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the atlantic coast  •  1931B, p. 2
JULY 26 - SEPT 11, 1931

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE of documents for the SECOND HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region in the time of the Sandino rebellion, housing material dated in the seven weeks from July 26 to September 11.

     The Sandinistas’ military probes into the western fringes of the Atlantic Coast region continue through mid & late July, as do the Guardia’s efforts to repel & chase them down.  Air & ground battles at Sacklin & Kisalaya on July 17, 22 & 26 are narrated from a fascinating mix of perspectives — including a Marine pilot’s (Becker, 29 July); two Guardia patrol commanders (Stone, 29 July & Levonski, 17 Aug), Moravian missionaries (Haglund, 23 Aug), Area Commander Col. Wynn’s (11 Aug), and Gen. Sandino’s (20, 27, 28 & 30 Aug) — the latter three a highly revealing never-before-published series of letters from Sandino to Col. Perfecto Chavarría & other prominent, second-tier EDSN officers that effectively mark the end of this campaign.  Sandino acknowledges that the expeditionary column is “mal de salud” & suffering low morale & grants permission to return to the General Headquarters near Guiguilí.

     On 11 August, Col. Wynn offers his view of the military situation:
  “[The] groups operating on the outskirts of this area are operating from the vicinity of Bocay for the purpose of obtaining supplies from the places not under direct Guardia protection; that the bandits have no immediate intention of driving into the area protected by Guardia posts and patrolling. ..."  Sans the “bandit” epithet it is an apt & accurate portrayal.  One sees here the EDSN struggling hard to expand its political & military control down the Río Coco to Kisalaya & Sacklin, with a second prong south & east into the Wuani and Siuna districts.  Successes are mixed at best.  Cultivating organic connections with the indigenous social fabric in the Kisalaya-Sacklin zone proves a formidable challenge, with the influence of the Moravian Church, the Miskitus' cultural valorization of individual & community autonomy & independence and their historically-rooted antipathies towards “Spaniards” in general, and the countervailing power of the Marines & Guardia.  EDSN political successes in the zone, hard to gauge but evidently real & substantial, are due mainly to Adolfo Cockburn & Abraham Rivera’s oversized energies & influence.  Further south, plundering foreign properties & eliminating "traitors” in Wuani & Siuna are made possible in large part by the district’s physical impenetrability for the Guardia upriver from the east, especially during the rainy season, as seen in Lt. Stone’s harrowing patrol report of 29 July.

    By early August, after roughly five weeks, the second big rebel offensive of 1931 is over. 
Area Commander Wynn reports no military contacts after July 26, and by late August the sick & weary rebels are heading home.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1.     28 July 1931.
Manifiesto.  Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 1. 
 (Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, Sergio Ramírez, comp. & ed. (Managua: Nueva Nicaragua, 1984), tomo 2, pág. 186)    "... Ocho columnas expedicionarios componen el efectivo de nuestro Ejército, en los lugares y bajo las órdenes de los siguientes jefes:  Nuestras columnas N° 2 y N° 6, al mando del los generales Carlos Salgado P. y Abraham Rivera, operan con todo éxito en nuestra Costa Atlántica.  Nuestra columna N° 1, al mando del general Pedro Altamirano, controla los departamentos de Chontales y Matagalpa ..."

2.     28 July 1931.
Manifiesto.  Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 2.  
 (Source:  Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, tomo 2, pág. 187)

3.     28 July 1931.
Manifiesto.  Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 3.   
(Source:  Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, tomo 2, pág. 188)

1.     29 July 1931.
Patrol Report, District Commander 1st Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, p. 1.   
"GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ DISTRICT OF RIO GRANDE, EL GALLO NIC. ¶ 29 July 1931 ¶ From: The District Commander ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Via: The Department Commander, Dept. of Southern Bluefields. ¶ Subject: Combat Patrol, report of. ¶ 1. As the radio operator of this place had gone to Bluefields July 18; your message, dated July 18, containing orders for a combat patrol of 20 men to proceed to the Wuani and Siuna area; was not received until 1100 Jul 20, when it was delivered by 1st. Sgt. Dash, #960, G.N., who arrived from Bluefields with 12 men, 1 BAR, ammunition and supplies. ¶ 2. July 21---Leaving 1st. Sgt. Dash in charge El Gallo with 15 men; a patrol consisting of the following officers and men crossed to the north bank of the Rio Grande in a barge belonging to the Cukra Development Company, and with 3 pack animals cleared for the north at 0745. 1st. Lieut. W.J. Stone, G.N. Raso Irias, Erasmo #2343 ¶ 2nd. Lieut. Juan B. Rodriguez, G.N. Raso Martinez, Alejandro #2131 ¶ Sgt. Garth, Kinzeano #2702 Raso Martinez, Eulalio #646 ¶ Sgt. Garcia, Augustin #2318 Raso Noguero, Eliseo #1990 ¶ Raso Ampie, Francisco #2587 Raso Ordenana, Saniago #3441 ¶ Raso Brock, Cecil #2996 Raso Padilla, Espinallo #2322 ¶ Raso Calderon, Alejandro #3472 Raso Rigfby, James #4585 ¶ Raso Davila, Lucas #2191 Raso Roboteau, Renaldo #2968 ¶ Raso Diaz, Manuel #4501 Raso Tejada, Maximo #3033 ¶ Raso Grey, Mitchell #2847 Raso Wilson, Eddinton #2180 ¶ Raso Haymen, Luis #4510 Raso Vargas, Wilfred #2418 ¶ The trail was exceedingly bad, and progress was delayed at the larger streams where the mules had to be unpacked and the cargo carried over. The animals fell in several of the smaller streams when attempts were made to cross without unpacking, and had to be fished out. Arrived at the savannas, which is about two thirds of the distance to the Prinzapolca river, at 2045 and camped. ¶ 3. July 22—Cleared at 0745. Found the trail in the savannahs good. Planned to reach the Prinzapolca river about 1 mile below Tungla, but arriving at the Yapaunda creek and finding it highly dangerous, changed direction and arrived at river about 10 miles below Tungla at 1230. More delay in securing boats. Cleared at 1500 in three boats. After two hours paddling, patrol disembarked, made camp and had dinner. Securing a large boat with outboard motor and crew of two, patrol cleared at 1930 and arrived Tungla at 2145. ¶ 4. July 23---Spent in Tungla. Had good sun and men worked hard cleaning and drying equipment and clothing. Provisions which were wet from first days travel were sorted and dried. Could learn nothing new about movements of Bandits from people in Tungla. They said that Bandits were still in Siuna and Wuani about 13th, which of course we already knew. [...]"

