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the atlantic coast  •  1928A, p. 7
MAY 19-31, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE seventh PAGE of documents for the first HALF of 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 13 days from May 19 to 31.  

     In a dizzying array of radiograms, reports & letters, the page focuses mainly on Captain Edson's continuing Wanks River Patrol (including an exceptionally long & rich letter to his son Austin on 22 May) and the effort by the Marines & Guardia to gather reliable intelligence on their maddeningly elusive foes.  Analyzing an entirely different terrain of struggle, the May 20 article in the Managua daily La Noticia by intellectual and labor activist Sofonías Salvatierra, 'Difícil situación de los Obreros en la Costa Atlántica" focuses on the recent influx of black West Indian laborers, the inhuman conditions for Nicaraguan workers, the companies' inordinate social power, and the inalienable rights of Nicaraguan citizens before the companies and the state.  Salvatierra's piece can be fruitfully read alongside Alfred W. Hooker's editorial in the Bluefields Weekly the day before ("A Condition that Ought to be Looked Into") on unemployment in Puerto Cabezas.  Major Utley's May 31 radiogram shows Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company describing its labor policies of not encouraging migration of West Indian blacks but "glad to employ such labor" and making "every effort" to "obtain Nicaraguan labor but demand [for work] exceeds supply."  There are also some interesting intelligence analyses on the EDSN's movement out of Las Segovias east into the mining districts & beyond, like Lt. Hall's of 19 May:  "It appears that the outlaws were forced out of western Nicaragua and came east to 'Try their luck'.  They then retreated west before patrols sent from the east coast, and are now in the country which has not yet been reached by patrols from either side."  Well, sort of.  Only the final clause is entirely accurate, but Hall makes a crucial point:  Sandino's strategic decision to occupy interior zones that are simply inaccessible to the Marines & Guardia.  With the Eastern Area still reeling from the EDSN attack on the Pis Pis & Siuna mining districts, we see many instances of collective struggle & action among Costeños that are entirely autonomous from the year-old Sandinista movement. 


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, coMENius press

1.   19 May 1928.
Intelligence Period Report, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Reference: Daily reports covering this period.  ¶  Maps: (a) Ham map of Nicaragua, 1921.  ¶  (b) Moravian Mission Map, file #2-7-12.  ¶  (Paragraph (2) of Intelligence Report)  ¶  1. NEAREST HOSTILE ELEMENTS:  ¶  a. No late information has been received, but the outlaws are believed to be in north central JINOTEGA.  No contacts have been reported from patrols in the Eastern Area and it is assured that the outlaws are retiring before our patrols to the area CASCA – HIJAS MOUNTAIN – CASULI.  ¶  2. HOSTILE STRENGTH, DISPOSITION, AND MOVEMENTS:  ¶  a. UNITS IN CONTACT.  ¶  1. No contacts have been reported in the Eastern area during period covered by the report.  ¶  b. HOSTILE STRENGTH.  ¶  1. The hostile strength has been variously reported.  It is believed that in the area CASCA – HIJAS MOUNTAIN – CASULI, the total bandit strength is almost three hundred and fifty men.  ¶  c. HOSTILE DISPOSITIONS.  ¶  1. The outlaws have probably returned to the area outlined, believing themselves safe from interference there, as our operations in that area are more difficult for us than any other part of Nicaragua.  ¶  4. HOSTILE MOVEMENTS:  ¶  1. The two bands reported in north central JINOTEGA have probably moved closer together.  The band of seventy mounted men headed for LAKUS has not been reported again.  ¶  2. Capt. ROSE reports May 14th: ‘Latest report that Sandino took trail running north from HIJAS, 6 May, 1928.’ . . . "

2.   19 May 1928.
Intelligence Period Report, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . e. DEDUCTION.  ¶  1. It appears that the outlaws were forced out of western Nicaragua and came east to ‘Try their luck’.  They then retreated west before patrols sent from the east coast, and are now in the country which has not yet been reached by patrols from either side.  Pressure from the south will probably cause them to move north towards HONDURAS.  Pressure from the north, for example by way of BOCAY and CASA VIEJA, will probably cause a movement of the outlaws to the south into more accessible country for our patrols.  ¶  3. ENEMY SUPPLY AND EQUIPMENT:  ¶  a. A report has been received, from a source believed to be thoroughly reliable, that: ‘150 well armed and 200 poorly armed bandits left BOCAY heading towards SANTA CRUZ.’  The same source reports as unreliable information that the bandits had many supplies and cattle. In the area where the bandits now are believed to be their supply will be difficult for both food and military equipment.  ¶  4. WEATHER AND VISIBILITY:  ¶  a. The rainy season is beginning, making conditions more difficult for patrols, and visibility and flying conditions poor for airplanes.  ¶  5. ENEMY’S KNOWLEDGE OF OUR SITUATION:  ¶  a. The outlaws continue to avoid our patrols and it is expected that they will continue to do so until they can be placed in a position where they cannot so escape.  ¶  6. PROBABLE INTENTIONS OF HOSTILE GROUPS:  ¶  The outlaws continue to avoid our patrols and it is expected that they will continue to do so until they can be placed in a position where they cannot so escape.  ¶
  7. MISCELLANEOUS:  ¶  a. A report was received that SANDINISTAS recruits were entering Nicaragua via RIO GRANDE BAR and CAPE GRACIAS A DIOS.  There is a small garrison now at RIO GRANDE BAR and another up the river at EL GALLO.  There is at present no post at CAPE GRACIAS, but until recently there was a post at SACHLIN about 70 miles up the river, it is not believed that any large number of recruits can gain entrance through the ports mentioned, and if they did they would have to pass through our lines before reaching the bandit country . . . "

3.   19 May 1928.
Intelligence Period Report, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
" . . . 7. MISCELLANEOUS (continued)  ¶  b. The above remarks also apply to the report that arms are being sent from Honduras.  Practically the whole of the WANKS (COCO) river is covered, and it is not believed that any considerable amount of arms could be smuggled across without our knowledge.  ¶  c. A copy of Sandino’s letter to Mr. Amphlett is attached, marked ‘A’.  A photograph of the signature to this letter is attached marked ‘B’.  ¶  d. Captain Edson reports as follows on trails in his area: ‘CASA VIEJO and BODEGA on EULI Creek identical (Moravian Map).  From Musawas to Casa Viejo about four days travel.  From Neptune to CASA VIEJA about four days travel. Both trails mountainous and hard going. Time estimate conservative. NEPTUNE – CASA VIEJA trail reported good condition with considerable traffic.  MUSAWAS – CASA VIEJA fair condition. Information trail south of line PIS PIS – CASA VIEJA – BOCAY very poor.  Believe trail from LA LUZ north along ULI river – head PIS PIS Creek – CASA VIEJA about five days travel.  Unconfirmed, believe trail southwest CASA VIEJA – AKARTULU – BOCAY river to MATAGALPA Trail, unconfirmed.  Well traveled trail CASA VIEJA – BOCAY leading west.’  ¶  e. Captain Rose reports as follows on trails in his area: ‘Patrol to ASA confirms report that trail runs from WUANI to CASA VIEJA along ULI River basin.’  ‘Patrol to ALO reports overgrown unused trail from ALO to CUINCUINA.  Patrol to CUICUINA reports overgrown trail to ALO and a trail from CUINCUINA to CASULI.  Have this date established an outpost at WUANI covering trail to ASA and triangular out off trails of main road from MATAGALPA to PIS PIS running through WUANI.’  ¶  f. Captain Rose reports: ‘Two Mexican generals reported with Sandino’.  This information is considered of doubtful reliability. ¶ W. C. HALL,  ¶  Area Intelligence Officer."

