Header image
the atlantic coast  •  1932A, p. 5
may 28 - june 30, 1932

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +













1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE FIFTH PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1932 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing documents dated in the 34 days from May 28 to June 30.

     The dramatic weeklong battle for control of the mining districts between the Upper Waspuk and the Upper Bambana (19-26 May) dominates the documents on this page, with gripping & detailed eyewitness accounts told from multiple angles:

•  Guardia combat reports:

•  Somarriba on 25 May (previous page)

•  Gray on 27 May (previous page)

•  Gray on 28 May

•  Curcey on 31 May

•  Moravian missionaries’ letters & reports:

•  Heath on 8 June

•  Danneberger on 9 June

•  Heath again on 15 June

•  additional letters on adjoining pages

Spy report & declaration of released EDSN captives:

•  Agustín Rivera spy report of 28 May

•  Damaso Gómez and Florencio Sáenz declaration of 30 May

Sandino’s letters & bulletins:

•  Sandino bulletin to Indo-Hispanic Observers on 18 May (previous page)

•  Sandino letter to Estrada & Morales on 22 May (previous page)

•  Sandino letter to Estrada on 3 June

     The abundance of sources on these little-known events is remarkable.  An elaborate study could be crafted around the events of this week alone.  Upwards of 400-500 Sandinista soldiers joined in the grand offensive, led by Generals Pedrón Altamirano and Pedro Antonio Irías.  The struggle hinged on the EDSN’s determination to dominate the towns & mines of the mining districts, and the Guardia’s determination to keep the mines, towns & commissaries from falling into rebel hands.  The offensive seems to conclude without a clear victory for either side — though as we learn in later pages, Pedron & Irias's forces suffer a huge defeat, with upwards of 60 dead and utter destitution among the survivors.  Despite the rebels' grit and resolve, the Guardia’s superior resources and weapons give them a decisive military advantage.  Many insights on the unfolding battle for control of the mining districts and the Coast as a whole might be gleaned from these texts.

     Further south in eastern Chontales, armed groups seemingly independent of the EDSN pose an ostensible threat to the commissaries & stores around Muelle de los Bueyes and El Recreo, upriver from El Rama on the Río Mico; the Guardia pushes back and the group vanishes (El Recreo marks the limit of unimpeded navigation upriver; both river towns sit along a telegraph & telephone line running east through Rama to Bluefields).

     In Bluefields the political campaigns for the upcoming November elections are well underway, with Liberals under Juan Bautista Sacasa and Enoc Aguado leading the pack.  Meantime across the region some 200 “cívicos” (members of civilian auxiliary militias) buttress the Guardia’s growing power.  Here are the figures, one of the many gems buried in these documents:






Neptune Mine





Punta Gorda


El Bluff


El Rama



La Cruz


El Gallo



Rio Grande Bar







* see Guardia Troop Distribution tables, May 1932 

**  see 32.06.07 Leech p. 3 on this page

        In other words, the Atlantic Coast region saw more cívicos under private contract than members of the Guardia Nacional — with the institutionalization of partially privatized public security forming a critical part of the rapid & ongoing transformation of the power & reach of the national state.  The unfolding events in the mining districts form one leading edge of these longer-term shifts.


1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

28 May 1932.
Declaration of Don Agustín Rivera, Neptune Mine, to Commanding Officer GN, p. 1.  
"At Neptune Mine on the 28th day of May, 1932, Mr. Rivera who was sent as a spy on the 19th of the month to locate the Bandits under the command of Pedron and Irias, answered the following questions:  ¶  Tell me what happened since the day you left here.  ¶  The 19th when I left here because I believed it to be the worst road, and because the bandits never had passed on it, I took the road by the name of “Don Julina” which comes out at the finca of Don Julian Maireno, or which is called “Del Tico” in the region of Rio Bambana.  At 9 o’clock in the morning I paused by the place which is called “Cacaotal” or two hours from here to Francisco Morales residence.  I was talking with an old man and until then he know nothing, although it was generally known that the Bandits were is La Ceiba.  I went on a little further and in Mr. Eustacio Cornfield I was surprised by the advance guard of the enemy but due to ability and the goodness of God I was able to flee and hide in the bush behind a big Ceiba Tree listening while the enemy passed.  A little later they stopped and one of them returned to look for the General Pedron who I know perfectly well and whose voice I recognized.  The soldier spoke to the General.  Things are bad because we are near the enemy and the Pedron answered, Aja, Why?  Because here comes a very fresh track in the road which leads towards the mountains to which Pedron replied, Man, I wonder if this couldn’t be the Bandit Agustin, I do not doubt that he will go to give information at Tunky but it doesn’t matter; take care, and they continued marching leaving me behind.  When the last bandit passed I went through the bush and not using the road and later further along I was surprised by those who were coming behind and they captured me, but I told them I was on a mission from Pedron to where Gral. Irias was, and until then I didn’t know that General Irias was the one in back of me and by suppositions at which they let me pass giving me some soldiers who took me where the General was, and for a second time I pulled a fast one on them taking the bush and coming out at the finca of Ignacio Iglesias on Rio Bambana.  The wife of Ignacio knew nothing and her oldest son was not there, I told her what happened and continued ahead but only though the bush; a little further on I saw at the turn of the road other soldiers coming.  At this point I was very frightened because I believed that the whole district was infested with bandits.  ¶  I slept in the bush and very early in the morning I looked for a way out, and came out at the home of Mr. Aberlino Martinez where the bandits had been the day before, and found him in a lamentable state, shoeless without clothes and almost insane, then I suffered a strong attack of rheumatism and couldn’t’ walk.  ¶  Q. What did don Abelino tell you.  ¶  A. The following.  That the intention of the bandits was to capture Neptune Mines and this time they would take it, as they were bringing many men and machine guns, and that they would leave all in ashes beginning with the Pineda brother, and they asked especially for Adrian who they said is an American sympathizer.  That after taking the Mines . . . "

28 May 1932.
Declaration of Don Agustín Rivera, Neptune Mine, to Commanding Officer GN, p. 2.   
". . . and the Machine guns they would go to Wuani and capture it, and that he with his own ears heard Pedron say that he was neither Abraham Rivera nor Simeon Gonzales, and that he was going to show them who was Petron Altamirano, and that he would cut-------and renounce his name if he didn’t go to the Mine.  ¶  Q. Were you able to ascertain how many bandits they were.  ¶  A. By what I could calculate by the first group of people who were with Pedron they were more than two hundred for I was very near the road and was able to estimate more or less and with Irias were a considerable number, in addition I obtained exact data from a young man by the name of Carsamo, whom they had brought the direction of Wuani, and they had turned loose at house of Don Adelina.  He told me that his cousin was with the bandits they had treated him with consideration, and that he was able to see everything.  ¶  He told me that he estimated that they were in two bands and about five hundred men and that Irias had told him personally that if they entered Neptune they would pay back what they had done to them in Sulun, and Biltigni. Irias boasted to his troops telling them they were going to eat crackers in the commissaries very soon and that would be well clothed, well shod, and furnished with good women.  It was fun to hear them arrange their plans as if everyone was tied down or sleeping.  The data that I am giving you although I was not present I assure that it is certain because I know the young many very well.  ¶ Q. What kind of arms did they have.  ¶  A. Good arms, and between the two generals, they were no less than eight machine guns, two of them thick barrels and with a large plate like disk, but very little ammunition not more than 50 rds.  ¶  Q. Why didn’t you come here immediately.  ¶  Because it was impossible on account of rheumatism and secondly because it was impossible for me to pass through this circle of Bandits.  But I did sent Santos Salgado to advise and he immediately went to see in which direction they had gone, and he also sneaked through their boards, but when he arrived at his house and met Ramon Cruz, who was going as a messenger to Wuani, and he went back to the Mines to give them information who arrived there in time to warn them.  ¶  This is all the information that I have to give, and I am always at your service.  ¶  AGUSTIN RIVERA."