2.     29 July 1931.
Patrol Report, District Commander 1st Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, p. 2.   
"[...] (2) ¶ Combat Patrol; report of, cont. ¶ Learning that the trail to Siuna was practically impassable because of high waters in the streams crossing the trail, and furthermore as thee were no pack animals to be had in Tungla; (mine were left the second day when patrol embarked on river) the river route was necessarily chosen. ¶ 5. July 24--- Cleared Tungla at 0600 in three boats lashed together with one outboard motor and crew of two…motor man and bow man. Guardias who could handle a pole were detailed to help in the rapids. Having passed one bad run safely the second one was tackled. Riding in the bow, I had no chance to speak to the motorman; but knowing that his business is hauling freight to Wuani for the Chinos, and as he said that he had transported Marines and Guardias before; I believed that if there was any danger he would put us ashore to walk around. As the bows entered the worst place and the boats started shipping water, the motor was slowed down to allow the boats to drift back out of danger, but too late. The three boats capsized instantaneously and all hands were in the water fighting for their lives. Grasping the boats which were now bottom side up shore was finally reached. Righting the boats we embarked to return to Tungla. Two Guardias were picked up from a sand bank close to Tungla, where they had drifted with some blanket rolls etc. No lives were lost but all arms except three rifles and two pistols belonging to Lt. Rodriguez and the Lewis gunner were gone. A small amount of ammunition and provisions were also saved. As the river was falling rapidly; being much lower than the preceeding day; Sgt. Garcia and four men were given the arms, ammunition and provisions and left in Tungla to salvage the lost equipment. Remainder of patrol cleared immediately for El Gallo and arrived following day July 25 at 1300. ¶ 6. July 26—1st. Sgt. Dash with four men, provisions, arms and ammunition cleared for Tungla. Dash and one man returned July 28, leaving Sgt. Garcia and seven men in Tungla. Reported that no attempt had yet been made to salvage equipment due to prevailing high waters. ¶ 7. I certify that the following listed articles of arms, ammunition, equipment and provisions were lost in the rapids of the Prinzapolca river July 24 as stated in paragraph 5 of this report. That they could not be saved without endangering the lives of members of patrol. ARMS ¶ 1 Machine gun, Lewis #17491, ¶ 2 Boxes, drum, LMG., ¶ 8 Drums, Ammun., LMG, ¶ 1 Sub-machine gun, Thomson #7303 , ¶ 2 Drums, ammun., Thomson, 3 Magazines, ammun. Thomson ¶ 1 Belt, 1 pouch drum, 1 pouch magazine, Thomson, ¶ 16 Rifles, Springfield (krag) M-1898, with slings, #273775, 411976, 226142, 263186, 141564, 214730, 461110, 224580? Martinez Eulalio, 464772, 85446, 290180,.. Rifles belonging to Sgt. Garcia, Augustin; Rasos Grey, Mitchell; Vargas, Wilfred; Ordenana, Santiago are unknown. Also number of rifle belonging to Raso Martinez, Eulalio is not known to be correct . Record books will show. [...]"

3.     29 July 1931.
Patrol Report, District Commander 1st Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, p. 3.   
"[...] (3) ¶ Combat Patrol; report of, cont. ¶ AMMUNITION ¶ 1700 rds. Ammunition, krag, combat M-1898, ¶ 975 rds. Ammun., LMG. (Springfield) M-1906,¶ 300 rds. Ammun. TSMG. Cal. .45, ¶ 7 Grenades, hand ¶ MARINE CORPS PROPERTY (signed for by Walter J. Stone, Sgt. U.S.M.C. ¶ 1 Belt, pistol, web complete with magazine carrier, ¶ 1 Haversack, N.C.O., ¶ 1 Holster, pistol, russet, ¶ 1 package, first aid, ¶ 1 Pouch, fist aid, ¶ 1 Suspenders, pistol belt, prs. , ¶ 1 Pistol, colt, automatic, cal., 45 #202440 ¶ EQUIPMENT ¶ 17 Belts, cartridge, ¶ 17 Packages and pouches, first aid, ¶ 19 Haversack, ¶ 18 Bayonets, M-1989, with scabbards, ¶ 15 Canteens, Cups canteen and covers canteen, ¶ 18 Pans, meat with knives, forks and spoons, ¶ 1 Blanket, cotton belonging to Raso Alejandro Calderon #3473, ¶ 1 Poncho, belonging to Raso Alejandro Calderon #3472. ¶ PROVISIONS 120 lbs. rice @ $0.034 = $4.08 ¶ 75 lbs. Beans @ 0.059 = 4.43 ¶ 40 lbs. flour @ 0.034 = 1.36 ¶ 5 lbs. Salt @ 0.025 = .38 ¶ 25 lbs. Sugar @ 0.05 = 1.25 ¶ 10 lbs. Coffee @ 0.199 = 1.99 ¶ 15 tin Tomatoes @ 0.09 = 1.35 ¶ Total $14.84 ¶ MISCELLANEOUS ¶ 2 machetes with scabbards, ¶ 1 Copy air Ground Liaison code #4, ¶ 2 Flys, tent, small, ¶ 2 Buckets, galvanized, 8 qt, ¶ 2 Pans, frying, small, ¶ 1 Boiler, enamel, large, ¶ 2 Spoons, kitchen, large, ¶ 1 Basin, wash, enamel ¶ (signed) W. J. Stone [...]"

4.     29 July 1931.
Patrol Report, District Commander 1st Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Area Commander Col. C. A. Wynn, p. 4.   
"[...] DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHERN BLUEFIELDS GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. 3 August 1931 ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Combat patrol, report of. ¶ 1. Forwarded. (¶ signed) C.A. DAVIS ¶ 2nd endorsement HEADQUARTERS, EASTERN AREA, GUARDIA NACIONALDE NICARAGUA ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. 3 August 1931 ¶ From : The Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ 2. A board of survey will be ordered by the Area Commander on the Guardia property lost on this patrol. ¶ 3. It is recommended that the Marine Corps property on charge to First Sergeant Walter J. Stone, USMC be also surveyed. ¶ 4. Lieutenant Stone has been directed to furnish further information regarding the loss of air-ground Liaison Code Card #4; whether, in his opinion it was destroyed or merely lost. This information will be furnished the Jefe Director as soon as received. ¶ (signed) C. A. WYNN"

29 July 1931.
Report of contact with enemy forces at Saclin, Nicaragua, on the morning of July 22, 1931, 1st Lt. Herbert P. Becker, Aircraft Squadrons, Managua, to Commanding Officer Aircraft Squadrons Francis P. Mulcahy, Managua, p. 1.   
[NOTE:  For the corresponding account of Sgt. Gordon W. Heritage, whose plane was damaged & downed in this incident & who slogged with his co-pilot for days through swamps & jungles before being rescued, published in The Leatherneck in May 1932, see ATL-DOCS 1932A, PAGE 4. ]     "UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS ¶ HEADQUARTERS, AIRCRAFT SQUADRONS, 2d. MARINE BRIGADE, ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 29 July, 1931. ¶ From: First Lieutenant Herbert P. Becker, U.S.M.C. ¶ o: The Commanding Officer, Aircraft Squadrons, 2d Marine Brigade. ¶ Subject: Report of contact with enemy forces at Saclin, Nicaragua, on morning of July 22, 1931. ¶ 1. At 0815 Staff Sergeant Heritage with Corporal Simmons as observer in OL-8 No. 7837 and myself with Lieutenant Peterson, G.N. and Private Rosenberg, as observers, in OL-8 No. 7835, took off from Puerto Cabezas to patrol the Coco River. ¶ 2. While passing over the town of Saclin at 0915 both planes were fired upon with rifles and machine guns by a group of bandits. All bombs were dropped and all ammunition carried for the sub-Thompson guns was expended by both planes. Hits with bombs were scored in the bandit group, in a group of horses belonging to the bandits, and several houses. ¶ 3. Outstanding was the accuracy and effectiveness of the bombing of Sgt. Heritage, and the machine gun fire of corporal Simmons. Out of nine bombs dropped, Sgt. Heritage obtained two direct hits. These hits, together with the accurate Sub-Thompson machine gun fire of Cpl. Simmons, silenced one group of guns, killed several men, and discouraged the remaining bandit group to such extent as to cause them to withdraw up the river thereby permitting the safe entry of the town by a Guardia patrol several days later. ¶ 4. As a result of this contact, Sgt. Heritage’s plane was struck a total of at least sixteen times, which, at 0945, while on the return trip to Puerto Cabezas, forced Sgt. Heritage to make an emergency landing about four or five miles from Saclin. Because of the impossibility of removing the plane, due to terrain difficulties, I directed Sgt. Heritage to burn his plane and return to Puerto Cabezas on foot. ¶ 5. In returning to Puerto Cabezas on foot, it was necessary for Sgt. Heritage and Cpl. Simmons to traverse most unfavorable terrain. Due to recent heavy rains, they were forced to… ¶ -1- [...] "

29 July 1931.
Report of contact with enemy forces at Saclin, Nicaragua, on the morning of July 22, 1931, 1st Lt. Herbert P. Becker, Aircraft Squadrons, Managua, to Commanding Officer Aircraft Squadrons Francis P. Mulcahy, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] swim five, swollen, treacherous rivers and wade across approximately ten miles of swamp land. It is my opinion that it was only through the excellent leadership and judgment used by Sgt. Heritage and the willing cooperation of Cpl. Simmons that the two men were able to make the return trip to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 6. I landed at Puerto Cabezas at 1030. There were two bullet holes in my plane. ¶ 7. During the engagement 18 bombs were dropped and 100 rounds of .45 caliber ammunition were fired. ¶ H.P. BECKER"