1.   19 May 1928.
Bluefields Weekly, p. 1.
   "STATEMENT OF ARTURO PINEDA EN RE SANDINO RAID ON BONANZA MINE ¶ Bluefields, Nic. May 12, 1928. ¶ ARTURO PINEDA , a native of Nicaragua resident of Bluefield, 27 years of age and unmarried, being sworn according to law deposes and says that for some time he has been in charge of the commissary at Neptune Mine the property of Bonanza Mines company, situated in the mining district of Pis Pis, Department of Bluefields, Republic of Nicaragua. ¶ That at 2 o’clock Sunday morning April 19, 1928 a special messenger from La Luz Mine brought the news that Sandino’s army had looted said mine and was on its way to Neptune, thereupon the Inspector of Police, the Superintendent of the mine with the other employees and workmen of the mine(with the exception of myself, Fred Delft (German) and five colored men) not waiting for the arrival of the soldiers to reach the mine at about 8 a.m. ran to the bush for safety. ¶ That a detachment of Sandino’s army numbering about 200 men on horseback under command of General Manuel M. Giron R. reached Neptune mine at 3 p.m. Sunday, April 16, 1928. ¶ Colonel Rodriguez, who had command with (?) inquired ? of me in Spanish where the Americans were. I told him there was nobody here but me and I was in charge of the place. Then two soldiers searched my person after which the Colonel asked me if the company had any arms and ammunition. I told him that Mr. A.H. Head must have taken same. ¶ Then he and some soldiers went to the comandancia and searched the place finding a few rifles, the property of the Nicaraguan government that were there for the use of the Police Inspector. They then asked me where was the Inspector of Police and the employees of the mine. I answered that they left early in the morning on their way to Bluefields. ¶ At this time General Giron with his staff arrived and immediately asked for me and ordered me to open the Commissary and show him around which I did. ¶ He went up to my room first and when I opened my trunk for examination he found ten shells for a 35 calibre rifle, the property of the company which he took. ¶ Then we went to Mr. Hansed’s (Norwegian) room who was sick and in bed and while the General was questioning him the soldiers took his watch, fifty dollars in cash, a rain coat and a pair of lace boots. General Giron made no effort to restrain them from this robbery. ¶ A visit was next made to Mr. Napoleon’s room and after a fruitless search for ammunition and arms a rain coat was all they took therefrom. ¶ Next was Mr. Warnick’s room the President of the company who at that time was in Philadelphia, Penna. They asked for the keys to his trunk and two valises and as I did not have them the lock of the trunk was broken where a 45 calibre colt automatic pistol was which they appropriated. ¶ Our next visit was to the office where a general search was made finding another 45 calibre colt automatic pistol which was confiscated. ¶ I was then asked for the combination of the safe which I did not have. The General then sent for Mr. Delph and another mechanic who at the order of the General broke the hinges and the combination and got some ammunition for the two pistols. ¶ Then on to the Commissary and while the soldiers were helping themselves to anything they wanted the General called for Mr. Delph and asked him how much gold was in the boxes, his reply was he did not know. The General sent for two black men John McPherson and Felipe Bernard and asked them to melt the gold and he would pay them. He wanted the gold to be ready on Monday afternoon before dark, which was done and the amount of bullion taken was 344 ½ ounces he giving me a receipt therefor. ¶ The soldiers under command of Colonel Sanchez and General (continued on Page Six) . . . [NOTE: Continued on Page 4, below]  ----------------------------  ¶ A CONDITION THAT OUGHT TO BE LOOKED INTO. ¶ According to information received from Puerto Cabezas, conditions with regard to the large number of unemployed is beginning to reach the proportion of a problem, a problem that our government ought to turn its attention to ere some serious happenings result. One can scarcely measure the possible excesses a hungry multitude may indulge in. ¶ It would appear this state of affairs have been brought about, if not totally, at least to a great measure through the methods employed by unscrupulous captains and ship owners, who go to the extent of propagating the ridiculous and highly misleading idea abroad that at Puerto Cabezas the dollar can be picked up on the streets and paths, so to say, and so deceive the unwary into procuring by any means at their disposal, the value of their passage (?) (?) (?) to find an order of things very much the (?) to exist in the average field on this orb. ¶ As it most always happens, whenever people get to learn of some new development in a given locality they begin to flock to such a place, whatever might be their calling life,--even professionals without every stopping to think or enquire what might be the sort of hands most required. As a result they often find themselves completely out, as touching their particular line, then are forced to enter services they are wholly unfit for, with the consequent upshot—they are discharged and as someone must carry the blame the developing company is made to bear it, then the ensuing want and sickness crown the climax. ¶ Taken into hands atone this fast forming problem of Puerto Cabezas can be easily straightened out, but if the conditions leading to it are allowed to continue, our government may soon find itself face to face with a situation not easily adjusted. ¶ The situation ought to be put under control without delay. It would be well, also, for the representatives of the countries whence come this inordinate influx of work-hunters to take an interest in the matte and give their governments the necessary warnings."

2.   19 May 1928.
Bluefields Weekly, p. 2.  
"The Coming City" [on the growth of Puerto Cabezas.]

3.   19 May 1928.
Bluefields Weekly, p. 3. 
"An attack on Sandino. ¶ The resolution made by the Junta Departamental y Legal del Partido Liberal Nacionalista is a step in the right direction of which there is still some distance to be traversed. ¶ While sentimentally some of us may be Sandinistas,-- if just a wee bit; with all these outrages being committed, it must be admitted that it is no time for sentimentality. We must look at the thing in a reasonable light. ¶ If we sum up some of the characteristics of the man Sandino, what do we find? ¶ The world knows that Marines were called by the present government when they were in the peril of being overthrown by the revolution. That some months later, both the government and the revolutionaries agreed to cease hostilities on the grounds of the renown Stimson agreement. ¶ At this termination of affairs Sandino revolted against his leader, showing at once his disloyalty. In his “patriotism” overestimated at home and abroad, he has been found wanting. Can anyone who destroys properties of his poor countrymen, and of rich foreigners who are here to develop his country, be called patriot? ¶ Let us suppose that Sandino was successful in some agreement whereby he would cease his brigandage; he has already hinted that he would want to dictate who should be president. Would that be republicanism? Or perhaps he would want to be acclaimed president himself, a position for which, barring all other qualities required, he has not the least capacity. ¶ We have enough of tyrants, dictators and oligarchs; let us embrace the chance of a republican form of government—via the polls, with the disinterested outsider as referee. ¶ As citizens of this country, without distinction of political colour, we are morally compromised to cooperate with the American Marines here; for while they are in power, that does not make them any less our guests and as such we are ethically obligated. ¶ It is a well known fact that the majority of the laboring class is unlettered, hence these do not get any benefit from the good work being done by the press. Now, I have found that most of these , men expressing themselves sympathetically toward Sandino and are in the (?) with their expressions about the Marines, but as soon as they are shown that the marines are here for their’s (sic) and the Country’s benefit they are converted. ¶ Why have the political parties ignored this? What is the urban organization known under the name of Liga Costeña doing? Why do not they organize local committees for propaganda work, especially in denouncing Sandino’s robberies and promoting the spirit of cooperation with the Marines? The Marines can also reciprocate; (?) there have been instances of note were the Marines have dealt too rashly with civil offenders, but the instances are getting fewer, due perhaps to the officers getting on at last to the psychology of our mixed population . . . ¶ Let us work together, not only for free election and republican government, but towards a better Pan-American understanding."

