Header image
the atlantic coast thru 1927,  p. 2
dec 10, 1926 - March 30, 1927

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +













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   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE PERIOD THROUGH 1927 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated in the 111 days from December 10, 1926 to March 30, 1927, during the height of the 1926-27 Civil War.

     There are some fascinating & revealing documents here — starting with the first two, both letters of protest by medical doctors in Bluefields to the US Naval Forces Ashore.  The following letter from the owner of Neptune Mine B. C. Warnick to Liberal constitutional president Juan B. Sacasa offers a fascinating chronicle of depredations at the mine by both sides — an interesting precursor to Sandino's depredations at the mine more than a year later.

     Meanwhile, as the mahogany companies cry out for the USA to extend its neutral zone to protect their business interests, the daily reports of the US naval forces ashore from early January offer glimpses of the comings & goings of the Liberal & Conservative forces.  The case of Bluefields businessman Leon Franks is noteworthy for his vigorous insistence on his legal rights before both the Nicaraguan and US governments (15 & 17 Jan., 5 Feb., 30 March).  Suggesting both the the precarious position of Nicaraguan exports in the global mahogany market and the disruptions of war is the 11 Feb. report by J. C. Nellis on "unfavorable mahogany prospects in Nicaragua."  The March 30 radiogram from the mahogany companies suggests the depths to which President Díaz was beholden to US business interests, while the letter from Moravian missionary Guido Grossman offers revealing observations about war-imposed scarcities among the "Tasba pouni people" near Pearl Lagoon.

     Also included are four documents from Sandino's oeuvre on his 40-day Civil War journey from Las Segovias to the Coast & back (located chronologically on 1 January 1927), accompanied by an ancillary webpage, HERE, exploring four different accounts of how his small band acquires arms near Puerto Cabezas in early January 1927 and who, exactly, helps him.


1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

10 December 1926.
Letter from C. E. Nelson, M.D., The Nelson Clinic, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.
    "As the Chief Surgeon of the Red Cross Hospital of this city, I wish to call your attention to the fact that I have never received acknowledgement of the letter that I asked you to forward to Admiral Latimer concerning the treatment that certain of the patients of our Hospital have received by Commander Richardson and Ensign Schlief of the U.S.S. GALVESTON. ¶ As an American citizen, I am ashamed of the attitude that certain of the officials of our Navy have taken, apparently because of strongheadedness or from the effects of imbibing too freely of spiritous drinks, which have been far too commonly seen among officers and enlisted men of our Navy. I might add that as the result of the imprisonment of men above referred to, some of whom were non-combatants, that there have one or two cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis that have developed. You may recall that I ahve called attention to the horrible condition of the prisons in which these men were kept. ¶ I trust that a fair investigation might yet be made into the matter, to which I have called your attention. ¶ Yours truly, . . . "

1.   18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. H. M. McGee, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DOCTOR JNO. L. MARCHAND, ¶ DATED DECEMBER 18, 1926, REFERRING TO ¶ LIEUTENANT H. M. MCGEE. ¶ The first officer of the GALVESTON contingent whom I saw under the influence of liquor was McGee. He was making himself conspicuous in the principal mercantile establishment on a Saturday evening, and his condition evoked the statement from a British subject with whom I was talking and who told me who McGee was, that it was quite common to see him drunk and that any of the American officers could “be bought” with a bottle of whiskey, and that if a fellow had two bottles they, the Naval officers, “would follow him around like dogs.” He cited to me several instances when McGee and other officers were under the influence of liquor; upon one occasion a revolver had to be taken away from him. He also said that McGee and some other officers, would stay with you as long as your bottle held out, but that they never bought. I have often wondered if this remark didn’t reach the ears of those who “wouldn’t buy”, for he is one of the men, who weeks later, received very scurvy treatment at the hands of the U. S. Naval authorities. ¶ Although I had often heard of McGee, principally on account of his reputation as a boozer, I was never introduced to him. But he was not a man with the quiet manner and retiring disposition that would make for his being forgotten once one knew him by sight. At the time, one might say, the proclivities of the GALVESTON officers to overindulgence in alcoholic drinks were being weighed against the previous performance of the officers of the GALVESTON, by the better element of community, so that no infraction of the rules of decency escaped the observation of some one, and often of persons unfriendly towards everything ¶ American, . . ."

2.   18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. H. M. McGee, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . American, and the number of these is growing rapidly, whose only object in mentioning these infractions was to twit the natural Americans about their Navy. ¶ No doubt some of these stories told by the unfriendly were exaggerations, but, even so, enough was seen by those who had the prestige of the Navy at heart to lay even the wildest tale open to the possibility, if indeed not the probability, of being built on at least a medium of truth. At any rate, the most charitable that can be said is that these Naval officers deliberately and willfully, and time and again, by their openly disgraceful conduct made themselves not only the targets of ridicule but laid themselves open to almost any charge of the infraction of the law and decency short of theft and murder. And they were the only ones, they and their cronies, who were immune from arrest for drunken and disorderly conduct on the public streets. ¶ And from my own personal knowledge Lt. McGee was one of the shining examples of all of this. After knowing who he was I saw and recognized him probably a score of times during the remainder of his stay. The summation of this recollection is that whanever I saw him he was either going into a club or cantina, or coming out of one, either alone or with companions, or that he was either extremely red in the face or probably drunk. To the best of my recollection I saw him at least twice in clubs with drinks before him, and at least once thus in a cantina, on these occasions through the open doors or windows as I passed. I passed him several times on the street, very red of face and apparently mildly “lit up;” I saw him on the street on one occasion familiarly grab the arm of a ¶ lady . . ."

3.   18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. H. M. McGee, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
 " . . . lady in trying to induce her to go for a walk, or go to a dance, and he had more than the appearance of not being sober at the time, and I saw him for the last time on the street staggering drunk and boisterous, within plain sight of the Naval barracks, whence he and his two companions, S. H. Baker and Arnoldo Calonje, both equally drunk, had stopped to argue the question as to who should wear McGee’s Stetson hat. This was on a certain evening at about half past six, on the corner of Reyes Avenue and Commercial Street; and immediately after I passed the trio started towards the Red Cross Hospital, Baker having possession of that hat. ¶ I do not say that I never saw McGee when he was sober. This, of course, must have occurred to give me that contrast, but as so many of these occasions when I saw him in what I considered a more or less intoxicated condition coincided with reports of drinking bouts, reports twice from another participant, which had taken place at the time and in which McGee was reported to have participated, I cannot help but think that I was right upon the majority of occasions. ¶ Equally, then, with this knowledge it is only naturally that some credence should have been given to stories circulated among who McGee’s name was mentioned on several occasions, to the effect that Naval officers under the influence of drink, had been in the habit of taking young girls for walks along dark streets in the more sparsely settled parts of town, and that one father, at least, have made complaint to the Commander who punished one officer by sending him back to his ship, when the custom ended; that a Naval officer was seen jumping the back fence of the residence of a married woman so he wouldn’t be seen by her husband who had ¶ returned . . ."

4.   18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. H. M. McGee, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.  
 " . . . returned home unexpectedly; that two drunken officers had been forcibly put off the porch by a husband upon their repeated insistence that his wife accompany them for a walk; that drunken officers were in the habit of accosting girls on the streets, much the grinning delight of loafing negroes when they were repulsed, etc., ad nauseum - especially when these alleged occurences coincided as so many of them to with drinking bouts held earlier in the day. ¶ That the reprehensible behavior of these Naval officers was not solely confined to their excessive use of alcohol is also attested by statements made to me by several others of the landing force in barracks with them, and these are not altogether confined to petty officers and enlisted men. Night after night the rest of these men was disturbed by the noisy return of these night prowlers at any time between midnight and daylight, laughing and joking with each other about the risks they had run, the danger of getting shot by the "old man", and such pleasantries, leaving very much the impression, if not actually saying, that they had been poaching on martial [marital] preserves."