1 August 1931.
Telegram from US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, to Comsperon.   
"COPY FOR GENERAL MATTHEWS ¶ TELEGRAM ¶ BY NAVY RADIO ¶ August 1, 1931. COMSPERON ¶ THE AMERICAN CONSUL AT PUERTO CABEZAS INFORMS ME THAT THE ASHEVILLE IS PREPARING TO LEAVE PUERTO CABEZAS NEXT WEEK AND THAT THE DATE OF ARRIVAL OF THE RELIEVING SHIP IS UNKNOWN PERIOD I HAVE DISCUSSED THE MATTER WITH GENERAL MATTHEWS AND HE CONCURS IN MY RECOMMENDATION THAT THE AHSEVILLE OR SOME OTHER NAVAL VESSEL SHOULD REMAIN CONTINUOUSLY AT PUERTO CABEZAS OR ELSEWHERE ON THE EAST COAST OF NICARAGUA UNTIL THE PRESENT SITUATION CLEARS UP ¶ HANNA"

3 August 1931.
Letter from US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua, to Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua.   
"Managua, August 3, 1931. ¶ My dear General Matthews: ¶ I have just received a telegram from the American Consul at Puerto Cabezas dated August 2, 1931, stating that the Levonski patrol returned there July 31s and that Levonski states that he found seven dead bandits at Saklin on the 26th of July. ¶ The Consul adds that various rumors are current in Puerto Cabezas, and that Mr. Scott, manager of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company, wants planes stationed in Puerto Cabezas and is making a request in this sense to the Department of State through his New Orleans office. ¶ General Bradman has informed me that he is now investigating this matter of stationing airplanes at Puerto Cabezas and will confer with me in this connection in the next day or so. ¶ I am, my dear General Matthews, ¶ Sincerely yours, (signed) Matthew E. Hanna American Minister. ¶ Major General C.B. Matthews, G.N., ¶ J efe Director of the Guardia Nacional, Managua."

1.     4 August 1931.
Recommendations in Connection with Projected Operations on the East Coast.  Commanding Officer Aircraft Squadrons Francis P. Mulcahy, Managua, to Commanding General 2nd Brigade, Managua, p. 1.   
"UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS ¶ HEADQUARTERS AIRCRAFT SQUADRONS 2nd MARINE BRIGADE ¶ MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. ¶ 4 August, 1931. ¶ From the Commanding Officer. ¶ To: The Commanding General, 2nd Marine Brigade. ¶ Subject: Recommendations in connection with projected operations on the East Coast. ¶ 1. In compliance with verbal instructions of the Commanding General concerning continuous aerial operations against outlaws on the East Coast of Nicaragua, the following is submitted: ¶ (a) This work could only be accomplished by use of planes of the amphibian type; ¶ (b) Four planes of the amphibian type would be needed in order to assure a patrol of two planes when needed. Obviously, all patrolling must be done in pairs. At present there is but one OL-S (amphibian) at this station. The RS-3 (amphibian) is not suitable for combat work. (c) A separate detachment of three officer and thirty men would be necessary at Puerto Cabezas to operate and maintain four OL8s in patrol work on the East Coast. This number does not include a guard, but only personnel necessary for operation and maintenance of planes. (d) Buildings to house and feed thirty men and to protect material would be needed. There is at present near the flying field at Puerto Cabezas one storeroom, one office building and one hangar formerly used by Marines but now owned by the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company. These buildings would require repairs and, in addition, one barracks and one mess hall would have to be constructed. (e) Spare parts such as wings, tanks, etc would have to be shipped from the United Sates to provide emergency repairs to planes based in Puerto Cabezas; -1- [...]"

2.     4 August 1931.
Recommendations in Connection with Projected Operations on the East Coast.  Commanding Officer Aircraft Squadrons Francis P. Mulcahy, Managua, to Commanding 2nd Brigade, Managua, p. 2.   
"[...] (f) Two trucks and a motorcycle with side car would have to be shipped from the United Sates to provide transportation of mess stores, etc for the maintenance of personnel based in Puerto Cabezas. ¶ 2. With regard to statements made in paragraphs 1a and 1b above, the following extract from the annual report of Aircraft Squadrons for the fiscal year 1927 – 1928 is of interest: ¶ “The terrain of the East Coast is characterized by dense jungles, tropical forests, deep rivers, large lagoons and extensive swamps. The percentage of dangerous flying days due to treacherous weather conditions is high. For Leoning Amphibians, three officers and twenty seven men were supplied and based in Puerto Cabezas. This detachment has and still is rendering most valuable services in connection with the East Coast operations. The air missions performed there are similar to those carried out on this Coast. Several harrowing experiences undergone by the pilots of that detachment have more than justified the wisdom of employing planes of the amphibian type in that country. On a recent flight the leader’s plane was twice forced down by sudden tropical storms and the escort plane was lost in the jungles for three days. Both finally returned safely, whereas had they been flying land planes it is probable that the loss of both of the ships and crews would probably have occurred.” ¶ 3. At the time that an air detachment of OL-8 of these Squadrons was based on Puerto Cabezas, combat patrols of Marines were stationed at the following places in the Eastern Area: Puerto Cabezas, Bluefields, Prinzapolka, Cabo Gracias a Dios, El Gallo, Casuli, La Luz Mines, Eden Mines, Neptune, Waspuck, Poteca, Bocay and Darrabo. At the present time most Guardia combat patrols and stations in the Eastern area are located along the coast. Planes in the eastern area would be of little military value, except along the coast, unless they have ground patrols in constant cooperation with them. ¶ -2- [...]"

3.     4 August 1931.
Recommendations in Connection with Projected Operations on the East Coast.  Commanding Officer Aircraft Squadrons Francis P. Mulcahy, Managua, to Commanding General 2nd Brigade, Managua, p. 3.   
"[...] 4. After a careful consideration of all factors of the problem, the undersigned finds: ¶ (a) that all airplane combat patrolling on the EasT Coast must be done by amphibians. ¶ (b) That continuous airplane combat patrolling on the East Coast could not be done from Managua, but would necessitate the establishment of an air detachment base on Puerto Cabezas. ¶ (c) That, unless there are sufficient ground patrols in the field to contInuously cooperate with planes, the establishment of an air detachment on the East Coast would be a needless expenditure of funds and effort and would be of very little military value. ¶ 5. The undersigned therefore recommends that this time: ¶ (a) That, until this station is furnished additional observation amphibians, no land observation planes be sent to the East Coast for combat patrol duty except in the gravest emergency. ¶ (b) That when sufficient observation amphibians are received at this station, combat patrols be furnished from Managua and that these be restricted to occasions when planes in operations from Puerto Cabezas may expect close cooperation from ground patrols in the field. ¶ FRANCIS P. MULCAHY"

11 August 1931.
Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the Month of July 1931, 1st Lt. C. A. Davis, Bluefields, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 1.   
" "11 August 1931. ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Bluefields, Nic., ¶ Subject: Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the month of July 1931. A. PERIOD : From 0000 Tuesday 1 July 1931.¶ MILITARY DUTIES PERFORMED ¶ Considerable patrolling has taken place during the month in the Rio Grande and Rama Districts. Both of these garrisons have been reinforced to enable them to cope with the situation which is somewhat aggravated due to unemployment. ¶ CONTACTS ¶ On 19 July at 2000 a group of about 25 disgruntled employees of the Rama-Tipitapa carretera attacked the cuartel of the Guardia at Rama at the instigation, it is reported, of Pedron Altamirano, Lieutenant Fred Riewe District Commander in counter attack with a force of four Guardias completely routed the outlaws killing two, wounding two and capturing nine. The Guardia casualties were one killed and three slightly wounded. ¶ D. POLICE OPERATIONS (1) Prisoners: ¶ total on hand last report…22 ¶ Total confined during month…49 ¶ total released during month … 42 ¶ Total escaped during month… 00 ¶ Total remaining on hand … 36 ¶ (2) General Police Conditions . ¶ There have been a considerable number of robberies in Bluefields. This is due directly to unemployment and the consequent hunger suffered by the inhabitants. The police have been highly successful in capturing the offenders. E. INTELLIGENCE. ¶ (1) General state of territory occupied….QUIET. ¶ (2) Military Situation…No known organized banditry in the area of this Department. ¶ (3) Economic conditions….DEPRESSED. ¶ (4) Friction between Guardia and Civil population…NONE. Civil attitude toward Guardia---GOOD. Press attitude towards Guardia----FAVORABLE. ¶ (5) Political situation.-----QUIET. ¶ (6) Weather-----WET – HEAVY SHOWERS DAILY. ¶ (7) Condition of roads and trails ---WET – NOT PASSABLE. ¶ (8) Condition of telephone and telegraphic communications.----FAIR. ¶ F. CONFISCATION OF ARMS. [...]"