4.   19 May 1928.
Bluefields Weekly, p. 4.  
"Statement of Arturo Pineda . . . (continued from Page One) ¶ . . . Giron in the meantime ate, drank and gave out things in the Commissary to a lot of stragglers. All with the exception of 20 soldiers left at midnight for Lone Star where they had a camp. ¶ On their way from La Luz Mine the army stopped at Lone Star, subsequently coming to Neptune Mine. ¶ Before the General left he gave me orders to leave the doors of the Commissary open and to let everybody have what they wanted; saying because it was American property they wanted to destroy everything belonging to the Americans, this was said in the presence of the soldiers. ¶ The 20 remaining soldiers had instruction to see that the people got everything they wanted from the Commissary by order of General Giron and they made a clean sweep of the contents. ¶ Monday the 16th orders came from General Giron to send some provisions to Lone Star Mine and to get enough flour to bake bread for the soldiers and stragglers which was done by me. ¶ At eight o’clock Tuesday morning the 17th General Giron came from Lone Star Mine (abandoned) which is about two miles from Neptune and asked me how much powder (dynamite) was on hand and he was told about sixty cases which he took making three piles thereof and burned it up. ¶ After eating breakfast they put a case of dynamite into the Ball Mill and blew it up using 25 feet of fuse to enable every one go get out of danger so as to avoid killing or injuring any person when the dynamite exploded, after this performance they departed for Lone Star Mine. ¶ In the meantime the General sent three soldiers to Panama Mine accompanied by Andres Leiva and Ascension Figueroa where the Company’s mules were in hiding and helped themselves to six taking a pistol from Wederburn then to the Bodega (Warehouse) at Aguas Calientes taking all the merchandise there then for Lone star with their (sic) plunder. At the same time taking Jose Moncada along to care for the mules. ¶ About six p.m. Sunday April 29th another contingent of some 80 soldiers under command of Marcos Aguero came to the mine and took from the Commissary whatever was left and departed in the direction of Waspook river. ¶ And further deponent sayeth not. ¶ ARTHUR M. PINEDA ¶ American Consulate, Bluefields, Nicaragua ¶ Sworn to and subscribed by ARTHUR M. PINEDA, before me at the American Consulate, this the 12th day of May, 1928. ¶ SAMUEL FLETCHER ¶ Service No. 128. ¶ Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua ¶ RECEIPT OF GENERAL GIRON R. ¶ BONANZA MINES COMPANY ¶ Mr. Arthur Pineda was directed to place at the orders of the forces of the Liberator whatever may be necessary for its sustenance and as this property belongs to Americans who are the cause of this expedition we take for our use merchandise which we are in need of and the existing gold which amounted to 354 ½ ounces. ¶ For Country and Liberty, ¶ (Signed) GENERAL MANUEL GIRON R. , ¶ Neptune, April 17, 1928."

20 May 1928.
Operation Report and Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Reference: Daily reports covering same period. ¶  Maps: (a) Ham map of Nicaragua, 1924.  ¶  (b) Moravian Mission Map, file #B-7-12.  ¶  1. OUR DISPOSITION OF FORCES.  ¶  a. FRONT LINE.  ¶  AWAWAS – Lieut. CARROLL and one Section.  ¶  WASPUC – Lieut. TUFT and one Platoon.  ¶  MUSAWAS – Capt. EDSON and one Platoon.  ¶  SAN PEDRO – Capt. LINSCOTT and one Platoon, less detachments.  ¶  EDEN – Capt. WALKER and one Platoon.  ¶  LA LUZ – Capt. ROSE and one Platoon.  ¶  Near SAN PEDRO del NORTE – Capt. MATTESON and patrol.  ¶  Near RAMA – Capt. TEBBS and ten men.  ¶  b. OTHER FORCES.  ¶  At EL GALLO – Outpost of one platoon, less Captain MATTESON’S Patrol.  ¶  At BLUEFIELDS, Headquarters South Sector – one platoon less Captain TEBB’S patrol.  ¶  At RIO GRANDE – Outpost of 8 men, under Non-commissioned officer.  ¶  At PUERTO CABEZAS – Aircraft Squadron (Eastern Area); Area Headquarters; rear echelons.  ¶  2. INFORMATION OF ADJACENT TROOPS. ¶  Captain Martin reported a patrol sent east from JINOTEGA. ¶  Captain Phipps reported vicinity CUSULI. ¶  A patrol reported near POTECA.  ¶  3. WEATHER AND VISIBILITY.  ¶  Rainy season commencing.  Ground conditions not bad yet.  Visibility and flying conditions for airplane poor.  ¶  4. OUR OPERATIONS FOR PERIOD.  ¶  There have been no contacts with bandits . . . "

20 May 1928.
Operation Report and Weekly Report of Events, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . 4. OUR OPERATIONS FOR PERIOD.  (Continued).  ¶  a. 1. The entire week has been spent in getting the five northern patrols in position, and in getting supplies forward.  ¶  2. Small patrols have been sent out from Bluefields and El Gallo to investigate rumors and found all quiet.  ¶  3. A patrol was sent out from Puerto Cabezas to Sisin Farm, returned reported no sign of bandit activity.  ¶  4. The large patrols, while waiting for supplies to catch up, have sent small reconnaissance patrols forward to investigate trails and routes of advance.  ¶  5. The following dispatch was sent by radio to Captain Edson, who delivered it to Captain Walker.  It was prepared as a drop message for the other patrols: ‘5619 D REPEAT D DAY IS MAY TWENTY THIRD STOP WALKER MOVES ON LAKUS STOP EDSON MOVES ON CASA VIEJA PREPARED TO PUSH ONTO BOCAY STOP LINSCOTT MOVES ON CASA VIEJA STOP ROSE COVERS TRAILS LA LUZ AREA ESPECIALLY TOWARDS HIJAS STOP UTLEY 2100’.  ¶  b. AIR SERVICE.  ¶  Since the arrival of two more planes and return of Captain Howard, the planes have resumed their liaison and freight flights.  ¶  5. COMBAT EFFICIENCY.  ¶  The men on patrol are in most cases new men and probably have not yet the experience needed for their best combat efficiency.  The airplane flights do much to improve morale.  ¶  6. RESULT OF OPERATIONS.  ¶  The outlaws have been forced practically out of this area, they having retreated before us.  There have been no reports of bandit activities behind our line of patrols.  ¶  W. C. HALL,  ¶  1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Area Intelligence Officer."

