C., p. 2. 
  " . . . Fagot’s attorney, who was a Liberal, had been imprisoned and later deported for political reasons. A brother of the attorney, acting as “agente oficioso” appealed to the Supreme Court at Managua, which rejected the appeal on the ground that the “agente oficioso” under the circumstances, had no legal standing before the court. This decision was rendered by the Supreme Court before its re-organization in accordance with the Stimson Agreement. The Legation has thus far been unable to obtain from Mr. Fagot a full statement of the facts upon which the original suit against him was based. ¶ The Legation is today requesting the Consul at Bluefields to inform Mr. Fagot that it is not in a position to take any action in his favor. The only ground upon which Mr. Fagot’s claim for denial of justice is based appears to be the Supreme Court’s decision that the appeal from the decision of the Appellate Court at Bluefields could not be considered because the case was one in which as “agente oficioso” could not properly set under the local law. This would appear to be a matter for the Supreme Court to decide and the propriety of questioning the decision would, in any event, be very doubtful. Under the present circumstances it would be extremely inadvisable to suggest that one of the decisions of the former Supreme Court be reversed, because the Legation and the Department have constantly insisted that the decisions of the de facto court be respected. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir,"

16 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in reference (a). ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Calm, except Puerto Cabezas where reports of incendiarism and disorder are being made, due to approaching elections for Senator, November 20th, and efforts of Bragman Bluff Lumber Company to remove squatters village from its land at Bilway to new location. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES ¶ Generally improving. Majority of Liberal element shows improvement in attitude toward forces and Conservatives attitude shows no opposition, although uneasiness on their part is manifest, both reactions being due to increasing realization that forces are neutral and not in favor of either party. Local public opinion at Pearl Lagoon and La Cruz seems to be awakened in favor of Marines for suppressing the diodes formerly occurring in those places. This local opinion is manifested by letter addressed to friends of the Marine Forces here and by cessation of the threats of disorder and reprisals and by a more generally favorable attitude of the local civil population in those places and their friends and relatives in Bluefields toward the Marines. ¶  ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Previously reported poor economic conditions show slight improvement this week due to the fact that Mahogany companies have resumed making contracts and the stoppage of their business is not as serious as at first had been anticipated, although their operations will be . . . "

16 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2. 
  " . . . greatly curtailed in comparison to previous seasons. The banana business continues excellent in the Bluefields and Rio Grande districts due to the high quality of fruit which has been brought about by increased care in the handling of same since Mr. S. H. Baker and his assistant Mr. Buckner resumed managership of this division of the Cuyamel Fruit Company. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS ¶ In general good; no articles in opposition to the Marines having occurred in any of the papers except the newly organized Bluefields News which contained a mild attack on the Marines for assisting the Native Police in apprehending the Pearl Lagoon assassins. This paper is organized and controlled by the radical Liberal negros and the article in question was inspired by the lawyer of the Pearl Lagoon assassins in hopes of clouding the issue of their crime and mitigating their offenses. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION ¶ None. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ In Bluefields, where native police are in control, the number of arrests for political reasons seems to be increasing, as likewise those for personal reasons on the part of the policeman, although where latter cases are known to the Director of Police the arrested persons are promptly released and the policeman reprimanded or punished. In Puerto Cabezas, Marines and native police are cooperating in policing that district where the problem is particularly difficult due to large criminal element brought about by the boom conditions there, and the easy means of ingress and egress over the border from Honduras. It is believed that the effects of providing the Governor of Cabo de Gracias with arms for the police force will shortly be felt in reducing the freedom of movement of smugglers and criminals across the border. The Agent of Police at Guadalupe has been provided with arms for a police force and is actively prosecuting a search for the hidden arms left there by the Liberals. Puerto Cabezas has been organized and will operate a combined force of ten men and Commandante. The force has been armed and dispatched to Rio Grande district where it is believed that cutting down the flow of cheap illicit liquor will greatly decrease disorder and machete bouts."

1.     22 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in reference (a) ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED ¶ Calm. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES ¶ No change. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ¶ Improvement continues owing to resumption of business by Mahogany companies although their business is far below normal. The economic condition of all activities dependent upon the Government of Nicaragua is poor. For example, the Postmaster at Bluefields has only been paid for every other month since he took over the office in June, he is only paid for one assistant and has to hire two more from his own funds, and he states that the Government allows him but ten dollars per month for handling mail to and from the Bluff whereas he has to spend thirty dollars per month to get the necessary work done. Therefore the mail service is very poor and business suffers accordingly. Also the telephone personnel has been out down to only one operator and no lineman while the demands on that service are unchanged. The telephone line from Bluefields to its port, El Bluff, . . . "