18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. Commander W. N. Richardson, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DOCTOR JNO. L. MARCHAND, ¶ DATED DECEMBER 18,1926, REFERRING ¶ TO LIEUTENANT COMMANDER W.N. RICHARDSON. ¶ On October 8th I protested to Admiral Latimer by letter, through Mr. A. J. McConnico, American Consul, against my treatment at the hands of Commander Richardson, in which I stated that his appearance and conduct were those of a man under the influence of liquor, putting it very mildly out of respect for the uniform he wore. In the same protest I called attention to the partisan attitude of Commander Richardson as exemplified in which has since been learned to have been the substitution by him of Dr. Arana’s report, made to the Jefe Politico, of jail conditions, for the report made to himself by his own surgeon, Lt. Commander Crooks, substantiated fully by the report of Dr. Nelson, made to the America Consul; and that, for this reason, if for no other, he seemed to be a man unfit for the responsible position he held. ¶ This protest has been ignored by Admiral Latimer as far as I, personally, was concerned, as was that made by the hospital matron at about the same time, other than that their receipt was verbally acknowledged by him to the American Consul, with the statement that they would receive “due consideration.” Up until now, December 18, “due consideration” has amounted to a flippantly made statement to the effect that they had received the complaint of the American doctor, but, as he had the reputation of having lost every position he ever held on account of drink, they would pay no attention to it, and, of course, they would not seriously consider the complaint of the native woman, for Commander Richardson never drank anything but beer. Captain Townsend also remarked that they didn’t understand the reference to jail reports and to Dr. Crooks, nor did he ask for an explanation. ¶ As my past . . ."

18 December 1926.
Written Statement of Dr. John L. Marchand, M.D., Bluefields, referring to Lt. Commander W. N. Richardson, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . As my past life is not under investigation, and as I have held no position during my stay in Bluefields, I shall content myself with saying that, if Commander Richardson drinks nothing but beer this is no answer to my charge against him; moreover, it must have been beer of an extremely potency, for the only times I have ever seen him with drinks before him, two or three, they were contained in either whiskey or cocktail glasses; while the number of times he has been noted to have been in more or less intoxicated condition, and the frequency of these occurrences, and their noticeability, matters which can readily be substantiated by several creditable witnesses, would tend to show that his indulgence in these potations must have been a habit and, at times carried to excess. ¶ I now make the charge without any qualifications whatever; Lt. Commander Richardson was drunk while in uniform and on duty, and not only drunk, but disorderly and insultingly, in my presence and towards me. ¶ Whether the “due consideration” of the above two protests against Commander Richardson, promised by Admiral Latimer included or was consummated by the apparently convenient breakdowns of the ice plant on the GALVERSTON, his ship, which would necessitate her departure, with her full complement of officers and men, for the Canal Zone for repairs, or whether this is merely a timely coincidence, is immaterial. Suffice it to say that, the circulation of persisting rumors of the early departure, the circulation of persisting rumors of the early departure of the GALVESTON which began a few days after these protests had reached the Admiral’s hands, and continued for about two weeks, with one reason and another given as the cause, was followed by the departure of the GALVESTON, with its entire landing force, relieved by the ROCHESTER, Admiral Latimer’s flag ship, which landed a force under Commander Ertz."

1.   22 December 1926.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to President Dr. Juan B. Sacasa, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
 [NOTE: This is a fascinating letter & appeal — at one level, a chronicle of repeated depredations by mostly Conservative armies from September to December 1927, with total losses estimated at nearly $4,000. Predictably, the Neptune Mine & the mining districts had become a source of capital for mobilized armies well before Sandino arrived on the scene. Warnick also emphasizes "the minds of our workmen" and their presumptive exemption from military service. Especially noteworthy are the copies of guarantees and receipts from various military leaders that accompany Warnick's letter to Sacasa, pp. 3-4, below.]

"Señor Presidente: ¶ Having understood that you spent several years of your youth in our City of Brotherly Love, and since our interests are more or less the common, I bring your notice to the following facts and confirm some in part by copies which I would appreciate if you will their [?] approve, in order to set at rest the minds of our workmen that they may give their undivided attention to their responsibilities and not be troubled by intimations of forced military service and other military demands. Sufficient are these annoyances, however, to cause them to absent themselves from our work for days at a time, seriously interfering with our mine and mill operation, which must be continuous to be self supporting. I trust you will bear with me and lend me your cooperation, as I herein request, feeling more that any courtesy you extend me, like bread cast upon the water, will reflect back to you. ¶ On September 17th, I was intercepted at Tunky, Nic., and held prisoner without cause by Manuel Arroliga, el general en jefe de esta zona, and was sent as prisoner to Bragman Bluff in custody of Coronel Luis Arroliga and Mr. John Gabriel, after I had agreed to extend General Arroliga every courtesy while on his journey through our mining section, and to pay him the sum of five hundred dollars ($500.00) which I caused to be paid as agreed to General Luis Arroliga at Puerto Cabezas, Nic., General Arroliga collected, in supplies from our commissary to the sum of thee hundred and twenty five (325) dollars, upon his arrival at Neptune Mine, September 8th, leaving there afternoon of September 9th. ¶ On November 12th, Coronel Ramon Gradis made his appearance leaving November 17th with cash orders amounting to fourteen hundred and ninety eight dollars ($1498) and some cattle, using our supplies to the extent of fifty dollars ($50). On December 18th, Coronel Francisco Gonzales comission por delegacion del Ministro de la Guerra y Acuerdo del senor Presidente Juan. B. Sacasa, arrived at mine and left December 18th, taking with him fifty four men and cash orders amounting to six hundred dollars and seventy eight cents ($678) consuming supplies of the value of about fifty dollars ($50). ¶ On the morning of December 19th, Rodolfo Dorn B. el jefe militar expedicionario arrived, demanding either men or money and left December 21st, with cash orders amounting to seven hundred and nine dollars ($709), making a total received from this company and men guaranteed by the mine of thirty eight hundred and ten ($3810) dollars at a time when we least can afford this expenditure. Each military official in turn made the men promises as to their exemption from military service but each of them caused considerable unrest, while their promises were more or less complied with, exemptions justifiable to me were made, but which gave our workmen the idea that the word of the officer representing the Liberal Government could not be depended upon, especially to their exception from military service. I assured them in writing and in person that the boleta executed to them individually by officer Dorn and herein made a part of my data submitted would be recognized by every succeeding officer, who might visit Neptune. Our fixed charge outside of interest charges are something like fifty ($50) per hour, we have lost in operation several thousand dollars through the closing down of the mines due to the arrival of your soldiers and the unrest they have created, to . . . "

2.   22 December 1926.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to President Dr. Juan B. Sacasa, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2. 
  ". . . men running to the bush to evade conscription. In order to allay the fears of the workmen and give assurance to us that we may continue operation unmolested, we ask that you authenticate over your own signature copy of data which I herewith send you, and such other of assurances of protection which you may have to offer us, that will not only aid me in maintaining operation, but will inspire the men to a better understanding of your government that they may more freely cooperate with you by their influence and contributions in behalf of your efforts. I am entrusting this letter to Mr. Juan. G. Rizo of Tunky, who has my confidence and I ask of you to send me by him your answer. Thank you for your favorable consideration of this communication I am with kindest personal regards, ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ President."

