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the atlantic coast  •  1932B, p. 1
July 1 - Sept 30, 1932

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +













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   THIS IS THE FIRST PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE SECOND HALF OF 1932 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing documents dated during the 92 days from July 1 to September 30.

     After getting hammered in late May in the mining districts by a relentlessly aggressive Guardia counteroffensive, the rebel columns under Generals Pedrón & Irías withdraw south, surfacing about a month later at the upper reaches of the Río Tuma.  We learn the extent of their defeat in several revealing eyewitness accounts, most notably by Nicolás Gómez (1 July).

     Meantime things are heating up around Puerto Cabezas, with a major EDSN offensive into the banana zone just northwest of the city led by Generals Simón González & Francisco Estrada.  Crossing overland south from the villages of Sacklin & Cum on the Río Coco, the rebels sack the Vaccaro Farm Commissary on July 5, killing the British supervisor H. L. Cooke (according to a report of 17 August, facilitated as an act of vengeance by a disgruntled employee), and the next day are driven back by yet another aggressive Guardia counteroffensive that combines several ground patrols with a series of deadly air attacks (reports of 11 July, 1 & 9 August).  On a side note, Area Commander Leech seems irritated by Lt. Gaitán’s lackadaisical response to the rebel offensive and disinclined to approve his request for a transfer from the Eastern Area (11 July), though Gaitán’s arduous weeklong patrol from Puerto Cabezas to the Río Coco & back might have redeemed him in Leech’s eyes (24 July).

     Further south, Pedrón & Irías’s reconstituted forces resurface along the middle stretches of the Río Grande de Matagalpa (into which flows the Río Tuma).  On July 17, some 50 rebels under Pedrón and several lesser jefes sack at least two commissaries near La Cruz, just downriver from El Gallo (Morazón Farm and the Pan American), killing Morazón’s manager Santiago Schech and three Hislop brothers (Clayton, Albert & Willie; a fourth brother, Ed Hislop, who owns the Pan American, flees to Bluefields with news of the rebels’ approach; see ).  Pedrón is accompanied by a new jefe, one Chavalía of La Cruz (first name unknown), who follows a now familiar pattern, settling an old grudge against Ed Hislop by slaughtering three of his brothers.  On July 15, General Irías informs Sandino that his forces have “chalequeado” (butchered with machetes) 15 “traitors” on this expedition, collaborators with the Marines & Guardia, and naming most of them (letter included in Somoza excerpt, listed under 15 July).  Adding to the grisly total are the men listed by Col. Leech (23 August).  Sandinista spectacular violence, a phenomenon of Western Nicaragua (and more specifically in this case Las Segovias) intended to produce fear of disloyalty among witnesses & survivors — to create a cultural sensibility infused with fear & terror — instead seems to have alienated large numbers Costeños from Sandino's nationalist cause, a cultural dynamic explored by David C. Brooks (1997).

      Significantly, despite high unemployment and general economic malaise, one detects in the Guardia’s various reports little concern about local people joining up with the advancing rebels. Even Western Nicaraguan Spanish-speaking wage laborers on the farms & plantations near Vaccaro, El Gallo, & elsewhere do not seem keen to link up with the rebel offensive. At least there are no such reports, and there surely would be were it a perceived counterinsurgency problem. Moravian missionaries offer their own take on events even as they continue to lament the violence & disruptions caused by the rebel offensive (6 & 15 & 20 July). Meantime a fascinating spy report by one Agent #38 offers a revealing glimpse into the world of communist organizing in Bluefields (7 September).

     The overall portrait here is consonant with that of previous pages: a series of tenacious rebel offensives into the Coast, as before accompanied by extensive spectacular violence against Nicaraguan "traitors," beaten back by an equally tenacious and even more deadly Guardia Nacional.


1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1 July 1932.
Intelligence.  Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua.
   "Subject: Intelligence. ¶ 1. Lieutenant Curcey, GN, upon arrival from Wauni, reported the following to me. His information was received from a Juez de Mesta, Nicola Gomez [Nicolás Gómez], of Isica, Rio Grande, who, while on a coffee buying trip on the Tuma River, was captured by Pedron Altamirano’s bandit group on their retreat from their activities about Neptune Mine, and after being held several days made his escape. Lieutenant Curcey states Gomez is well known to him and that his veracity is unquestioned. He reported as follows: ¶ (a) That General Peralta was killed in the contact with Gray on 24 May. (Reason for belief, if was being discussed by the bandits and Pedron himself was heard to say “Why does General Peralta take such chances.” The fact that he was never seen after the contact and that he was known to have been standing beside his bugler, when Gray exploded a rifle grenade within a few feet of them.) ¶ (b) That the bandits admitted 17 dead after Gray’s contact, 2 dead after Curcey’s contact, and many killed by air bombs. ¶ (c) That the bandits had with them 1 Lewis Gun, 2 BAR’s and 2 STMG’s. That they had little ammunition, no clothes, no salt, no provisions and that most of the group were sick and daily some would drop by the road side and be left behind. ¶ (d) That Pedron and Sub-chiefs told their men that they were going back to their headquarters and rest up and later return to attack Wauni and Siuna and raid the Rio Grande River. ¶ (e) That Petron’s headquarters were in a Cerro known as “Cedro”, four days from Isla Grande – approximately at a point 16.6-F.2. 5th Regt. Map. That there are four large camps within a few miles of his headquarters. ¶ (f) That Pedron’s followers are disgusted and would quit but they fear reprisal from their former friends and from Pedron himself if they did. That Pedron is not popular with his followers, and that there is much dissention. ¶ (g) That a mine at Parasca, owned by Germans was sacked by Pedron and 50 pounds of dynamite carried away. ¶ (h) That the purpose of the concentration at Neptune Mine was its capture, seizure of gold and other supplies and then go down the Waspuk and into Honduras to buy arms, ammunition and other supplies. ¶ (i) That they were much disappointed over their failure, and that the rank and file blamed their leaders. Their morale was very low. ¶ (j) That during the operations around the mine the bandits lost at least 60, either killed in contacts, by bombs, and sickness, caused from starvation and exposure. ¶ 2. From the foregoing, the achievements of Lieutenants Gray and Curcey are noteworthy and the more to be commended. ¶ L. L. LEECH"

1 July 1932
Excerpts from GN-2 Intelligence Report covering the month of June.  
 [NOTE: These excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 33-page intelligence report covering the entire country for the month of June, except for the declaration of Agustín Rivera (28 May). The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1] . . . LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS [none in the Eastern Area] . . . ¶ [p. 4] UNITS IN CONTACT  ¶ . . . MAY 27 – Lieutenant Curcey and Wauni patrol consisting of nineteen enlisted and six civicos had contact with rear guard of Pedron Altamirano group under Irias at 1640, about four hours west of NEPTUNE MINE on LIMON trail. Fighting lasted twenty-five minutes. No known bandit casualties. No guardia casualties. Bandits were driven off leaving considerable amount of loot and leaving cattle and miscellaneous articles behind, major portion of which was returned to the owners. ¶ . . . [p. 6] June 23 – Lieutenants Gamaelius, Montes and Uriza and Consuelo patrol of 30 enlisted had contact with Pedron Altamirano and large bandit group due north of Consuelo near the Tuma river . . . Bandit casualties five known killed. No guardia casualties. Guardia captured three rifles and small quantity of bombs and ammunition. Bandits were driven off and scattered. ¶ June 25 – Lieutenant Uriza and Consuelo patrol had contact at 1130 with Pedron Altamirano and group of 60 near PIEDRA LUNA. Bandits finally withdrew and headed northward in direction of Maximo Rivas. Bandit casualties, one killed and indications of several wounded. Guardia casualties one wounded. ¶ . . .  [p. 12] WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE: WEEK ENDING 13 JUNE 1932. ¶ . . . [p. 13] The EASTERN AREA reports all quiet on the Atlantic Coast. ¶ . . . [p. 16] WEEKLY SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE: WEEK ENDING 27 JUNE 1932. ¶  PRINCIPAL BANDIT GROUPS REPORTED DURING WEEK: ¶ SIMON GONZALEZ and group of 40 to 80 reported operating in vicinity of SAKLIN and KUM on COCO RIVER, DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN BLUEFIELDS. ¶ PEDRON ALTAMIRANO has been operating South of the TUMA RIVER as far South as CONSUELO for past week. His group reported at about 100. ¶ . . . GENERAL INFORMATION: ¶ On the whole the week has been quiet. ALTAMIRANO’S operations South of the TUMA have been the only important movement on the part of the bandits. ¶ . . . [p. 17] ESTIMATE: ¶ The present increased activity of PEDRON ALTAMIRANO South of the TUMA was more or less expected after the severe reversals he suffered in the vicinity of the NEPTUNE MINES. . . . No bandit activity is looked for during the coming week in the . . . Eastern Area. . . ."

(5 July 1932) vs. 2 August 1932.
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Gen. Pedro Altamirano, "La Chispa."
    Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 232.    NOTE:  This letter comes from Somoza's book, El verdadero Sandino, pp. 351-352, and is dated August 2. The editor & compiler of Sandino's collected works, Sergio Ramírez, assigns it a date of 5 July. In a footnote Ramírez explains: “Esta fecha establece cuándo tomado el comisariato de la compañía bananero Vaccaro Brothers & Company, en tanto que la de la carta indica cuándo fue suscrita ésta. Por otra parte, el documento que presentamos es un fragmento del texto original; la fuente trabajada así lo consigna.” (PV2, p. 232). The “texto original” to which Ramírez refers is Somoza’s excerpt, presented below. I do not agree with Ramírez's reasoning here. How does the “carta indica”? He does not say. The August 2 date seems to me much more likely. In the first sentence, Sandino talks of July as if it has already passed by (“el 5 de Julio próximo pasado”). We have also seen that it could take 3-4 weeks for news to reach Sandino at his Cuartel General deep in the interior (recall that on 25 October 1931 he wrote about Adolfo Cockburn as if he were still alive, three weeks after Cockburn’s death on 4 October). There is nothing in the letter to suggest an immediate proximity to the events being described; it is solidly past tense. In sum, there seems no reason to suppose that Somoza got the date wrong, so it is included here under the date assigned in Somoza’s book:  August 2, 1932.  But for convenience it is also included here.

"Cuartel General del Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua. ¶ La Chispa, Agosto 2 de 1932. ¶ Señor, Primer Jefe de nuestra Columna Expedicionaria N° 1. ¶ General Divisionario Pedro Altamirano ¶ Mi muy querido hermano: ¶ El General Estrada nos participa que el 5 de Julio próximo pasado, nuestras fuerzas al mando del General Simón González, “ se posesionó” del campo y Comisariato más fuerte de las compañías yankees en Puerto Cabezas, el cual campo le denominan Vaccaro. El General González colocó estratégicamente las fuerzas a su mando, penetrando él en persona, con un grupo de sus muchachos, al más famoso de los comisariatos, en donde se aprovisionó de botas fuertes, sombreros Stentson y finos trajes de montar; cuando estuvieron listos en esa forma, procedieron a levantar un cargamento de mercaderías de la misma clase y artículos de boca; todos nuestros muchachos, cuando estuvieron vestidos gogueramente, procedieron a incendiar todas las mercaderías almacenadas, el edificio del comisariato y los barracones, pues toda la gente había abandonado el lugar. [¶ Patria y Libertad ¶ A. C. Sandino]"