11 August 1931.
Monthly Record of Events for the Department of Southern Bluefields for the Month of July 1931, 1st Lt. C. A. Davis, Bluefields, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] G. TRAINING ¶ Training and instruction carried out according to the prescribed schedule except during the period 19-25 July while the Bluefields garrison was reduced to only a sufficient number of men for guard and overhead. The training program was carried out by the Districts according to schedule except when as reduced by reason of sending out patrols to render it impracticable. ¶ H. MISCELLANEOUS. ¶ None. ¶ (signed) C. A. DAVIS ¶ 1st endorsement ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA. GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ Bluefields Nic., 11 August 1931. ¶ From The Area Commander. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ Signed C. A. WYNN'

11 August 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, July 1931, Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.   
"... C. MILITARY OPERATIONS (Contd).  ¶ 3. Contacts: ¶  July 17 - Capt Inman, Lts Stephenson & Rodrigues in contact with large group of well armed bandits at Kisalaya on Rio Coco.  Bandit casualties:  3 killed, number of wounded not known.  Guardia casualties:  Lt Montenegro wounded in both arms.  After three contacts bandits scattered and fled; patrol retd to Cabo Gracias.  ¶  ... July 26 - Lt Levonski & Lt Stephenson & 20 enl in contact with group of armed bandits at Saklin on Rio Coco.  Bandit casualties:  2 killed, number of wounded not known.  Guardia casualties:  None. ...  ¶  ... General state of territory occupied:  Bandit groups have been operating in the northern and northwestern edges of this area, principally for the purpose of obtaining loot.  Groups were dispersed in two contacts along the Coco River and an attack on Rama was repulsed. ... Wuani and Siuna were looted by a bandit group; but efforts to operate against this group proved unsuccessful due to high water in the rivers.  ¶  2. Military Situation:  It is believed that the groups operating on the outskirts of this area are operating from the vicinity of Bocay for the purpose of obtaining supplies from the places not under direct Guardia protection; that the bandits have no immediate intention of driving into the area protected by Guardia posts and patrolling. ..."

11 August 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, July 1931, Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
"H. MISCELLANEOUS:  (a) CIVICOS -  The following units of civicos are available for emergency military service in the following towns:  ¶  El Gallo is the only place where they are under formal Civico Contract:-  ¶  BLUEFIELDS - 65  ¶  PUERTO CABEZAS - 50  ¶  EL GALLO - 17  ¶  NEPTUNE MINE - 30  ¶  (b)  MUNICIPAL GUARDIA:-  Bluefields - 12  ¶  Puerto Cabezazas - 10  ¶  Rama - 3  ¶  ...All public officials of this Area show a desire to cooperate with the Guardia."

1.     17 August 1931.
Patrol and contact report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARGUA ¶ PUETO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA. ¶ 17 August, 1931. ¶ From: First Lieutenant Charles j. Levonski, G.N. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Eastern Area, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Via: The Department Commander, Dept. Northern Bluefields. ¶ Subject: Patrol and contact report. ¶ Reference: Verbal Orders, First Lieut. Robert L. Peterson, acting Department Commander. ¶ 1. In accordance with the above referenced, on July 20, I cleared Puerto Cabezas, for Cabo Gracias by plane. Arrived Cabo Gracias, where upon my arrival received verbal orders from the Department Commander,(O.A. Inman) to take charge of patrol consisting of Second Lieutenant Theodore M. Stephenson, G.N. and (20) enlisted men. The patrol was armed with two Thompson Sub-machine guns and hand grenades. ¶ 2. The below named Officers and men participated in patrol and contact. ¶ First Lieut. Charles J. Levonski ¶ 2nd Lieut. Theodore M. Stephenson ¶ Sgt. GUATEMALA, Lazaro #3557 ¶ Cabo. AGUIRREZ, Jose Z. #3310 ¶ Cabo DURAN, Pedro #3425 Raso. BALLES, Abram #3658 Raso BUCARDO, Rafael #3183 Raso CUBILLO, Joaquin E. #3670 ¶ Raso FLOREZ, Fernando #3426 ¶ Raso FRANCISCO, Carlos V. #3512 ¶ Raso FLETES, Justino #3362 ¶ Raso HARVEY, Armando T. #3746 ¶ Raso LOPEZ, Pedro G. #3173 ¶ Raso PEREZ, Eduardo #2305 ¶ Raso PINOCH, Levi #4281 ¶ Raso RIOS, Narciso #1474 ¶ Raso ROSALES, Rafael #2214 ¶ Raso RUIZ, Manuel #2682 ¶ Raso SEAS, Manuel #3487 ¶ Raso VELASQUEZ, Guillermo #322 ¶ Raso ZAMORA, Salome R. #2721 ¶ Raso ZEPEDA, Julian. #2259 [...]"

2.     17 August 1931.
Patrol and contact report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] -2- ¶ PATROL AND CONTACT REPORT (CONTINUED). ¶ 21 July Spent the day in Cabo Gracias repairing and getting ready boats for patrol up the Wanks river. Heavy rain throughout the day. ¶ 22 July Received information from a Mosquito Indian that a small group of Bandits (Jefe unknown) were operating on the Wanks river about (20) miles from Cabo Gracias. Immediately cleared with (10) enlisted in an outboard motor-boat to reconnoiter vicinity in which Bandits were reported. Patrolled to a point about (30) miles up the river encountered no bandits and gained no information. Patrol returned to Cabo Gracias. ¶ 23 July Received five (5) drums of gasoline and one drum of oil from Puerto Cabezas but unable to clear for Saklin on the Wanks due to engine trouble in motor launch “Baldwin”. Very heavy rains throughout the day, both banks of the river submerged under ten feet of water, impossible to make foot patrol. ¶ 24 July Cleared Cabo Gracias with Lieut. Stephenson and (20) enlisted men in motor launch “Baldwin” and an outboard motor-boat. The outboard motor-boat was taken along for the purpose of using it as a point in view of its being easily handled in the event of an ambush or contact on the river. Progress up the river was very slow and dangerous due to swift current which carried large logs and other driftwood. At 1730 arrived and made camp at Riska, about (20) miles up the Wanks river. Heavy rains continue. ¶ 25 July Cleared Riska at 0630, arrived Sawa Boom at 1640, spent the night at this place. Observed several Squas on rive fishing. Strange to relate no men were seen on the river this day. No change in weather. ¶ 26 July Cleared Sawa boom at 0500 proceeding toward Andres. At Andres gained information that Bandits were reported to be in vicinity between Saklin and Kisalaya. Strength of bandit group unknown. At 1620 planes dropped message for my patrol to be on the alert as Saklin and vicinity was thick with bandits. At about 1700 when within three hundred yards of Saklin which is situated on the South side of the river several scattered shots were fired from the brush by the bandits. Bandit fire not effective. Guardia returned fire from boats, firing about twenty rounds each before landing was made. Our landing was covered by machine-gun fire from planes. Upon landing a thorough search was made of Saklin and vicinity, discovering the bodies of (2) bandits clad in khaki shirts and trousers, shoes and black felt hats. A muzzle loader shotgun and a small quantity of powder and shot was found beside one of the bodies, the other wore a cutacha strapped to his belt. It is not known as to whether the two bandits were killed by fire from patrol or planes. [...]"