3.   22 December 1926.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to President Dr. Juan B. Sacasa, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3. 
  "COPY OF DATA ¶ Received by Benjamin C. Warnick, President Bonanza Mines Co. ¶ from military source ¶ Concedo pasaporte al señor Benjamin C. Warnick a quien recomiendo a las autoridades de este Litoral, que se los guarde todo las consideraciones y se le preste el apoyo necesario que van bajo la custodia del Coronel Luis Arolliga y el capitán del bote John Gabriel. ¶ Tunky Septiembre 7, de 1926 ¶ El general en jefe de esta Zona ¶ M. Arolliga. (sello) ¶¶ Commander ¶ U. S. Special Service Squadron ¶ U.S.S. Rochester, Flagship ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ 30 October 1926. ¶ To whom it may concern: ¶ Mr. Benjamin C. Warnick, President and General Manager of the Bonanza Mines Company, the bearer of this letter is an American citizen engaged in legitimate business in Nicaragua. ¶ General Arguello and General Moncada have both assured me that American business on this Coast will not be interfered with by either of their respective forces. ¶ It is to be trusted that this assurance will be honored and respected by all members of both forces. ¶ J. L. Latimer. ¶ Rear Admiral U. S. Navy ¶ Commander Special Service Squadron. ¶¶ Aviso. ¶ A todos los trabajadores que están en servicio actual de los trabajos de la Bonanza Mines Company que tienen guarantía tanto por mi autoridad como por el Presidente Sr. Juan B. Sacasa quien me recomienda especialmente para que no se interrumpen el nos trabajos y plantales de la Mina Neptune. ¶ Francisco González ¶ Coronel en comisión por delegación del señor Ministro de la Guerra y acuerdo del señor Presidente Dr. Juan B. Sacasa."

4.   22 December 1926.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, Neptune Mine, to President Dr. Juan B. Sacasa, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4. 
  "Rodolfo Dorn B. en representación del 2d. Jefe del Ejército, General Federico Guillermo Messer, hace constar que quedan exentos [exempted] del servicio miliar veinte indios Mosquitos de diferentes apellidos lo mismo quedan exentos como los ochentai nueve (89) trabajadores que con cinco pesos ($5.00) cada uno han contribuido y que son extrinctamente necesarios a los trabajos de la Empresa Bonanza Mines Company ... /s/ Rodolfo Dorn B., Jefe Militar Expedicionario [Sello]"   [NOTE: From this we learn that some 20 Miskitu Indians and 89 other workers comprised the labor force at Neptune Mine; evidently the Miskitu did not have to pay the $5 "contribution" to receive their military exemption.

1.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen. A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.
  "La Guerra Constitutionalista," El pensamiento vivo, Sergio Ramírez, ed. (Managua: Nueva Nicaragua, 1984), v. 1, pp. 82-83.   [NOTE: These are Sandino's most expansive narratives of his time on the Atlantic Coast during the 1926-27 Civil War. The date of 1 January 1927 is approximate, but his first meeting with Moncada was sometime in early January, around the time his forces retrieved arms & ammunition from somewhere, with the help of someone — in version #1, unspecified; in version #2, "un grupo de muchachas de amores libres"; and in version #3 (his 1933 interview with José Román), "Segovian prostitutes". There are also at least two other versions. Which is "correct"? It is impossible to know with certainty, but my own view is that the 1933 interview with José Román is the most detailed, specific & credible, for reasons examined on a separate page, HERE. The present version I call Version #1. It does not say anything about who helped his small force retrieve the 40 rifles and 7,000 bullets; nor does it say they were retrieved from the sea. It does say that after they were retrieved, "some natives of the Mosquito Coast" helped to transport them overland to Prinzapolka:]

   "... El 24 de diciembre de 1926, los yankees declararon Zona Neutral Puerto Cabezas, ordenando al Doctor Sacasa la evacuación del Puerto en el término de cuarenta y ocho horas por todo el Ejército Constitucionalista y el retiro de elementos bélicos nicaragüenses que allí hubiera. ¶ Al recibir la grosera intimación procedieron a desocupar aquella plaza los constitucionalistas, en el escaso tiempo de la intimación. ¶ No pudiendo llevar todos los elementos bélicos almacenados alli, gran cantidad de ellos fue arrojada al mar por los yankees. La desesperante humillación dio lugar a que las fuerzas de Sacasa dejaran abandonados cuarenta rifles y siete mil cartuchos sobre la raya de costa entre Puerto Cabezas y Prinzapolka. ¶ Mis seis ayudantes y yo no quisimos dar un paso sin llevar con nosotros los elementos abandonados. ¶ Con la ayuda de algunos nativos de La Mosquitia transportamos por tierra a Prinzapolka aquellas armas y el parque. ..." [my emphasis]

2.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen.A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.    "La Guerra Constitutionalista,"
El pensamiento vivo, v. 1, p. 84.     [NOTE:  Continuation of Version #1.]

3.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen. A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.  "Para la historia de Nicaragua," El pensamiento vivo,  v. 2, p. 238. 
  [NOTE:   This is what I call Version #2:  ". . . Yo salí con seis ayudantes atrás de la Guardia de Sacasa, y conmigo iba un grupo de muchachas de amores libres, ayudandonos a sacar hasta la distancia impuesta por los invasores, rifles y parque, que fueron en número de treinta rifles y seite mil cartuchos."   [my emphasis]

4.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen. A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.  "Blanca y sus verdugos," El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, p. 387.
    [NOTE:  This narrative is identical to Version #1.]

5.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen. A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.  "Blanca y sus verdugos," El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, p. 388.
    [NOTE:  Continuation of above, identical to Version #1.]

6.   1 January 1927.
Selected published narratives of Gen. A. C. Sandino in the Atlantic Coast during the Civil War, ca. 24 Dec. 1926 - 2 Feb. 1927.  Excerpt from José Román, Maldito país (Managua: Amerrisque, 2007), pp. 88-89.
  [NOTE:   This Version #3 seems to me the most credible of Sandino's three narratives.  For a more detailed discussion, see Page 11 of the Documentary Annex to these East Coast pages, HERE.]

"... Moncada me negó las armas que tanto necesitamos.  Como los norteamericanos declararan a Puerto Cabezas "Zona Neutral," el Gobierno de Sacasa tuvo que moverse a Prinzapolka.  En Puerto Cabezas quedaron rifles y ametralladoras escondidas para que no los capturaran los marinos. Estas armas me fueron "entregadas" secretamente por unas prostitutas de esa ciudad que sabían donde estaban escondidas y por suerte eran segovianas.  Con mis ayudantes y ese grupo de segovianas de la vida pública, logramos sacar los rifles, dos ametralladoras y poco más de 37,000 cartuchos.  Todo nuevo.  Esto además de unos pocos rifles viejos y quebrados que nos dieron los del Gobierno y de los cuales apenas uno que otro sirvió. Bueno, en total permanecí cuarenta días en la Costa Atlántica. ..."  [my emphasis]

1 January 1927.
Letter from The Mengel Company, Otis Manufacturing Company, The Freiberg Mahogany Company, the Nicaragua Mahogany Company, and the S. B. Vrooman Company Ltd., to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "We the undersigned American Companies having interests at Cape Gracias, Wawa, Prinsapolca and Pearl Lagoon believe that the only manner to safeguard these interests would be to include these Ports within the Neutral Zone as already established, for the following reasons: ¶ First: That owing to our Government having established Neutral Zones in Rio Grande and Puerto Cabezas and Admiral Latimer having stated that the Forestal Taxes shall be paid to the Constitutional Government headed by President Diaz, reprisals will be practiced against us, such as, cutting loose rafts of logs and letting some drift out to sea. ¶ Second: That interference with the loading of steamers will occur. ¶ Third: That Tug Boats, and supplies for same will be interfered with. ¶ We state one concrete case of the taking of supplies and interference with loading a steamer by the Liberals occupying the Port of Prinsapolca. The Steamer Muneric loading for the Otis Manufacturing Company will be delayed and heavy demurrage incurred thru their supply of Gasoline having been taken by the Liberals, unless an additional supply can be gotten to Prinsapolca immediately at a great unnecessary expense."