6 July 1932.
Letter from A. O. Danneberger, Bilwi, to C. Conrad Shimer, Moravian Church, Bluefields. 
  "Dear Brother Shimer:- ¶ It certainly is no pleasure to write letters from this part of the coast, for there seems to be nothing else but discouraging news to be sent. During the last few weeks bandits have been operating in the Sandy Bay district and the unrest caused through them has spread as far as the Cape and Yulu. ¶ The bandits passed through Wasla and Kum and from there they went on to Bemuna. According to reliable reports they have done no damage to our property in Wasla. In Bemuna they converted our little church into a dance hall. But everywhere they have stripped the Indians of all their belongings. ¶ Mr. Wendt, a German, who was hunting alligators, run into them in Bemuna. He was kept by them for two days, but when he could prove to them that he was of German nationality they released him. He reports that they were about 30 Nicaraguans with 15 Indians, well organized and well equipped with rifles, 5 machine guns, mules, horses, etc. They had expressed to him their hatred against everything American and told him that they would use the machete on every American they meet with, as a bullet would be too good for him. The work of our missionaries was not mentioned as long as he was with them. ¶ Last night the bandits broke out at a farm on the upper railway line. A young Englishman was murdered most cruelly. His body will be brought in today and I have been asked to keep the funeral. The bandits looted the commissary and then burnt it down. Earlier in the morning I heard that they had been in Tulu, but this report has not been confirmed and apparently it is false. ¶ I have spoken with the captain concerning the removal of the National Guardia from Kisalaya. He told me that the post there is a little use, as the bandits go round it and get to the coast anyhow. He believes that better work could be done by a stronger guard at the Cape which will be able to control the river from there. ¶ Yesterday I had a talk with the Indian Sindico and his secretary concerning the landlease which we pay for the territory which the mission occupies. So far we have been paying $60. I got him to put it down to $40 and so we made a new contract which he signed. ¶ I have dismissed Forbs from services, at least for the time being. He stayed in Bilwi for a whole month without even going back to Krukira for the Sunday. Nitario had returned to Sisin with his family, but apparently it is not safe for him to stay there. I, therefore, advised him to live in Trakis where he has a house and from there he is to pay visits to Sisin, Krukira and Tura. He will go to Krukira and to Sisin twice each month, each time keeping Friday afternoon service and the regular Sunday services. One place is about 3 hours walk and the other 8 hours from Trakis. On Saturdays he is to get the children together for reading and singing. He could not keep regular school anyhow, as the Krukira people have a community school and the few Sisin children are practically all naked. I think this arrangement will meet your approval. It will keep Nitario busy and is the best which we can do under the present circumstances. ¶ According to the latest reports our evangelists on the Wangks river are still on their posts. Waspuck Mouth and Sangsangta have been burned down, I was told by Benni Mueller coming from the Wangks. But it seems that they did not destroy the mission house at Sangsangta. Today’s texts, on the day of John Huss’ death, were most comforting. May the time of building and planting soon come again for us!"

8 July 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.
   "Subject: Record of Events, Eastern Area, and the Department of Southern Bluefields. . . . ¶ E INTELLIGENCE. ¶ June 10 Guardia Commander NEPTUNE MINE reported group of one hundred in vicinity of WEILAKA, on WASPOOK RIVER. Number of rifles, automatic, Jefe, direction of movement. Unknown. ¶ June 20 SIMON GONZALES, with a group of from 40 to 80 with many rifles and 5 automatic reported in vicinity of SACKLIN and KUM moving in the south. Report made by Company Agent and the Cockburn family. On 21 and 24 June, this same group was reported by Company agent to be in the vicinity of KUM, SACKLIN and BAYMONA, direction of march or activity not known. Reported to have 40 rifles, 4 automatics and 2 rifle grenade dischargers. ¶ 2. Military Situation: - Do not anticipate any large concentrations of bandit groups in the Eastern area during June. It is probably however, that the SIMON GONZALEZ group will conduct raids in the Northern Department in an effect to obtain supplies avoiding any contact with the Guardia. The influence of the Guardia Posts at CABO GRACIAS and MOSS FARM, as a result of the withdrawal of the Guardia from KISALAYA on 24 June, should aid these posts materially in putting roving patrols in the field and check any designs GONZALEZ might have on commissaries along the line or the small farmer. ¶ 3. Economic Situation:- Continues very good. Approximately the same amount of fruit was shipped during June as mentioned in the May report. Conditions generally for the Area are good. ¶ 4. Sanitary Conditions:- Satisfactory. ¶ 5. Political Situation:- Quiet. There were no National Political Demonstrations on the coast during June. ¶ 6. No friction has been reported between the Guardia and the civil population. The press continues to show a friendly attitude towards the Guardia. ¶ 7. Weather:- Considering the fact that the wet season has set in, weather conditions have been good and favorable for patrolling. River and coastwise transportation schedules have been regular. Visibility for air reconnaissance has been good. There were showers and at times heavy rains during the entire period covered by this report. . . . "

8 July 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2. 
  " . . . 8. Condition of Telephone and Telegraph Communications:- ¶ Civilian Tropical Radio Telegraph Company – Excellent. Guardia NEPTUNE MINE – Good. Guardia WUANI – Not heard. Guardia CABO GRACIAS – Fair. Guardia PUERTO CABEZAS – Fair. Guardia BLUEFIELDS – Fair. ¶ 9. Conditions of Roads and Trails – Good. ¶ F CONFISCATION OF ARMS. ¶ None. ¶ G TRAINING. ¶ Except where interfered with by patrolling, training schedules have been maintained. Discipline has been satisfactory. ¶ H MISCELLANEOUS ¶ On 11 June, the Jefe Politico, BLUEFIELDS, returned from leave in MANAGUA. ¶ Lieutenant Colonel PRICE, USMC., visited BLUEFIELDS on 11 June. Visit was unofficial and cleared for PUERTO CABEZAS on 12 June. ¶ On 5 June, Lieutenant PHILLIPS, (R), GN., arrived BLUEFIELDS for the purpose of installing a Guardia Radio. The first official message was sent via this radio to MANAGUA on 13 June. ¶ Sr. Rafael A. HUEZO, Assistant General Manager, Banco Nacional de Nicaragua, arrived BLUEFIELDS 24 June, and assured all depositors that the Bank would assure all responsibility for the loss suffered by the bank as a result of recent irregularities. Sr. HUEZO, cleared BLUEFIELDS for MANAGUA on 28 June. ¶ I CIVICOS. ¶ BLUEFIELDS 74, DISTRICT SEQUIA – AL RAMA 13, DISTRICT RIO GRANDE – LA CRUZ 10, RIO GRANDE BAR 12, NEPTUNE MINE 95 ¶ L. L. LEECH"

11 July 1932.
Recent Events in Northern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua.  
 "Recent events in Northern Bluefields. ¶ 1. There is being forwarded under separate cover, complete reports of the recent events in Northern Bluefields, as experienced by the individuals concerned. ¶ 2. I am not satisfied with the total absence of information of the bandit approach, to within a mile and a half of a strong well officered and well armed guardia force. Nor am I satisfied with the reaction on the part of Lt. Gaitan, when the affair broke. It appears that several days before the raid on the commissary a small raiding party had appeared in Ayapini and stolen some animals, and that the day before the raid on the commissary Gaitan was informed that the bandits were close by, but only laughed and took no action. Orders are to run down all likely rumors, and Captain Davies has been instructed to report on the breaking down of his intelligence system and Gaitan’s failure to act promptly on receipt of reliable information. ¶ 3. Lieutenant Peterson is to be commended for his energy and initiative in rapidly pursuing the bandits and finally making contact with a portion of them. The planes under Lieutenant Coffman and Gy-Sergeant Williams, aided materially in dispersing the bandits and the bombs they dropped must have been effective, for in a reconnaissance flight Friday July 8th over the bombed area, five bodies were observed in a stream bed, being eaten by buzzards. It is believed that the group bombed and which fired on the planes, striking Gy-Sgt Williams’ plane five times, was the main body, and that the group Lt. Peterson contacted was the rear guard. It is believed the bandit group is still in the heavy wooded country adjoining Locus creek, and patrols will be active, weather permitting. ¶ 4. Lieutenant Gaitan is requesting by this mail a transfer from this coast. He has been talking about it for some time, and it is not felt that the recent occurrences have been instrumental in any way of hastening his request. ¶ L. L. LEECH"

1.    15 July 1932.
Excerpts from Anastasio Somoza García's El verdadero Sandino, p. 350 (includes July 15 letter from Gen. Francisco Estrada, near Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Sandino, and the statement of Dr. Molgar).  
 "LAS VERDADERAS HAZAÑAS DE ESTRADA EN LA COSTA ATLÁNTICA.  ¶  El cabecilla Francisco Estrada, que actuaba en el sector de la Costa Atlántica, se dedicaba a falta de enemigos a despojar de sus cosechas y de sus ganados a los pobres indios mosquitos, cometiendo de paso un sinnúmero de asesinatos, incendios y saqueos en los comisariatos de la Bragmann Bluff Lumber, en aquella región.  ¶  Sobre este particular Estrada informó a Sandino, el día 15 de Julio de 1932, lo siguiente:  ¶  “Me es altamente honroso comunicar a Ud. que el día 13 de los corrientes llegó a nuestro Campamento de Wuiyunak, nuestro hermano General Simón González, después de haber hecho un brillante recorrido por el propio corazón de nuestro Litoral Atlántico, pues estuvo a tres leguas de el Cabo de Gracias a Dios.  El 5 de este mes el General González, entró al Comisariato de la Bacaro, a kilómetro y medio de Moss, extrayendo de él la mayor cantidad de mercaderías e incendiado todo lo almacenado, junto con el edificio de la compañía.  Siendo capturado el mandador de nacionalidad yanqui y apellido Cook a quien se le quitó una pistola automática No. 45.  Este individuo fue pasado inmediatamente por las armas, junto con un hombre de color, que el era el Encargado del Comisariato.”  ¶  No es cierto que el joven Cook haya sido norteamericano, sino de nacionalidad inglesa, siendo su verdadero nombre Herbert Leslie, de Veraux.  Cook, quien fue asesinado a los 19 años de edad, habiendo protestado al Gobierno de Nicaragua por su muerte, como se verá más adelante, el Honorable Encargado de Negocios de su Majestad Británica.  ¶  En la mañana del 18 de Julio llegó a Bluefields procedente de la barra del Río Grande, una embarcación, llevando la nueva de los asaltos hechos por los sandinistas, en varias fincas que quedan en las riberas del mencionado río.  ¶  El Dr. Molgar que iba a bordo de la referida embarcación, refirió lo siguiente:  ¶  “El domingo por la mañana los foragidos hicieron su ingreso en la finca ‘Morazón’, como a seis millas abajo de ‘La Cruz’, saqueando los comisariatos, y ro-[bándose] . . ."

2.    15 July 1932.
Excerpts from Anastasio Somoza García's El verdadero Sandino, p. 351 (concludes statement of Dr. Molgar; and Aug. 2 letter from Sandino to Gen. Pedro Altamirano).  
 " . . . [ro]-bándose todo cuanto pudieron tomar.  El mandador de la finca, un ciudadano suizo llamado Santiago Shack, fue capturado, pero luego de haber sido llevado ante el jefe bandolero, quedó en libertad.  Lluego se constituyeron en la finca ‘Pan American’, donde capturaron y asesinaron cobardemente a los tres hermanos Hislop, de nacionalidad inglesa; saqueron también los Comisariatos de esta finca; asimismo procedieron a invadir las fincas circunvecinas, capturando a todos los que pudieron; obligaron a los hombres civiles a acarrear todo lo robado, y luego dieron muerte a varios, llevándose a varias mujeres, entre ellas a una señorita Hislop, de 13 años de edad.’  ¶  Tales datos los dio al Dr. Molgar, un individuo que pudo lanzarse a nado, huyendo de los sandinistas, quien fue recogido por el bote que conducía al Doctor y a otros fugitivos.  Dijo el informante que el grupo de bandoleros estaba compuesto domo de cincuenta hombres, pero que se sabía que más fuerzas estaban por llegar y que se encontraban por La Cruz.  ¶  Con tales informes los civiles que residían en El Gallo, abandonaron este lugar y se refugiaron en otros donde se creían más seguros.  ¶  En relación con los anteriores informes, creemos de importancia la traslación de un párrafo de una carta de Sandino, donde relata a grandes rasgos los hechos realizados por sus soldados en la incursión que éstos hicieron en los dominios de la Cukra.  ¶  Helo aquí:  ¶  "Cuartel General del Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua.  ¶  La Chispa, Agosto 2 de 1932.  ¶  Señor, Primer Jefe de nuestra Columna Expedicionaria N° 1.  ¶  General Divisionario Pedro Altamirano  ¶  Mi muy querido hermano:  ¶  El General Estrada nos participa que el 5 de Julio próximo pasado, nuestras fuerzas al mando del General Simón González, “se posesionó” del campo y Comisariato más fuerte de las compañías yankees en Puerto Cabezas, el cual campo le denominan Vaccaro.  El General González colocó estratégicamente las fuerzas a su mando, penetrando él en persona, con un grupo de sus muchachos, al más famoso de los comisariatos, en donde se aprovisio-[nó] . . . "