28 May 1932.
Contact Report, Lt. E. T. Gray, Neptune Mine, (contact at 1330, 21 May 1932), p. 1.  
"Reference: (Harlen Pefley) map, where contact took place.  (110.6-300.7)  ¶  1. Upon learning accurate location of one bandit group, I cleared with the following patrol, at 1330, 21 May 1932.  ¶  Sgt. Garcia, Agustine #2318, Cabo Martinez, Carlos #1849, Raso Alvarez, Gilberto #4948, Raso Chaves, Rafael #4776, Raso Gomez, Leonardo #3282, Raso Gorgena, Alejandro #3469, Raso Lopez, Calixto #4893, Raso Mairena, Inocente #4892, Raso Joshua, Erdenso #4897, Raso Sanchez, Felix #4791, Raso Sevilla, Eusebio #4895, Civico Domingo Martinez, Civico Francisco Espinoza, Civico Ramon Cruz, Civico Ramon Barohona  ¶  Patrol took a due south direction, our destination about six miles from Neptune Mine.  After about forty five minutes traveling I asked my guide how much farther the group reported was from our present position.  He told me we were almost half way.  I turned to motion the patrol on, and glancing through the woods, I saw five men pass and look directly at me.  For the minute I thought they were Civicos of Lieut. Cursey’s patrol, who we had been expecting.  These bandits were traveling over a new cut trail, about fifteen yards from and parallel to our own, going in direction of Neptune.  I immediately flanked my patrol to try and encounter entire group, before they (the bandits) could scatter.  Patrol moved fast in order to catch them, and on entering their trail I found it turned to sharp right angles to our original one, along a steep and thickly wooded hillside.  ¶  2. We opened fire with BAR after learning location of bandits automatic weapon and gathered patrol back into the trail.  The flank movement was miscalculated.  We could not see any bandits during first of the fire and patrol ceased firing.  Immediately bandits gave us a heavy fire, then the firing became irregular.  I made an aggressive advance toward the group but to have continued would of placed patrol in a deep ravine with the bandits about ten yards above us on the opposite side.  Patrol moved around to the right, for an offensive position and this action routed the bandits.  The bandits used rifles, TEMG, shotguns and bombs. . . . "

28 May 1932.
Contact Report, Lt. E. T. Gray, Neptune Mine, (contact at 1330, 21 May 1932), p. 2.  
" . . . 3. From evidence in the trail, reports, and bandits firing position, I estimate this group to be about 100 men, under Irias and well armed with weapons and plenty of ammunition, as they expended as much or more than my patrol.  ¶  4. We captured four riding animals, two blanket rolls containing personal clothing, and fifty round Krag, new combat ammunition.  Picked up over a hundred round of various cal. ammunition, springfield, krag, forty five ammunition, and shotgun shells, which were all spent. The animals were equipped with native saddles.  The usual supply of machetes were also captured.  About 20 of them.  ¶  5. Patrol was unable to ascertain or verify any bandit causalities, however indications and reports are that there were several killed and a large number wounded.  My opinion, there were not many killed if any at all.  There were no Guardia casualties.  The contact lasted approximately one hour.  My patrol expended 400 rounds Springfield, 900 rounds Krag and fifty shotgun shells.  We were armed with 11 rifles, Krag, 1 B.A.R., 2 Springfield rifles, 1 grenade discharger with 6 grenades, (unable to use grenades due to heavy brush) and three shotguns.  This contact took place at about 1430.  Cleared scene at 1550 and returned to Neptune Mine about 1635.  ¶  6. The conduct of my patrol was of the most commendable and praiseworthy manner during the entire contact. Sergeant Garcia handled the B.A.R. with utmost effectiveness.  ¶  E. T. GRAY."

28 May 1932.
Contact Report, Lt. E. T. Gray, Neptune Mine, (contact at 0840, 23 May 1932), p. 1.  
"Reference: (Harlen Pefley ) map, (110.8-300.7) where contact took place.  ¶ 1.  On information that main group of bandits under Pedron were traveling toward Biltigni and apparently leaving our immediate vicinity, I cleared with the following patrol at 0840, 23 May 1932.  ¶  Sgt. Garcia, Augustino #2318, Cabo Vargas, Eliseo #2130, Raso Agurcia, Rosendo #4644, Raso Alvila, Domingo #4458, Raso Chaves, Rafael #4776, Raso Cuarezma, Emilo #4772, Raso Fernandez, Narciso #4745, Raso Sanchez, Felix #4791, Raso Villabolo, Ricardo #4808, Raso Lopez, Calixto #4693, Civico Domingo Martinez, Civico Dolores Castro, Civico Eustaquio Silez, Civico Francisco Espinoza, Civico Juan Duarte, Civico Juan Lopez, Civico Julio Cruz, Civico Ramon Barahona, Civico Francisco Gutierrez  ¶  2. Patrol proceeded due west of Neptune Mine on a trail which would not place us between the two largest groups, which were reported north of the station and in this manner assumed we might gain contact with both groups separately.  I cleared the patrol to a given place, through the bush and formed them as secret as possible, as all our actions were being spied upon from the nearby hills.  This was a distance of about one mile from Neptune Mine.   Patrol proceeded down the trail. There was a large ravine, with a low wooden bridge which six of us had crossed.  Three men in the point, Sgt. Garcia with the (BAR), myself and the rifle Grenade man.  Bandits immediately opened fire on patrol completely surrounding us.  My guide was struck down by a machete and fired upon.  The point then had hand to hand conflict with the bandits.  Heavy BAR fire cleared a position to our left and Sgt. Garcia took charge of that point.  I re-crossed the bridge to get to the main body, as they were receiving heavy automatic fire from the bandits.  Crossing the bridge, I was stunned by a bomb explosion for a minute and got up to the main body placing Cabo Vargas in charge of the left flank and Sgt. Garcia on my right flank.  We then gave all of our attention to the bandit automatic fire on the higher ground, ignoring the single fire action in our rear.  I placed rifle grenades in the most effective positions and patrol gained the . . . "

28 May 1932.
Contact Report, Lt. E. T. Gray, Neptune Mine, (contact at 0840, 23 May 1932), p. 2.  
". . . the effective position, in a short time this action routed the bandits.  ¶  3. This group was reported to be three hundred, and all evidence shows there were a least two hundred well armed with 2 BAR’s, 1 TSMG, 2 Lewis MG, Krag and Springfield rifles, shoguns, pistols, bombs etc. Bandits used some sort of bomb or grenade, which was discharged by rifle, it does not have the detonation or effect of a rifle grenade, however.  Bandit group was again under Irias, instead of Pedron as earlier reported.  It seems Irias acted both on Pedron’s rear guard and avanzaria, during entire bandit activities this week.  A bugle was blown through the contact and bandit jefe called out:  Now I have you Macho, you and all of your dogs.  This lasted about one hour and a half of almost continuous fire and the bandits must have expended as much or more ammunition than my patrol.  At the same time of my contact, the power plant at Big Falls was being attacked and on my arrival in Neptune, the two fortifications on hills overlooking the town were also being attacked.  The airplanes timely arrival was a decisive end to bandit contemplation and plans.  I laid Help panel in order to get more forces to defend the Mine properly and continue offensive action.  The men were all exhausted here.  ¶  4. Patrol captured the following. 2 riding animals and saddles, 5 blanket rolls containing personal clothing, correspondence, 6 large cans salt, other articles of food, twenty rounds Krag and Springfield and picked up a great quantity of spent Krag and Springfield, 45 cal., and shotgun shells.  ¶  5. Bandit casualties known, 17 dead and a number wounded.  No serious Guardia casualties.  Bandit Jefes were Pedron Altamirano, Pedro Irias, Peralta, Sanchez Salinas, Simon Pineda, Tomas Pineda, Hernandez, Centeno, Simon Gonzalez and a brother of Pedron was known to be with this group.  ¶  6. My patrol was armed with 14 Krag rifles, 2 Springfield rifles, 1 B.A.R., 4 shotguns, six rifle grenades and discharger.  The contact took place at about 0900 23 May.  I cleared for and arrived Neptune Mine 1116 23 May 1932.  ¶  7. The conduct of the patrol was most commendable, and I recommend that Sgt. Agustino Garcia #2318 and Cabo Eliseo Vargas #2130 be especially commended for their praiseworthy performance.  The Civico group all voluntarily participated in the contact, in the most excellent manner.  ¶  E.T. GRAY."

30 May 1932.
Declarations of Damaso Gómez & Florencio Sáenz, District of Neptune Mine, to Commanding Officer GN, p. 1.  
[NOTE:  This important document is presented in three ways and analyzed in  TOP 100 PAGE 85:  (1) as an exact transcription, (2) in standard Spanish, and (3) in English translation.  Here it is presented in standard Spanish.] 