1 January 1927.
Letter from The Mengel Company, Otis Manufacturing Company, The Freiberg Mahogany Company, the Nicaragua Mahogany Company, and the S. B. Vrooman Company Ltd., to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . Trusting that you will be able to get some prompt action on this request for protection of our interests, from Our State Department or Naval Forces now on the ground, . . . /s/ The Mengel Company [illegible] ¶ Otis Mfg. Co. /s/ D. S. Wueslier [?] ¶ The Freiberg Mahogany Company /s/ [illegible] ¶ Nicaragua Mahogany Company Ltd. /s/ [illegible] ¶ S. B. Vrooman Co. /s/ J. E. Williams"

2 January 1927.
Letter from Nicaragua Mahogany Company, Bluefields, to Admiral J. L. Latimer, in Command U.S. Naval Forces, Nicaragua, p. 1.  
 "Sir:- ¶ We are informed by the American Consul at Bluefields that you have issued ruling that the forestall tax on logs exported from all ports on the East Coast of Nicaragua shall be paid to the American Collector of customs, Bluefields. We are further informed that the American Collector of Customs, Bluefields, proposes to hold us liable for payment of forestall tax in every case except when we have asked for protection from you, but have failed to receive it. ¶ We desire to comply with these instructions, but we are constrained to point out certain practical considerations, which must of necessity be taken into account in applying the above ruling. ¶ All ports on the East Coast are in the control of the revolutionists with the exception of the Bluefields, Rio Grande, and Puerto Cabezas which have been neutralized and occupied by the American Naval forces. The revolutionary authorities have hitherto refused to permit loading of logs at ports under their control unless payment of forestall tax is made to them. ¶ If the exporter refuses to pay the forestall tax to the revolutionary authorities and warns the said authorities that he will ask the protection of the U.S. Naval Forces there is every probability that the revolutionists will cut loose the rafts of logs and let them go to sea or indulge in other reprisals which the exporter is powerless to prevent. In such an eventuality any assistance rendered by you would of necessity be too late to be of value. ¶ We, therefore suggest that there be an understanding as follows: ¶ “In the absence of an agreement between the admiral in command and the competent revolutionary authority whereby the said revolutionary authority consents to the payment of forestall tax to the American Collector of Customs at Bluefields that exporter shall have the right whenever . . ."

2 January 1927.
Letter from Nicaragua Mahogany Company, Bluefields, to Admiral J. L. Latimer, in Command U.S. Naval Forces, Nicaragua, p. 2. 
  " . . . necessary to pay the forestall tax to the de facto authorities except at ports where the U.S. Naval Forces are in position to extend adequate protection to the exporter and prevent the application of duress to labor necessary to load prior to time of exportation.” ¶ Very respectfully ¶ Nicaragua Mahogany Company, INC."

2 January 1927.
Memorandum on Atlantic Coast businesses, US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C. (USDS 317.115 Ot 4/13) 
 "Secretary of State. ¶ Attention Olds and Stabler. ¶ The undersigned American companies having logs at Cape Grail, Pearl Lagoon, Wawa, Prinzapolka request that these ports be neutralized in order that the logs may be loaded and our properties protected In view of the recent decision Latimer that forest tax on logs exported from all ports of East Coast must be paid to American collector of Customs at Bluefields we need and are entitled to protection from revolutionists who refuse to permit loading and threaten reprisals unless we pay tax to them. Revolutionists have already seized gasoline Otis Manufacturing Company Mengel Company Nicaragua Mahogany Company Frieburg Mahogany Company."

10 January 1927.
Letter from Osmond Thompson, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
 "Dear Sir: ¶ I find it necessary to place before you the following facts because neither my consul nor myself have obtained any satisfaction after appealing to the Commander of the Landing forces of the U.S.S. Galveston, and Admiral Latimer. I am British subject. ¶ The Schooner Atlantic was wrecked on this coast 38 miles north coast of Bluefields Bluff. She was insured. The underwriters Agent, Mr. Thos. W. Waters, sold the wreck to me and gave me a valid title. I proceeded to rebuild the vessel, renamed her the “Seven Stars”, registered her under the Nicaraguan flag, and operated her in the trade on this coast between here and Puerto Cabezas for ten months, when she was seized by Louis Coe, one of the previous owners. ¶ The Schooner was in litigation at the time she was wrecked, and the court had placed the vessel in the hands of one Carlos Pasos as Depository, and was working her for the benefit of the owners. The insurance was $6,000.00, the Underwriters agent paid to the said Carlos Pasos, the court appointee. My title is absolute. ¶ The political troubles here brought about an agreement before Admiral Latimer, between General Arguello of the Conservative Government, and the General Moncada of the Constitutional Government. Article #7 of this agreement states clearly neither side shall use boats belonging to foreigners or foreign companies. Coe’s object in seizing the “Seven Stars” was to permit the Conservatives to use her. I protested to Commander Richardson of the U.S.S. Galveston and to the Admiral. So did the British Consul in my behalf, and all the satisfaction we received was the Admiral would look into the matter. ¶ The Admiral permits the vessel to remain in the hands of the Conservatives Government in violation of the agreement to which he was a party. The vessel has been taken up into the river between here and Rama and is and is used as a Man-of-War. She is in danger of being attacked by the Liberals and to be sunk. I protested energetically against action of the Admiral in not insisting that the agreement signed by himself- General Arguello and General Moncada, protesting foreign floating property be observed."

10 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields (p. 1 only).   
Reports on US troop movements & strength on Atlantic Coast; 400 troops (17 officers & 383 enlisted, including Navy personnel).

11 January 1927.
Letter from Wo Hing and Company, Cukra Hill near Pearl Lagoon, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "I Hing Ching, of lawful age, married, merchant and of this domicile and principal of the firm of Wo Hing and Co. of Cukra Hill, respectfully beg to submit the following claim against the Nicaraguan Government for damage sustained by the armed forces operating in the district of Pearl Lagoon and its vicinity during the months of August 1st up to the present date. ¶ My store situated at Cukra has been sacked and looted besides the different merchandise taking therefrom without my consent and in return I received a receipt from the troops and at times none. Herewith find eleven vouchers or receipts for goods numbered from 1 to 11, the eleventh is the last voucher obtained from general Luis Zelaya, one of the expeditionary chiefs, who commanded some of the government forces at Pearl Lagoon. This last receipt fully proves my assertion of looting. ¶ From the appended list you will clearly see that I have lost ONE TEHOUSAND and TWENTY DOLLARS AND FORTYFIVE CENTS AMERICAN GOLD in cash and merchandise besides my clothing to the value of TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS, which makes a total of TWENVE HUNDRED AND TWENTY DOLLARS and FORTFIVE CENTS GOLD for which I respectfully claim said amount I hope that you will see that Imobtain [sic] for my losses. ¶ Hoping that you will see the justness of my case which has not only put me out of business in the district of Cukra temporarily but has hindered me from gaining my livelihood and accrued profits I obtained from my business. ¶ Respectfully submitted,"

11 January 1927.
Letter from Wo Hing and Company, Cukra Hill near Pearl Lagoon, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2. 
  "List of Vouchers representing articles forcibly taken during the month of August, 1926, by the Chamorro military troops from the store of Wo Hing and Company, a Chinese firm at Cukra Hill, near Pearl Lagoon. ¶ Voucher amounts of $18.00, $19.95, $12.00, $3.00, $0.60, $7.00, $40.00, $129.00, $195.00, $100.00, $495.00. Totaling $1,020.45"