NOTEIn February 2014, I received an email from Marina Toledo, a descendent of the Hislop family living in New Orleans; excerpts from her message follow; photograph at right is her grandmother, Victoria, who survived the attack and died in 1946:  "My father, Adan Alberto Toledo, was born in 1945 in Managua. He was the youngest of three brothers born to Victoria Hislop and Nicolas Toledo. My grandmother died in Puerto Cabezas of tuberculosis in 1946 (supposedly when she was in her late 20's).  ¶  My father and his older brothers were raised by their maternal grandmother. My dad grew up hearing stories from her of how Sandino and his men where butchers and thieves. Victoria's mother was the one who passed down the story of how Victoria's father and family were killed before them corte chaleco style. Victoria's mother told the boys how Sandino and his men would intimidate and robbed business owners; she passed away in 1959, but my father never forgot her stories describing Sandino as a common thug.  ¶  Victoria Hislop was one of a handful of survivors of the attack. I don't know what happened after the 1932 events, but she ended up in Managua in 1940, since that is when she met Nicolas Toledo. They moved east to Puerto Cabezas until her death in 1946. My grandfather abandoned their three children, who were raised by Victoria's mom.  ¶  My father and uncles were very anti-Sandino, which is the reason we fled Nicaragua during the revolution. We moved to New Orleans and it has been our home since then. My oldest uncle was Somoza's helicopter pilot and my father attended the military academy. He didn't go further than that with the military as he went to the university and graduated with a business administration degree. However, his hatred of Sandino, and anything communist remained until his passing in 2008. He was a Somoza loyalist, as was his oldest brother. Interestingly, the middle brother, Humberto, was a Sandinista.  ¶  In 1998, my father and I went to Puerto Cabezas so we could see where he grew up. We were able to get a picture of my grandmother from a woman whom she had helped raise, Dinorah. Her family still owns the only inn in town. Victoria was fair skinned and had blue eyes. Dinorah also gave my father a quilt Victoria had made while she was pregnant with him. ¶ Thank you for your website as it has been a wonderful resource. It has been interesting to read the actual recorded the events, which I had only heard from my father. Please keep me in mind if you run across additional details on the Hislop family in your future research."  Marina Toledo, Esq., 1101 Veterans Blvd., Suite 10, Kenner, LA 70062.

3.    15 July 1932.
Excerpts from Anastasio Somoza García's El verdadero Sandino, p. 352 (concludes Aug. 2 letter from Sandino to Gen. Pedro Altamirano; list of alleged EDSN murders April 1931-August 1932; and 27 Aug. letter from Gen. Pedro Antonio Irías to Sandino).  
 " . . . [aprovisio]-nó de botas fuertes, sombreros Stentson y finos trajes de montar; cuando estuvieron listos en esa forma, procedieron a levantar un cargamento de mercaderías de la misma clase y artículos de boca; todos nuestros muchachos, cuando estuvieron vestidos gogueramente, procedieron a incendiar todas las mercaderías almacenadas, el edificio del comisariato y los barracones, pues toda la gente había abandonado el lugar." **  ¶  Los ‘Barracones’ a que se refiere la anterior comunicación son llamados en Puerto Cabezas los alojamientos de los trabajadores y sus familias en los distintos lugares de la vía férrea, donde hay estaciones para cargar bananos o maderas.  Así, pues, esos ‘barracones’ eran las viviendas de los humildes trabajadores que fueron arrasadas por las llamas por la gente de Sandino, perdiendo a los míseros haberes que allí tenían esos desheredados de la fortuna; hechos de que, complacido, el Jefe Supremo informaba a su favorito Pedrón Altamirano.”  ¶  ASESINATOS DE EXTRANJEROS EN DIFERENTES EPOCAS  ¶  El día 11 de Abril de 1931, fueron asesinados Lucián May, John Salomon, Walter Manning y Henry Roger, todos ellos trabajadores de la Bragmann Bluff.  ¶  El 17 de Diciembre del mismo año, fue asesinado por las huestes sandinistas Charles Eliseo Haslam, en Siuna, cerca de Wany, departamento de Bluefields.  ¶  El día 16 de Enero de 1932, fue asesinado en la plantación de Sula, cerca de Puerto Cabezas, Mr. Herbert Seymour.  ¶  El día 17 de Julio de 1932, fueron asesinados, cerca de ‘La Cruz del Gallo’ los señores Clayton, Albert y Willie Hislop, después de haberles robado todo cuanto tenían en el comisariato a su cargo.  ¶  Roberto Allen fue también asesinado cerca de la hacienda Sula, cerca de Puerto Cabezas, el día 16 de Enero de 1932, por fuerzas sandinistas, viniendo a sumarse éstos a la lista macabra que antes publicamos, y que Pedro Antonio Irías trasmitió a su Jefe, en carta de 11 de Agosto de 1932, de la cual tomamos los siguientes párrafos, respetando como siempre la ortografía:  ¶  ‘CAMPAMENTO DE OPERACIONES MILITARES, LAS CUCHILLAS, AGOSTO 11, 1932  ¶  Señor Jefe Supremo Gral. César Augusto Sandino.  ¶  . . ."

** Note of Sergio Ramírez on this document:  “Esta fecha establece cuándo tomado el comisariato de la compañía bananero Vaccaro Brothers & Company, en tanto que la de la carta indica cuándo fue suscrita ésta.  Por otra parte, el documento que presentamos es un fragmento del texto original; la fuente trabajada así lo consigna.”  PV2: p. 232.  [NOTE: The “texto original” to which Ramírez refers is Somoza’s excerpt, presented here.]

4.    15 July 1932.
Excerpts from Anastasio Somoza García's El verdadero Sandino, p. 353 (concludes Aug. 27 letter from Gen. Pedro Antonio Irías to Sandino).  
 ". . . Cuartel General.  ¶  . . . El 17 de Julio llegamos a los campos de la Compañía rompimos varios comisariatos y nos cruzamos el río, continuando la marcha en vusca del lugar donde peranecía el Gral. Adán Gómez, donde llegamos ese mismo día a las 5 de la tarde.  ¶  En esta gira no peliamos pues el enemigo no nos busca por los lugares que nosotros nos crusamos, siempre nos buscaban por lugares distintos. Nosotros mandamos chalequiar 15 traidores entre ellos los jefes de los Comisariatos y Representantes de la Compañía en Río Grande y son los siguientes: Río Grande Cleto Wilcock, Alberto Wilcock, y Wili Wilcock, hermanos los tres; Juan Angulo, Juan Blandón, Gregorio Abarca y Teodoro Aberuz, éstos eran jueses de los machos . . . En Kepi, Río Tuma, a Inés Gutiérres, Feliciano Rosalio y Pantaleón Gutiérrez familiares todos; Tomás Cruz y María Sánchez.  En Veracruz, Río Quiguasca, Pedro Amador; en Timulí, Chontales, Victor Manuel Hernández Juez de los machos.  Así doy a Ud. el informe de la Jira; un soldado de Capitán Tobares lo mató el enemigo pues tomó mucho licor y lo encontraron caído de la borrachera en la picada y lo mataron, pero otra novedad no huvo. — El muerto se llamó Santos Arceda, del Río Yaosca.  ¶  Patria y Libertad  ¶  General y Jefe en Comisión.  ¶  (f) PEDRO A. IRIAS.’  ¶  Finalmente en la incursión que hicieron las fuerzas sandinistas sobre los comisariatos de la Bragmann Bluff, bajo las órdenes del cabecilla Simón González, fue asesinado también el honrado joven Félix Octavio Ramírez y tres niños. Su cuñado, el Dr. Francisco Mongalo, distinguido facultativo, residente en Puerto Cabezas, hizo conducir su cadáver a aquella población, en donde se le dio cristiana sepultura, en medio del sentimiento de pesar de los muchos amigos que apreciaron al extinto. . . ."

15 July 1932.
Letter from C. Conrad Shimer, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA. 
  "Dear Brother Gapp,  ¶  Brother Danneberger writes under date of July 1st  ¶  Apparently the bandits are still round Sandy Bay. They were at Bemuna, and there they had a big dance in our church.  They also showed up in Kuri, a few hours walk across the savannah from Sandy Bay, where they helped themselves to cattle belonging to the Sandy Bay Indians."  ¶  Bemuna is an outstation of Sandy Bay.  What the distance between the two places is Brother Bishop can tell you, I do not know.  ¶  In view of the danger of the bandits coming to Sandy Bay I believe we should not think of the Bishops returning at least till next Spring.  And I do not know where else we could place him. Of course such a possibility would have to wait for Brother Grossman’s return, but they certainly cannot go to Sandy Bay.  ¶  Recently a young Englishman was murdered on one of the farms of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company. I do not think any very serious effort is being made to put down the bandits.  The National Guardsmen always go after them after the bandits have made an attack.  They usually do a lot of damage to the bandits, too, but nevertheless fail to prevent the attack and consequent damage.  A statement made by the father of the murdered young man, which statement I saw here, says that the Guardia knew of the intended attack in which his son was killed, but seemed disinterested and did nothing about it.  ¶  Our upper coast is still in danger and no missionaries should be sent where there are no Guards.  There is a force of Guards at the Cape which is to be augmented shortly by the withdrawal of the guards from Kisalaya above Wasla.  Thus our whole work on the Wangks river will have to be abandoned.  Brother Danneberger says that he has it on reliable authority that Sangsangta and Waspuck Mouth were recently destroyed by fire from the bandits, but that the Mission house at Sangsangta was not harmed.  We have a little church at Waspuck Mouth, but no mission house.  ¶  With kind greetings,  ¶  Fraternally yours, . . . "

20 July 1932.
Letter from Kenneth G. Hamilton, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.
    "Dear Bro. Gapp:-  ¶  Thank you for your last letter, which we were pleased to receive.  We know you have plenty of problems to struggle with – the financial condition as put in the circular which came in the same mail must be a heavy burden on all to the Boards – and we don’t want to add any unnecessary ones.  Our financial donation here, while bad, is not desperate.  At present we owe one large bill, about $190.00, for supplies purchased for the Sunday School last fall, and not yet paid.  Otherwise, we are solvent.  We had to pay a premium of $100.00 on the insurance of our Church and Sunday School Hall, and at first did not know where it could come from.  But our people rallied to the need, when they were told of it, and gave in the annual “S.S. Self Denial Offering” over $60.00.  With that amount to help, we will be able to pay the premium out of current receipts.  ¶  If for any reason the fruit companies should stop work in this coast, the effect on our work would be crippling.  But we hope and pray, that this may not happen. It is getting very difficult for them to carry on their work, however.  In this month, three of their commissaries have been looted, two up the line in Bragman’s, and one up the Rio Grande.  We have not yet heard reliable details about the latter, but there is a suspicion that it was done not by regular Sandinistas, if that is a permissible term, but by embittered ex-employees of the company.  There seems to have been a considerable number of men murdered there, and, what is worse, some women carried off.  However, there is as yet no official confirmation of the reports.  ¶  In the other case, only three men were killed by the Sandinistas during the raid, but one of them was a young Englishman, whom we knew. His poor family is left without their chief support, for he was the only boy among a number of girls.  He was just 23 or 24, I believe.  In this case, the National Guard overtook the Sandinistas as they were retreating, had an encounter, in which all the goods were recovered, and quite a number of the Sandinistas fell. . . ."