"Declaraciones tomadas de Damaso Gómez y Florencio Sáenz quienes fueron prisoneros de los bandoleros desde el veinte de Mayo [1932], habiéndoles soltado en el río Asa el día 29 de los corrientes.  ¶  Preguntas a Damaso Gómez . . . ¿Pórque Ud no compareció a esta cuando fue notificado el día 19 de los corrientes?  Porque yo no me encontraba en mi casa y cuando yo supe era que ya las tropas tenían rodeada la casa, habiéndome capturado y traído a la casa de Daniel Reyes y después a la casa de Florencio Sáenz a quienes también aprendieron y amarraron.  ¶  ¿Cuánta gente llegó donde estaba el propio Pedrón y había bastante gente?  Él estaba en la bodega vieja de Aguas Calientes y ahí durmieron.  El siguiente día estaban para matar una res cuando los aviones, entonces ellos se espantaron y tomaron rumbo hacia el tesoro o sea el camino viejo de la Panamá al Salto Grande.  Nosotros aun estábamos amarrados.  A la bajada del tesoro o sea un cerro grande fue cuando fue el fuego y todos se esparcieron unos por un lado y otros por otro.  ¶  ¿Con quién era que peleaban?  Pues supongo que son la Guardia, nosotros no nos dimos cuenta, pero fue nutrido.  (This amongst themselves, as there was no fighting that day with the Guardias.)  Después de eso fuego Pedrón se fue rumbo al Salto y dijo que él se iba a tomar El Salto y Irías y su gente la Mina.  En la finca de Pedro Vásquez nos tuvieron por dos días y ellos salían con su gente como que ya iban adentrara, pero cuando les rompían fuego de las fortalezas retrocedían.  Seguramente se dieron cuenta del Salto de donde se encontraban parte pusieron la máquina propiamente donde estaba el cuartel general y Pedrón y todos se espantaron yendo rumbo al lado de la Bodega de Pis Pis, donde se encuentro con el General Irías y ya lo contó lo que los había pasado.  Esa noche dormimos en esta finca y al siguiente día salimos rumbo hacia la Bodega de Pis Pis.  Irías se fue por el lado de Casca pero después supimos que venía atrás de nosotros porque él mandó un correo a Pedrón diciéndole que venía la Guardia en persecución de ellos.  Cuando nosotros estábamos donde [Juarez] oímos los tiros atrás y Pedro se metió a la montaña y dió orden a su gente que si había fuego que nos matara a todos.  Al siguiente día se apreció Irías y su gente y ya salimos todos juntos.  Al llegar al río de Asa ahí nos soltaron y nos venimos por montaña.  ¶  Quienes eran los jefes, con Pedrón iban un Sánchez, Santiago, Peralta y un tal Tomás Piñeda, estos eran los que hicimos montar.  Con Irías andaban un Simón González y los demás no recordamos los nombres porque poco les vinos pues nos andaba Pedrón.  ¶  ¿Porque le volaron la cabeza a Daniel Reyes?  Pues es que él iba con nosotros y como en el fuego mataron el custodia de él, él logró fugarse y resulta que en lugar de irse donde los guardias se encuentro con las tropas de Irías y si no más lo mataron.  ¶  ¿Andan bien armados y vestidas?  Que va señor, andan haraposos, descalzos, y es cierto que andan máquinas, pues cuatro andaba Pedrón y cuatro Irías, pero creo que andaban poco parque.  La esperanza de ellos era de entrar al Neptune, para acabar con todos los Machistas piñedistas moncadista, y en fin improperios decían. . . . "

30 May 1932.
Declarations of Damaso Gómez & Florencio Sáenz, District of Neptune Mine, to Commanding Officer GN, p. 2.  
" . . . ¿Como cuánta gente creen Uds que andaban por todos?  De las tropas de Pedrón andaban 250 y según nos dijeron andaba otro tanto Irías.  Nosotros solamente en dos ocasiones vimos a Irías y es más sanguinario que Pedrón, pues según sus frases está más ardido desde la derrota que tuvo en Biltigni.  Pedrón mandó a avisar a Irías que ya podía atacar la Mina, que él se encargará de la Mina y Pedrón se tomaría El Salto, que de El Salto lo llamaría para reunirse en El Neptuno.  Pero todo se engañaron.  ¶  ¿Que decían los soldados después de la derrota?  Estaban desconsolados y aterrorizados.  Creo que esas gentes no volverán.  ¶  Nosotros hemos pasado cuatro sustos pues de nada nos ponían machetes en la nuca y lo sobaban diciendo que nos cortarían la cabeza, pasa que Pedrón dió orden que si había otro ataque nos volarán la cabeza.  Cuando nos dieron libertad dijo Pedrón que él que quisiera ir con su gusto que se fuera con él.  De todos los que andábamos que eramos once, solamente dos Teodoro y Miguel Romero fueron los que se fueron con él.  Todos los demás nos venimos a nuestras casas.  ¶  Copia del original.  ¶  Mina Bonanza Mayo 30 de 1932.  ¶  Damaso Gómez y Florencio Sáenz.  ¶  Poco más o menos fueron las declaraciones de todos los demás que se presentaron."

1.     31 May 1932.
Combat Mission, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Wuani, p. 1.  
"References: (a) Orders Area Commander received via plane drop, 23 May, 1932. (b) 5th Regt. Special Map.  ¶  1. In compliance with above reference I am patrol of nineteen enlisted guardias, six civicos and one native guide cleared Wauni for Neptune Mines at 07424.  ¶  2. Orders for patrol were to proceed to Neptune with all possible speed, join forces with that Detachment, organize defense, patrol area working on local information and gain contact with bandit groups in the vicinity of mine.  ¶  24 May Patrol cleared Wauni at 0740 on Pis Pis trail for Neptune arrived and made camp on Fernandez Corro at 1710.  Very evident trail had been travelled by large group.  ¶  25 May Cleared Fernandez Corro at 0530 arrived and made camp at Lauriano Mateos house at 1630, house unoccupied.  ¶  26 May Cleared Lauriano Mateos House at 0600 arrived at Neptune at 1330.  Trail from this point to Neptune showed no sign of Bandits having travelled over it.  Rain responsible.  Devoted rest of day to cleaning equipment and arms.  ¶  27 May Cleared Neptune at 0800 and on information obtained from natives proceeded toward the Bodega from Bonanza Mine on Limon trail and about 3 miles from the Bonanza picked up a newly cut trail over two hills due East to the lone star range continued along the lone star trail, see attached sketch.  Trail along lone star not shown.  Myself and patrol followed trail and it was very evident Bandits were ahead of us by the signs of pools and chewed sugar cane strewn along trail.  We continued along this trail for a period of about four hours and come on to the Limon trail just on the outskirts of the town and noticed that they were still ahead of us we pushed right along for a . . . "

2.     31 May 1932.
Combat Mission, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Wuani, p. 2.  
 " . . . period of an hour having passed the first house out of Limon and nearing the second one which is about one league away when our point was climbing an incline when patrol, point rather, got about one hundred yards up the side to it they were fired on from both sides by a heavy rifle fire followed by machine gun fire.  The point immediately hit the ground for cover extended and took up fire.  The BAR with point swept both sides of bush but was unable to silence them.  The guardia main body upon attack immediately took position in extended order thru bush to the right while the rear guard to the left taking up the fire.  After carefully looking over the situation I directed the BAR with our rear guard to sweep bush with his fire but still the firing continued.  I again noticed where the fire from the machine gun was coming and directed the Rifle Grenade man to drop a few grenades in that direction and with our automatic weapon sweeping the bush we were able to drive them away.  Bandits were driven thru the bush toward the top of hill where a house was located.  We now proceeded forward very cautiously until we reached house and noticed that Bandits were unable to take anything with them (such as articles captured).  Trail was on other side of hill and direction Wuani. It was rather late and made camp there for night.  Engagement took place at or about 4:40 PM and lasted for a period of 20 to 25 minutes.  ¶  Number of bandits engaged about 50 with Rifles, pistols and shotguns. Also several dynamite bombs were thrown.  It was rear guard of Pedron group which attached Neptune and was under the command of Jefe known as Irias.  ¶  No known bandits killed.  ¶  No Guardia casualties.  ¶  Guardia employed 2 BAR’s – 1 STMG – 21 Krag Rifles and 1-45 Cal. pistol.  ¶  Bandits about 40-50 rifles.  Shotguns, pistols and dynamite bombs.  Also an auto weapon, Lewis or BAR.  ¶  The following was captured.  ¶  3 mules, 1 hog (dressed), 5 sticks of Dynamite, 15 Lbs. of Lard, 3 cows, 8 Blankets wet old, 10 Lbs. of salt, 2 Cutachas with scabbards, Old Clothing, cooking utensils, medicine, dried corn on cob, one sak and three bunches of green bananas.  ¶  Mules are now at Wuani in Guardia Potrero.  Cows left on trail at scene of engagement, owners will be notified thru Neptune Guardia and be permitted to get same.  All other articles destroyed.  ¶  The following is list of officers and Guardia participated in contact:- . . . "