20 May 1928.
Intelligence Report, May 13-19, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas (p. 1 only).  
"Reference: Daily reports covering this period.  ¶  Maps: Ham map of Nicaragua. ¶  (A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED.  ¶  a. Rumors continue that small bands of outlaws are present throughout this area, but they have all dispersed on the approach of our patrols, or have been imaginary in the first place.  It is believed the latter is more nearly correct.  ¶  b. The only groups of bandits of any size appear to be wholly confining themselves to the northern and central part of JINOTEGA.  ¶  (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARDS MARINES.  ¶  a. There have been no cases of friction between marines and civilians reported.  ¶  b. A native boatman going up the CUCULAYA River was wounded by the accidental discharge of a rifle in the hands of a marine.  He was brought to the hospital in PUERTO CABEZAS and appeared to be doing well, but died on May 11, 1928.  A small sum was paid to his brother and sister, who are caring for his wife.  Copy of the paper signed by them is attached, marked ‘A’.  ¶  c. William Pierce, a man who claims to be an American, but who appears to be of mixed negro blood shot and killed an American employee of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company, and wounded another.  He was apprehended by a marine patrol and confined as a military prisoner to protect him from any possible mob action.  The Indians in this vicinity gladly assisted in the pursuit of PIERCE, and his capture by the marine patrol made a good impression.  ¶  (C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.  ¶  A. In the interior, conditions are reported as being bad, in that the bandits are said to have stripped the country of food and money.  The truth of these reports are now being investigated.  In the meantime the presence of our patrols in this area should help some, especially if the men are paid."

20 May 1928.
Sofonías Salvatierra, 'Difícil situación de los Obreros en la Costa Atlántica," La Noticia, Managua.
  [NOTE:  This is an interesting & important analysis by one of the leading Nicaraguan intellectuals of the 1920s and 1930s and one of the leading activists advocating the rights of labor.  The article merits close attention, though blaming the widespread poverty & unemployment & sharpening social divisions on an "inundation"of black West Indian laborers is highly problematic.]

“Dificíl situación de los Obreros en la Costa Atlántica.” Sofonías Salvatierra, La Noticia, Managua, 20 May 1928. ¶  Nos dicen de Bluefields los siguientes dolorosos informes: ¶ “En Puerto Cabezas se presente hoy quizá el problema más difícil para el obrero nacional, pues en ese lugar ha sido barrida la mayor parte de empleados nicaragüenses y repuestos con negros antillanos. Diga Ud, pero de una manera que todo el mundo lo sepa, lo inconvieniente que es para el pobre jornalero del interior engancharse para los trabajos de Puerto Cabezas. Esos infelices son tratados como bestias, sin ninguna oportunidad de mejorar su condición, las enfermedades se han cebado en ellos y muchos arrastran su miseria en las calles de esta ciudad de vuelta de lo Siberia nicaragüense. Siberia, si, para los que hemos tenido la dicha de nacer en este bendito país. Paraíso para yanquis y negros de todas las clases. No menos de dos mil de estos últimos han desembarcado en estos días. Cabe preguntar al estos individuos traian las cien pesos que manda la ley." ¶ Hasta aquí los aterradores delos que se nos han enviado ¿Qué dice de esto pueblo nicaragüense, que dispone el Gobierno de la Nacion? Nicaragua está alendo inundada de negros antillanos para sustituir con ellos al obrero nativo, al ciudadano de la República, al propio dueno de esta tierra. Nosotros queremos estar convencidos de la buena le de los enganchadores de operarios para los trabajos de la Costa Atlántica; ellos seguramente no conocen las intenciones ulterior de la Compañía que las solicita. Nosotros hemos visto la formula de los contratos que firmen los obreros que ofrecen irse para Puerto Cabezas. Esos documentos no llenen la forma bilateral que es debido, sino que es una simple declaración que el enganchado hace. Ni la Compañía patrona, ni ningún representante suyo los firme. ¶ El Organismo Local de Bluefields del Obrerismo Organizado de Nicaragua acabo de despachar un delegado a Puerto Cabezas, y pronto tendrémos informes más completes sobre este asunto. ¶ No hay palabras con que encarecer, con que evidenciar al obrero nicaragüense la necesidad fundamental que tiene de organizarse, para la defensa de los múltiples derechos que posee en esta su patria declarada libre por los próceres de la independencia hace ciento siete años. También no hay palabra con que convencer a políticos y empresarios de la conveniencia general que enrana el que a los no calorban este proceso organicisia de la inmenso masa trabajadora, principle social indispensable para la constitución de la República y para el recio desenvolvimiento y goce legítimo de las energias de todos. ¶ Urge que se proclama por todos los rumbos de la conciencia nacional y a la luz de todos los intereses, que el hombre trabajador no es cosa, sino persona; que el trabajo del obrero no es un utensillo en las empresas, como lo es la herramienta, lo material prima, las tierras, sino un factor social de la producción y el consume, igual en dignidad e intereses con el capitalista. Este concepto eminentemente humano es el fruto triunfal del cristianismo, y de todas las revoluciones libertadores del siglo diez y nueve. ¶ No podemos comprender cómo se puede no dar buen trato y consideración al que con su trabajo aumenta nuestros haberes. Esto no quiere decir de ningún modo que le obrero falta a los deberes de su contrato. Por eso la organización obrera debe ser en forma cooperativa en presencia y respeto equiliativa de los otros intereses sociales. ¶ Por lo pronto, en la Costa Atlántica hay centenaries de desheredados y desgraciados obreros, hilos de nuestra patria, que caian esperando el socorro de su gobierno. La ayuda debe ser prestada inmediatamente por deber gubernamental imprescindible, siquiera por humanidad. ¶ Obreros de Nicaragua: organizarse, ahorrad, instruios, si queréis ser pueblo libre. ¶ SOFONÍAS SALVATIERRA, Managua, 19 de mayo de 1928."

 

21 May 1928 (0500, 0710, 0900).
Radiograms from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

21 May 1928 (1600).
Radiogram from Capt. Rose, Prinzapolka patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.

21 May 1928 (1600).
Radiogram from Capt. Rose, Prinzapolka patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.

21 May 1928 (2035).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua (copy to Edson, Wanks River Patrol).

21 May 1928.
Excerpt of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson to sister (from the notes of David C. Brooks).