3.     17 August 1931.
Patrol and contact report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 3.   
"[...] -3- ¶ PATROL AND CONTACT REPORT (CONTINUED). ¶ Planes kept a constant contact with patrol from the time the patrol was sighted until after the contact with bandits. Before returning the planes dropped message signed by the Department Commander to proceed to Kum, from Kum overland to Sandy Bay hence to Puerto Cabezas. ¶ Several women and two old men who returned to Saklin after contact stated that on morning of July 26th about (60) bandits were in Saklin, bandit Jefe unknown. At noon half of this group left for Waspook and the remainder stayed in Saklin The planes did much toward assisting the Guardia in scattering this group. Made camp for the night at Saklin. ¶ 27 July Cleared Saklin at 0620, arrived Kum 0900, I directed Lieut. Stephenson to take charge of seven sick Guardias and proceed by boat to Cabo Gracias, hence by boat to Puerto Cabezas, and upon his arrival to report to the Department Commander. I then cleared with the remainder of my patrol for Sandy Bay, At 1830 arrived at Wani, located about (20) miles south east of Kum, made camp at this place. The terrain over which the patrol hiked was for most part under water anywhere from six inches to shoulder high, caused by heavy rains and overflow from rivers and streams, making hiking conditions very difficult. Even under these trying conditions the spirit of all members of the patrol was high. ¶ 28 July Cleared Wani at 0615 in five Pitpans which we procured from the natives of this village. Arrived at Sandy Bay at 3200 and made camp. The trip was uneventful, and the route covered quiet. No human habitations encountered enroute. Heavy downpour throughout the day. ¶ 29 July At Sandy Bay, day devoted to cleaning rifles, accoutrements and resting. ¶ 30 July Cleared Sandy Bay for Puerto Cabezas at 0540 in Sloop “Arco Iris” arriving at 1430. ¶ 3. The conduct and spirit of all members of the patrol was excellent and worthy of mention. ¶ (signed) C. J. LEVONSKI [...]"

4.     17 August 1931.
Patrol and contact report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, p. 4. 
  "[...] 1st Endorsement 20 August 1931 ¶ OFFICE OF THE DEPARTMENT COMANDER, DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS, ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA ¶ From: The Department Commander. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Area of the East, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields, Nic. ¶ Subject: Patrol Report. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ 2. At 12:00 noon 26 July, 1931 Aviation Pilot Lieutenant Henderson informed me that he had sighted Lieutenant Levonski’s patrol heading up the WANKS River about eighteen (18) miles, by river, from SAKLIN. Lieutenant Levonski’s patrol had been out of communication with the Department Commander for four (4) days due to the evacuation of the Cape Gracias Radio Operator. Air plane reports also indicated presence of Bandits in the vicinity of SAKLIN. Consequently at 1430 Lieutenant Becker and the Department Commander cleared Puerto Cabezas. Weather exceedingly stormy and direction was maintained by compass only. Arrived over SAKLIN at 1600 and dropped one bomb in clearing. Several Khaki clad figures were seen to dash into the bush from two (2) houses near river bank. The two houses were immediately bombed and the surrounding bush raked with machine-gun fire. The patrol was then picked up on the river two miles below SAKLIN and guided into a landing a short distance below the town. The planes remained with the patrol until the entire town was in their possession and when signaled to by the patrol that all was O.K. , returned to Puerto Cabezas arriving after darkness had set in. ¶ 3. The Department Commander desires to bring to the attention of Guardia officials and to the Brigade Commander the excellent work performed by the following Aviation Pilots: First Lieutenant H.P. Becker, Second Lieutenant L.R. Henderson, Second Lieutenant F.G. Daily and staff Sergeant Heritage. During the period 16 to 27 July these pilots were constantly in the air assisting Guardia Patrols and searching out Bandit groups. The weather conditions during the entire period was the worst seen in this section of the country for several years. Flying conditions at all times were exceedingly hazardous and many times almost impossible; but no weather was too severe to deter these pilots from accomplishing their mission. It is due to the unflinching courage of these pilots that this last concentrated bandit drive on this Department was broken up before it was well underway. Lieutenant Becker deserves special credit for his excellent handling of the situation, his quick and keen insight into each phase of the game and his perfect cooperation with the Guardia Officials. ¶ (Signed) O.A. INMAN"

1.  17 August 1931.
Affairs of the Mosquito Indians, Mr. Grant Wilson, Guatemala, to British Foreign Office, London, p. 1.   

2.  17 August 1931.
Affairs of the Mosquito Indians, Mr. Grant Wilson, Guatemala, to British Foreign Office, London, p. 2.   
"MEMORANDUM ¶ The Mosquito Coast. The first white settlement in the Mosquito country was made in 1630, when the agents of an English chartered company occupied two small cays and established friendly relations with the Indians. From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American Republics and the U.S.A. ¶ The opposition of the U.S.A. was due very largely to the fear that Great Britain would acquire a privileged position in regard to the proposed inter-oceanic canal. This aspect of the question was, however, settled by the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 1850, according to which both Powers pledged themselves not to “occupy or fortify or colonise or assume or exercise “any dominion over…..the Mosquito Coast (or other parts “of Central America)”. Moreover, in 1860 Great Britain and Nicaragua concluded the Treaty of Managua which transferred to Nicaragua the suzerainty over the entire Caribbean coast from Cape Gracias a Dios to Greytown; but granted autonomy to the Indians in the more limited Mosquito Reserve. Under Article 4 of this treaty it was, however, stipulated, that nothing in the treaty should be construed to prevent the Mosquito Indians at any future time from agreeing to absolute incorporation into the Republic of Nicaragua. ¶ Later a number of disputes arose as to the true interpretation of the Treaty of Managua and in 1879 these questions were submitted for arbitration to the Emperor of Austria. His award affirmed that the suzerainty of Nicaragua over the Indians was . . . / [...]"

3.  17 August 1931.
Affairs of the Mosquito Indians, Mr. Grant Wilson, Guatemala, to British Foreign Office, London, p. 3.   
"[...] was not full and unlimited but was restrained by the Indians’ right of self-government. Moreover, the report annexed to the award explicitly stated that “the right of self-government “…..undoubtedly comprises the exclusive right of self-taxation “both direct and indirect”. ¶ In 1894 petitions for incorporation into Nicaragua were signed by certain Indians which were intended to constitute a fulfillment of Article 4 of the Treaty of Managua and in August the Nicaraguan Government thereupon proclaimed the Mosquito Territory a province of the Republic. H.M. Government protested against the validity of this procedure at the time, and subsequent reports have thrown very considerable doubt on the manner in which the petitions were obtained and signed. In order, however, finally to dispose of this question H.M. Government expressed their willingness to conclude a treaty with the Nicaraguan Government which would recognize Nicaragua’s absolute sovereignty over the Mosquito Territory in return for certain concessions to the Indians. Negotiations were protracted and a treaty was not signed until 1905. It was found impossible to secure for the Mosquito Indians complete exemption from taxation; but under Article 3(a) the Nicaraguan Government undertook “to submit “to the National Assembly a law exempting for fifty years from the date of the ratification of this treaty (1906)* all the Mosquito Indians and the Creoles born before the year 1894 “…..from all direct taxation on their persons, property, possessions, animals and means of subsistence”. The Article was specific in its terms expressly in order to guard against the danger that the Nicaraguan Government would make indirect taxation so heavy and direct taxation so light as to render the exemption useless. The / ¶ *i.e. up till 1956 [...]"