3.     31 May 1932.
Combat Mission, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Wuani, p. 3.  
" . . . 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Sergeant CHAVEZ, Alberto #58, Corporal PINNOCK, Levy #4821, Corporal MORALES, Alfredo #141, Raso FLETES, Justino #3362, Raso CARDOZA, Jesus #3424, Raso CASTELLON, Simeon #3241, Raso VELASQUEZ, Luis #4630, Raso GUTIEREZ, Adolfo #4747, Raso BROCK, Cecil #2996, Raso MATUTE, Santiago #4749, Raso MARTINEZ, Salomon #3556, Raso FLORES, Encarnacion #4756, Raso DUARTE, Ceferino #4750, Raso RUGAMA, Julian #4899, Raso RENOS, Sipriano #3227, Raso LYNCH, Willie #4732, Raso VILLALOBOS, Ricardo #4808, Raso AVILLA, Domingo #4458, CABO VARGAS, Eliseo #2130  ¶  CIVICOS.  ¶  BOGRAN, Tranquilino, CRUZ, Pablo, FLOREZ, Pedro, RODRIGUEZ, Juan, CENTENO, Felix, PADILLA, Rafael.  ¶ The entire patrol including Civicos were very cool under fire and acted like veterans.  ¶  28 May Cleared scene of contact at 0530 and continued our chase along trail toward Wuani after having covered about a league and one half, noticed a newly built Bandit camp uncompleted with leaves for roofing laying aside and very evident that camp was not slept in.  A cow had been slaughtered at this camp but only a small portion of the meat taken with them rest of carcass left there.  A league or so further another camp similar was found to be uncompleted with another cow slaughtered and little of the meat taken. In both of the camps many articles of wet clothing were left behind along with them two pair of guardia leggings and two rubber ponchos such as issued to guardias, they were no means of identification though have reason to believe that the Kisalaya guardias deserters had joined Pedron.  Ammunition and Arms used at Neptune and our contact were some of those taken by deserters.  Some of the empty shells, picked at scene of engagement in bandit position were Krag combat and casings almost new.  We continued chase from scene of contact to place on outskirts of Suina and made camp there at 1940.  ¶  Noticed all along trail where bandits were shedding old shoes, leather leggings, articles of clothing.  There were at least 30 pair of shoes which were worn so bad that they had to be cast away and hike in their bare feet.  ¶  All along trail also noticed that their main diet was sugar cane and dried corn on the cob and very evident knew we were pushing them hard. Lost Bandit trail at about 1800 at Eldorado when they all trailed up creek and thru the bush to a trail to Asa.  I was anxious to continue to Suina for fear they were going to enter town and murder people there because they had taken up Arms again them. . . . "

4.     31 May 1932.
Combat Mission, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Wuani, p. 4.  
 " . . . 29 May Cleared outskirts of Suina at daybreak to find Suina very quiet.  When we entered it at 0550, I purchased coffee for patrol and cleared for Wuani at 0730 reaching Wuani at 1000.  Upon my arrival dispatched Lieut. Palacios, ten enlisted guardias and thirteen civicos of fresh troops to Alo with a view of cutting Pedron and his group off thinking he might be forced to return that way because there are no cattle or bananas toward Casa Vieja, the only other route out of this Area.  ¶  Lieutenant Palacio’s Patrol covered trail travelled by bandits from Alo to a point on Wani River known as Laimus but did not make contact nor could he obtain any information of bandit whereabouts because all natives on the upper river here either stayed here at Wuani or gone to the bush until Bandits clear District. Lieut. Palacio cleared Wuani at 1100 May 29-32 and returned to Wuani at 0930 May 31-32 without having seen anything of Bandits.  ¶  30 May Myself, ten enlisted guardias, ten civicos and one native guide cleared Wuani for Asa at 0730 on a combat mission on information that a group of Bandits had been seen there.  Arrived at Asa at 1230.  No bandits nor any sign of trails as having been travelled by any group.  Returned Wuani at 1730.  ¶  At 0830 sent native scout with two days rations on upper Wuani and Uli River for the purpose of locating or picking up traces of Bandits.  Scout returned at 1630 May 31-32 with information that Bandits were cutting new trail from point (19.7)-(E-7) over mountains to headquarters of Rio Illas, not shown on map, or else to Matagalpa trail to town of Illas thence to Bocay or Cubuli.  ¶  Since Lieutenant Palacio’s patrol arrived today I have had no other patrol out.  ¶  In any event, I obtain any information of their whereabouts I will give chase with a view of destroying them.  ¶  L. CURCEY"

5.     31 May 1932.
Combat Mission, 2nd Lt. Leonard Curcey, Wuani, p. 5.  
" . . . 1. Forwarded herewith is a report by Lt. Leonard M. Curcey, GN, of the activities of the troops and Civicos under his command during the bandit concentration around Neptune mine in the latter part of May.  ¶  2. Lieutenant Curcey acted promptly on receipt of orders and by his aggressiveness, sound judgment and active patrolling aided greatly in the successful defense of the mine, and enforcing the withdrawal of the bandits to the West. His energetic pursuit kept them moving rapidly and denied them any opportunity to raid either Siuna or Wauni and forced them to abandon livestock and other articles of supplies and equipment in the haste of their retreat.  ¶  3. The Area Commander feels that Lieutenant Leonard E. Curcey, GN. should be commended for his excellent work.  ¶  L. L. LEECH"

1 June 1932.
Extracts from GN-2 Report Covering the Month of May 1932.  
 [NOTE: These excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 32-page intelligence report covering the entire country, except two reports by Eastern Area Commander Col. Leech on May 27, which are included in chronological sequence in these East Coast pages.  The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]   LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS.  ¶  . . .   [p. 4]   PEDRON ALTAMIRANO:  Reported with 200 bandit at Los Terreros on May 14.  On May 16 reported group split into two equal parts and proceeded toward Coco River.  ¶  . . . May 21: Reported in contact with Lieutenant Gray and patrol from Neptune Mine, near the mine.  ¶  May 22:  Reported with group of 500 in vicinity of Neptune Mine, planning an attack in force upon that place.  ¶  May 23:  Reported in contact with Lieutenant Gray and patrol one mile west of Neptune Mine.  [NOTE:  Of the 16 jefes surveyed in this section, only Pedrón was reported active in the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 6]   UNITS IN CONTACT.  ¶  . . .   [p. 7]   May 23 – Lieutenant Gray and combined guardia and civico patrol of 20 men had contact lasting thirty minutes one mile west of Neptune Mine on May 23rd with large bandit group under Pedron Altamirano which has been threatening guardia post at that place.  Fighting very tense.  Upon return of patrol to Neptune Mine, cuartel was attacked by another group from north but attack repulsed.  Planes by bombing dispersed bandits and broke up further attack.  Bandit casualties 17 killed.  No serious guardia casualties.  [NOTE:  Of the 16 contacts reported in May, only the foregoing contact at Neptune Mine was in the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 8]   STRENGTH AND MOVEMENT[NOTE:  Of the 41 items in this category, none concerned the Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 13]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 2 MAY 1932.  ¶  . . . GENERAL INFORMATION.  ¶ . . . The recent report of bandits operating west of Rama near the Chontales border, has been found to be much exaggerated.  A small group of local thieves have been causing trouble and have been spreading the report that a large bandit group was in that section.  ¶ . . .   [p. 15]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 9 MAY 1932.  [NOTE:  Nothing on Eastern Area.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 17]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 16 MAY 1932.  [NOTE:  Nothing on Eastern Area.]   [p. 18]   ¶  . . . WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 23 MAY 1932.  ¶  . . . Neptune Mines reported engaged with large group estimated as 500, one of the jefes said to be Pedron Altamirano, 22 May.  ¶  . . .  ESTIMATE.  ¶  The movement of bandit groups during the week indicates a drift from the north into the Departments of Leon and Chinandega, and a renewal of bandit activity on the Atlantic Coast, particularly in the mines region.  An exceptionally large bandit concentration has been made around the Neptune Mines.  However, the initial attack of the bandits was repulsed with the assistance of planes from Puerto Cabezas and the situation is improving in that section.  The bandits have never sustained   [p. 19]   any given attack longer than a few hours and in this case they will probably remain in the vicinity of the mines watching for an opportunity to make another attack.  The arrival of reinforcements at Neptune will clear the bandits out of that immediate section.  If the number of bandits is as great as estimated at Neptune, they will in all probability break up into lesser groups and cause much trouble in the lower Rio Grande section and in Northern Bluefields for the next two weeks. . . .  ¶   [p. 20]   WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE, WEEK ENDING 30 MAY 1932.  ¶  BANDIT GROUPS.  ¶  Large bandit group under Pedron Altamirano engaged by Lieut Gray and guardia patrol from Neptune Mines about one mile west of mines.  Bandit casualties 17 killed.  No guardia casualties.  Another bandit group attacked Neptune same day but were dispersed by return of Lieut Gray and a bombing attack by planes from Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  . . . GENERAL INFORMATION.  ¶ . . .   [p. 21]   Reports from the Atlantic Coast are to the effect that the vigorous operations of the Neptune Mine Detachment supported by planes from Puerto Cabezas, broke up the bandit concentration in the mining section.  The bandits have dispersed and no reports have been received as to where they went.  Some bandits are reported in the Dept. of Northern Bluefields but they are very short on ammunition and are avoiding contact with the Guardia.  ¶  . . .   [p. 32]   CONSOLIDATED REPORT OF CONTACTS OF THE GUARDIA NACIONAL FOR THE MONTH OF MAY 1932.  ¶  . . . NEPTUNE MINE, 21st, Lt. Grey, 4 animals, saddles captured.  ¶  NEPTUNE MINE 23rd, Lt. Grey, 17 bandits killed. . . .  [NOTE:  Of the 15 contacts reported for the month of May, only these two were in the Eastern Area.]"