22 May 1928.
Letter from Major Hans Schmidt, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"My dear Major:  ¶  Am taking advantage of a possible trip by Aviation in your direction to explain a little more in detail General Feland’s wire to you of this date.  ¶  The Marshall case is occupying a great deal of our attention at the present time, and we are being pressed with inquiries from every source as to the latest news in that case.  General Feland desires that you impress upon all your subordinates the necessity of gaining early and full information and of transmitting it promptly.  All of your advanced elements should be particularly impressed with the necessity, and all operations should consider the effecting of his rescue a secondary mission, to say the least.  ¶  The general military situation may be stated in a few words, i.e., that the main bandit strength appears to be localizing in the Pena Blanca – Bocaicito Area.  While proceeding west about 13 May bandits ran into Hunter’s patrol with what sad results you are already familiar.  ¶  Lieutenant Ridderhoff had two small contacts hear Murra about the 15th.  ¶  The article translated below appeared as a New Orleans cable dispatch in the Managua papers of this date.  Please investigate its source and let us know what you find.  There is a possibility that some of the newspaper correspondents on that coast had something to do with it.  Possibly Benny or Haas may know something about it.  The Cuyamel Fruit Company which has its headquarters in New Orleans may also know something.  It is desired of course that this information be procured without letting anyone know that we are concerned about the criticism.  ¶  ‘THEY KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING’  ¶  ‘New Orleans:  Prominent North Americans who have interests in Nicaragua have addressed the Navy Department in Washington, saying that for some weeks, knowing the plans for attack of the Marines in Nicaragua, that they are not in accord with said activities because there has not been made the distribution necessary to round up the Sandino rebels, who always have good exits into the mountains and take other directions in order to reorganize and devote themselves to violences.  According to the New Orleans Evening (paper) the terrain of Nicaragua is not as difficult as the Riff region of Morocco, where French and Spanish . . . "

22 May 1928.
Letter from Major Hans Schmidt, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . aviators obtained good results about two years ago in the subjugation of the outlaw Ab, del-Krim.’  ¶  Your request of recent date concerning the Standard Fruit and steamship map is being complied with.  ¶  We are endeavoring to keep you informed of anything which goes on in this area, which we believe to be of immediate importance.  Less important matter will be sent by mail.  The B-2 Report should give you an idea of the operations being conducted and of the information being received.  ¶  Any suggestions from you relative to ways of helping you in your area will be appreciated and carried out if possible.  ¶  Kindest regards to you and those I know there.  ¶  Sincerely,  ¶  H. SCHMIDT"

22 May 1928 (0900).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

22 May 1928 (1152).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas. 

1.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas on the Rio Coco, to son Austin (photocopy of original with marginal notes by David C. Brooks), p. 1.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

2.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 2.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

3.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 3.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

4.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 4.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

5.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 5.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

6.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 6.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

7.   22 May 1928.
Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 7.  
[transcribed in full below, starting page 8]

8.   22 May 1928.
Transcription of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin (with marginal notes by David C. Brooks), p. 8.  
"Dear Austin:  ¶  What do you think of this paper?  It is all I have and not much of it either.  I got your letter about the big tooth the day before I left Waspuc.  It was a nice letter and I was glad to get it.  Wasn’t it fun to have the tooth pulled?  And don’t you like Dr. Partridge?  You are getting to be such a big man now, going to school every day, sliding, skating, having teeth pulled and everything, aren’t you?  ¶  When we left Waspuc to come here, what do you think we need?  Boats!  And such funny boats.  Here is the way the Indians make them.  They go into the woods and find a great big (picture of tree).  Then they take an (picture of axe) and cut it down.  They take the longest and straightest and biggest piece of the tree home with them.  Then they use different kind of an axe which looks like this (picture of axe) and then dig out the wood from the center of the (picture of log).  Sometimes they build a (picture of fire) in the log as they do not have to cut as much with the (picture of axe).  After about five days work, the log looks like this (picture of boat) and that is the boat.  They are very good boats, too, because they are easy to paddle or push with a pole and if one sits quite still, do not tip over easily even though sometimes the water may come over the edge.  In each boat were three Indians in the bow and one in the stern.  The three in the bow had long, light poles which are very strong and do not break easily.  With the poles they push the (picture of boat) where it is shallow and up through the swift places in the river.  They can push a boat through places that we would have to . . . "

9.   22 May 1928.
Transcription of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 9.  
" . . . get out and pull the boat through with a rope because they are used to doing it, and if I tried it I would fall out.  A few days ago I did try to pole a little bit through a short rapid and I lost my balance and fell out.  The man in the stern had a [drawing of a paddle] and he steered the boat with it.  When the water was deep the man in the bow used [drawing of a paddle] too because their poles would not touch the bottom.  At one place there were big falls in the river, so we had to get out of the [drawing of a boat] and carry them around the falls.  ¶  On both sides of the river are lots and lots of trees.  In the trees I saw all kinds of things.  Do you remember the [drawing of bird] I told you about which has so many bright colors—the MacCaw bird?  There are a great many of them up here in the trees, and they are much prettier than the one that was on the Denver.  They always fly in pairs, the mama bird and the daddy bird are always together.  Maybe you have seen another bird with a large nose, that people keep and teach to talk—the parrot?  The woods here are full of them, too, green ones, blue ones, and many colored ones—but the green ones are more common.  They, too, always fly in pairs, but a lot of them fly together, while the macaw birds usually fly two by two.  The parrots certainly can make a big noise—each morning and each evening they screech and cry and wake up everyone around.  ¶  Then there is another bird which flies in a tree.  His nest looks like this [drawing of a pouch handing from branch and bird below.  Arrow pointing to something that looks like a hanging beehive, ‘This is the door where he goes into house.’]  He has a glossy black coat of feathers and the tip of his wings and the tip of his tail are a bright yellow.  When he sits still he looks like this [drawing of bird].  He is all black except just the tip of his wings, and of his tail and his beak or bill, which are bright yellow.  But when . . . "

10.   22 May 1928.
Transcription of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 10.  
" . . . he flies this his tail feathers spread open and appear to be all yellow instead of just the top of it.  He has a nice song, too, and his name is ‘Oriole.’  There are a great many of them in the woods and along the river.  ¶  Besides these, one sees bright red cardinals, blue birds, many colored birds, king fishers, and nearly every one of them is bright colored.  In a banana grove a few days ago I saw a [drawing of hummingbird] like this.  He is only two and a half inches long, about as long as mother’s middle finger, and he has a bill almost as long as himself.  He flies up to the banana blossoms, puts his bill way down to the bottom of one and drinks out all the honey, then he flies to another flower and does the same thing, all the time he keeps up loud humming noise.  His name is ‘humming bird’.  ¶  The trees, too, have things in them that look like [drawing of monkey] this.  Their name is ‘Monkey’.  Some are reddish brown all over, they make a big howling noise which gives them the name ‘Howling Monkey’ – although the Indians call them ‘Baboons’.  Other have a white face and a big dark brown body, and they are smaller than the baboons.  They are called ‘white faced Monkey’.  When the boats go by up the river, the monkeys run along in the tops of the trees, swinging from one branch to another by their arms and tails, and sometimes making a chain of two or three monkeys holding each other’s hand to swing over the longest places.  All the time they chatter and screech at us as if they were asking what right we had in their woods and telling us to get out.  ¶  You are probably asking if these Indians live in tents, aren’t you?  They do not use tents, but lean-tos when stopping for only a few days.  These lean-tos are made like this.  Four bamboo poles are cut and tied together at the top (picture of triangle structure).  Then on the side towards the wind where the rain will come, they put up a roof or a wall of leaves . . . "