20 July 1932.
Letter from Kenneth G. Hamilton, Bluefields, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.
   " . . . turning the thoughts of many to things above.  ¶  Also, we are having much rain.  It is rainy season with a vengeance.  Yes, we run into Bob Hooker often, metaphorically speaking, that is.  It isn’t healthy to do it literally, for he weight over 200 lbs. I think.  He is doing well in school, and settling down somewhat in other respects, I think.  He finds it very hard, though, to manage on the reduced salary which the teachers are getting.  ¶  With regards to Mrs. Gapp and yourself,  ¶  Sincerely yours, . . . "

22 July 1932.
Report of Recent Bandit Activities on the Rio Grande, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.
   "1. About noon Monday 18 July, Mr. Fitzgerald, Manager and agent of the United Fruit Co, on the Rio Grande River and Dr. Meelgard, physician in El Gallo, arrived hurriedly in Bluefields and promptly reported to me. ¶ 2. They stated that early Sunday morning 17 July, a force of about 50 bandits, who had secretly assembled and camped the night before within a few miles of La Cruz, quietly approached, surrounded the Morazon Farm Commissary on the south bank of the Rio Grande, captured the Farm Manager, Mr. Santiago Schech and all the laborers around the place, looted the commissary and keeping all captive, proceeded down the river for several miles, secured some boats and crossed to the north side. During the crossing, Mr. Schoch and several natives managed to make their escape, and returned to El Gallo and gave the alarm. This, strange to say, was the first information received that bandits were even in the district. This seems remarkable in view of the intelligence net Lieut Stone and Mr. Fitzgerald has all around the District. ¶ When Lieut Stone learned of the situation, he promptly organized a patrol and proceeded down the river to where the bandits had landed and started in pursuit. ¶ The bandits in the meantime, had cut across the neck of land and surprised and captured the Pan American Commissary. Mr. Fitzgerald had proceeded by motor boat in the effort to warn Pan American but arrived just after the bandits had left, leaving behind the mutilated bodies of the Hislop brothers. He returned to join Lieut Stone, and enrouge saw some of the bandits in a banana field and opened fire on them. Lieut Stone hearing the firing turned back with his patrol and when Mr. Fitzgerald joined him, and reported, Lieut Stone promptly set off in the right direction and Mr. Fitzgerald returned to El Gallo. Many of those captured had escaped and returned excitedly to Gallo and La Cruz with the information that Pedron with a large force, was still encamped south of El Gallo, and was waiting for the advance detachment to draw Lieut Stone and patrol from Gallo and then he would capture El Gallo and La Cruz. Realizing the possibility of this, Mr. Fitzgerald tried to radio Bluefields but was unsuccessful. The reports were so alarming that Mr. Fitzgerald, knowing that he could not get in radio communication until seventeen hundred Monday decided to proceed to Bluefields by motor boat. On his way down the river, about 1630, he heard heavy firing to the north and as it later developed that was the time Lieut Stone was in contact with the bandits in which contact two bandits were killed. . . . "

22 July 1932.
Report of Recent Bandit Activities on the Rio Grande, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.
   " . . . 3. On learning of the foregoing and making allowance for undue anxiety on the part of Mr. Fitzgerald, I could not ignore the possibility of more trouble and immediately dispatched Lieut Davis with 16 guardias by the Fruit Company Tug, San Juan.  This detachment arrived at El Gallo at 1630, Tuesday.  ¶  4. In the meantime, Lieut Stone had made contact with the bandits Sunday afternoon and chased them until dark.  Hearing the rumors that El Gallo was to be attacked and having lost contact with the bandits, he returned with his patrol to El Gallo late Sunday evening.  Calming the fears of the populace and resting his men, he made preparations to take up the pursuit Monday morning which he promptly did.  His movements since then are unknown and at noon yesterday no reports had been received from him.  ¶  5. Lieut Davis promptly took charge of the situation on the Rio Grande and at last report, preparations were going forward for the usual large weekly banana cutting and conditions were returning to normal.  ¶  6. The bandits were under Irias, Mairena and Chavalia, the latter formerly of La Cruz.  It is believed that the information reached Chavalia, that an old enemy of his Ed Hislop, the Pan America commissary owner, had much cash in his possession.  This is borne out by the methodical search of his house and all buildings.  Mr. Hislop had left Saturday morning for Bluefields with $1.250.00.  ¶  The secret method of their approach indicates that the raid was carefully planned, and well executed. Just how many people were killed is unknown, other than those already reported.  Reports state that many of the captured laborers were killed, and many brutally forced to pack the loot.  All the women and children that were held captive were released and have returned to their homes.  ¶  7. I believe the bandits managed to reach the Prinzapolka River and seize boats before Lieut Stone could catch them.  It is problematical whether they crossed the river and struck the trail leading northwest south of Neptune Mine, or attempted to escape up the Prinzapolka River.  A patrol from Wauni, should have arrived at Vacawatla yesterday.  The Bluefields Detachment will await return of Lieut Stone prior to return.  ¶  8. Further details will be forwarded after receipt of Lieut Stone’s report.  ¶  L. L. LEECH."

1.    24 July 1932.
Informe de Patrulla, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitain, Cuartel de Moss, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "1. El 18 de Julio de 1932 recibí orden verbal del Comandante del Departamento de salir con una patrulla de 20 guardias y dos Oficiales hacia las sabanas y recorrer toda la región del río Coco desde Leimos, hasta el pueblo de Cum y tomar todas las informaciones que pudiera obtener acerca de los bandoleros.  ¶  2. Teniendo ya todo organizado, salí del Cuartel de Moss a las 5.00am con 21 alistado y el Subteniente Leónidas López G.N. y nos dirigimos sobre el camino que conduce a Leimos sobre la sabana pasando por Collotine y Licus; habiendo caminado todo el día detuvimos nuestra marcha para dormir en un lugar de la sabana y continuar el día siguiente.  Sobre este camino iban las huellas de los bandoleros que después del contacto que tuvieron con la guardia cerda de Licus día después de que robaron el comisariato de Bacaro [Vaccaro], se desparecieron en dos grupos siendo este el mayor, pues este es el camino más favorito por donde ellos siempre bajan por ser demasiadamente solo y lejos.  Habiéndome constituido en el lugar de Leimos pude observar que este grupo de bandoleros que llevaban este camino habían cruzado el río Coco indudablemente para dirigirse hacia arriba a Waspook o Sang Sang que es donde poco más o menos se cree tengan su campamento.  Regresando la marcha hacia atrás llegue al Cuartel viejo de Kisalaya y obtuve las primeras informaciones acerca de los bandoleros.  Los indios me manifestaron todos en general que seis bandoleros habían salido al pueblo de Saupuka que habían tomado a tres indios mosquitos y se habían embarcado en tres pipantes y se habían dirigido sobre el río hacia arriba a Leimos y que se habían juntado con los otros y que indudablemente se habían ido para arriba.  Que estos bandoleros al llegar a Saupuka habian manifestado que la guardia los había hecho paste y que ellos iban huyendo, llendo heridos los seis pero ligeramente solo uno con un balazo de mas gravedad y que creían que la guardia los seguía por eso no se detenían, siendo tres españoles y tres mosquitos, los cuales cuatro iban armados con rifles y los otros dos con machete.  ¶  3. Al día siguiente el 20 de Julio seguí mi marcha hacia abajo en donde llegue a Saupuka habiéndome informado de todo lo que me habían dicho anteriormente los indios de Kisalaya, estos indos me refirieron lo mismo y que los tres indios que se habían . . . "

2.    24 July 1932.
Informe de Patrulla, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitain, Cuartel de Moss, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2. 
  ". . . tomados los bandoleros para que los llevaran en los pipantes no habían regresando aun, también que estos bandoleros al irse los habían manifestado a los indios que ellos regresarían muy pronto nuevamente a la línea en mayor numero y que todo el ganado que los indios poseen los llevarían para arriba porque era de ellos.  Después me dirigí hacia el pueblo de Bilwas Carma y obtuve las mismas informaciones anteriores donde ellos también pasaron en el mismo número y manifestaron a los indios de allí lo mismo que ellos regresarían muy pronto y que se llevarían todo el ganado de los indios.  Pase por el pueblo de Saklin en donde no obtuve mas información que la de cuando ellos bajaron que pasaron por allí, pero estos seis bandoleros que pasaron por estos pueblos antes mencionado no pasaron por allí.  Llegué en marcha hasta la hacienda Pisquiera en donde dormí.  Por la mañana a las 7.00am emprendí nuevamente la marcha pasando por los pueblos de Cuncunwatla Tuscro, Wasla hasta llegar al pueblo de Cum.  ¶  4. En estos pueblos obtuve la información solamente cuando los bandoleros bajaron que venían de arriba que pasaron robando y haciendo miles zanganadas, pero toda esta gente se corrió porque los divisaron a tiempo y ellos no capturaron a nadie.  A las 5.00pm del 21 llegue a Cum en donde me quede a dormir y tome todas las informaciones acerca de la llegada de los bandoleros las que obtuve por medio del Juez Inman (indio mosquito).  Este señor cuando los bandoleros llegaron a Cum el se corrió y casi toda la gente, pero ellos se habían ido regresaron a sus casas capturándolo los bandoleros y preguntándoles que si la guardia llegaba por allí, uno de estos mosquitos de nombre Elix, nombraron Juez dándole dicho nombramiento el General Simón González.  Pero este hombre Elix, se había ido con toda y su familia según de manifestaron para Sandy Bay.  Por todo lo demás ellos los bandoleros despues se habian dirigido hacia Sandy Bay.  ¶  5. De Cum continué mi marcha hacia Casca pasando por Pritingni este Casca es un lugar que queda a orilla del rio Cornok a medio día de camino de Sandy Bay y a cinco horas de Cum.  En este Casca es un lugar completamente apropiado para permanencia de los bandoleros, hay varios champas es montañosa a la orilla del rio y hay plantaciones de bananos y cana en donde ellos pueden comer, no vive gente.  En este mismo día continué mi marcha hacia Suajara lugar que queda hacia el Suroeste de Casca como a dos horas y media de camino y lugar donde los bandoleros han llegado mucho.  A las 8.00pm de la noche del 23 de Julio llegue al pueblo de Suajara en donde me quede a dormir.  Habiéndole tomado muy pulcramente información a los indios de este lugar, me manifestaron que los bandoleros habían estado como mas de una semana allí, que ellos no habían podido ir a avisar la guardia porque ellos no les daban oportunidad que cuando llegaron fue de noche y no dejaban salir a nadie a ninguna parte.  Que allí permanecieron muy tranquilos y que la guardia nunca había llegado por allí hasta en esta fecha que yo llegaba.  Este lugar de Suajara es un pueblito de 14 casas de paja o sea hojas queda viniendo de Casca o Cum en el llano a orilla de la montana e illendo de ollapine del otro lado del rio y de la montana, es decir illendo de ollaipine a Suajara es un lugar muy emboscado por la montana y por el rio que es grande y se necesita pasar en pipantes. . . . "