11 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields, p. 1.  
  "At twelve o’clock midnight the embarking of troops on tugs continued. The seas was running heavy, but embarking was handled without any accidents. The first tug left the ship at 1:20 A. M. with eleven officers and 163 men. The second tug completed loading at 2:30 A. M. And left with six officers and 182 men. Both tugs then proceeded to the customhouse at Bluefields and tied up until break of day. ¶ Here a motor launch joined the forces. Lieutenant Ralph C. Alburger with a machine gun and a squad of riflemen was detailed and ordered to duty on this launch. At 5:00 A. M. as day was breaking and the channel markings over the bar could be seen the force left for Rama via the Escondido River. Lieutenant Alburger was instructed to visit all outposts encountered on the route up the river and to inform them that we were making a neutral zone would not be permitted to be used as a base for the promotion of revolutionary operations and that neither arms nor ammunition destined for the revolutionary forces nor any other of army supplies, including provisions, would be allowed to pass through or be shipped from this zone, also that vessels operating with the revolutionary armed forces would not be allowed to enter the zone. ¶ Lieutenant Alburger stopped at the following river outposts: ¶ First Outpost: 7:10 A. M. - Fruita de Paw - 43 revolutionaries commanded by Connor. ¶ Second Outpost - 7:30 a.m. Lomomico (or Monkey Ridge), 26 revolutionaries under Corporal Cassanova. ¶ Third Outpost - 9:35 A. M. - Cama, 50 revolutionaries commanded by general Adam Gomez [Liberal General Adán Gómez]. This officer felt that he was justified in taking food from government forces. He understood our order in regard to the neutral zone and gave us the impression that he would comply with it. ¶ Fourth Outpost- 10:00 A. M. - Camp Mena (CC and Company Creek), 53 revolutionaries commanded by major Clement Contone who informed us that General Mena had left with 200 men on foot for THE RIVERSIDE, a point about twenty miles east of Rama. Major Clement Contone was at the time of our visit preparing to take his 53 men to Camp Mena by lighter in tow of a small launch. At 10:25 A.M. both of us departed. ¶ Fifth Outpost - 10:55 A.M. The Riverside, 200 revolutionaries commanded by General Mena. General Mena met the patrol officer and stated that he desired a map of the neutral zone and a safe conduct pass to come and go as he pleased. In a courteous manner the neutral zone was explained to him and he was informed that the patrol officer could not grant his request. General Mena stated that his army was preparing to attack the government . . . "

11 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . forces tomorrow. When advised he would not be permitted to enter the neutral zone he replied that he would wait outside the neutral limits to the capture government forces armed or unarmed when they left. General Mena wished to know which direction government troops would leave Rama - to the sea or interior. General Mena seemed rather surprised and showed deep concern as if unsettled in his plans at this news. He made no comment on river neutrality. General Mena stated that supplies for government troops had been shipped up the river under the protection of the American Flag. General Mena in view of the fact we were to occupy Rama and declare the neutral zone, suggested that if he could not see Colonel Meade that he had better see President Sacasa or the revolutionary minister of war. General Mena did not give any information in regard to his intentions. The general and his staff were well equipped. Many officers had field glasses. The rifles of the revolutionaries at the close quarters showed lack of care. ¶ Lieutenant Alburger’s duty in charge of the patrol forces was performed in a very efficient manner. ¶ The first tug reached Rama sixty miles up the river at 12:30 P. M. Major Clarke disembarked and met the comandante and explained our mission to him. The comandante sent for General Arguella who very soon afterward arrived. Lieutenant Colonel Meade then explained to General Arguella that we were making Rama and both sides of the Escondido and Sisquia Rivers neutral zone. The General pretended to be surprised at our arrival although he had known of our coming since morning. General Arguella wanted to know the authority for our action and if it had been authorized by Managua. General Arguella had 1,200 men in and around Rama, of whom 750 were well armed including one 180 millimeter French Cannon, 7 Lewis Guns and about 500, 000 rounds of small arm ammunition. He had one schooner equipped with gas engine and a large river motorboat. General Arguella was told that he would be given a reasonable time to withdraw from Rama and the hills with rifle shot of both sides of the Sisquia River. He decided to withdraw to Muelle Buey, thence to San Francisco and Acoyopa via Rama River. At 1:00 P. M. the motor schooner with about 25 dugouts in tow and with a force of about 200 government troops left Rama and proceeded up the Rama River. At 4:30 P. M. the large river motorboat “Sea Lion” Rama departed up river with 350 men. The power schooner returned to Rama in the early evening and the “Sea Lion” at about 8:00 P. M. ¶ The second detachment under Major Bartlett and the motor boat under Lieutenant Alburger arrived at Rama at 1:00 P. M. The 77th Machine Gun company established the outposts immediately after the government troops with General Arguella withdraw and patrols were established in town. Cuyamel Fruit Company Barge No. 3 arrived from Bluefields at 11:30 P. M. having met with no opposition on the way up the river."

13 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "The night passed with incident. ¶ 7:00 A.M. – Radio communication established. Coil had burned out due to short circuit. ¶ 7:30 A.M. Launches Nos. 3 and 8 arrived from Providence. ¶ 8:20 A.M. – 2nd Lieut. Cronmiller and one rifle squad in Launch No. 8 patrolled the SIQUIA RIVER to the head of navigation and reported that no troops were seen during his patrol and that Mr. Draper informed him that there were no troops on either the MICO or SIQUIA RIVERS. At EL MUELLE REAL he was informed no troops had been seen there and that the natives were returning to their plantations to work. He reported back at RAMA at 12:00 noon. ¶ 8:45 A.M. – 2nd Lieut. Brink and one rifle squad in Launch No. 3 patrolled the RAMA RIVER to the head of navigation and at 10:10 A.M. found about 150 Federal Soldiers encamped on the WEST bank of the river six miles above RAMA and one mile below the mouth of the IGUANA CREEK. Some of the troops were leaving in canoes and going up the river. The gasoline schooner SEVEN STARS was tied up alongside of their camp. People along the river were working on their plantations and gathering fruit for shipment. The patrol returned to RAMA at 12:30 P.M. ¶ 9:45 A.M. – Captain Coffenberg and one rifle squad with a native telephone repair man in Launch No. 5 patrolled the ESCONDIDO RIVER to MAHOGANY CREEK. The telephone line was tested and found to be in service between RAMA and SIXA PLANTATION. Test at MAGNOLIA showed line broken both ways toward RAMA and BLUEFIELDS. Lineman will endeavor to patrol line both ways from MAGNOLIA tomorrow and make repairs. It was reported by natives questioned along river that there were no revolutionists WEST of MAHOGANY CREEK and that all revolutionists were concentrating at LOMA-MICO. Personal inspections by patrol officer showed that three former revolutionist outposts had been evacuated. Motor boat RED DEVIL and motor schooner SEVEN STARS were passed on river. Patrol returned at 5:00 P.M."

13 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields, p. 2.