1.     3 June 1932.
Carta, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Gen. Francisco Estrada, p. 1.  
 (Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 227)

2.     3 June 1932.
Carta, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Gen. Francisco Estrada, p. 2.   
 (Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 228)

3.     3 June 1932.
Carta, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino to Gen. Francisco Estrada, p. 3.   
 (Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 229)

1.     7 June 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area & Dept of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields.  ¶  E INTELLIGENCE.  ¶  May 2 A group of forty-give bandits JUAN MORALES (Jefe), was reported moving up the ULAN RIVER from SANDY BAY. Five automatic weapons and twelve rifles.  ¶  May 8 A group of forty bandits POLICARPO FONSECA (Sub-Jefe) raided PASO LAJAS near CHONTALES border.  Two Guardia deserters were reported to be with this group.  FONSECA, a former resident of MUELLE DE LOS BUEYES, was dressed in full Guardia uniform, was armed with a pistol and Springfield rifle.  His description was given as stocky build, complexion, yellow.  The group was armed with the Springfield, some KRAG rifles and shotguns.  This group operated in the vicinity of the UPPER SEQUIA to the extent that many families have moved from that district into RAMA.  Included against those were two Jueces de Mestas.  Do not believe this group to be well armed due to the fact that they have avoided contact with Guardia patrols and that they failed to make any attempt to raid MUELLE REAL and EL RECREO.  (A patrol from RAMA followed the above mentioned group into CHONTALES without result).  The better class of people are leaving the UPPER SEQUIA fearing trouble.  It has been reported to the Guardia at RAMA that the Conservative element is prepared for any emergency should a Liberal candidate be reelected this year.  ¶  May 12 Reliable native (SALGADO) reported at WUANI that he had been captured the day before by a group of bandits two hundred to two hundred and fifty.  PEDRO ALTAMIRANO (Jefe), in vicinity of MATAGALPA TRAIL at point (19.5-EE 05) 5th Regt. Special Map.  At this place the bandits point, with whom SALGADO was, made camp. ALTAMIRANO with the main body and rear guard continued crossing the trail and were cutting their way through in a northerly direction with a large number of machete men.  This group was apparently out of food, poorly clothed and not well armed according to SALGADO’S report.  ¶  May 13 Small bandit group reported operating in the vicinity of MUELLE DE LOS BUEYES on RIO MICO.  (Jefe unknown) Destination unknown.  Patrol cleared from RAMA.  ¶  May 14 CAPE GRACIAS reported that from information received through a spy captured by the Guardia that a bandit group of fifty, ABRAHAM RIVERA (Jefe), was operating in the vicinity of CRUTA and was moving towards CAPE GRACIAS. . . ."

2.     7 June 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area & Dept of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . May 16 A group of fifty well-armed JUAN GONZALES (Jefe), reported in vicinity of SACKLIN by Guardia Commander, KISALAYA.  ¶  May 19-26  On 19 May Lieutenant GRAY, NEPTUNE MINE reported a group estimated at 300, ALTAMIRANO and GONZALES (Jefes) surrounding NEPTUNE.  This group was apparently augmented by other groups until it numbered not less than 500 (estimated).  The NEPTUNE MINE Area was so infested with bandits during the period 19 to 26 May that it was necessary to stop all operations at the Mine for a period of six days.  Normal activities at the mine were resumed the 27th.  Planes aided materially in the operations against the bandits during this period.  ¶  May 27 Lieutenant CURCEY, following the bandits from NEPTUNE MINE made contact with a group near JUANON, IRIAS AND PERALTA (Jefes) information at this time indicated that the main bandit group was heading in the direction of WUANI.  Later information however, indicates that bandits were heading west and into the department of MATAGALPA.  ¶  2. Military Situation:-  Do not anticipate any large concentrations of bandit groups in the Eastern Area during June.  It is possible that several small groups are still within the area limits and that these groups will harass the smaller farms in the outlying districts avoiding all contact with the Guardia.  ¶  3. Economic Situation:-  The banana export business which invariably slackens at this time of the year continues to hold its own.  Approximately 100,000 stems were shipped to the states during the month of May.  At no time during the past two years has the banana industry flourished as now.  The price of fruit is low as compared with previous prices.  Conditions generally on the coast are good.  ¶  4. Sanitary Conditions:- Satisfactory.  As a result of the establishment of a womans venereal hospital in April, under the supervision of the Guardia, the percentage of venereal cases in BLUEFIELDS has been reduced considerably.  There was a decided drop in the percentage of fever cases during May as a result of daily showers during the month.  ¶  5. Political Situation:-  Quiet.  On the 2nd the Conservative party held its annual convention at the Variety Theatre.  Delegates to the National Convention and the local directive were selected. . . . "

3.     7 June 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area & Dept of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.   
" . . . Meeting was orderly.  On the 5th. a local campaign favorable to Dr. ENOC AGUADO, incumbent Vice President of the Republic for the Liberal nomination for the presidency was officially launched.  On the 8th meeting was held in the local park sponsoring the nomination of Dr. ENOC AGUADO, for presidency.  Alcade SPRINGER and Treasurer IBARRA are the Chief booters for the candidacy of Dr. AGUADO.  The politically minded are following with real interest the proceedings of the Liberal National Convention and the majority hope for the reelection of Dr. Juan Bautista SACASA as the Liberal nominee for the presidency.  ¶ 6.  No friction has been reported between the Guardia and the civil population. The press continues a friendly attitude towards the Guardia.  ¶  7. Weather:-  Weather conditions have been good and favorable for patrolling. River and coastwise transportation schedules have been regular.  Visibility for air reconnaissance except on the occasion has been good.  There were showers and at times heavy rains during the entire period covered by this report.  ¶  8. Condition of Telephone and Telegraph Communications:-  ¶  Civilian Tropical Radio Telegraph Company – Excellent.  ¶  Guardia KISALAYA – NONE.  ¶  Guardia NEPTUNE MINE – GOOD.  ¶  F CONFISCATION OF ARMS.  ¶  Confiscated during the month Serviceable – 2 RIFLES, 2 PISTOLS  ¶  Confiscated during the month Unserviceable – 4 PISTOLS  ¶  Previously reported – 6 RIFLES, 6 SHOTGUNS, 11 PISTOLS  ¶  Total – 8 RIFLES, 6 SHOTGUNS, 11 PISTOLS, 0 CUTTING WEAPONS  ¶  G TRAINING  ¶  Except where interfered with by patrolling, training schedules have been maintained. Discipline has been satisfactory.  ¶  H MISCELLANEOUS  ¶  On 13 May the President of the Republic appointed Sr. THOMAS OCAMPO, Jefe Politico of CAPE GRACIAS as the relief of Sr. FRANCISCO GARCIA.  ¶  On 13 May, the Jefe Politico, BLUEFIELDS, cleared by plane for MANAGUA.  ¶  The fiesta held in EL RAMA from 28 to 30 May, was orderly and no arrests were made during this period.  This fiesta was authorized by Presidential Decree.  ¶  I CIVICOS:-  ¶  Bluefields 74, District of Siquia (El Rama) 15, El Gallo 10, Rio Grande Bar 12, Neptune Mine 95."