4.  17 August 1931.
Affairs of the Mosquito Indians, Mr. Grant Wilson, Guatemala, to British Foreign Office, London, p. 4.   
"[...] The Nicaraguan Government have in fact never submitted the law to the National Assembly as provided in Article 3(a) of the treaty. Their contention is, however, that they will in practice observe the procedure that such a law would have rendered obligatory.¶ ……………. ¶ Unfortunately for the Mosquito Indians their Reserve has proved to be of considerable commercial value so that it is now overrun by traders from all parts of the world and the land where they formerly lived unmolested has become a hunting ground for speculators and adventurers. There can be no doubt whatever that the Indians are themselves in every way entirely incapable of managing their own or any other people’s affairs if brought into contact with the outside world. As a race they are useless for hard work or for soldiers and cannot be entrusted with the least responsibility. The rulers must therefore be the Nicaraguans or the traders and there is every probability that the Indians would have a better chance of existence under the former. …))))….¶ Papers for reference: Printed memoranda (6486) of June 1894: (7765) of August 1902: (8617) of June 1905: A 2530/12/8 of 1928. ¶ See also: A 3135/12/8 of 1928 and A 2049/496/8 of 1929, A 496/496/8 of 1929. ¶ State paper: Vol. 98 1904. 1905 pages 69-71. ¶ H. A. Caccia, April 30, 1930."

20 August 1931.
Para los observadores Indo-Hispanos, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 1. 
 (Source: A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, vol. 2, p. 194)    "Ya hemos tenido oportunidad de manifestar al mundo que nuestro Ejército controla tácticamente ocho departamentos de nuestra República, ..."

20 August 1931.
Para los observadores Indo-Hispanos, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 2. 
 (Source: A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, vol. 2, p. 195)    " ... entre los [combates] que sobresale el librado por el Coronel Perfecto Chavarría contra los piratas y traidores en el puertecito fluvial del Río Coco, denominado Puerto de Waspuck.  En ese combate efectuado el 17 de julio próximo pasado, murieron seis Capitanes más de la marinería yanqui y cincuenta y un traidores nicaragüenses.  El lugar en que se libró el combate está a varios centenares de millas distante del Cabo Gracias a Dios, y el desastre ocurrido allí al enemigo, no ha sido de vecinos de poblaciones importantes y no sería extraño que nuestros cobardes enemigos negasen que en ese combate se les avanzó más de sesenta mil cartuchos de distintos calibres, pues seguramente que no tardarán en decir que las armas y parque avanzados en el mencionado puerto, nos entraron en embarcaciones rusas or japonesas. ..."

20 August 1931.
Agreement between Manuel C. y Bordas, Puerto Cabezas, and Gen. C. B. Matthews, Jefe Director GN, Managua.  
"Puerto Cabezas, Nic.¶ 20 August 1931 ¶ The Jefe Director Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua ¶ Managua, Nicaragua. ¶ Sir: ¶ I hereby agree to furnish the following: ¶ (a) Housing facilities for personnel and equipment of Guardia Detachment to be placed in Kisalaya on the Coco River. ¶ (b) Transportation from Cabo Gracias to Kisalaya, of Detachment with their equipment and supplies. ¶ (c) Transportation as required for equipment and supplies for Upkeep of Detachment, from Cabo Gracias to Kisalaya. ¶ (d) Transportation as required from Cabo Gracias to Kisalaya and from Kisalaya to Cabo Gracias, of personnel as the occasion arises for any changes in same to be made. ¶ The above provisions to be complied with without cost to the Nicaraguan Government. ¶ (a seal) ¶ (signed) Manuel C. y. Bordas ¶ Witnesseth ¶ (signed) C. A. INMAN ¶ Captain Guardia Nacional."

22 August 1931.
Monthly Report of Intelligence, 1st Sgt. Victor Perera, N.C.O. in charge of Neptune Mine, to Dept. & Area Commanders Capt. A. O. Inman & Col. C. A. Wynn.   
"DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ NEPTUNE MINE NICARAGUA. AUGUST 22nd, 1931. MONTHLY REPORT OF INTELLIGENCE. ¶ FROM: July 24th, TO August 22nd, 1931. ¶ From: N.C.O. Neptune Mine Nicaragua. ¶ To: The Area Commander, Bluefields Nic. ¶ To: Dept Commander, Puerto Cabezas Nic. ¶ OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED: inhabitant engage in labour. ¶ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: (---) ATTITUDE OF THE CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD THE GUARDIA: Favorable. (---) OPERATION: (---)(---) SITUATION, IF ANY EXIST. MILITARY OPERATION GUARDIA: (---) routine, daily extended order and close order drill, & manual of arms, (---) inspection daily, once a week Machine Gun school. Once a week training of Civil Guard, it was considered to trains the civicos twice a week but if (---), they won’t have enough time to attend on their works, for that reason civicos just get once a week instruction, they does works at day time in (---) and at night do Guard, at day time just the Guardias on duty. (---) THE GUARDIA BETWEEN THE CIVIL POPULATION AND: (---) MISCELLANEOUS: ¶ (The ) inspector at Tunky reported that on the 18th, date of August at 12:00 p.m. (---) captured four Indians while broken into a store, the capture of the four (---) was made at Tunky, more or less about 12:00 p.m. midnight. (patrol) of Civil Guards under the command of Corporal Simon Cleveland, are (---) far as Tunky escorting bullion, on the 23th, date of August, and also to (---) the four prisoner at Neptune Mine, to investigate the case. ¶ Area Commander, Bluefields, Nic ¶ Dept Commander, Puerto Cabezas. ¶ (signed) Victor Perera ¶ 1st Sergeant G.N. ¶ N.C.O. In charge Neptune Detach."

23 August 1931.
Letter from David Haglund, Bilwi, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"Bilwi, Nicaragua, August 23rd, 1931. ¶ Dear Bro. Gapp:- ¶ Many thanks for your letter of recent date. As now the days’ service, are ever and I am alone I thought I would write you, for planning as I do, to make a longer journey, it will take me weeks before I could get off a letter to you. ¶ I arrived here in Bilwi Wednesday last week with the intention of trying to work the Wanks district from here. I took a trip with the fruit train into the Company’s plantations last Friday just to have a look on the undertaking, but the Lord was (with) me and I was able to make valuable arrangements for my journey. ¶ Near to the end of the line I met with one of our Indian helpers from BilwasKarma Congregation. He told me that our Evangelis at said station was expected any time with his family, they evidently being afraid to stay alone so long, we not having returned to them as yet. I at once hired a young Indian Christian to walk over to BilwasKarma Saturday with a message from me that I was coming and the Ev. Family should stay till I arrived. I told them on which day and where to meet me with a horse etc. I am glad I could make that arrangement, for now my arrival has been announced there and the Christians will all meet me in the new large Church on the coming Sunday and we will then celebrate the Lord’s Supper and I will proceed to Wasla. From Wasla to Anres, then to Old Cape, then to Sandy Bay, then to Dakura and from there back to Bilwi which will be sometime in the first part of Oct. D.V. ¶ The time for a visit of this sort is the best possible just now, for these reasons: the Sandinistas have just been down in our district, they got a beating from the Guardia National near Sacklin and were forced to retire up the river again. It is therefore a chance for me NOW to go there before they return again, which might be in a couple of weeks. Secondly, the time is just now when the Congregations will be looking for the Holy Communion. It will strengthen their faith and confidence quite a bit, I hope, if I can make the trip successfully now. ¶ I left my family in Bluefields chiefly for the sake of our daughter, Svea. She goes to school there. It is the first time in her life she had a chance to attend a proper school, she makes good progress, it would not be fair to take her out of the school there now. There is a school here in Bilwi, but the discipline etc. is so poor that we could not risk sending our child to school here. I will rather try to fight myself alone, at least until we can see further what to do. ¶ I expect, as said above, to leave from here this week Tuesday and will be on the way until middle of Oct. I know it will be a very hard trip, for the Indians are robbed so many times in the Wanks that they have practically nothing to put before a hungry Missionary. I cannot bring too great supply with me, for I have to travel partly on horseback and travel swiftly too in some places. But the Lord will provide for me and also protect me. You shall hear from me as soon as (I)return to Bilwi. ¶ Sometime ago we, myself and my wife, applied to S.P.G. for permission to go on furlough leaving here after Easter 1932. I hope our P.B. has forwarded our application to you. If so I would be thankful if you would let me know what S.P.G. has decided or will decide. It is true it is plenty of time till then, but we must remember that we – hoping it will granted to us to go home to Sweden- have no place there owned by the Moravian Church which welcomes us when we come, but we have to try to get our friends to find something cheap for us, and that require sometimes time, for we would naturally like to get a place near Stockholm so that the boys could stay with us and yet attend to their school duties. ¶ Recommending myself to yours and our friends’ remembrance in prayers especially during this trip into the infested district. ¶ I remain. ¶ Yours in HIS service. [signed] David Haglund"

23 August 1931.
Letter from David Haglund, Bilwi, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, with accompanying map, p. 2.