3.    24 July 1932.
Informe de Patrulla, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitain, Cuartel de Moss, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3. 
  " . . . Hay plantación de bananos, de cano y de eso los bandoleros comían y dormían allí, también iban a agarrar ganado al llano al lado de Sandy Bay, que muchas veces pasaron por allí los aviones pero ellos se escondían debajo de los árboles o se metían a las casas.  Que de allí habían salido para la línea porque ellos hacía lo habían dicho que no habían vuelto a saber de ellos.  Que la primera vez cuando llegaron a saquear a Sandy Bay también llegaron y que habían estado allí algunos días.  Viven en este pueblo como 20 personas mosquitas.  A fin de quitarles ese lugar a los bandoleros, les notifique se fueran de allí porque la otra vez que llegara lo allí daría fuego a todas las casas y terminaría con todo lo que hubiera allí. En la mañana del 24 de Julio salí de Suajara con rumbo a Ollapine teniendo que pasar demasiadamente lleno tenía mucha agua y parecía imposible la pasada.  Opté por hacer algunas balsas y probar si podía pasar porque se me hacia forzoso no tenia provisión y necesitaba llegar, pues ya había cubierto la ruta que se había señalado. Principie por hacer balsas y pasamos todos y todas las armas, pero los últimos en pasarse que fueron Juan García #4478 G.N. que habían quedado al otro lado del rio apostado esperando la pasada de todos, al pasarse la balsa se les rompió y los arrastro la corriente habiéndose ahogado los tres rifles de ellos solamente habiendo sido imposible sacarlos por la enorme creciente del rio.  Después continué la marcha hacia Ollapine en donde llegue a las 7.00pm interrogando algunos indios de allí acerca de si sabían algo de los bandoleros me manifestaron que no había nada que los bandoleros no habían vuelto a llegar desde que pelearon en Si Sing [Sinsin, Sisin] con la guardia que pasaron por allí.  En Ollapine me embarque con la patrulla en pipantes y seguí mi marcha embarcado hasta el puente del Boom en donde llegue a las 3.15m en donde llame a la Comandancia de Moss para que mandasen a traer en el motor carro habiéndome reporteado por teléfono al Comandante Departamental.  ¶  6. Durante toda mi marcha por la sabana y los lugares por donde trafique no tuve ninguna novedad solamente en el rio Licus la ahogad de los tres rifles en referencia.  Debo advertir que toda esta zona que recorrí en esta fecha que lo hice se encuentra tranquila y toda la información que obtuve es la que narro aquí mismo.  Durante los días de mi patrulla que fueron siete dos veces los aviones me dejaron provisión pero con esto y la ayuda de los pueblos por donde pase que me ayudaban con alguna poca provisión pude así cumplir exactamente con lo que se me encomendó a excepción del último día que no tenia provisión y por esto apresure mi marcha para llegar al Cuartel de Moss.  Por este camino que conduce directamente de Cum a Sandy Bay y el mismo que conduce a Casca y Suajara es el que siempre los bandoleros han utilizado para su tráfico para los lugares de la línea, pero ya hoy es traficado por la guardia y será quizás ya posible que ellos tendrán mucho miedo al saber que la guardia cruza ya por esos sumapos penosos.  Este es todo el informe de mi patrulla cumpliendo así con el cometido y orden que se me encomendó.  ¶  (firma) Francisco Gaitán"

4.    24 July 1932.
Informe de Patrulla, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitain, Cuartel de Moss, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4. 
  Handwritten message accompanying report (no author):   "Members of group recognized  ¶  Simon Gonzales General  ¶  Short heavy set, smooth shaven no outstanding scars. Coffee complexion - does not look very intelligent.  ¶  Sotomayor - Secretary  ¶  Orosco - Adjutant  ¶  Lopez - Believed to be ex Guardia  ¶  Zacarias  ¶  Arauz  ¶  Camilo  ¶  Centeno Pancho."

5.    24 July 1932.
Informe de Patrulla, 2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitain, Cuartel de Moss, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 5. 
  1st Endorsement, Dept. of S. Bluefields Commander Capt. W. W. Davies, 29 July, and 2nd Endorsement, Col. Leech, 30 July.

1.    25 July 1932.
Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations, Capt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.
   [From "Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 112," 1-12 August 1932]  "Following report is quoted:  ¶  HEADQUARTERS GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA, DISTRICT OF RIO GRANDE, EL GALLO, NICARAGUA, 25 JULY, 1932  ¶  From: The District Commander.  ¶  To: The Area Commander, Guardia Nacional, Bluefields.  ¶  Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations; report of.  ¶  1. A group of bandits, now authentically known to number 77, under Pedro Irias and Chavarria, invaded this District from the South and came out on the Rio Grande about three miles below La Cruz on July 17th, at 5:30 AM.  After sacking a camp at this point they moved East and looted the Commissariat of Santiago Schock at Morozan (see Marine Corps Map of Nicaragua) and still moving East they arrived at Matagalpa farm and then crossed to the north bank of the Rio Grande to Terciopela in a gasoline boat belonging the Epifanio Castro who lives there.  ¶  Information of their operations was received at this Headquarters at 10:45 AM.  Cleared immediately with combat patrol of ten enlisted in Fruit Company tug boat and after questioning persons at Morozan arrived and disembarked at Terciopeia (Castro’s camp) . . . "

2.    25 July 1932.
Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations, Capt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.
   [From "Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 112," 1-12 August 1932]  ". . . at 11:30 AM. Found nine sacks of loot under Castro’s house and learned that group had divided; one part going in direction of Edward Hislop’s commissariat directly North of Pan America but still on the river (see Marine Corps Map) and the main group going Northeast in direction of Adan Gomez farm which is located in a deserted lumber camp in the vicinity of the Headwaters of river Mahautak. Some time was lost at Terciopela attempting to gather in some men who had been set free there by the bandits when they couldn’t carry loot any more. These were hiding in the bananas when we arrived. It was urgent that someone be found who could give definite information as to bandit strength and armament as reports had their strength as high as 200 with seven machine guns. Two of the free porters were found and it was then learned that the bandit strength was much less than 200 with one Sub-machine gun. Patrol cleared in pursuit of group gone to Hislop’s commissariat. Upon failing to make contact and learning that group were on way to join main group, patrol returned to Terciopela and picking up trail of main group cleared Terciopela at 1:30 PM. Patrol fired on and killed one bandit straggler at 3:00 PM. It was later learned that he had been disarmed and left behind because he was incorrigible. Patrol arrived at Gomez farm at 6:30 PM, and finding it deserted and on account of darkness quietly made camp. About 10:00 PM, low voices were heard to our front and left but as the guide informed us there were other farms nearby, we planned to advance at daybreak. At 11:00 PM, the sentries opened fire and they stated that two persons were seen approaching from the left. As the fire was not returned and as nothing could be found in the vicinity where they had been seen, it was believed that they were Gomez family returning or that it was possibly imagination on the part of the sentries, as the men had been considerable shaken that afternoon when two bodies without heads were passed on the trail. ¶ Patrol cleared at 4:45 AM July 18th, and found deserted bandit camp 300 yds. to the left on a ridge. Two pack animals were left tied and about 10 sacks of loot. Time was not taken to set the animals loose and the loot was left where found. The animals came home or were brought home by Castro at Terciopela as they belonged to the Cukra Development Co., and were being used by him. No trace of the loot was found later, and it is believed that the neighbors got it, although nothing could be found in their houses. ¶ It was learned later that bandits broke camp immediately upon hearing the sentries fire. Their trail was followed until 8:00 AM. With little hope in view of over-taking them, and as the guide and Guardias who knew the country informed me, the bandits were headed for a place called “Salta Verde” in the headwaters of the Macanteca creed, from where they could cross the savannah and so to the Prinzapolca river; the patrol cleared to La Cruz, arriving at 12:00 AM. Report could not be made to Bluefields at Mr. Fitzgerald had gone there when he could not make communication by radio. Patrol was shaken down and increased to 16 men and cleared El Gallo for the savannah and Prinzapolka river at . . . "

3.    25 July 1932.
Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations, Capt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.
   [From "Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 112," 1-12 August 1932]  " . . . 1:30 PM, July 18th. Arrived in vicinity of headwaters of Apaunta creed (see Marine Corps Map) at 7:00 PM and camped. ¶ Cleared at 5:00 AM July 19th and arriving at the savannah at about 8:30 AM or 9:00 AM heard airplanes but did not see them, although panels were laid out. Arrived at Alimikengbang on the Prinzapolca river at 11:00 PM after going through several small towns on the way. No information of bandits. ¶ July 20th, riders sent to the savannah to inspect all trails. Patrol stayed in Alimikangbang. Riders returned with nothing to report and patrol cleared in Mr. Leeming’s fruit boat for Tungla at 5:30 PM, July 20th. ¶ Arrived at Tungla July 21st at 10:30 AM and upon gaining no information there cleared for El Gallo at 11:00 AM and arrived about midway to El Gallo at 8:30 PM same day and camped. As patrol was well worn, one member being without shoes it was not thought advisable to try to make El Gallo that day. ¶ Patrol cleared for El Gallo at 5:00 AM July 22nd, and arrived El Gallo at 8:30 PM. After leaving bandit trail Monday July 18th, nothing had been learned of bandits, and upon arriving El Gallo found the same case prevalent, however four men who had been pressed into service as porters reported to me at 4:30 PM same date, stating that the bandits had swung West after marching in direction of “Balta Verde” Monday July 18th, and that they the porters had been set free on Wednesday July 20th in the evening at the Chavarrias farm which is located well up the Sixicuas creek. Patrol of 6 men was ordered to stand by and a boat was sent for from La Cruz (the Fruit Companies boats were all out picking up fruit). Finally secured gasoline boat at about 12:00 PM. Information had been received in the meantime that bandits had passed through Palpunta at 3:00 PM that day. Patrol of 16 men, Lieut Davis and self cleared for Palpunta at 2:00 AM July 23rd, but due to motor trouble did not arrive at Palpunta until about 11:30 AM. Learned that bandits had passed through there Thursday July 21st at 4:00 PM and not Friday as we had been informed. As bandits were now well on the way to San Pedro del Norte with very little chance of being overtaken, patrol returned to El Gallo arriving at 4:30 PM July 23rd. ¶ Bandits were poorly armed; having one Sub-machine gun, rifles of different makes, shotguns (some muzzle leaders) and little ammunition. Some were armed only with machetes. They are believed to be part of Pedron’s group which is said to be somewhere north of the Tuma river. Believed that they crossed the Rio Grande well West of San Pedro del Norte in the vicinity of Palsagua (USNC Fifth Regiment Special Map) and making a large detour to the South, struck the trail coming from Chontales and came in by La Brena, south of La Cruz and El Gallo. It [?] . . . "

4.    25 July 1932.
Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations, Capt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4.
   [From "Guardia Nacional Newsletter No. 112," 1-12 August 1932]  " . . . on the way out. They had no desire to meet even a small Guardia force, but were very vicious with the unarmed, having killed seven known persons: two of which were Jueces de Mesta Suplentes. Two Commissariats were looted and many private homes. Merchandise valued at about $800.00 was taken or destroyed from Santiago Schook at Morozan of which $93.00 worth were recovered by the Guardia. $1,500.00 in merchandise was taken or destroyed from the Commissariat of Edward Hislop besides $400.00 in cash. Am unable to obtain an estimate of the value of articles taken from private homes. No livestock was taken except that killed and eaten immediately. Their system of carrying cargo and loot was very efficient. Men when captured were given the choice of being killed or carrying cargo. When they were worn out, they were set free and fresh ones pressed into service. The following are the names of the persons killed: ¶ Gregorio Abarca – at La Brena – Juez M. Sup. – Nic., Juan Blandon – Castros Farm – Juez M. Sup. – Nic, Juan Angula, Castros Fram, Mozo – Nic., Teodoro Averruz – Sixcaus Creek – Farmer – Nic., Clayton Hislop – Mandador CDCo-Commissariat – Cayman’s (Bri Sub), Albert Hislop – Contractor CDCo-Commissariat – Cayman’s (Bri Sub), Willie Hislop – Youth, Cayman’s (Bri Sub) ¶ Many natives were taken along as porters, but these will be later turned loose. District is again quiet, although people are leaving the river bag and baggage, in spite of our efforts to reassure them. ¶ This invasion was a complete surprise as the individuals on the trail South of here had no opportunity to give us information; one being killed and the others captured. ¶ It is expected that as they have once raided this District and got away free they will try again. As all commissariats are being drawn in to El Gallo, except a few commissariat boats, they will have to come to El Gallo or La Cruz if they wish to gain anything of value. ¶ Civico organization at La Cruz has been reorganized and an organization of Civicos is being formed at El Gallo. ¶ Have enclosed in mail sack Marine Corps map of Nicaragua showing bandit route and places mentioned in this report. ¶ W. J. STONE"