8 June 1932.
Letter from G. R. Heath, Kaukira, Honduras, to A. O. Danneberger.   
"Dear Br. Danneberger,  ¶  Enclosed I am sending you a report of a recent evangelistic journey to Brus and other places. I hope the Provincial Board will give it careful consideration.  ¶  On the Butuk River (Patuca) and in Brus I met various refugees from the Sangsang region.  You have, I believe, visited Sangsang, and will remember many of the people.  I fear that their present condition is not fully understood.  Apart from those who have fled down the river there seem to be three groups.  One group has made common cause with lawlessness and violence.  Another set of men are trying hard to have nothing to do with wickedness, but do not leave the district partly because they are afraid that if they go they may lose their lands, and partly because they have been threatened with death if they have anything to do with the Guardia.  They have suffered greatly and are often in hiding.  Such are Reuben Wilson of San Carlos, Jesus of Asang, and with them Petrona Spicer of Sangsang whose husband – a bad character – is dead.  In between these two groups is another, which does not wish to commit any crime, but which cooperates with the insurgents in the honest belief that they are the real rulers of the land.  They have been told that the Lower Wangks and Bilwi are the only parts that still hold out: and that as soon as these are captured the Indians who took refuge there will be severely punished.  ¶  How many have fled to the Butuk I do not know; but I do not think there are many who have built houses, cut boats, planted, and in general prepared for a long stay.  From what I can hear most are going backwards and forwards.  Not long ago, I am told, news came over that there would be no more fighting and that all should return.  A number went back, and were promptly captured and forced to do service.  ¶  There is one Jonas Dixon Reyes of Kiplapini (Carrizal) who was formerly an applicant for baptism, but was careless.  Some time ago he became very ill and apparently died; but as the body remained warm they did not buy him; and eventually it turned out that he was only in a trance.  He now is preaching to the people; and sent me a letter (written by a friend’s hand), in which he complains that the people now have no shepherd, and adds that he is doing his best to feed the scattered flock.  Whether this is a case of real conversion, or only of “spirtism” and self-exaltation, I have not enough information to judge.  Unfortunately the Miskito language as commonly used would quite allow of the phrase “died and rose again” to be applied to a deep trance, as he seems to apply it.  So I have taken care to point out to all and sundry that our Lord’s Resurrection, on which our faith rests, is a very different matter indeed.  ¶  With best brotherly greetings,  ¶  I remain,  ¶  Yours faithfully, . . . "

1.     8 June 1932.
Report by G. R. Heath, Kaukira, Honduras, "A Visit To Brus and Other Places," p. 1.  
"A VISIT TO BRUS AND OTHER PLACES.  ¶  In July 1931 an Indian from Brus named Woodrow Wilson, with his wife and stepdaughter came to Kaurkira and applied for baptism.  Serious illness of various members of his household, and two deaths, prevented him from returning for instruction before Easter. Since that – indeed since January – the famine has been severe throughout this while region; they could bring very little food, and we of Kaurkira had practically nothing to offer them.  More than once Woodrow wrote, by the hand of a neighbour, explaining his case.  ¶  Although this part of Honduras is considered quiet and safe, yet Kaurkira is on the usual track of every kind of traveler and wanderer, and the mission premises are, unavoidably, very isolated.  During our first months here, therefore, I hesitated to be away from home more than a few days at a time, but the passing of the months have given more confidence; and as my wife was remarkably free from all traces of fear, I left for a fortnight’s journey on May 18th.  The Brethren Leo Mueller and James Marley of Wahamlaya came with me, and we had one Joseph Bendless, a young heathen Indian from here, as our pilot and our canoe-captain for lagoons.  ¶  The Caratasca Lagoon is considerably larger than the Pearl Lagoon, and is very treacherous.  Though we had no rough weather, the wind was contrary, and at the end of the first day we only reached Krata.  Here we had evening service.  Meetings at Krata are always well attended and apparently appreciated; but as yet the people will not trouble to journey to any other village to hear the gospel, even though invited.  ¶  Leaving at daybreak, we still had more than six hours on the lagoon.  (That is, the Caratasca Lagoon.) Just inside the very much smaller Warunta Lagoon there is high ground suitable for camping; but after this NO MORE FOR EIGHT HOURS’ PADDLE.  Night caught us just inside the Tilbalakan Creek.  We pulled our boat into a shallow reed marsh, and erected our large tarpaulin into a shelter from rain; but the mosquitoes allowed us no sleep at all.  So at two in the morning we went on by moonlight up the Ribra Creek.  Seven hours’ paddle against the current brought us to the Butukauas landing.  From there the savanna path of four miles or so to Butukauas is quite good, with no bad creeks or sloughs to pass.  The path to Paptalaya (which I tried on our return) is of about the same length, but bad. That from Tilbalakan to Krupunta is notorious. But there are times when it will be better to wade the Tilbalakan swamps rather than spend four or five extra hours in the Ribra Creek. We were impressed by the fact that it is ONLY IN VERY EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES THAT ONE CAN GET FROM KAURKIRA TO THE BUTUK IN TWO DAYS. It usually takes most of three days. ¶ BUTUKAUAS contains 20 houses; Paptalaya, about a mile and a half to the north, 10 more; Krupunta, about a mile and a half north of Paptalaya, 5 more. Total 35. But Waksma and Auasdakban can be reached in a few hours across the savanna in ordinary weather; so that the total number of houses in the immediate neighbourhood would be about 50. The attendance and interest at our service was good; and we left with a promise of spending Sunday 29th with these people. There are not many mosquitoes at Butukauas, whereas at Krupunta they are unusually bad.  ¶  Twelve hours’ hard paddling brought us to Brus late on Saturday night.  There are no settlements on the lower river, as human habitation is rendered impossible, not only by the periodical inundations, but especially by the mosquitoes.  These are vicious enough to kill a dog; and it is affirmed that on one occasion the Indians tied a certain criminal hand and foot and left him for the night on a gravel beach.  One night was enough; in the morning he was dead.  Our camp experience on our return journey convinced us of the probable truth of this story.  The other branch of the Butuk, which reaches the sea at Butuk Bar, is longer.  In ordinary dry weather it takes a full day and a half to each Butukamaya (Butuk Bar) from Butukauas or Krupunta. . . . "