14 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields (p. 1 only). 
  "At about 7:00 P.M., 13 January 1927, it was reported that Private First Class Charles S. Kochersperger was missing. A thorough search for him was made in town, vicinity and on barge at dock. He could not be located. This morning the search was continued and pieces of his clothing found on the barge which might lead to the belief he was drowned. The river was dragged in the vicinity all day and his body could not be located. Further search was made of the town and a clue was discovered which might lead to the belief that he might have strayed away from the town. Further investigation will continue and when definite information of his location is learned a further report will be made. ¶ 7:10 A.M. – Launch No. 8 left for the MICO RIVER. ¶ 7:25 A.M. – Launch “SUMUWALLA” with lighter containing one ton of stores proceeded up RAMA RIVER. ¶ 1:05 P.M. – An officer patrol reconnoitered the SIQUIA RIVER to junction of MICO RIVER. Mr. Draper stated that Colonel TORRES of the Government Forces passed his place that day before with nine of his men in a canoe and that they had three rifles concealed in the bottom of the boat. Colonel TORRES stated that his destination was COMAYAKA. Fruit is being collected for shipment all along the river and women were seen coming from the river in canoes. The patrol returned at 1:30 P.M. ¶ 3:15 P.M. – Launch “YAMNI” of the Mahogany Company, Inc., arrived with Mr. BRAUTIGAM who informed us that both the “SEA LION” and schooner “SEVEN STARS” had been capture by the Revolutionists and were at 10:00 A.M. in SLOOPHOUSE CREEK. The launch left for MUELLE-REAL at 3:50 P.M. and returned to RAMA at 7:00 P.M. and tied up for the night. ¶ 3:30 P.M. – An officer patrol reconnoitered the RAMA RIVER for six miles returning at 5:00 P.M. and found everything quiet. Launches and banana barges were active during late afternoon. ¶ 8:50 P.M. – Rudolfo Davila, an escaped prisoner, arrived in RAMA this afternoon and stated that General MENA’S forces intended to concentrate at LA CRUZ. ¶ 5:30 A.M. 15 January 1927, Launch “YULA” with lighter and ten days rations for battalion arrived from BLUEFIELDS with Q. M. Sergeant Ostrom in charge of Marine and Navy Guard."

15 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields (p. 1 only). 
  "The night passed without incident. ¶ 5:15 A.M. – Launch “YALU” with lighter containing ten days rations and guard from EL BLUFF arrived from BLUEFIELDS. ¶ 8:30 A.M. – Launch “YALU”, with guard from EL BLUFF, Major T. Clarke, U.S.M.C., as passenger and an officer patrol left for EL BLUFF. Major Clarke had orders to see General MENA and transmit to him the contents of COMSPERON Radio 1014-1330. The officer in charge of patrol had orders to return with launch “YALU” 16 January 1927. ¶ 10:45 A.M. - Launch “SUMUWALLA” arrived from the RAMA RIVER. Captain Felix Cash reported that he had been informed that there were 400 federal troops at GUADALUPE and he stated that he personally saw a canoe full of federal soldiers leaving GUADALUPE and going up the river. He was also informed that the federal troops intended moving further towards the interior. He also stated that he had seen twenty federal soldiers at SOLIDAD (9 miles above RAMA). General ARGUELLO was in command of forces on the RAMA RIVER ¶ 11:05 A.M. – Launch “CAMORS” arrived from the RAMA RIVER with a barge in tow, loaded with 29 cattle and left immediately for BLUEFIELDS ¶ Rivers patrolled in the immediate vicinity of RAMA. ¶ RIVER TRAFFIC ON INCREASE."

1.     15 January 1927.
Letter from Secretary of State Robert E. Olds, Washington D.C., to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, re case of Leon Frank, p. 1.
   "Sir: ¶ The Department has received your despatch No. 197 of December 24, 1926, respecting the alleged unneutral conduct of Mr. Leon Frank, an American Citizen. ¶ It appears that pursuant to the Department’s instructions you conferred with Admiral Latimer who submitted to you a copy of his correspondence to the Navy Department in which he recommended that no further protection be extended to Mr. Frank or to any property the latter may claim to own. In concluding your despatch you state you cannot concur in the recommendation of Rear Admiral Latimer that Mr. Frank be denied protection, and you refer the matter to the Department for determination. ¶ In giving consideration to Rear Admiral Latimer’s recommendation the Department has carefully examined, as you undoubtedly have also, the several statements of subordinate officers transmitted in his confidential report to the Chief of Naval Operations dated September 28, 1926. In addition to the general charges of unneutral conduct against Mr. Frank, it appears to the Department that there are at least two outstanding features of the report which, if substantiated, would more than justify the Admiral’s recommendation. The first is the charge, (which you characterize as “very damaging” to Mr. Frank) . . . "

2.     15 January 1927.
Letter from Secretary of State Robert E. Olds, Washington D.C., to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, re case of Leon Frank, p. 2.
   " . . . regarding the receipt by one of the Liberal leaders of the letter (which he showed to Admiral Latimer) alleged to have been written by Frank, whose signature the Admiral states that he verifies. Mr. Frank denies the charge and regards the matter as a mistake. ¶ The second feature is the matter of the serious admissions alleged to have been made by Frank to Lieutenant McGee and referred to in the latter’s report of September 14, 1926, (a copy of which is enclosed for your convenient information). In this connection the Department has reviewed your despatch No. 196 of December 17, 1926, in which you state, having reference to that part of the despatch dealing with the donation of money for the benefit of the rebel soldiers, that you “do not believe that Mr. Frank ever made the assertion attributed to him by Lieutenant McGee,” and that you “prefer to think that the Lieutenant misunderstood him.” Your apparently high regard for Mr. Frank as a result of your acquaintance with him for a period of two years is of interest to the Department, which, of course, desires to give the weight to your non-concurrence with Admiral Latimer’s recommendation. On the other hand, the charges preferred against Mr. Frank by Admiral Latimer are specific and very serious, and are alleged to be widely known as true. ¶ Before giving further consideration to the matter, the Department desires to receive a further report from you giving such facts (in addition to those contained in your despatches No. 196 of December 17 and No. 197 of December 24) as in your opinion support your refusal to concur in the Admiral’s recommendation. The Department . . . "

3.     15 January 1927.
Letter from Secretary of State Robert E. Olds, Washington D.C., to Andrew J. McConnico, Esquire, American Consul, Bluefields, re case of Leon Frank, p. 3.
   " . . . is particularly anxious for your comment on Lieutenant McGee’s report, omitting any reference to this statement regarding relief work for the rebel soldiers, said to have been engaged in by you and the British Consul. Any events which have occurred subsequently to your last report, which you feel would be of help to the Department, should also be included. ¶ I am, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ For the Secretary of State, . . . "

16 January 1927.
Record of Events, Lt. Col. J. Meade, USS Argonne, Bluefields.  
 "The night passed without incident. ¶ 8:25 A.M. – Body of the late Private First Class Charles S. Kochersperger, U.S.M.C., who died by drowning, was recovered. ¶ 12:30 P.M. – Launch “YALU” arrived from EL BLUFF with officer patrol that left RAMA 14 January 1927. ¶ 3:20 P.M. – An officer patrol left RAMA on launch “YALU” for patrol of ESCONDIDO to BLUEFIELDS. ¶ 4:00 P.M. – The late Private First Class Charles S. Kochersperger, U.S.M.C., was buried in the native cemetery at RAMA, NICARAGUA, with full military honors . ¶ 7:00 P.M. – Received radio from COMSPERON to be especially on our guard to prevent “SEA LION”, “SEVEN STARS” or other boats carrying revolutionary forces passing RAMA and going up the RAMA or SIQUIA RIVERS. Necessary orders were issued. No boats attempted to pass."  [NOTE:  According to the OFFICIAL LIST OF MARINE CORPS CASUALTIES, PFC Charles S. Kochersperger drowned at Rama on 13 January 1927.]