11.   22 May 1928.
Transcription of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 11.  
" . . . something like this [illustration of previous with wall of leaves].  The floor is the sand, and their beds are made of big green banana leaves laid on the sand.  Then they put down a blanket made from the bark of a tree, and that is their sleeping plan.  It is not a bad bed either, for your Daddy has slept several nights just like that.  ¶  The Indians real houses, though, are bigger.  They just cut big bamboo poles or mahogany and put them into the ground where they want the house to be, like this [illustration of frame, looks like table without top].  Then they put a roof on the house like this [illustration of frame from before with peak roof.  Standard type frame for one room house of logs].  Then they make a roof of big coconut palm leaves which they tie onto the roof.  Some of the houses have no walls.  Others have walls on the rainy side and some have walls all around like our house, with doors and windows.  The walls are made out of bamboo, too, (Mother will tell you what that is) only they split it with machetes so that it is flat.  This is a machete, [drawing of machete], just a great big bread knife.  The doors are made of split bamboo, too.  The windows are just holes in the wall, for the Indians have no glass, and all their cooking is done in big black iron kettles.  Here is one of them [drawing of iron kettle].  They make their fires right on the floor in the middle of their houses, because they have no stones at all.  When they bake anything, they just make a big fire so as to have a great many coals then they wrap their bread in a big green banana leaf, and then put it into the coals all covered up with the coals, and leave it there until it bakes.  When they take it out of the leaf, it is all brown and crispy and not burned at all.  ¶  All the people go to bed early because they have no electric lights or any lamps, and they also get up very early in the morning, always before the sun peeps up over the trees.  But they are very lazy people, too.  They live on . . . "

12.   22 May 1928.
Transcription of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Musawas, to son Austin, p. 12.  
" . . . rice and beans and bananas, and sometimes they catch fish.  They work just enough to buy their rice and they grow only enough beans for the rainy season.  The bananas are always growing.  ¶  How do you think they fish?  Two men get in one of the small boats I have told you about.  One sits in the back end and paddles, ever so slowly and so very, very quietly that no one can hear him, not even the fish in the water.  The other man stands in the front end of the boat.  What do you think he has?  A fish pole?  No, he has a bow and an arrow.  The arrow is made out of a piece of reed and on one end it has a large, slender piece of round wood, made sharp by burning it in the fire.  Then when the man sees fish in the water, he puts the arrow on the bow, bends the bow, and the other man moves, oh so slowly, towards the fish.  Then—twang—and the arrow goes straight toward the fish and spears him!  And that’s the way he catches his fish.  ¶  Pretty soon you will have a birthday.  Mother will have to spank you for Daddy, I think, don’t you?  You will write me a letter then and tell me all about it, I know.  ¶  Here is lots of love and all these kisses.  I would send you more only I have not enough paper.  And tell Mother I love her, too, and give her a big hug and some kisses for me, will you, please?  ¶  Daddy.  ¶  xxxxxxx (etc.)"

23 May 1928 (1000).
Radiogram from Capt. M. A. Edson, Wanks Patrol, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

23 May 1928 (1400).
Radiogram from Capt. Walker, Waspuc, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

23 May 1928.
Letter from Major D. J. Kendall, Wide Water, Virginia, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.  
"Dear Major Utley: ¶ I arrived home here last Sunday morning and found both Rita and little Dominick abed. When the radio was sent from Headquarters, they thought that Rita would have to have an operation for gallstones. But later on they found it was congestion caused by malaria brought on by the trip and the change of climate that was causing the trouble to both herself and the youngster. Now the boy is up and around apparently all right again and Rita is up around the house. Both of them have lost a great deal of weight and have no appetite so are gaining very slowly, but still I think they will be OK again soon. When I left I took everything I had except my books and papers thinking that possibly Rita was in for a long drawn out illness of a serious nature and I might have to try and get duty in the States to be near her if it was real serious. Then again I had a lot of stuff with me that I didn’t need in Nicaragua and I thought it would be a good chance to get it home. Everybody here says they should think I would try and stay in the States seeing that I have over 18 months in the Tropics but I have no idea of trying to stay here and expect to come back on the Cuyamel ship leaving New Orleans June 16; I arrived in New Orleans May 18. ¶ I didn’t have much of a chance to discuss the situation in Bluefields with Tebbs but it would have been useless anyway and would have just mixed him up to try and tell him so much at once. So I just turned over the personality reports to him and told him about a few of the more troublesome ones and introduced him to a few of the more dependable natives. I had a lot of irons in the fire that I hated to leave but figured that if it was serious enough for headquarters to offer me the leave I couldn’t very well refuse to take it. Had a native over in Pearl Lagoon working on the guns there and another working up in Chontales. Both of them were good men and should have been able to get the dope if anyone could as they were both liberals although loyal to me I think as I had done a great deal for both of them and had agreed if they could find out where the guns were to get them without injuring the liberal party or any of their relatives. They were both related to the people I believed were handling the guns hidden in the two localities. Also would have been able to make it worth their while financially if they got me information as to the location of the guns because the conservatives in Bluefields repeatedly offered me to suitably reward anyone I indicated that would give me valuable information leading up to the seizure of large quantities of arms. I made arrangements before leaving for natives who spoke English to take the two men in to Tebbs if they returned with any valuable information and also told Tebbs who the Marines in the Bluefields detail were that would be best qualified to take the patrols out in the two localities to get the guns if the information came in . . . "

23 May 1928.
Letter from Major D. J. Kendall, Wide Water, Virginia, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . When I wrote so pessimistically about the Marines Club I thought you had several hundred more marines at the Port than you really had. I was discouraged because I had such a devil of a time getting stock as people didn’t ship after I had ordered it in plenty of time. I got disgusted trying to get cigarettes from Panama and radioed Liggett and Myers in New York to ship me a standing order every month and have as reference my business with them while in Santo Domingo and got a reply that next day saying they had entered the Chesterfields and a gross of Ranger tobacco that same day. That will clear up the cigarette difficulty and if you have made no other arrangements and still want to the club to handle the supplies I can insure our getting better service on the rest of our supplies. Please have somebody drop me a line to New Orleans care Cuyamel Fruit Co. and let me know about this so I can get the letter there on my way back and fix things up there to get more prompt shipments if you want the club to continue. ¶ My brother in law Hal Turnage is on the Material Desk in Operations on Training at Headquarters, Marine Corps. From talking with him it seems that the bars are down and that anything any Commanding officer in Nicaragua wants in the way of materials he gets. I think you are going to get the ambulance alright. He seemed surprised that we only put in for four Thompsons on the East Coast as they put in for and got 200 of them in the interior. He says there is all kinds of ammunitions on hand for all kinds of weapons now. They are developing at tracer bullet for the 45 ammunition which is very good. They have asked for that in the interior, also for pyrotechnics with which aeroplanes can be signaled in the day time. They are going to ship the 45 cal tracers for use in the Thompson for that or if they are not practical will ship a parachute smoke bomb. He said that they didn’t really know what kind of ammunition we ordered in the different stations as the weekly reports did not specify in detail. I gathered from his conversation that if we specified on our weekly reports just what ammunition we had they would supply the kinds we were lacking. For instance at Bluefields we always said 150 rounds 37 mm. Now if they had known that none of that was high explosive they would have shipped some probably. He also asked me if we didn’t have any Stokes Mortars? ¶ Have felt so rocky myself and with my family sick haven’t gotten up to Headquarters yet but expect to go this week in case Maj. Keyse wants to ask any questions about conditions there. The American Consul in Bluefields also asked me to go to the State Department for the same reason. ¶ Gen McCoy is in the States to organize his staff and return to Nicaragua July 6. They wanted 40 officers and 400 men that could speak Spanish but Headquarters at last account had found only Maj. Price and Capt. Best for officers and two instructors for enlisted from the N.C.I. who could speak Spanish. ¶ Hope the above ‘information’ will be of some use or at least interest. ¶ With best wishes, ¶ Kendall."