2.     8 June 1932.
Report by G. R. Heath, Kaukira, Honduras, "A Visit To Brus and Other Places," p. 2.    
" . . . Thus in ordinary circumstances it takes FOUR DAYS to reach Brus from Kaurkira; and, as will be seen, it takes FIVE DAYS TO COME BACK.  ¶  Before nightfall on Saturday 21st we were fortunate enough to overtake two of Leo Mueller’s nephews paddling on the lower river; these guided us to the house of their father, James Gough, by which we were most hospitably entertained.  In 1930 Br. Stortz and I stayed at the main village of Brus; and next morning as we journeyed across the lagoon we were shown another group of houses, but we did not meet the people from there, who were said to be few.  I now find that this group is almost as large as the main one.  Along with the usual type of Miskito Indian found in these villages there are thirty or more half-whites, children of American or French fathers and Indian mothers, the Esterbrooks, Woods, Goughs, and Youdes.  Many of them speak a certain amount of English and Spanish, and one to two can read well.  Woodrow Wilson and his wife, though Indians, belong to this group, as Bella Wilson is the mother of the Esterbook clan, their father having died long ago.  These people are VERY ANXIOUS FOR GOSPEL PRIVILEGES; and seem to be open and sincere, and to have no by-ends about them.  They feel that their ignorance of spiritual things is a shame to totem, and wish to be taught.  Of course we reminded them:  “Ye must be born again”.  “Yes”, said they, “that is just the sort of thing we want to know about….. and will you teach us to pray?”  Again we explained that, apart from the Lord’s Prayer, which itself was not a prescribed formula for every occasion, the important matter was go give thanks and offer petitions in sincerity, truth, and submissiveness.  “But,” said Mr. Gough, “could you not let me have a book of prayers?”  “We could; but they would be more for study than for use; since most of your children understand no English.”  We suggested that perhaps he would learn most if we kept family worship for him during our stay.  “What is family worship?”  Well, we kept it, and we think it was appreciated.  ¶  At the services on Sunday 22nd over 70 were present; and on the four succeeding afternoons over 40.  A house the owners of which were absent was placed at our disposal for the services.  In the mornings I gave baptismal instruction to the three Wilson candidates.  Others asked to listen; so on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday we had about 25 present.  Both morning and afternoon meetings had to be long; the interest was great. Repeatedly we were begged to place a regular catechist here; but I could make no promise.  At the last meeting I put the following points before the people, and received definite individual answers from quite a number: -  ¶  1. Are you sincerely seeking the way of Christ? – Yes. – Will you therefore acknowledge only one God and Saviour, and keep clear of Bukias, yumus, spirit-people, Carib sorcerers, and the like? – Yes. ¶  2. Will you forsake all fornication, and each one regard your present partner as your true married wife in the sight of God even though for the present the relationship cannot be legalized in the sight of man” – Yes.  (This was agreed to by name by several couples.  There is no provision at all for civil marriage in the Territorio de Mosquitia; yet any ecclesiastical marriage without a previous civil ceremony is strictly forbidden under penalty of a very heavy fine.)  ¶  3. Will you stop work on Sundays and gather for prayer and to hear the Gospels read in Miskito?  – Yes.  Whom will you have to read to you?  – Dick Wood; and for the present we will meet in a private house, and think over the matter of a special meeting-house and its location.  ¶  4. Will you love one another, and from now on forego all manner of “blood-payments” and every other kind of greed and oppression?  – Yes.  ¶  This, of course, does not constitute any sort of a Christian congregation; but surely it does constitute a group of seekers after Christ.  “He that willeth to do His will, he shall know of the doctrine”.  Dick Wood is son-in-law to Bella Wilson, and cousin to James Gough.  He reads English and Spanish sufficiently well, and seemed to soon pick up the principles of Miskito reading.  James Gough cannot read Miskito yet. . . . "

3.     8 June 1932.
Report by G. R. Heath, Kaukira, Honduras, "A Visit To Brus and Other Places," p. 3.  

" . . . Meanwhile, on Monday 23rd, Leo Mueller and James Marley, at their own suggestion, crossed over the lagoon to Mukabila, 12 miles or more away, and walked the further 2 miles to Butukamaya (Butuk Bar).  We had intended to go together by river; but this proved to be a very unpractical waste of time.  Butukamaya is a larger settlement than Brus (45 houses in Brus; houses in B’maya were not counted).  But it is very isolated.  The people welcomed the visitors.  On Monday afternoon they had 40 at the services; at the three services on Tuesday 90, 60, and 110 respectively; Wednesday morning 40.  Leo reports even greater enthusiasm than in Brus, which corroborates the impression I received in 1930.  The children were especially eager to learn.  ¶  On Friday 27th we left Brus at 2 a.m., hoping to make Butukauas before night; but this proved impossible, and we had to camp on the Kipani gravel-beach.  We shall not readily forget the Kipani mosquitoes.  But our mosquito-bars were good.  Leaving soon after moonrise, we reached Krupunta at daybreak, when Leo and I left the boat and visited in the villages.  At Krupunta Betty, a former sukia, has given up her sorcery, and is very anxious that the demons “shall not show her things anymore.”  People from all three villages agreed to gather at Butukauas. That evening there were only 24 at the service; but on Sunday in spite of much rain there were 50.  We had to keep two long services, at which Leo and James assisted.  Here too the people begged for a catechist to live among them.  ¶  Leaving Butukauas at 7:30 on Monday 30th, we did not reach the Warunta Lagoon till nightfall.  We found a planting camp at Awrata, and slept there.  It took us most of the next day to get to Palkaka, which is the largest settlement on Tansen Island, and itself is situated not on the edge of the Tansen Lagoon, but on the great Caratasca.  We had 50 persons at service that night, and 25 the next morning.  Many of the inhabitants were away from home.  Across the island it is an easy walk to the other settlements, some being only a mile and a half away, but there was no time after our arrival to notify them.  We reached home in the late afternoon of June 1st.  Thus we were away fifteen days and only touched five places; but we tried to do more intensive work at most of them than is possible on a casual visit.  ¶  IT IS PLAIN THAT SOMETHING MUST BE DONE FOR THOSE LIVING BEYOND THE BUTUX RIVER.  But how:  ¶  I adhere to my point made in 1930 that there should be an ordained missionary for that district.  At present we have none to send.  Could Leo Mueller do most of the work?  Perhaps; for he is abler and more independent and self-reliant than most of the catechists.  BUT if he were stationed at Brus it would be necessary for the Warden to make a definite and binding signed agreement with the United Fruit Company for the payment of Leo’s salary at the commissary at Bacalar; because for me to send over a special messenger from here would cost far more than it would be worth.  And probably either the Warden or the Superintendent would have to go personally to Puerto Castilla and Bacalar to inaugurate the arrangement.  This may seem exaggerate; but one should not forget the trouble I had in Trujillo last year.  To pay any Indian brother four to six months’ salary in a lump sum would be ruinous; not even the best of them knows how to estimate, economise, or save up for the future, with the possible exception of Br. Coleman.  There would also at first be difficulties at Brus about planting-ground.  The town is situated on a low, muddy, barren savanna, which dies up only in the dry season.  The lower Butuk bears good bananas, but is subject to destructive floods.  The land on the Sikri Creek is poor; a little better on the Twas; good on the Silakunta, which however is rather far off; very good on the Plantain River, which is still further.  This difficulty is not insuperable. . . . "

4.     8 June 1932.
Report by G. R. Heath, Kaukira, Honduras, "A Visit To Brus and Other Places," p. 4.  
 " . . . Failing Brus, I had suggested Paptalaya, or better, as it turns out, Butukauas.  There is plenty of food there even at this time of general scarcity.  Plantation grounds are good and accessible.  There are not any mosquitoes, so that the place is fairly healthy.  But above Waksma and Ausadakban the Indian settlements are few and small.  And the refugees from the Wangks cling to the neighbourhood of the Wangkibila, about five day’s journey from the Butukauas; neither are they always there – they come and go.  The average journey to Brus and Butukamaya is long; not so long indeed to go, but long to come back.  One cannot return from Butukamaya in under two days; and in flood time it would take more.  So while Butukauas has its appeal, it would not after all be a really practical based for serving the more distant districts that call for help.  ¶  In PALKAKA the famine seems to be worse than at any other point in this region.  Miskito people are the same everywhere; they will not cultivate the soil, only burn virgin forest and plant.  Dakura land ploughed and taken care of would be by no means worthless; Br. Newton Wilson proved that long ago.  But I am not sure that Palkaka is as good as Dakura.  There are planting grounds at Awrata; on the Ibantara River; and on the Wahamuk Creek; but they are very far away; and a catechist who attends to his reading-classes and instruction-classes would not have time to go there.  Leo, however, thinks that the situation is not hopeless, but knees further investigation.  Further, he says that he would not find it so hard to visit Butukamaya by way of he inside route from Palkaka to Twakunta, and a fourteen miles’ walk along the beach.  From Butukanaya to Brus he now knows that way, and thinks he could visit both of these places more readily from Palkaka than from Butukauas.  I know, however, that he would not make Butukamaya from Palkaka in less time than two days and a half.  For myself, I would have to say frankly that I can no longer manage these long beach journeys either on foot or on horseback, though I might attempt one in an exceptional case of special need.  A younger man, especially a native, might manage them well.  THE PEOPLE OF PALKAKA, although not as eager in their manner as those of Brus and Butukamaya, are yet the only larger community in the Caratasca region which has shown itself willing to walk to another place to hear the Gospel, as they did, in rainy weather, when I was at Uhunuya in December.  ¶  On the whole, therefore, if the next step forward it to be taken by an evangelist, I recommend after all that he be stationed at Palkaka.  BUT this matter of his plantation should be settled before he attempts to reside there.  AND FURTHER, Palkaka is not real solution of the urgent problem of Brus and Butukamaya; it is only perhaps a step toward that solution.  THAT PROBLEM MUST NOT BE SHIRKED BY US.  ¶  I did not on this occasion go on to the districts of Ras and Iban.  If Leo can be spared again in September, we might perhaps try to get so far.  Their problem is connected with that of Brus.  Since my return I hear that there is some prospect of a modest industrial development in that region.  Above in connection with Butukamaya it should have been mentioned that those people in spite of their eagerness have no real leader, nor anyone who can read.  Their natural leader, Robert Trapp, is involved in a peculiarly inexcusable piece of polygamy.  His real wife seems to be a woman of character and backbone.  The Butukamaya people supplied food and horses to the preachers gladly and without charge.  ¶  Why do I not urge those who are interested to come and stay in Kaurkira for a time?  Because the famine is sore in the land. Butukauas is the only neighbourhood where there is plenty to eat.  At Kaurkira some families and individuals have done really good, and will reap the fruits of it if their produce is not stolen.  Others have been lazy.  Most of the men have now gone away to try to earn some money in the banana farms; for money, clothing and other commodities are very scarce."