2.     22 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.   
" . . . is in very bad condition due to lack of repairs and lack of personnel to make what repairs might be accomplished without any materials. The consequent slowness in these two means of communication used by business houses retards commerce and depresses economic conditions. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS ¶ Tolerant. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION ¶ None. ¶ POLICE OPERATIONS ¶ The activities of the Resguardia de Hacienda in the Rio Grande district are cutting down the flow of illicit liquor in that regent and consequently decreasing crime while augmenting the sales of the government guaro. Marines continue to assist the native police in La Cruz, Puerto Cabezas and Wawa Central. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS ¶ Puerto Cabezas Detachment continues its outpost at Wawa Central and maintains weekly patrolling of the Railroad line between that place and Puerto Cabezas. The La Cruz Detachment maintains patrol of the Rio Grande River. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION ¶ Although according to the figures submitted by the Marine Patrols which maintained order and observed the local election held November 6th at Rama and Bluefields, the Liberals won by a large majority in each place, nevertheless Conservatives claim the victory in both places. The scrutiny of the votes has not been practiced in either place. The excuses being, at Rama, that the votes from Mataca were lost and the scrutiny cannot be performed until they are found, at Bluefields, voting has not occurred at Rama Cay due to the absence of both registers. At Bluefields a ballot box with votes from Punta Gorda was brought in evidently by the Conservatives in hopes that that locality which is almost unanimously conservative would enable them to swing the election. Punta Gorda is shown on the map as a canton of Sequia district and it is difficult to determine what possible excuse there is for allowing votes from there to be introduced in the Bluefields municipal election. . . . "

3.     22 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 3.   
" . . . It is believed that the failure to practice the scrutiny of the votes is part of a studied and deliberate attempt on the part of the Conservatives to gain the victory by fair means or foul. It is believed that they do this in an endeavor to give the lie to the Liberal claims of a majority here and to hold the power until the next election. It is believed that they hope to delay the scrutiny until the new Senate has an opportunity to name a Conservative Supreme Court when any protest by the Liberals against votes thrown out would be fruitless. Although it is incorrect according to the election law to thus postpone the scrutiny nevertheless there seems to be an element of justice in the grounds upon which the conservatives will probably attempt to throw out many of the Liberal votes. These grounds are, that although many of the creoles were absent from Bluefields on election day stevedoring on ships nevertheless somebody cast a vote for practically every creole inscribed, and many of the creoles inscribed as voters are listed at the English Consulate as English citizens. ¶ Advise was received from Puerto Cabezas that no catalogs of voters could be found and therefore it is believed no elections for Senator were practiced there Sunday, November 20th as scheduled. No returns or advises scheduled for other parts of this Department on that date have yet been received and it is seriously doubted that any were practiced and it is believed that the Conservatives who control the Departmental Council of Elections desire if possible to prevent any elections before the Senate reconvenes in order that this Department will keep its Conservative Senator and not jeopardize the conservative majority in that body. ¶ Donald J. Kendall"

29 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "1. The following intelligence report is submitted by this office under the subheadings as specified in the reference. ¶ GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED. ¶ Calm. ¶ ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD FORCES. ¶ In general tolerant. Liberals more favorable. Conservatives undercurrent of dissatisfaction due to failure of forces to fall in with or overlook their mismanagement of elections. Pearl Lagoon and Creole population, friends and relatives of Pearl Lagoon assassins opposed to forces, enemies of assassins highly favorable to forces. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. ¶ Banana business excellent, Mahogany business greatly decreased, except in the vicinity of Pearl Lagoon and Curinhuas River from which localities practically all new contracts are being given. Completion of a rice mill at Pearl Lagoon greatly improves conditions in that locality and makes possible successful planting of rice there, thereby enabling it to be sold on this coast at a great reduction in price over the imported article and providing a new source of revenue to the coast. ¶ ATTITUDE OF PRESS. ¶ In general tolerant. Creole newspaper opposed to forces as far as their aid in apprehending the Pearl Lagoon assassins is concerned. ¶ FRICTION BETWEEN TROOPS AND CIVIL POPULATION. ¶ None. . . . "

29 November 1927.
Intelligence Report, Capt. D. J. Kendall, Bluefields, p. 2.    
" . . . POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ Services of the native police at Puerto Cabezas under the command of Louis Castro continues to be efficient. An increasing tendency of the part of the native police in Bluefields to make arrests of persons of the opposite political belief on very little or no provocation, and to ignore misdemeanors and crimes of those of their own belief is noted. ¶ MILITARY OPERATIONS. ¶ The detachment at La Cruz was reduced from one Lieutenant and sixteen men to one corporal and eleven men on Saturday November 26th that section having been greatly pacified by the presence in La Cruz of a marine detachment. ¶ POLITICAL SITUATION. ¶ On Saturday November 26th through the medium of the marine forces a conference was brought about between the two candidates for mayor of Bluefields, the present acting mayor of Bluefields, and the Departmental Council of Elections at which it was decided to dispense with any further attempt to hold an election for Mayor of Bluefields in the canton of Rama Key this year and a pact to that effect was signed. Thus the delay in practicing the scrutiny of votes should be terminated by Wednesday November 30th. Although the Conservatives in Rama claim a victory in the elections there, and state that they have practiced the scrutiny, nevertheless the results of same have never been released. They claim that their victory was brought about by throwing out votes of repeaters but no definite information has been given out as to how many votes were thrown out in this manner. According to information from marine patrols who observed the election in Rama district and information from other sources it seems very probably that repeating was practiced on a very large scale by the Liberals although this of course does not excuse the secret scrutiny performed by the Conservatives nor their subsequent failure to release its results. Conservatives at Rama claim that the results of the scrutiny were withheld until fifteen days after the election in order to prevent the Liberals appealing the decision to the Supreme Court which they control. The Liberals in this locality state that Dr. Sandoval claims to have received information from Marino Arguello, a Liberal politician in the interior that the election for deputies in the Rama district was awarded to Sandoval as a result of representation made by the American Minister and it is stated here that Sandoval and Dr. Casanova will leave here December 12th for the interior to take their posts as deputy and vice deputy respectively. ¶ DONALD J. KENDALL"

PREVIOUS     NEXT
   

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8