25 May 1928 (1600).
Radiogram from Capt. Matteson, El Gallo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

25 May 1928 (1730).
Radiogram from Capt. Matteson, El Gallo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

1.   26 May 1928.
"Sandino Admits Destruction of American Property," letter from US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister Eberhardt, Managua, p. 1.  
"SIR: ¶ I have the honor to transmit a copy of a letter received by the manager of the La Luz y Los Angeles Mines and its English translation . . . "

2.   26 May 1928.
"Sandino Admits Destruction of American Property," letter from US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister Eberhardt, Managua, p. 2.  
" . . . In this consulate’s letter to the Legation dated May 17, 1928, paragraph 4, rumors indicated that Sandino had not sanctioned the wanton destruction of American property, but he attached letter dated April 29th, 1928, if authentic, indicates the present policy of Sandino to be one of unrestrained destruction. ¶ Rumor reached this port on the 22nd of May that Marshall had been murdered. I have been unable to secure any authentic information regarding this report, but he American military authorities stationed in this city doubt the truth of the rumor. ¶ With reference to the rumors that 50 raiders were operating near Rama on the Escondido river you are advised that the patrol sent out to investigate the report have returned to this city. They failed to make any contacts. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ Samuel J. Fletcher, ¶ American Consul. ¶ Enclosures: ¶ 1. Copy of a letter dated April 29, 1929, at the La Luz y Los Angeles Mine, supposed to have been written by A. C. Sandino. ¶ 2. English translation of above mentioned letter."

3.   26 May 1928.
"Sandino Admits Destruction of American Property," letter from US Consul S. J. Fletcher, Bluefields, to US Minister Eberhardt, Managua, p. 3.

26 May 1928 (2255).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

1.   27 May 1928.
Periodic Report, 20-26 May, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.

2.   27 May 1928.
Periodic Report, 20-26 May, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.  
" . . . 1. MILITARY OPERATIONS. (continued). ¶ c. SUPPLY AND EQUIPMENT. ¶ 1. Phipps reports that JIRON with 80 men, armed with 30 rifles, 50 shot guns, (some muzzle loading), and 80 pistols, and one Thompson gun, with 200 or 300 rounds of ammunition for each rifle and pistol. It is not believed that the bandits have that much ammunition. ¶ 2. Large numbers of cattle have been reported near the head of the northern branch of the ULI River. ¶ d. WEATHER AND VISIBILITY. ¶ Some rain practically every day. Ground and air conditions not yet bad. ¶ e. ENEMY’S KNOWLEDGE OF OUR SITUATION. ¶ We have lost no papers or prisoners as far as known. In addition to receiving information through ‘underground’ channels, it is believed that the bandits deduce the coming of marine patrols from the action of aeroplanes on reconnaissance and liaison flights. ¶ f. PROBABLE INTENTION OF HOSTILE FORCES. ¶ It appears that outlaws have continued to avoid our patrols and probably will continue to do so. If hard pressed, their actions indicate that they will move to a new area. In the area in which the bandits are now operating, known trails are few, but the habits of the bandits seem to be to cut new trails in whatever direction they mean to move. ¶ g. MISCELLANEOUS. ¶ 1. A priest who made the trip from MATAGALPA to El GALLO stated that he was informed that about 180 bandits were operating from a mountain peak about ten miles northwest of CACAO, and that the bandits have out detours on both sides of the Pis Pis Trail to pass and ambush marine patrols. ¶ 2. An unverified report was received to the effect that three groups of bandits, totaling about 200 men, are moving up the COCO River between BOCAY and POTECA. The undersigned believe this report correct and believes that JIRON is probably operating southwest of BOCAY on the COCO River. . . "

3.   27 May 1928.
Periodic Report, 20-26 May, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.  
" . . . MILITARY OPERATIONS – MISCELLANEOUS (continued). ¶ g. 3. Adrian Pineda, employee of the NEPTUNE MINE, has requested that a small garrison be placed at that mine to protect it from such roving bands at led by Arreliga. ¶ 4. Base reports that: ‘Sandino when here instilled in the mind of the natives that if the marines came they would rape, murder and steal.’ ¶ ‘This insidious propaganda we are gradually dissipating. There are a number of former employees of the La Luz Mine who have no food, no place to work to earn money, and consequently are at present barely existing. I recommend that an immediate shipment of food for these approximately 75 families be made, in order to prevent actual suffering, and to sustain them for at least the next month. At the end of that time a general survey to be taken to see whether or not they have attempted to rehabilitate themselves.’ ¶ 5. In several cases the Hospital Corpsmen, with the various patrols, have done good work towards winning the confidence of the natives for caring for their sick. ¶ W. C. HALL, ¶ 1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps, ¶ Area Intelligence Officer."

28 May 1928 (1202).
Radiogram from Gen. Feland, Managua, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

28 May 1928 (2205).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

29 May 1928 (2007).
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

29 May 1928.
Patrol & Intelligence Report, Capt. W. W. Walker, Lakus, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.  
"Arrived at nine a.m. this date, (Tuesday). Occupation uneventful. Conclusive evidence that bandits were here recently. Detonators with short fuses fixed fell into our hands. Two woman and three children (Spanish) only here on our arrival. Report Ajuero stopped here one day a week ago enroute BOCAY with five hundred men (considered absurd). ¶ Enclosed a document (receipt) signed by Ajuero in March 1928 for the intelligence file. Can make BOCAY in three days by boat. Am patrolling river in nearby indian villages today. Bush patrol to AKIWAS tomorrow, May 30th. LAKUS CREEK not navigable at present. LAKUS village consists of one residence and outhouses only. Believe AKIWAS, five miles west, strategical base for extended operations. Find that we can make BOCAY with supplies by boat from WASPUC in seven (7) days allowing for portage by falls. There are four rapids on river not shown on map. One difficult at LAKUS, all passable with work. Am releasing seven indians who return to WASPUC – good men, hope ROSS can catch as good. Rumor (hot) just came in that Ajilero died yesterday in BOCAY. LAKUS affords impregnable position for defense commanding both WANKS and LAKUS creek. We are out of smoking – all kinds. We need pipe tobacco and cigarettes. Bull Durham, etc. Have personally been completely out for two weeks. Drop us something and charge to me. ¶ Patrol returning from up river (WANKS) found village of SUSANWAS deserted but brought back serviceable weapons mostly concealed. Countryside well supplied with ammunition, believed a number of bandits are hanging out in the bush hereabouts. ¶ No plans today or yesterday. Plane passed us on river Sunday but gave no indication of seeing my panel, if they did. WANKS should be open to our boats for three weeks (up traffic) in one month it will be difficult to make way back down. There are absolutely no trails either side. My patrols cut own trail ahead of boats. There are no bandits behind us on river – supplies may come up with minimum escort of marines. Must keep fifteen indians – no chance of obtaining others up here. We see only women and children at such villages – men are in the bush – we are trying to make friends of the indians. They are strongly suspicious of us. Our boatmen have been loyal despite rumors of enemy in front. They all came from WASPUC area. Should we receive no instructions to the contrary we shall push on toward BOCAY – at present we shall deny passage through AKIWAS and close the river to bandits. No landing place at LAKUS – panel station established on arrival. Will prepare monthly reports for pick-up tomorrow. ¶ W. W. WALKER."