9 June 1932.
Letter from A. O. Danneberger, Yulu, Nicaragua, to Miss Kreitlow, USA.  
"Dear Miss Kreitlow:-  ¶  Your letter of May 26th reached me yesterday.  Thank you very much for it.  I can quite understand that you are anxious to return to your work and I had consented to your coming whenever you are ready to do so, although others have advised against it.  Only lately, since the bandits had come to Sandy Bay and to Sisin, from where they had planned to proceed to Yulu, I let myself be persuaded, that it would perhaps be better to wait until the election is over.  But, I doubt, that the election will bring any change and we missionaries had better make up our minds that the days of quiet laboring for our Master are over and that in future we will have to face dangers and persecutions, as is the case in other missionfields in these latter days.  Anyone who is prepared to endure for His Master’s sake and has the faith that His Will will be done, should be allowed to take up the work she or he feels called to do.  It is a fact that in every case where a missionary or evangelist has been in danger here in this country he was given sufficient time to seek a place of safety.  I have written to Br Shimer yesterday, “Miss Kreitlow believes that she has trustworthy friends amongst Indians and Spaniard who will help her in case of trouble and I think we should leave it to her whether she should return or not.  So far Kruta has not been molested and perhaps she is right in saying, she should never have left the place.  It is impossible for you and for me to tell anybody what do in these days of uncertainty and danger.  Everybody must ask for himself as best as he can under the Spirit’s guidance”.  Of course the work is not only on account of the many rumors.  Only a day or two ago a Spaniard from here told me that he had heard that my name, together with others from here, was on the black list and that I, therefore, should not stay in Yulu.  We are very careful.  A suitcase with the most important church and station books is kept ready close by the door every night.  I have been assured that we will be notified of any approaching enemies.  I am writing this so that you should know the whole truth.  ¶  I did send you a Standard Fruit & Steamship Co.’s time table.  Their boats run by way of Havana and Colon to Puerto Cabezas.  The boats are much bigger, faster and cleaner than those that go to Bluefields.  I would advise you to take a boat to Puerto Cabezas.  When you make your arrangements you might mention the fact that the manager of the company here in Puerto Cabezas has agreed to give all Moravian missionaries traveling to and fro a reduction of fares of 25%.  ¶  I know you won’t mind my giving you the advice to bring out as few things as possible.  We are all developing the “grass hopper” spirit, as Jack Coleman calls it, and with this spirit it is best to be burdened with as few things as possible.  ¶  Ethel went back with her step father when he returned from the school for evangelists which we kept here in Yulu during April.  He wrote me the other day that they spent two weeks camping on the river on account of the bandits which had passed through Sackling on their way to Sandy Bay.  ¶  The economical condition along the coast is very bad. Everywhere the church attendance goes back because the people, and especially the children, have no clothes.  Also food is very short and many actually suffer from starvation.  Yulu has enough and to spare.  We are able to continue our work in spite of shortage of money and clothing.  The Adventist school has gone down to almost nothing.  The teacher and preacher cannot hide his sin any longer, and the girl with whom he is living, one of the members, will soon present him with a child.  He is now married to her, but has been dismissed by headquarters.  Father and brothers continue the work.  ¶  We receive very encouraging news from the children.  Will you pass through Bethlehem?  Flora joins me in cordial greeting to you.  We will both remember you in our prayers and ask the Lord to help you to the right decision.  ¶  Sincerely yours, . . . "

10 June 1932.
Supplementary operations report for Record of Events, May 1932, for Neptune Mine, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.  
"Supplementary operations report for Record of Events, May, 1932, for NEPTUNE MINE.  ¶  1. The reports listed below arrived Bluefields too late to be incorporated in the May Record of Events.  ¶  C MILITARY OPERATIONS  ¶  1. Movements of Patrols, Guardia Nacional, and other service personnel.  ¶  May 11 Guardia and civics combined patrol returned from TUNKY. Sergeant GARCIA, Agustin #2318 arrived from BLUEFIELDS and reported for duty.  ¶  May 17 Sergeant GARCIA, Agustin #2318 and combined Guardia patrol cleared for Tunky.  ¶  May 18 Information resolved that bandits were at La Ceiba near Limon.  Spies were sent out to localize them.  Sergeant GARCIA and patrol returned from TUNKY.  ¶ May 20 The information persisted.  The bandits threatened to attack NEPTUNE MINE.  We made ready for the fortification and the defense of the place.  ¶  May 21 Always threatened, I assumed the movements on both hills and I took place on hill #1. Lieutenant Gray cleared with a combined patrol and gains contact with bandits about two miles southeast.  (See Official report.)  Some bandits run across to other hills nearby and I opened fire on them with the Heavy Browning and some rifles.  It is known and believed that the bandits completely surrounds Neptune Mines on all sides, and the defense was organized immediately in case of an attack. . . .

10 June 1932.
Supplementary operations report for Record of Events, May 1932, for Neptune Mine, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.  
  " . . . May 22 Sergeant GARCIA, Agustin #2318 and a combined patrol cleared NEPTUNE MINE to investigate about a group of bandits who were said to be at the bodega Agua Caliente.  He returned and informed me that he found some recruit footprints.  Lieutenant SOMARRIBA and a combined patrol cleared in pursuit of the bandits and went through the vicinities of Agua Caliente, La Panama Mine, Maria Obande Farm, Moncada Farm, Aguas Claras (place where Lt. Gray had contact) and Urruito.  When it was getting dark we couldn’t follow them anymore and we returned to the mine to reinforce that place in case of an attack.  ¶  May 23 Lieutenant GRAY cleared with a combined guardia patrol and gained contact with bandits about one mile northwest of the Mines.  At the same time a group attacked El Salto. A new group intents to attack Hill #1 again and were driven back.  (See my official report).  ¶  May 25 Lieutenant GRAY and a combined patrol cleared to meet Lieutenant CURCEY and his patrol. Combined patrols cleared for AGUA CALIENTE, LA PANAMA, AGUAS CLARAS, and LA LINEA. All patrols returned.  ¶  May 26 Combined patrols cleared for the BODEGA and EL SALTO and returned.  Lieutenant CURCEY and patrol arrived from WUANI.  ¶  May 27 Lieutenant CURCEY and combined patrol cleared NEPTUNE MINE for WUANI and in pursuit of the bandits.  ¶  May 28 Lieutenant SOMARRIBA and a combined patrol cleared and arrive TUNKY.  Lieutenant CURCEY gains contact with bandits at EL ROSARIO.  (See his official report.)  ¶  May 29 Lieutenant SOMARRIBA and combined patrol cleared TUNKY for NEPTUNE MINE.  Arrived.  ¶  L. L. LEECH"

15 June 1932.
Letter from G. R. Heath, Moravian Mission c/o Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.

15 June 1932.
Letter from G. R. Heath, Moravian Mission c/o Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.


A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +













1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8