27 August 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Señor Coronel Perfecto Chavarria, Campamentos Militares del Río Coco, p. 1.   
" ... ¶  Mi muy queridisimo hermano:  ¶  Motivo de mucho placer fue para nosotros, el recibo de sus importantisimas notas en que se sirvió participarnos de los combates que con las fuerzas a su mando libró contra el enemigo el 17 de julio proximo pasado.  Con ese motivo, le hemos dado publicidad a su triunfo tanto por la prensa, come en un Boletín que periódicamente se publica en nuestro Cuartel General y se distribuye en todas nuestras autoridades civiles y militares.  Adjunto a la presente me permito remitirle copia de uno de los ejemplares de nuestro Boletín.  ¶  Sinembargo, con todo y sentirnos alegres por los triunfos alcanzados por nuestro Ejército en los diferentes sectores de nuestra República, también nos sentimos triztes y conmovidos por la desaparición de los hermanos Francisco Centeno y Teofilo Fajardo, quiénes según sus notas, fallecierón a consecuencia de fiebre, lo que altamente hemos sentido.  ¶  Ahora bién:  ¶  Por informes que hemos recibido del General Salgado, sabemos que la mayor parte de nuestros muchachos que salieron con Usted de éste Cuartel General, se encuentran mal de salud. En esa virtud, no hemos querido aglomerar más gente de estos lados en el Rio Coco, y con ese motivo hemos dispuesto enviar con estas notas, al hermano General Simón González, para que se sirva Usted interrogar a los muchachos de tropa que le acompañan, y que si entre ellos hay quiénes se quieran regresar, en ese caso procederá de acuerdo con el General González y el Coronel Rivera, a organizar una comisión de civiles quiénes trepen a nuestros muchachos, hasta Wuiwuilí, y que de allí se conduzcan por la cordillera conocida hasta éste Cuartel General, en donde se les atenderá y se les proporcionarán los medios de que bajen sin ningún peligro hasta sus propios lugares.  ¶  También podria suceder, que Usted mismo tuviesa deseos de regresar, y en ese virtud, se servirá Ud entregar las armas y la gente al hermano General Simon González, puediendo traer Usted y los que le acompañan sus correspondientes pistolas, pues las armas que entregarian al General González, serian solamente los rifles, bombas y la ametralladora.  ¶  Esta última suposicion que le hago, es porque talvez Usted estuviese enfermo y no sería correcto que por pena se dejase morir de calenturas en ese lugar.  Pués Ud sabe que yo le estimo a Ud, con ..."

27 August 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Señor Coronel Perfecto Chavarria, Campamentos Militares del Rio Coco, p. 2.   
"... toda sinceridad y que ya tendria oportunidad de darle otra Columna por estos lugares.  ¶  Otro caso:  ¶  Si Usted se siente satisfecho y desea seguir operando en ese lugar, entonces siempre se pondrá Usted bajo las órdenes del General González, y desde luego le reconocerá como Jefe inmediato para que juntos continuen operando pero Usted bajo las ordenes del General González.  ¶  El General Gonzalez lleva instrucciones, de ponerse a las ordenes del Coronel Abrahám Rivera, aunque el Coronel Abrahám Rivera, es menor en gerarquia a General González pero sucede que el Coronel Rivera tiene entronquez de amistades con importantes personas de la Costa y por fuerza tendrá que llevar la parte diplomática y el General González con Usted, llevarán la accion de armas, pero si Usted se regresa entonces la llevará solamente el General González con los demas Jefes que alli le acompañan.  ¶  El Coronel Rivera tiene más facilidades que nadie para ponerse en contacto con el General Adolfo Cockburn y convenir con aquel mencionado hermano en alguna accion conjunta.  Además, si todavia no les ha sido posible ponerse en contacto rápido con el General Cockburn lo conseguirá seguramente el Coronel Rivera.  ¶  Por todo lo dicho, el Coronel Abrahám Rivera, me representa oficialmente sobre todo el Rio Coco, y por lo mismo Ustedes se pondrán bajo las ordenes del Coronel Abrahám Rivera.  ¶  El General González tendrá que dar a Usted el trabajo de las correspondencias, y las solicitudes, recibos y ordenes, deberán de hacerlas bajo el mismo orden que se le indicó a Usted, nada más que firmando a nombre del General González y de Usted, pero siempre de acuerdo con el Coronel Rivera en el Rio, pero si llegan hasta Prinzapolka, u otras partes, ya para entonces se sentirán bajo las ordenes del General Cockburn o de Ustedes mismos si el General Cockburn no está por aquellos contornos.  ¶  Tenemos la seguridad de recibir muy en breve una gran cantidad de parque que hemos comprado recientemente en Honduras.  ¶  Espero que Usted sabrá cumplir con estas instrucciones a pié de la letra.  ¶  Sírvase recibir un abrazo fraternal en unión de todos nuestros queridos hermanos que allí le rodean.   ¶   Patria y Libertad ..."

(Source:  NA127/38/30, original document on EDSN stationary with signature over seal, captured by Lt. Gray, Biltigne River, 3 Feb. 1932)

28 August 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Captains Francisco Ellis, Ricardo Obando & Humberto Rodríguez, Costa Atlantica de Nicaragua, p. 1.  
"Cuartel General del EDSNN, Agosto 28 de 1931.  ¶  Señores Capitanes,  ¶  Francisco Ellis,  ¶  Ricardo Obando y  ¶  Humberto Rodríguez.  ¶  Costa Atlántica de Nicaragua.  ¶  mis queridos hermanos:  ¶  Con profundo pesar nos hemos impuesto del fallecimiento de nuestros queridos hermanos Francisco Centeno y Teofilo Fajardo, quiénes con Ustedes bajarón en comisión militar a ese Litoral Atlántico.  También supimos de la herida leve que recibió en la clavícula derecha el hermano Capitán Ricardo Obando, lo que también hemos sentido altamente en nuestro corazón.  ¶  Hoy mismo se le dán órdenes al Coronel Chavarría, de que si los hermanos quiénes lo acompañan están enfermos o tienen deseos de regresarse, que les permita al regreso, mandándolos con una comisión de civiles hasta Wuiwuilí y de allí a éste Cuartel General, para que salgan debidamente custodianos hasta los lugares en donde viven.  Seguramente que el Coronel Chavarria, les habrá de leer la nota que hoy se le remite con el hermano General González. El General González, Coronel Rivera y el Coronel Chavarría, serán los Jefes del Rio Coco, pero si el Coronel Chavarria quiere regresar, sólamente quedarán el General González y el Coronel Rivera.  ¶  Reciban Ustedes en unión de los hermanos que allí les acompañan, un abrazo fraternal de los hermanos que aquí me rodean y de éste vuestro hermano que les estima. Patria y Libertad /s/ A. C. Sandino"

(Source:  NA127/38/30, original document on EDSN stationary with signature over seal, captured by Lt. Gray, Biltigne River, 3 Feb. 1932)