29 May 1928.

Field Order No. 1, 1st Lt. W. C. Hall, Puerto Cabezas.    "1. A. Deserters from AGUERRO band reported 25 May that AGUERRO was sick with tuberculosis at BOCAY, and said to have fifteen men only. An Indian who claimed to have accompanied AGUERRO states he went to BOCAY via LAKUS, arriving BOCAY about 15 May, had then about fifty men. AGUERRO further reported as having moved up the WANKS River in direction of SANTA CRUZ. AGUERRO was reported as having a quantity of supplies kind not stated. The location of SANDINO’S (or other bandit chief’s) Headquarters is placed as near WANKS River above (southwest) of BOCAY. What appeared to be a very recent bandit camp site was observed by the airplanes at CASCA on 26 May. A Honduran general named MONDRAGON is reported as marching towards BOCAY; the reason is not known. ¶ b. WALKER with one platoon believed to be in vicinity of TILMA FALLS (AWAS) and is moving up the WANKS on LAKUS. LINSCOTT and EDSON are at CASA VIEJA. ROSE is moving westward on MATAGALPA-LA LUZ trail. ¶ 2. We continue our advance. ¶ 3. a. WALKER continues his advance. ¶ b. LINSCOTT and EDSON move on BOCAY May 30. EDSON’S report shows two main trails CASA VIEJA-BOCAY. If both exist, and are possible more in two columns, one on each trail. If only one exists, the united patrols move via that trail. ¶ c. ROSE continues his advance. ¶ d. The airplanes will continue contact and reconnaissance flights. ¶ 3. When contact with bandits may be expected, patrols will move at night, lying under cover during day. ¶ 4. A. Supply dump at WASPUC forward 1800 rations for LINSCOTT, WALKER and EDSON immediately upon receipt at WASPUC. Guard for this supply flotilla to WALKER from WASPUC garrison; thereafter from WALKER’s patrol. ¶ b. These supplies will probably arrive BOCAY several days after LINSCOTT and EDSON. Rations on hand must be conserved and supplies, such as beef on hoof, obtained locally. ¶ c. Evacuation via WANKS River for LINSCOTT, EDSON, and WALKER. ¶ 5. Communication by radio where operating, otherwise by airplanes."

1.   31 May 1928.
Cable from US Consul R. M. de Lambert, San José, Costa Rica, to Sec. State and Commander Special Service Squadron, USMC, on newspaper article, "Interview with Soldier of General Sandino, Wounded in Arm, Tells of Fight at Calpules where 279 Women Defeated the Yankees," in La Nueva Prensa, San José, 31 May 1931, p. 1.  
[NOTE:  It is noteworthy that none of the details of this alleged account by Miskitu Indian Celio Martínez correspond to any known facts (e.g., names & dates in the Battle of Ocotal). This story shows every sign of being a fabrication, Dr. Brooks' marginal notes notwithstanding.]  

"Sir: ¶ I have the honor to report that in an interview published in LA NUEVA PRENSA of San Jose on May 31, 1928, a self styled Sandino soldier, calling himself Celio Martinez, made statements which may be of interest. Translation of the article is hereto attached. From the text it would appear that the statements of the former ‘soldier’ are not entirely reliable. ¶ The Legation learned some days ago of the presence of former followers of Sandino in this country and desires, so far as possible, to keep the Department informed of any activities into which they may enter. So far as it has been possible to ascertain these men are not in Costa Rica in order to further the cause of Sandino but rather for the purpose of escaping from the dangers which might overtake them in Nicaragua. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ R. M. de Lambert . . . "

2.   31 May 1928.
Newspaper article, "Interview with Soldier of General Sandino, Wounded in Arm, Tells of Fight at Calpules where 279 Women Defeated the Yankees" (trans.), La Nueva Prensa, San José, 31 May 1931, p. 2.  
" . . . Enclosure No 1, dispatch No. 1225 of May 31, 1928 ¶ American Legation, San Jose, Costa Rica. ¶ TRANSLATION ¶ (News item from LA NEUVA PRENSA, May 31, 1928) ¶ INTERVIEW WITH SOLDIER OF GENERAL SANDINO, WOUNDED IN ARM, TELLS OF FIGHT AT CALPULES WHERE 279 WOMEN DEFEATED THE YANKEES. ¶ One of General Sandino’s soldiers knocked at our door yesterday. He was a Mosquito Indian, with all the characteristics of that race, amongst which were his color, his melancholic expression, a certain nervousness in speaking and one earlobe being pierced. This Sandino soldier has a bad wound in the right arm. In reply to our questions the Sandino soldier said: ¶ My name is Celio Martinez, I am of Mosquito origin; but for years past I have been living in the San Domingo section of Managua, whence I departed to present myself voluntarily before the Nicaraguan Liberator, General Sandino, whom I followed for some time. I was wounded in the fight at Ococtal, where about 300 fell on our side and more than twice that number of Yankees. This fight occurred on the 12th of May. Other wounded accompany me, Rafael Jimenez, Benigno Hernandez, German Garcia, Samuel Tinoco, Francisco Mairens, Jose de J. Sequeira, Juan Leiva, Julian Leiva, Eligio Castrillo and Simeon Vargas. We are stopping at the Hotel Golosina. ¶ What sort of soldier is General Sandino, we asked him. ¶ He is a great General, replied the likeable Indian, he would rather not eat or drink than neglect his troops. ¶ How do you say, in Mosquito dialect, that General Sandino is the great Liberator? ¶ ‘Yan marainla lukiauis, abrigo para ail Gral. Sandino.’ That is what we heard, we do not know whether that is the proper way to write it. ¶ Replying to other questions, the soldier Martinez said: ¶ Other good leaders are with General Sandino, such as Tijerino (of Leon), Simeon Vargas (Chinandega), and Jesus Marenquillo and Daniel Mena. Incidentally, I heard that the last mentioned killed his father, don Luis, because he was a traitor. ¶ Has General Sandino much equipment? ¶ He has enough, replied the soldier. He operates with few arms, but he has all war provisions and food stuff in a cave which he has that is about 5 kilometers long with hidden air-holes and entrances. ¶ Have there been many other battles? ¶ There have been a great many, replied the soldier Martinez, but the most famous was one at Calpules where 279 women of Leon and Chinandega, dressed as men, fought against superior forces of Yankees, who clamorously took flight . . . "

3.   31 May 1928.
Newspaper article, "Interview with Soldier of General Sandino, Wounded in Arm, Tells of Fight at Calpules where 279 Women Defeated the Yankees" (trans.), La Nueva Prensa, San José, 31 May 1931, p. 3.  
" . . . The Mosquito smiled, laughed with peculiar malice and joy, and as we heard the tale of Calpules, we dreamed of the suluotas women."

4.   31 May 1928.
Copy of original newspaper article, "Nos vista, herido en un brazo, un soldado del General Sandino - Nos habla de un combate en Calpules donde 279 mujeres," La Nueva Prensa, San José, 31 May 1931, p. 4.

31 May 1928.
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley to Gen. Feland, Managua.

31 May 1928.
Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley to Gen. Feland, Managua.

 

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