30 July 1932.
Recent Events, Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields. 
  "1. Reports have been coming in constantly during the past week a large group of bandits had crossed the Rio Rama about ten miles south of El Rama and was working east parallel to the Escondido River. Thinking possibly they were heading for the Commissary at Providence on the Escondido, I directed Lieut Stephenson to send a patrol there and to search the country south of the River in the hope of getting some definite information. Lieut Rourk failed to find any trace of such a group, he traced the movements of two well armed men, who had been spying out the land, asking questions and buying boat paddles. Lieut Stephenson continued to seek definite traces of this group, but to date it is but just another rumor. ¶ 2. Considering the possibility that such a group really existed and that they might have designs against the commissaries on the Punta Gorda River, I dispatched a small patrol from Bluefields on a reconnaissance mission up the Punta Gorda River. They left yesterday by schooner and will return next Saturday. ¶ 3. The inhabitants of Bluefields were much excited Thursday night by reports that a group of bandits were approaching over the trail coming into Bluefields from Rama, but their fears were quieted. Civilian intelligence agents had already been dispatched well to the west of this trail and other precautions taken. If such a group really exists in this section they have cleverly concealed their location and actions. ¶ 4. Lieut Stephenson reported yesterday that a group of 40 bandits had appeared on the Rio Siquia near junction Rio Danta. This is very probably the group under Irias who recently raided the commissaries on the Rio Grande. ¶ 5. Captain Davies reported that the inhabitants along the new (south) section of the railroad, Kipla District, had been very active in all direction and discovered nothing. Lieut Gaitan made a long patrol to Laimus on the Coco River, then down the river Kum thence across the Savanna to Wawa Boom. Several formerly unknown towns were found, but no traces of bandits. While at Laimus, he learned that a group had passed p the river carrying a badly wounded man. It has definitely been determined that the bandits lost 2 killed and 6 wounded in Peterson’s contact. Reports from Puerto Cabezas indicate peace and quiet at present. Captain Davies has redistributed his force along the railroad and now has 50 enlisted at both Moss and Kipla farms. The Fruit Company has concentrated their commissaries in the vicinity of those two posts and has a rolling commissary for the places in between. ¶ 6. Mr. Baker, United Fruit Company Manager, has made arrangements for the commissaries on the Rio Grande to be moved to El Gallo, and the places on the river below to be supplied by a boat commissary. ¶ 7. The people of Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas were much elated at the election of the Electoral Mission, and the Sacasa group of Liberals now feel they will have a fair and square plebiscite on August 7th, especially now that Major Marston has arrived to personally supervise the plebiscite here. He was accorded a most enthusiastic reception. The political pot continues to brew, but quietly. ¶ L. L. LEECH"

1 August 1932
Excerpts from GN-2 Intelligence Report covering the month of July.  
 [NOTE:  These excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 30-page intelligence report covering the entire country, except for three longer reports by Col. Leech, which are included on these Atlantic Coast pages in chronological sequence (July 1, 22, and 30). The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]  . . . LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS  ¶  . . . (B) PEDRON ALTAMIRANO: 1st- Reported having recrossed to the north side of TUMA RIVER to his old hangout in PEÑA BLANCA.  ¶  18th- Reported with 200 RIO GRANDE vicinity of EL GALLO and LA CRUZ, Eastern Area. Further reported he sacked two commissaries and killed 8 company employees. It is believed Pedron, after being driven out of NEPTUNE MINE area in June, proceeded southwest to the TUMA RIVER and then traveling via boats to the EL GALLO AREA. . . .  ¶   [p. 3]   . . . (I) SIMON GONZALES:  ¶  1st- Reported with small group on COCO RIVER in vicinity of SAKLIN.  ¶  5th- Jefe of group of 60 which ambushed Lieutenant Padilla and 3 guardias at Vacarro Farm . . .  ¶  6th- In contact with Lieutenants Henderson, Kemp, Nuñoz and guardia patrol near LECUS . . .  ¶   [p. 5]   . . . (R) PERALTA [Gen. Ismael Peralta]:  ¶  Fairly reliable information received that PERALTA was killed during contact near Neptune mines in June. . . .  ¶  UNITS IN CONTACT:  ¶   . . . 5 JULY – Lieutenant Padilla and patrol had contact with group of 60 under Jefe Simon Gonzalez at VACARRO FARM.  Bandit casualties unknown.  Guardia casualties, one killed and one wounded. Mandador Cook of Vacarro killed and commissary looted.  ¶  6 JULY – Lieutenants Peterson, Kemp and Nuñoz with guardia patrol of 25 enlisted had contact 1130 with Simon Gonzales group, which had looted Vacarro Farm Commissary previous day, at a point one league east of LECUS.  Contact lasted one hour, a running fight.  Bandit casualties three known killed, 3 known wounded.  Guardia casualties, none.  Guardia captured 1 rifle, 1 shotgun, 1 pistol, three rifle grenades and recovered $200 worth of loot stolen from the commissary.  Dead bandit believed to be a sub-jefe of Gonzales. Another guardia patrol went in pursuit.  ¶   [p. 6]   . . . 17 JULY – Lieutenant Stone and El Gallo patrol of 11 enlisted had contact with bandit group of 40, jefes Irias and Mairena near PAN AMERICA.  Bandit casualties, two known killed.  No guardia casualties.  Large amount of loot, previously captured by the bandits from one of the stores on the Rio Grande, was recovered.  ¶  . . .    [p. 12]   WEEKLY COMBAT INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY FOR WEEK ENDING 4 JULY 1932  ¶  PRINCIPAL BANDIT GROUPS REPORTED DURING WEEK:  ¶  JUNE 28:- SIMEON GONZALEZ with 50 to 60 still reported operating on COCO RIVER in vicinity of SAKLIN.  ¶  PEDRON ALTAMIRANO and group, reported at 100 or more, was driven north of TUMA RIVER from vicinity of CONSUELO.  His raid to the South of the river turned out to be a flat failure.  June 26 reported crossing Tuma.  ¶  . . . Eastern Area . . . quiet during week. . . .  ¶    [p. 14]   WEEKLY COMBAT INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY FOR WEEK ENDING 11 JULY 1932  ¶  PRINCIPAL BANDIT GROUPS REPORTED DURING WEEK: . . .  ¶  PEDRON believed to be North of TUMA RIVER.  ¶  . . . UNITS IN CONTACT DURING WEEK:  ¶  JULY 5 – Lieut PADILLA and PUERTO CABEZAS patrol in contact with SIMON GONZALEZ at VACCARO FARM . . .  ¶  JULY 7: - Lieuts PETERSON, KEMP and NUÑEZ with PUERTO CABEZAS patrol in contact with SIMON GONZALEZ group one league east of LECUS . . .  ¶  . . . The week, on the whole, has been quiet.  ¶  . . .   [p. 16]   WEEKLY COMBAT INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY FOR WEEK ENDING 18 JULY 1932  ¶  [nothing in the Eastern Area] . . . Eastern Area [has] been quiet.  ¶   [p. 18]   WEEKLY COMBAT INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY FOR WEEK ENDING 25 JULY 1932  ¶  . . . UNITS IN CONTACT DURING WEEK:  ¶  JULY 17 – Lieut Stone and El Gallo patrol in contact with bandit group of 40 under IRIAS, MAIRENA and CHAVALIA [Chavarría] near Pan American Central on Rio Grande, Eastern Area.  ¶  . . .   [p. 20]   OUR OPERATIONS:  ¶  . . . Guardia patrol have been unusually active this month as evidenced by the twenty contacts had. Nueva Segovia, and Jinotega still remain the most active areas, although the Eastern Area came in for its share.  ¶  . . . "

1 August 1932.
Parte de guerra, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 1.
  (Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 235)   "En julio sobresalieron los combates siguientes: nuestras fuerzas de la división del Atlántico, al mando de los generales Francisco Estrada y Simón González, atacaron y tomaron el campo platanero Vaccaro, de compañía norteamericana, en Puerto Cabezas.  Al enemigo acantonado en ese campo le llegó inmediato refuerzo, pero nuestros muchachos supieron rechazarlos, quitando los trenes y moto-carros, así como parque, rifles y ametralladoras.  Se dio fuego a los edificios, y al día siguiente una flotilla de aviones bombardeó a nuestra columna, pero fue derribado uno de ellos.  El bombardeo orientó al enemigo que se aproximaba y se trabó un sangriento combate hasta cerca de la noche.  Se calculan en más de cien las bajas del enemigo.  ¶  Fuimos informados de que veinte anfibios yanquis acuatizaron en Puerto Cabezas, para levantar a las familias norteamericanas, residentes en aquel puerto.  Estimamos atinado el procedimiento, porque la suerte que allí les espera a los norteamericanos, es negra.  ¶  . . . A última hora, los generales Estrada y González, jefes de la división del Atlántico, nos comunican que en la Mosquitia hondureña han cruzado a territorio nicaragüense fuertes núcleos de tropas norteamericanas, que no sabemos cómo permitiría el gobierno de Honduras, . . . '

1 August 1932.
Parte de guerra, Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, p. 2.
  (SourceA. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 236)    " . . . que se dice celoso autonomista.  Agrega el informe que el cuartel lo tienen en un campo platanero de compañía yanqui, la United Fruit Company, en el puerto hondureño de Trujillo. . . ."

[NOTE:  This undated document is assigned a date of 1 August because it presumes to speak of the month of July, and as we've seen it could take weeks for news to reach Sandino in the interior.  In view of the controversy on the date of the letter to follow (August 2), a date of August 1 or 2 makes the most sense.]

2 August 1932 (vs. 5 July 1932).
Carta de Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Gen. Pedro Altamirano, "La Chispa." 
  "Cuartel General del Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua.  ¶  La Chispa, Agosto 2 de 1932.  ¶  Señor, Primer Jefe de nuestra Columna Expedicionaria N° 1.  ¶  General Divisionario Pedro Altamirano  ¶  Mi muy querido hermano:  ¶  El General Estrada nos participa que el 5 de Julio próximo pasado, nuestras fuerzas al mando del General Simón González, “se posesionó” del campo y Comisariato más fuerte de las compañías yankees en Puerto Cabezas, el cual campo le denominan Vaccaro.  El General González colocó estratégicamente las fuerzas a su mando, penetrando él en persona, con un grupo de sus muchachos, al más famoso de los comisariatos, en donde se aprovisionó de botas fuertes, sombreros Stentson y finos trajes de montar; cuando estuvieron listos en esa forma, procedieron a levantar un cargamento de mercaderías de la misma clase y artículos de boca; todos nuestros muchachos, cuando estuvieron vestidos gogueramente, procedieron a incendiar todas las mercaderías almacenadas, el edificio del comisariato y los barracones, pues toda la gente había abandonado el lugar.  [¶  Patria y Libertad  ¶  A. C. Sandino]"

Source:  A. C. Sandino, El pensamiento vivo, v. 2, pp. 232; on the date of this missive, see the discussion under July 5, above.