1.     17 January 1927.
Letter of protest from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "Dear Sir: ¶ I desire to advise you that yesterday, January 14, at about 9 o’clock A.M., I observed a Diaz government launch removing from her anchorage my sloop UNION taking her to the Government wharf. ¶ I wish to register a vigorous protest against this action as no process, court or otherwise, has been taken against said vessel, and as she is American property, and our Navy, so it is said, is here to protect American lives and property, it seems strange that the Commander of the landing forces permitted this not. ¶ To review the status of the sloop UNION I wish to state that on May 21, last, the Constitutional forces seized the vessel, in escaping from Bluefields, and through the good office of your Consulate and the British Council, and expending a considerable sum for cables, she was finally located at Bocas del Toro, and at my request you wired and requested the American Consular Agent at that point, be have her held subject to her owner’s orders. ¶ With the idea of preventing trouble I requested you to address the then Governor, Jose Solorzano Diaz [José Solórzano Díaz], to permit her to return here. He commanded the Minister of Foreign Affairs at Managua, who replied that the sloop could return provided a bond of $2,000 was given to guarantee that she would not be seized again for revolutionary activities. It was impossible for me to give bond of that nature, but I offered to give bond for the . . . "

2.     17 January 1927.
Letter of protest from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . amount desired that I would not permit the vessel to be taken for any revolutionary purposes. My reason for not giving bond requested was as the vessel is used in coastwise trade, I would not guarantee what may happen to any other coast points, as it was known that the Power Barges and other boats owned by the Cuyamel Fruit Company were seized and used by Constitutional forces without the company’s consent. ¶ While I was preparing to send for the vessel the civil war broke out anew in August, 1926, and shortly afterward I was notified by local authorities that as the vessel was at Rio Grande Bar in the service of the Sacasa forces, her Matriculation was canceled. This was an instruction from the Minister of Foreign Relations. You informed me that you had received a radiogram from the American Minister, Mr. South, of Panama that the UNION was held by Panamanian Authorities at that time, and would be released on proper proof of ownership. ¶ On October 2, 1926, after the port of Bluefields had been declared a Neutral Zone, and believing that we had the protection of our American Navy, I sent my sloop FERNANDINA, at an expenditure of $400.00 to Bocas del Toro, to prove ownership, make seaworthy repairs and tow the vessel to this port. Due to heavy weather the boats were forced to put into Port Limon, Costa Rica for food and supplies. Not finding fuel at Port Limon, they proceeded to Colorado Bar where sufficient fuel was secured to reach Bluefields. Upon arrival here accusations were made by local authorities to Commander Richardson of the Landing forces, that the vessels left Fort Limon carrying thirty soldiers of the Sacasa forces landing them at Monkey Point, 20 miles south of Bluefields. ¶ On being advised by Commander Richardson of this accusation I offered to have the Captains made sworn affidavits before you, which he said would be satisfactory. My captains appeared before . . . "

3.     17 January 1927.
Letter of protest from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 3.  
 " . . . you making the affidavits, that none but the crew left Port Limon aboard the vessels. When these were presented he received them but would not accept them as evidence, and requested further records. At my request your Consulate cabled the American Consul at Port Limon, requesting that he secure from Port officials data as to the passengers and crew that sailed on the vessel when leaving there. This reply, a copy of which was sent to Commander Richardson, was as follows: ¶ FERNANDINA LEFT HERE TOWING UNION, CREW OF SIX MEN ABOARD EACH BOAT, NO PASSENGERS. ¶ In a previous conversation with Commander Richardson, as to the status of the sloop UNION he informed me that as she had no matriculation she was totally American property and could not be touched. ¶ I brought the UNION from Bocas del Toro, a friendly port to a Neutral port under American Naval Authorities, when I could just as easily taken her into any one of the Nicaraguan ports held by the Sacasa forces at the time, but by bringing her into Bluefields, the Neutral port declared by Admiral Latimer, I tried to prove my neutrality in the matter. ¶ After the proofs were presented to Commander Richardson disapproving the false accusations of the local authorities Captain Townsend of the U.S.S. GALVESTON, wrote to the then Governor, General Gustavo Arguello, that he was convinced that neither the FERNANDINA nor UNION had taken passengers at Port Limon, but as the UNION had been seized by the Sacasa forces in May, he the Governor was at liberty to take the boat, although no truthful accusations had been filed against me or the vessel. ¶ I immediately filed protest at your Consulate requesting that you address Admiral Latimer to reconsider the decision of Captain Townsend."

4.     17 January 1927.
Letter of protest from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 4.  
 " . . . I was later informed by Commander Richardson that it was the Admiral’s decision and not Captain Townsend’s and that he, Commander Richardson, was not in accord with it. Admiral Latimer replied to my appeal though you, that he washed his hands of the matter, and that it would have to be taken up with the State Department. About eight weeks have elapsed since above occurred, and at this time I appealed for protection to the State Department through your Consulate, and up to the present have had no reply. ¶ It seems strange to be that we have a Navy in Nicaragua only for the protection of the Mahogany and Banana interests here, and that American citizens who have similar investments are ignored. I claim as an American citizen the same right of justice accorded to any other American citizen or corporation, and ask that the Naval Commander be immediately ordered to see that my property is returned to me, and that I be indemnified for any losses sustained. ¶ I request that a copy of above protest be forwarded to the State Department and to the American Minister at Managua. ¶ Respectfully submitted, ¶ (Signed) LEON FRANK"

5 February 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C., re case of Leon Frank.  
 "SIR: ¶ I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Department’s Instructions of January 16, 1927 (File No. 317.113 B 521/15) relating to the charges submitted by Rear Admiral J. L. Latimer against Mr. Leon Frank, an American citizen, alleging unneutral conduct and recommending the withdraw of protection. ¶ The copy of the report that Lt. McGee, alleging serious admissions by Mr. Frank, has been carefully considered. I cannot accept his statements in view of the assertions of Mr. Frank and the British Consul that no such admissions were made. I have full confidence in both gentlemen; but the reports concerning Lt. McGee, received at this office, are not to his credit, compelling me to regard him with suspicion. ¶ If the Department desires I shall forward copies of written complaints concerning Lt. McGee and Commander Richardson, which I have on file. I cannot recall accurately the various verbal complaints submitted. ¶ I have this honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant ¶ A. J. McConnico ¶ American Consul."

11 February 1927.
"Unfavorable Mahogany Prospects In Nicaragua," Special Circular No. 1009, J. C. Nellis, Acting Chief, Lumber Division, Bureau of Foreign & Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce, Washington D.C., to all firms on Exporter's Index handling mahogany, from information provided by US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.
   "According to reports received from the various mahogany companies operating in the eastern part of Nicaragua, the prospects for a normal yield during the ensuing season are more unfavorable than at any time for the past thirteen years. Under normal conditions the shipments average annually 15,000,000 board feet of mahogany and 3,000,000 board feet of cedar valued at $1,000,000. If 60 percent of that quantity is obtained this year the more optimistic exporters will be surprised. ¶ The mahogany year, for those connected with the industry, begins July 1 and extends to June 30 of the succeeding year. The greater proportion of the shipments is made during the December and the March quarters owing to seasonal floods on the rivers. It is during the December quarter that the exporting companies engage contractors to obtain specified quantities of logs. Such contractor agrees to supply from 500,000 to 1,500,000 board feet, the total aggregating 26,000,000 board feet. Owing to the many difficulties encountered in the business it is not usual that more than 75 percent of the quantity contracted for reaches tide water. ¶ Conditions in eastern Nicaragua prevented the exporters from making the customary contracts during the past December quarter, and the unsettled conditions that prevail at present have caused them to limit their obligations in the way of supplying contractors. The dry season in the mahogany areas begins in January and continues until May. It is then that trees are felled and rolled or hauled to the nearest creek or rivulet. The contracts cannot therefore expect but a limited output during the remainder of the dry season. ¶ Although many difficulties have been encountered by the operators in floating the logs to tide water and in placing them aboard ocean steamers at eastern ports of Nicaragua, the quantities shipped from July 1, 1926 to January 1, 1927 compare favorably with those of the corresponding period of last year. ¶ A comparative statement follows: ¶ July 1, 1925 to January 31, 1926. Mahogany, board feet, 11,199,029--$920,938, Cedar, board feet, 1,262,311--$105,375 ¶ July 1, 1926 to January 31, 1927. Mahogany, board feet, 10,914,033--$845,742, Cedar, board feet, 429,478--$58,633 ¶ During the mahogany year from July 1, 1925, to June 30, 1926, the quantities shipped were: 16,037,355 board feet of mahogany valued at $1,313,061, and 2,705,919 board feet of cedar valued at $202,888. ¶ J. C. Nellis, ¶ Acting Chief, Lumber Division"