30 August 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, Señores Alcaldes de San Juan de Segovia Capitán Timoteo Garcia y Teniente Faustino González, Sus campamento.   
 "Mis queridos hermanos:  ¶  Con esta fecha, tuvimos el placer de recibir sus muy atentas notas, asi como las provisiones que sirvieron enviarnos con el hermano Capitan Heriberto Reyes. Gracias queridos hermanos.  ¶  Las noticias que nos dan de Jesús Barreto y otros individuos, hoy mismo se ordena la captura y fusilamiento de esos miserables traidores a la Patria y a su clase de campesinos.  ¶  Quedamos atendidos del acercamiento del enemigo, al Campamento del hermano Juez de la Mesta Félix Hernández, pero tenemos la esperanza, de que el General Pedro Antonio Irias, y el Coronel Reyes López, sabrán cumplir con su deber y darán un copeteada al enemigo.  ¶  Oportunamente entrará a éste Campamento procedente del Litoral Atlántico, nuestro hermano General Carlos Salgado, también vendrá procedente de 'La Constancia' el hermano General Juan Pablo Umanzor, quienés en breve treparán con poderosas Columnas por esos lugares, barriendo con escobas de bayonetas a todo lo que estorbe a nuestra causa.  ¶  Ruegole manifestarme a Tomás Duarte, de que recibí nota y que espero que en mi nombre enviará un saludo a Doña Aurora y que le digan que por más que ella crea que nuestro Ejército no la quiere, que al contrario, y que por mucho que queremos a nuestro pueblo, es que tratamos de imponer es respeto dentro de las personas que por miedo podrian hacerle un mal a la causa de la Libertad de Nicaragua. También puede decirle a Tomás, que por el conducto de Ustedes le aceptamos cualquier cosa con que quieran ayudar a nuestro Ejército, para lo que serviran Ustedes remitir a este Cuartel General lo que Doña Aurora o Tomasito quiera enviarnos, principalmente cartas.  Pronto escribiré a Doña Aurora, de quien no olvidamos que por ayudar a nuestro Ejército, principió a perder sus intereses; le escribiré a Doña Aurora, remitiéndole copia de unos RAZGOS BIOGRAFICOS DE LA VIDA DE NUESTRO INOLVIDABLE GENERAL ORTHEZ DURANTE EL TIEMPO QUE PRESTO SUS SERVICIOS A NUESTRO EJERCITO HASTA QUE MURIO.  Está en nuestro poder la fotografía de un niñito César Augusto Toledo, hijo del General Orthéz, lo que se encontró en los documentos, pero no sabemos el nombre de la mamá que según nos dijo el mismo General Orthéz, era ocotaleana y que el niño habia muerto a causa de envenamiento que le hicieron los mismos piratas acantonados en el Ocotal, rogamosele a Ustedes señores Alcaldes preguntar a Doña Aurora, que si sabe el nombre de la mamá de ese niño.  ¶  Sinceramente vuestro hermano.  ¶  Patria y Libertad /s/

[orig doc w/ seal. TRU. 201/35. Also in AB: 217-218. Engl trans in 38/30.]

31 August 1931.
Inspection Report, Puerto Cabezas Jail, no author.  
 "POST EXCHANGE ¶ 1. Has a post exchange been established? No Post Exchange. ¶ 2. Is C.O. 60/28, being complied with? ¶ 3. Did the value of the stores on hand and the total of the cash on hand and counted agree with the total value of goods or cash to be accounted for? ¶ 4. The value of the post exchange on the day of the inspection was C$__________. (----) (----) ¶ 2. Is a Registry Book of Prisoners being carefully kept? Yes ¶ 3. Did the number of prisoners counted agree with the number of prisoners shown by the Registry Book? Yes. ¶ 4. Check prisoners daily ration statements for the ten days preceding the inspection and report whether the number of prisoners for which ration credit has been taken agrees with the number as shown by the Register Book as being confined. ¶ 5. Were any prisoners having more than six (6) months or more to serve confined? One Guardia serving seven years for murder ---to be transferred to Bluefields. ¶ 6. Are the Guardia at the cárceles (jails) well instructed in the performance of their duty? Yes. ¶ 7. Is the number of sentries adequate to prevent escapes? Yes. ¶ 8. When prisoners are taken out of the cárcel for work or any other reason are they checked “out” and “in” as they are taken from and returned to the prison? Yes. Are prisoners worked outside of the prison? Yes. ¶ 9. Are the facilities for policing prisoners adequate? Yes. ¶ 10. How many cells are there? Four. ¶ 11. Are they so constructed as to prevent the escape of prisoners? Yes. ¶ 12. If there are no cells is the building secure against the escape of prisoners? ¶ 13. Have any prisoners escaped since the last inspection? No. ¶ 14 Are prisoners uniformed? No."

7 September 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, August 1931, Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.

7 September 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, August 1931, Col. C. A. Wynn, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.

8 September 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Winston-Salem NC, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA.  
"Dear Br. Gapp: ¶ Thanks you for your kind letter of Sept. 4th. I know that you are kept very busy and I appreciate your taking the trouble to write me. ¶ Bishop Pfohl has written to the Congressman but has not heard from him as yet. I have been doing what I cold to get this matter under way and I am sorry it is not further along but trust it will move ahead more quickly now. ¶ Will write to Watertown now about the home I spoke of but will make no definite arrangements until this citizenship matter is settled. ¶ The Lord Himself will give us wisdom and I am only anxious that we shall be found entirely in His will in whatever we do. Thanks you for upholding us in prayer. ¶ With kind regards, I remain,¶ Very sincerely yours, [signed] Elizabeth Bregenzer ¶ P.S. Last week I received a package from our Musawas Christians containing our “Guest book” and a quantity of negatives picked up in the “bush”. Some of the negatives were spoiled and surely it was by God’s grace that the spoiled ones were unimportant while about 215 good ones were of Musawas pictures, some of which I had never seen except as negatives. There were letters from several of our people, latest date July 18th, and they were still in hiding and they wrote: “Our trouble is getting greater. Our lives are in danger, the Spaniards want to kill us for the shelter and guidance which we gave you. Our own people have turned against us, in envy and hatred, but we are still happy in the Lord. He is our hope and joy and we look for His coming. They cannot kill our soul. Our trust is in the Lord Jesus Christ. Pray for us.” Also had a Spanish letter from the young man from the Neptune Mine who found his Saviour while he was helping Br. Bregenzer putting up our new house. He writes: “Have distributed all the Spanish literature which you had sent me. The people would be glad to have more. If you can send me more I will be glad to give it out.” He speaks further of his “good friend the Rev. Karl, through whom I found salvation in our Lord Jesus Christ” but I can’t give you a true translation until I study up my Spanish. E. B."

11 September 1931.
Letter from A. O. Danneberger, Puerto Cabezas, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA.   
[NOTE:  The referenced eyewitness account by a Sumu Indian from Musuwas of Bro. Bregenzer's killing by the EDSN is included here under the date 31 March 1931.  See also the commentary on this report by Br. Bregenzer's widow Elizabeth Bregenzer, included under 10 November 1931.]   "Dear Br. Gapp:-- ¶ Thank you for your cheering letter which I received shortly before Mrs. Danneberger and myself left for Tuburus. We had a pleasant and exceptionally quick trip. I will try and write a short report and send it on to the Editor of “The Moravian”. ¶ I am enclosing a report of Br. Bregenzer’s death given to me in Tuburus by an eye witness, a Sumu Indian from Musawas. Pardon the short note. Tomorrow morning we expect to return to Yulu, and I have still to attend to various matters. ¶ With best regards to Mrs. Gapp and yourself, ¶ Very sincerely yours, ¶ [signed ] A.O. Danneberger"

11 September 1931.
Letter from W. A. Thurston, British Foreign Office, to Gen. C. B. Matthews, Managua.   
"Department of State ¶ September 11, 1931. ¶ My dear General Matthews: ¶ I have received a reply from Minister Hanna to my telegram, stating that he considers the establishment of an auxiliary aviation base at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to be desirable. It would, therefore, seem quite all right for you to proceed with whatever plans concerning the base you may have in mind. Mr. White has returned and will be glad to see you at any time. Next Monday would suit him, although no definite appointment has been made for you. ¶ Sincerely yours, ¶ (signed) William C. Thurston ¶ General Calvin B. Matthews, ¶ United States Marine Corps, ¶ Navy Department, ¶ Washington, D. C."

   
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