1.    9 August 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.
  "Subject: Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields.  ¶  E INTELLIGENCE.  ¶  July 5 & 6 Bandit FRANCISCO ESTRADA and SIMON GONZALES with a group estimated to number sixty to eighty looted VACCARO FARM commissary and killed the Mandador at that place. Lieutenant PETERSON with a Guardia patrol from PUERTO CABEZAS gained contact with a detached group of twenty while they were dividing their loot completing dispersing them, killing two and wounding six.  Later reports indicated that the bandit losses were much greater than the known casualties as reported by the Guardia.  (Detailed report has been submitted).  ¶  July 17 Bandit Jefes IRIAS, MAIRENA and CHAVARRIA, the latter a native of LA CRUZ, with a group of fifty to seventy raided commissaries at MORAZAN FARM and PAN AMERICA, killed seven people during the raid and made their escape with the stores taken from the commissary at PAN AMERICA.  Lieutenant STONE with a Guardia patrol from EL GALLO made contact with the rear guard of this group killing two but was unable to gain contact with the main body prior to their arrival on the river where they took to boats and made their escape to the west.  (See letter Area Commander re this group).  ¶  July 26 A group of about forty was reported in the vicinity of SANTA ANA on the RIO RAMA moving in the direction of PUNTA GORDA.  Patrols failed to confirm the reports and the district continues quiet.  (Report has been submitted).  ¶  2. Military situation: The condition of trails and the terrain generally will prohibit the movements of any large group during August.  Raids by small groups on isolated farms are expected and being guarded against.  These groups will, it is believed, avoid any contact with the Guardia.  ¶  3. Economic Situation: Continues Good.  The cutting and shipment of fruit during July was not up to the standards of previous months due to a decreased demand for fruit in the United States.  ¶  4. Sanitary Conditions: Satisfactory.  The Guardia commander at WUANI reports that Malaria is very prevalent in that vicinity.  ¶  5. Political Situation:  Quiet.  The news of the nomination of SACASA was enthusiastically received by all classes of people on the coast where he is very popular and has built up a powerful political machine. . . . "

2.    9 August 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.
  ". . . 6. No friction has been reported between the Guardia and the civil population except that the people on the RIO GRANDE have not been over friendly towards the Guardia since the 17th.  This attitude is no doubt due to their fear of another bandit raid in that territory.  The press continues friendly.  ¶  7. Weather: Steady, and at times heavy rains during entire month.  River and coastwise transportation scheduled more regular.  Visibility for air reconnaissance was good to bad.  ¶  8. Condition of telephone and telegraph communications: Telephone – BLUEFIELDS to EL BLUFF – Fair.  BLUEFIELDS TO EL RAMA – GOOD.  Civilian Tropical Radio Telegraph Company – Excellent.  Guardia BLUEFIELDS – Good.  Guardia PUERTO CABEZAS – Good.  Guardia CABO GRACIAS – Fair.  Guardia NEPTUNE MINE – Good.  Guardia WUANI – Not heard since 20th.  ¶  9. Conditions of Roads and Trails – Bad.  ¶  F CONFISCATION OF ARMS.  ¶  Confiscated during the month – Serviceable – 6 SHOTGUNS, 1 PISTOL.  Confiscated during the month – Unserviceable – None.  Previously reported – 8 RIFLES, 6 SHOTGUNS, 17 PISTOLS, 0 CUTTING WEAPONS. (TOTAL) 8 RIFLES, 12 SHOTGUNS, 18 PISTOLS, 0 CUTTING WEAPONS. ¶  G TRAINING  ¶  Except where interfered with by patrolling, training schedules have been maintained.  Discipline has been satisfactory.  ¶  H MISCELLANEOUS  ¶  On July 17, Mr. FAUSSIG, General Manager of the Mercantile Stores owned by the Guaranty Trust Co., of New York, arrived BLUEFIELDS for an inspection of the Bluefields Mercantile Company one of the chain stores.  Mr. Faussig stated that business conditions on the coast were much better than he had expected to find them. . . ."

3.    9 August 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 3.
  ". . . On 27 July, Major SCHMIDT, Guardia Paymaster, inspected and studied the disturbing accounts of the Department Quartermaster, Southern Bluefields.  Major REA, Guardia Quartermaster, inspected all quartermaster activities in BLUEFIELDS.  ¶  On 29 July, Major MARSTON, USMC., arrived BLUEFIELDS to take charge of electoral activities on the East Coast.  The people of BLUEFIELDS were very enthusiastic in the reception accorded Major MARSTON on his return to the coast.  ¶  I CIVICOS. BLUEFIELDS 74, DISTRICT OF SEQUIA, RAMA 13, DISTRICT OF RIO GRANDE – LA CRUZ 10, RIO GRANDE BAR 12, NEPTUNE MINE 95  ¶  L. L. LEECH"

17 August 1932.
Further Report on Killing of Mr. H. L. Cooke at Vacarro Farm on July 5, 1932, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua.   
"1. Since the raid on Vaccaro Farm on July 2, and the death of Mr. Cooke, information has reached this office that Mr. Cooke was killed by and at the instigation of a laborer whom he had fired and driven off his farm.  ¶  The discharged laborer sought out and guided the bandits to Vaccaro.  It has been reported that Mr. Cooke fled and drove the laborer away in order to possess his (the laborers) young native woman and that she was living with Cooke at the time of the raid.  This fact is commonly talked over by the people of the section, but as to its voracity, I do not know.  It is further said that the discharged laborer was the one who mutilated the body.  ¶  L. L. LEECH"

23 August 1932
Further Report on Bandit Raid on Rio Grande River July 22nd, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields. 
 "1. It has been learned that during the retreat of the bandits after their raid on the commissaries on the Rio Grande River July 22nd, that they killed the following people all Nicaraguans:  ¶  Four Gutierrez brothers, ages 15-18-22, and 33 years, and one Tomas Cruz, age 46 years at Queppi on the Rio Tuma on or about July 25th.  Also one Mario Sanchez was killed above the Queppi on the river.  ¶  2. It is reported that the Gutierrez brothers were killed because they had returned some mules left in their charge by Pedron in February 1931, to their rightful owners in Cuicuina.  When they were called for in July and their action learned, they were put to death. No reasons have been learned for the killing of the other two.  ¶  3. The above killings were witnessed by people captured during the raid and who were forced to go with the bandits until well above Queppi where they were released and on their return to El Gallo reported the above.  ¶  (signed) L. L. LEECH"

31 August 1932.
Report of My Commission, Sgt. Cresencio Chamorro, GN #1652, Rama, District of Siquia, to District Commander.
  "1. After having received verbal orders from Lieutenant Romero, I cleared on a commission, with the following enlisted: Fletes, Mercedes #4898, Zepeda, Julian #2259; Zeledon, Joaquin #4818, and Garcia, Manuel #4964.  Having requested from Mr. Carlos Fornos a motorboat to go on said commission.  We cleared from here at 1830 on 27th of August, 1932.  Not very long after having begun our march, the motor wouldn’t work though we tried our best.  It was about 1930, and knowing that the commission was urgent, I requested from Mr. Alfonso Webster, to loan us one of his tugboat to take us to El Recreo.  He loaned it to us with pleasure, clearing this place about 2000, taking along with us beside the enlisted men above mentioned, two mechanics and one guide, who came from Bluefields on the Company’s account.  ¶  2. We arrived at El Recreo about 2130 and passed the night here.  We cleared at 5000 the next morning in a paddle boat, hired from the Chinaman Jose, that lives here, we traveled that whole day until we reached a placed call El Sajino, and slept here.  Between El Sajino and El Recreo at a place called Buena Vista, the planes located us, and we landed and laid out the panels U X and an arrow to indicate the direction we were taking.  When the planes saw us, they came over where we were and dropped a letter that said “Continue your march always ahead until you arrive a Chilamate.  If you can’t see us, light a fire that will produce plenty smoke.  When you hear planes and you need provisions, lay out panels F F – Col. LEECH”.  After this, we laid out the panels O K, and they went away.  We continued our march until we arrived at a place called “El Sajino” where we slept.  We left the following morning about 6000 on the same Rio Mico, and had to pole our boat up the river.  We arrived at about 1130 at the House of the Herreras, not very far from Muelle de los Bueyes, when we were located by the planes, and which dropped the following letter.  “Sergeant Chamorro return to El Rama. Lieutenant B. H. below the Rio Chilamate”.  My reply to them was same as before.  At the house of the Herreras, I learnt from the owner of the house that at Muelle de los Bueyes, the guardia motorman, Rafael Mayorga and his second were there.  I went to this place which is about 500 meters in distance, leaving all the others who were with me to prepare the food.  According to the information which I received from Mr. Mayorga, that Lieutenant Stephenson was enroute from Chilamate going to El Garrobo; this information was given to Mr. Mayorga by a person who was coming from Chontales.  After I had this information and with the orders which I had already received, I decided to go ahead. From this place I sent back Rasa Julian Zepeda to advise Lieutenant Romero of the information I had obtained.  I went in the direction of Chilamate with my commission and came upon Corporal Valle and Rasos Calderon, Alejandra, Ebanks, Ferrell.  I interrogated the corporal as to what was he doing there, and he answered me.  Sergeant, I have orders from Lieutenant Stephenson not to move from here, until he returns or until I receive a message from him.  We cleared this place the following day for Rama on the same river, leaving Corporal Valle at this point.  On my return, and passing through Muelle de los Bueyes I had to stop to hire a boat, when Corporal Valle, reached us there and we both went to Rama.  Corporal Valle was coming in a borrowed boat belong to the Highways; and I and my guardias were coming in the boat we hired.  Corporal Valle went ahead, and in and of the currents named “Cedro Macho” the boat turned up, and all the Guardia equipment, . . . [end]"

31 August 1932.
Excerpt from Draft Inspection Report, 9th Company, Puerto Cabezas, no author indicated (apparently a rough draft).

1 September 1932.
Excerpts from the GN-2 Report Covering the Month of August 1932.   
[NOTE:  These excerpts constitute the sum total of text devoted to the Atlantic Coast region in this 33-page intelligence report covering the entire country, except for one report by Col. Leech, included here in chronological sequence (August 23). The image to the left is the report's cover page only.]

" [p. 1]  . . .  [LOCATION OF THE ENEMY ELEMENTS.]  ¶  . . .   [p. 4]   (N) SIMON GONZALEZ  ¶  Reports continue to be received that Simon Gonzalez has died of wounds as a result of contact with PUERTO CABEZAS patrol in July.  ¶   [NOTE: Of the 17 EDSN chieftains surveyed in the first 4 pages, this is the only mention of anything having to do with the Eastern Area] . . . UNITS IN CONTACT:  ¶  . . .    [p. 5]   19 Aug: Enlisted patrol with Civicos from Santo Tomas and San Pedro, Dept. of Chontales, had contact with bandit group which raided Pueblo Viejo on August 18 at point three leagues southeast of SANTO DOMINGO 352-208.  One known bandit killed.  No guardia casualties.  One Civico wounded.  Bandits were scattered.  Captured one rifle, one revolver and practically all of the loot taken from Pueblo Viejo.  ¶  . . .   [p. 6]   20 Aug: Lieutenant Tercero and Chontales patrol had contact with same group with which contact was had on the 19th near same locality, (southeast of SANTO DOMINGO 352-208).  Bandit casualties two killed.  No guardia casualties.  Patrol captured one horse and small amount of ammunition.   [NOTE: This is far from the Coast and outside the Eastern Area, in a military zone designated as the “Southern Departments,” and this “bandit” group was probably not affiliated with the EDSN. These reports are included here as the only notable military activity approximate to the Atlantic Coast region]  ¶  . . . ENEMY STRENGTH AND MOVEMENTS [NOTE: There are 46 individual snippets of information compiled in this section; only one concerns the Atlantic Coast; another one concerns the attack in Chontales, viz.]   ¶  . . .   [p. 7]   3 Aug: Large group of 200 reported between Waspook and Kisalaya on Rio Coco . . .  ¶   [p. 8]   18 Aug: Reported bandit group of 20 raided and robbed the town of Pueblo Viejo, six leagues northeast of ACOYAPA, Dept Chontales.  ¶  . . .   [p. 12]   ESTIMATE:  ¶  Nothing of importance in the way of bandit activity is predicted for the Eastern Area in the immediate future.  ¶  . . .    [p. 33]   CONSOLIDATED CONTACTS FOR THE MONTH OF AUGUST 1932:  ¶  [NOTE: Of 20 military contacts, none were in the Eastern Area] "

1.    5 September 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.

2.    5 September 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.

3.    5 September 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 3.

4.    5 September 1932.
Record of Events, Eastern Area and the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 4.

1.     7 September 1932.
Circular No. 32-16, Tropical Division Managers, from A. A. Pallan, United Fruit Company, Boston MA, p. 1. 
  "From time to time evidence comes to our attention of the desire of communistic elements to foster trouble among the laborers of the Tropical Divisions.  Thanks to a general reluctance of the laborers in most tropical countries to affiliate with these people, and also to the energetic attitude which certain governments of the Caribbean area have adopted, such attempts to disrupt our labor have not met with any measure of success.  Communism, however, has made some strides in the United States, thriving as it does in time of depression and general unemployment.  Vigilance at the tropical end is still called for in order that these elements, who are evidently supplied with a certain amount of money for propaganda purposes, will not obtain a foothold.  ¶  In this connection, I attach copy of report from a confidential operator made to the Company in New Orleans, and indicating that two typical communistic agitators named Fitzsimmons and Hardy are already in Central America for the purpose of spreading “red” doctrine and generally encouraging unrest.  ¶  You may find it advisable to pass the gist of this information unofficially, to the proper authorities of your country.  Should these agitators show up in your Division I will appreciate your advising me.  ¶  /s/ A. A. Pallan  ¶  Copy to Mr. C. B. Ellis,  ¶  Enclosure. . . ."