25 February 1927.
Letter from Guido Grossmann, Bluefields, to C. Schweinitz, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.    [Moravian Archives, Box 62, Nicaragua Prov. Board Minutes 1927-31]  
 "My dear Brother de Schweinitz:- ¶ Last Wednesday I landed here again in Bluefields. With various mishappenings and disappointments, gasoline boat accidents and contra wind on sea, so that I was instead of four hours, 24 hours in a little boat out on sea. I was able to complete my task of visiting Tasba pouni and Karawala and now I will try to continue to write to you about what I saw on the various places. ¶ Tasba pouni: The station here as well as the place itself has suffered but little, except that all the plantations have been eaten empty and, as the people had to feed beside themselves about 1500 soldiers and as many of the Spanish soldiers go to war, just as in the olden times our people used to do it, with their wives and children so that added quite a large number more feeders to the Tasba pouni people. The great General Moncada credited the people for their work of charity with this great compliment: “if it would not have been for you Tasba pouni people, we would never had been able to win the victory at Pearl Lagoon.” And: “if we finally triumph in our just cause Tasba pouni will receive a special reward.” ¶ It will take the people sometime until they are able to have provision in their plantations and therefore at present they are very poor. ¶ The Church which was used as a hospital has to be painted, the school house as well as the teachers house have been somewhat damaged, and the people would be very thankful if they could receive some help. ¶ Otherwise the spiritual work of Tasba pouni is growing steadily, and it was indeed a pleasure to me to be with them for a few days. ¶ Great River and Karawala: ¶ From here I am sorry I have to send a sad report. Sr. Bregenzer is sick, and according to my opinion she is completely broken down. If she does not leave the country soon, for a thorough change, I am afraid she will not be able to continue the service in the mission field. I was really surprised to see her, and I do not think that I saw ever a sister who has changed and fallen off so rapidly under the influence of the climate than Sr. Bregenzer. I was told by Brother Bregenzer that the slightest little excitement gives her sleepless nights, for instance he continued: “we are glad that you came but it will mean a few nights without sleep for my wife.” Something had to be done. She herself thinks that she ought to go home to see a doctor, as she also has some trouble with the womb since she gave birth to the last child. But I do not think that this is the cause of her general debility and nervousness. Sr. Bregenzer has been always anemic and the influence of the climate here has just increased her trouble. It may also have been increased by not taking proper care of herself. When she came to this land, she, in spite of my protest, was washing clothes and cooking and doing all kind of things what a woman ought not to do in this climate, and if she does it is injuring herself, but unfortunately quite a number of the sisters do not believe it until they feel it. ¶ I have asked them to ask for furlough, but they have not given me a definite answer, as they first desire to have a clear and definite answer from the Lord what to do. I just mention this to you dear Bro. de Schweinitz, so in case they do ask for a vacation to the States, that you might be . . ."

25 February 1927.
Letter from Guido Grossmann, Bluefields, to C. Schweinitz, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.   [Moravian Archives, Box 62, Nicaragua Prov. Board Minutes 1927-31]  
 " . . . prepared. ¶ Here in Karawala and Rio Grande the people have not suffered very much, with the exception of our church which was used as a barrack. It will have to be repainted again. ¶ Bluefields: ¶ I just came in time to see Miss Stafford and Heidenreich go off for a vacation to San Jose. Miss Stafford has injured herself with ball playing and the doctor advised her to take a rest. So Bro. Denneberger decided to give to the Junior High School as month vacation, so that the two teachers could take a trip to San Jose. Of course this goes on their own expenses. ¶ Bro. Denneberger is doing well in Bluefields. Especially glad was I to see the Stortz’s so very interested in their work. It is a pleasure to hear how the people speak of them and how the people appreciate their service. They are doing very good work and especially in this time, where there is so much bitter feeling against the foreigners and especially against the citizens of the United States. I am glad that they are in Bluefields and that they show by their action that they unpartial. ¶ Sr. Heidenreich is not quite well, both of them Bro. Heidenreich and Sr. Heidenreich are looking worn out. They have had and are still having a hard time with this congregation and I hope that my visit may have helped in some way to straighten out various matters. True he is different from all of us, yet he means it earnest, and our best members realize this and therefore are thankful for what he is doing. ¶ But it seems to me that he is too old for the work and if he had not Sr. Heidenreich as his assistant, things would be even worse. ¶ Now I am anxious to go home again, it is today three weeks that I left my family. Monday I will take a vessel which will bring me to Bilway, and I hope when this letter come into your hand, I am home again. ¶ With my best greetings ¶ very fraternally yours, ¶ From Bro. and Sr. Hamilton I have heard nothing since I left them at Bragman’s."

9 March 1927.
Letter from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Mr. Albert F. Hopkins, Secretary, Full Gospel Tract Depot, Philadelphia PA.
   [NOTE:  Includes names and addresses of all missionaries in the Bluefields Consular District:]    "Revds. W. H. Hooper, D. H. B. Miller, C. A. Heidenreich, C. Conrad Shimer, H. H. Stortz of Bluefields, Nicaragua; Revd. F. Wolff, Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua; K. Bregenzer, Karawala, Nicaragua; Revd. J. Fisher, Twappi, Nicaragua; Revd. N. Wilson, Quamwalta, Nicaragua; Right Revd. G. Grossman, Bragmans Bluff, Nicaragua; Revd. K. C. Hamilton, Cabo Gracias, Care of W. H. Seat; Revd. F. E. Schramm, Sangsangta, care of W. H. Seat, Cabo Gracias, Nicaragua; and Revd. J. Palmer, Yulu, Nicaragua."

18 March 1927.
Letter from
US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C.    "Representatives of Otis and Mengel Mahogany Companies in Nicaragua are making urgent request for more ample guarantee and better protection for their workmen and interests in general in their logging camps. Their request that American marines be detailed to man the lake steamer VICTORIA working in conjunction with the railway and to protect their supply stations in Chontales is being referred to Admiral Latimer. Their New York representatives seem certain to approach the Department on the same subject. The condition of banditry against which they complain exists on a larger or smaller scale throughout the country and seems certain to grow worse before it improves. See concluding sentence of my telegram Number 77 March 17, 10 a.m. and frequent reference in other telegrams from Legation to this tendency toward general anarchy. In my opinion no early or effective return to normal peace conditions can be brought to Nicaragua without complete and positive armed intervention. ¶ EBERHARDT."

30 March 1927.
Radiogram from Otis Manufacturing Company and S. B. Vrooman Company, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
  "Doctor Sandoval proposes through our contractor not molest mahogany operations Escondido district provided Diaz forces make same agreement. Can you obtain Diaz consent to this? Can you have Diaz instruct Governor Araña appoint representative to confer with Doctor Sandoval and representative mahogany companies in Rama to sign such agreement witnessed by naval officer. Diaz and Liberal forces have both plundered mahogany camps this section. Very essential secure this guarantee from both factions or our losses will be enormous."

30 March 1927.
Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields Tanning Company, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields. 
  "Dear Sir:- ¶ For your information and as a matter of record, I beg to advise you that this morning an armed squad of sailors of the landing forces of USS Denver, under command of commander S.A. LaBounty, and without any previous notice, searched the tannery belonging to our company. ¶ When I learnt of the occurrence I went to the American Headquarters and was informed by Junior Lieutenant Greaselose that they were searching for arms and that none were found. I was also told that they had been a denouncement made to the effect that arms were hidden at the tannery and that the Nicaraguan who made the denouncement was under arrest. ¶ The Nicaraguan who made the denouncement has no standing and is without any respectability. ¶ I give you all this information to show you that it is their intention to molest me in any and every way possible. ¶ Yours very truly,"

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