2.     7 September 1932.
Circular No. 32-16, Tropical Division Managers, from A. A. Pallan, United Fruit Company, Boston MA, p. 2. 
  [Report of "#38," spy & informant among Bluefields Communists, Mon., 29 Aug. 1932, p. 1.]   "Monday, August 29, 1932.  ¶  #38 Reports -  ¶  I went to the Communist Hall and found Frank James, Bayers, Weakman, Rice, Robert and Shultz.  ¶  Shortly after I arrived Shultz left the hall with some literature and stated he was going in the direction of the water front to make contacts with longshoremen and also with sailors aboard the ships in port.  ¶  I conversed with Bayers and he stated they had been getting a great number of longshoreman to join the organization lately; that a man named Lawrence was coming from New York to replace Davis and that two other organizers were coming with him; that McCarthy had left for New England last night; that they had a very good meeting of the I.L.D., in the hall about a week ago and there were about 30 members present; that a doctor from the Toure Infirmary had joined the I.L.D.; that there was going to be another meeting of the I.L.D., tonight at 8’oclock in the office of Bernstein Bros., for dealers., #209 Decatur St. Sayers further stated they soon expected a revolutionary outbreak; that the New York Office had requested him to look around the city for arms and ammunition easy to seize in due time; that in answer he had reported the State Armory on Magazine St., as a place with many rifles, machine guns and ammunition easy to get when the trouble started; that Rice was a World War Veteran, had been in the Washington struggle, and was here now organizing veterans of the locality; that yesterday a man from the New York office had stopped in New Orleans a few hours on a secret mission and immediately departed.  He declined to state the name of this man or the mission with the excuse that it was only a matter concerning the Party.  ¶  Later Weakman, negro organizer, called me to one side and stated that he had been put in charge of the West Indies Division and wanted to go give him names of people in Santo Domingo, Kingston, Jamaica, Trinidad, George- . . . "

3.     7 September 1932.
Circular No. 32-16, Tropical Division Managers, from A. A. Pallan, United Fruit Company, Boston MA, p. 3. 
  [Report of "#38," spy & informant among Bluefields Communists, Mon., 29 Aug. 1932, p. 2.]    " . . . -town, British Guinea and other ports in Central and South America, as well as other information that would be of value to him; that it was an issue of the program to develop the West Indies and South America along with this country and under the same principles, so that whenever the revolution starts here, in the event soldiers are needed, workers could be brought from there; that Fitzsimmons and Hardy had gone to Central America to educate the workers along the Atlantic Coast and the last time they wrote they were already on the Mexican Guatemala border.  ¶  Later I cultivated him along his local activities and he stated he had been organizing longshoremen and negroes employed in other large industries of the city; that he believed the longshoremen would soon strike again; that the handicap at present was that they had no “job control” any longer; that in every speech he delivered in negro homes, churches and lodges, he always pointed out the fact that the capitalists wanted the negroes to be inferior to the whites, work for less than the whites and live in a superstitious mood so as to keep them down and he advised them to keep their head up the same as the white workers and to be rebellious and militant in all cases that would concern the struggle of the workers.  ¶  Hobert and Rice left the hall stating they were going to make contacts.  ¶  James stated he had been organizing in Texas and had been transferred back to New Orleans to fill vacancies of the organizers that left recently; that he expected to contact workers of large industries here, including the N. O. Public Service, mostly as the seamen were well covered at present; that he might also assist Soler in the reorganization of the I.L.D.  ¶  I went to #207 Bourbon St., and talked with Soler, who stated he expected to have a big meeting of the I.L.D., tonight at 8 o’clock in Bernstein’s office; that he had been very active lately getting new members and calling on the old members; that now he was trying to raise sufficient . . . "

4.     7 September 1932.
Circular No. 32-16, Tropical Division Managers, from A. A. Pallan, United Fruit Company, Boston MA, p. 4. 
  [Report of "#38," spy & informant among Bluefields Communists, Mon., 29 Aug. 1932, p. 3.]    " . . . to purchase office equipment and supplies as to reopen the I.L.D. office. ¶  At 7:45 PM I arrived in the vicinity of Bernstein’s store and found Bernstein, Soler and Lamarque there.  I joined them and remained in front of the store until [?]:30 PM, when Soler decided to call the meeting off due to the fact that the members did not arrive.  ¶  Soler stated he would arrange to hold another I.L.D. meeting in the hall next Sunday, Sept. 4th.  ¶  Lamarque stated that he had received a telegram from Lawrence announcing that he would arrive in New Orleans early tomorrow, Aug. 30th; that Lawrence had recently visited Soviet Russia and while there he had obtained books, pictures and literature of all the new developments and had versed himself well with Soviet system and beginning Wednesday, Aug. 31st, he would start a series of speeches on all he witnessed and learned while in Soviet Russia; that Wednesday’s speech would be at a meeting of the young Communist League, where a number of women are to be present; that he would not know until tomorrow where that meeting would be held; that the rest of Lawrence’s lectures would be in churches, union halls and lodges and in occasional meetings of the different Communist units.  ¶  Lamarque further stated that he and his brother had all they could be taking care of the sale of radical literature; that his sales were showing an increase every month; that he thought the revolution would start soon now, because that was the topic of conversation everywhere and this thought was growing stronger in the minds of the people as the only medium of relief and a solution to the present depression.  ¶  Bernstein did not do much talking, although he remarked that he had been helping the revolutionary movement right along and would support the revolution to the fullest extent whenever it started.  ¶  At 9 PM I discontinued."

1.     12 September 1932.
Report of patrol, District Commander Capt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "1. In accordance with reference (a), cleared on August 22, 1932, with the following enclosed from Rio Chilamate: Cabo Francisco Valle, No. 939, Raso Carlos Franco 3512, Raso Adolfo Gomez 2443, Raso Alejandro Calderon  [NOTE:  name crossed out with handwritten note: “Leave this man out.”]   ¶   2. 1600 arrived Guadalupe, and with information that El Sapo rapids could not be navigated after dark, camped. Cleared Guadalupe at 0400 and arrived El Sapo Rapids at 0600. Heavy floods on river and banks covered with water up to trees.  Outboard motor-man informed me that rapids could not be made in this type of boat; as a return to Guadalupe would have entailed the loss of some five hours, I took command of boat and ordered Cabo Valle and one other ashore with strong line, pull boat to shore and made some progress up rapids, holding boat as much as possible to partially dead water among trees.  It often became necessary to fill boat to gunwales to pass under some fallen tree, at 1030 arrived head of El Sapo, with but a few more yards to go boat became swamped, it became necessary to cross rapids to other side, started motor, and took chance of making other side with the loss of about one hundred yards.  Pushed boat up with poles and pulling with petruding [protruding] limbs of trees, finally came out to smooth water.  Arrived Opendalo at 1300, where plane picked us up and dropped message.  ¶  3. After collecting boats and paddlers, cleared Opendalo at 1500.  Arrived head Opendalo Rapids at 1700, at 1900 arrive Grand Gayo, impossible to travel at nights, made camp.  Cleared at 0500 for El Diablo, at 0700, while proceeding up rapids, boat struck rock, and capsized.  All paddlers jumped over side.  While swimming attempting to make the river . . . "

2.     12 September 1932.
Report of patrol, District Commander Capt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2. 
  " . . . bank, it became necessary to disengage my pistol and belt, shoes and shirt in order to save myself from downing.  My patrol had prior orders, on advice of paddlers, to cut their way to head of rapids through jungles.  I thought it best to remain with boat.  Through the utmost efforts of paddlers, boat was saved from total wreck, patched a hole on its side.  At 0900 made head of rapids.  Arrived at the foot of El Diablo Rapids at 1100 August 24th.  Picked up by plane in an open clearing.  Plane made three drops of provisions.  Left patrol in the direction for what I took to be a southerly direction, when it returned flying dangerously close to trees.  It crashed about one hundred yards from patrol.  Organized searching party and cut way through jungles to crash.  Gave first aid to Lieutenant Rutledge, removed all movable articles from plane and made haste down river.  Lieutenant Rutledge died at about 1300.  At 1400 picked up by plane, who informed that I should be at Rama on the twenty fifth.  At 1500 arrived La Tigra, where I sent patrol back under Cabo Valle with instructions to continue on to Chilamate.  1700 arrived Guadalupe where I transferred bodies to motor boat.  0930 arrived Rama and transferred bodies to quartel ashore.  1100 August 25th plan picked up bodies and cleared for Managua.  ¶  4. At 1400 August 25, 1932, cleared for Muelle de Los Buellos [Muelle de los Bueyes] with outboard motor. Arrived at 1000, August 26, 1932.  Cleared with the following enlisted for Chilamate: Raso EBANKS, Ferrell No. 2416, Raso PADILLA, Espinales No. 2322, Raso FRANCO, Carlos, No. 3512  ¶  5. Cleared Muelle de Los Buellos [Muelle de los Bueyes] at 1800.  Plane picked up patrol at 1500 with message to keep on going, stranded aviators were at a point due South. At 0600 August 27, arrived Chilamate river.  Organized a party of three boats.  Proceeded up Chilamate river at 0800. Polled boats to a point about thirty miles from mouth of river, one boat with provisions capsized with the loss of same.  Men and paddlers were hungry, camped while some dozen iguanas were shot, and roasted them over a fire.  Proceeded down river, firing occasional shots to attract attention of aviators providing they were in that vicinity.  Camped on bank of stream at 1800. . . . "

3.     12 September 1932.
Report of patrol, District Commander Capt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3. 
  " . . . Cleared at 0500 August 28 down stream.  Arrived Los Iguanas at 0800.  Made plane pick up at about 0900.  Cleared with information that aviators were camped at a point ten miles below Chilamate village.  Arrived Chilamate at 1100, encountered Cabo Valle and patrol.  Told him to join forces with Sgt. Chamorro’s patrol and act upon any further information by plane.  I proceeded down river firing occasional shots, stopping occasionally to cut way to reported old mahogany camps.  Aviators appeared to be nowhere on the Chilamate.  Arrived at the mouth of Chilamate, and proposed the searching of Rio Rama up stream.  0800 camped alongside of river bank. 0500 August 29, 1932, cleared for up stream, firing occasional shots.  At 0900 picked up by plane, who informed me that aviators were one half mile away.  At 0930 arrived camp of aviators. 1030 cleared with aviators down river.  0600 camped along river bank, and cleared at 0500 August 30th for down river.  At 0800 boat capsized while going down rapids, resulting in the loss of three guardia rifles and other miscellaneous supplies.  Arrived Guadalupe at 1400 and patrol changed to motor boat, arriving Rama at 1600.  ¶  5. I wish to highly commend all members of my two patrols, with the exception of Raso Alexandro Calderon, No. 3472.  ¶  6. While the above report does not entirely cover the hardships and primitive conditions under which men lived, the patrols carried themselves in a manner indicating high efficiency and determination to get to the stranded aviators.  The following members are recommended for the Nicaraguan medal of Merit: Cabo Francisco Valle No. 939, Raso Carlos Franco No. 3512.  ¶  The former for his initiative and leadership in overcoming great odds and endangering his life in rapids in order to set an example to boatmen.  The later for the excellent manner he rendered first aid to the former Lieut. Rutledge, USMC., not leaving his side until he had died.  He did much to hold up the morale of patrol at all times.  ¶  Theodore M. Stephenson"

4.     12 September 1932.
Report of patrol, District Commander Capt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Rama, District of Siquia, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4. 
  1st Endorsement, Col. Leech, 16 Sept. "1. Forwarded.  ¶  2. The report clearly sets forth the known danger of the rapids and high water, the terrific difficulties involved, the fortitude and determination of all, and especially the leadership of Lieutenant Stephenson and the inspiring example set by Cabo Francisco Valle.  ¶  3. It is recommended that the entire patrol be cited in Orders for their acts and that appropriate medal awards to given Lieutenant Stephenson, Cabo Valle and Raso Francos, Carlos.  ¶  L. L. LEECH"



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