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the atlantic coast  •  1930A, p. 2
April—June, 1930

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE SECOND PAGE of documents for the FIRST HALF of 1930 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated from April to June, during the last two months of Sandino's yearlong sojourn to Mexico & his first month back in Las Segovias.

     As the economy spins inexorably downward across the circum-Caribbean, throwing tens of thousands out of work, Sandino is preparing to return to Nicaragua from Mexico, which he does in late May, slipping across the Honduran border into the northeastern Segovias.  By mid-summer rebel bands are mushrooming across Las Segovias, while in the Atlantic Coast such organized violence-making is notably absent.  The region's western frontier remains relatively quiet till mid-May, when EDSN General Pedrón launches a week-long sweep through the foreign properties & commissaries at Tunky, Bonanza & La Luz, looting much like Gen. Girón in the first EDSN raids nearly two years earlier (April-May 1928) — though this time they destroy no buildings or machinery  Why kill geese that lay golden eggs?  All accounts agree on the strict discipline maintained by Pedrón's troops.  Pedrón likely intended the raids not only for the plunder & symbolism, but as a tactical diversion to throw the Marines & Guardia off the scent of Sandino’s return – and, perhaps, as a kind of welcome-home gift for his beloved Supreme Chief.  Whatever the case, in the mining districts the imperial spotlight grows considerably brighter.  Meanwhile various groups of Costeños continue pursuing their own struggles in an export economy in the process of collapsing.

     Must-reads include the brief account of a strike at Bragmans Bluff in early April (12 April); Captain Linscott’s 7-page synoptic intelligence report of 26 May & the mining-district reports to follow; and the Creoles’ of Bluefields La Voz del Atlántico denunciation of A. W. Hooker, editor of The Bluefields Weekly (18 June).


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

4 April 1930.
Monthly Record of Events, Eastern Area, March 1930, Area Commander Major C. H. Metcalf.   
"
" . . . No contacts with enemy forces.  ¶  E. INTELLIGENCE.  ¶  (1) General State of the territory occupied.  QUIET.  ¶  (2) Military Situation.  No known enemy forces in this Area.  ¶  (3) Economic Conditions.  ¶  During the month there occurred a strike of laborers of the Bragman's Bluff Lumber Company.  The matter was handled satisfactorily by the Guardia Nacional of the Department of Northern Bluefields.  This will be covered more fully in the Record of Events of that Department. The financial depression of the southern portion of this Area continues.  During the month about two hundred laborers of the RIO GRANDE RIVER DISTRICT were discharged by the United Fruit Company in line with their policy of retrenchment.  This company appears to be of the opinion that the administration of the Cuyamel Fruit Company prior to its purchase by the United Fruit Company is not exactly in accord with the United Fruit's ideas of economical administration and at the same time seems to entertain a rather unfavorable opinion of the Nicaraguan banana and Nicaraguan banana land.  They have stopped all new development and ordered rigid economy and curtailment of pay rolls. . . . "

8 April 1930.
Excerpt of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Philadelphia PA, to Major H. H. Utley, Quantico VA, p. 1.

8 April 1930.
Excerpt of letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Philadelphia PA, to Major H. H. Utley, Quantico VA, p. 2.

8 April 1930.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, President, Bonanza Mines Co., New York, to Sec. State, Washington D.C.

2 May 1930.
Inspection Report, Department of Northern Bluefields for period ending 30 April 1930.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua.

3 May 1930 (1020).
Radiogram from Gen. McDougal, Jefe Director GN, to Col. John Marston, Bluefields.  
"LA LUZ MINE REPORTS LOOTING OF BUILDINGS AND PANNING OF GOLD BY LOCAL INHABITANTS STOP LOOTING PROBABLY CONSISTS OF REMOVING ROOFING BUILDING MATERIALS AND FURNITURE STOP ARRANGE TO PLACE GUARD OF THREE ON MINE TO WATCH THIS AND PROPERTY POTOSI STOP ADJOINING TOWNS OF SUIAS [SIUNA?] AND WUANI HAVE POLICE JUDGES STOP QUARTERS AVAILABLE ON LA LUZ MINE STOP NATIVE PRODUCE AVAILABLE IN THAT SECTION STOP 10203 MAY 30 MCDOUGAL"

3 May 1930 (1530).
Radiogram from Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua.  
"YOUR 10203 MAY HAVE TODAY BEEN INTERVIEWING RESIDENTS OF LA LUZ AREA NOW IN BLUEFIELDS STOP NO REPEAT NO LOOTING EXCEPT CASUAL SURFACE MINING WHICH COMPANY ITSELF COULD STOP BY CUTTING OF PIPE LINE WATER SUPPLY AT SOURCE OR EMPLOYING WATCHMENT STOP LA LUZ MINING COMPANY MAKING NO EFFORT TO PROTECT OWN PROPERTY STOP I BELIEVE AN ISOLATED GUARD THREE ENLISTED MEN AT POST TEN DAYS FROM NEAREST OFFICER MOST INADVISABLE UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS STOP LINSCOTT WHO SERVED IN MINING AREA CONCURS IN THIS OPINION STOP A FULL REPORT WILL BE FORWARDED NEXT MAIL STOP PLEASE ADVISE IF ORDERS FOR THREE MEN AT MINE MAY BE HELD IN ABEYANCE PENDING FURTHER DISCUSSION OF MATTER 15303 MAY 30 MARSTON"

7 May 1930.
Expenditure of Guardia Funds.  Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN.  
"References: (a) Jefe Directors Radio 10203 May 30. ¶ (b) Jefe Directors Radio 11405 May 30. ¶ 1. The Guardia detachment of three men directed by references will leave Bluefields tomorrow for La Luz Mine via Prinzapolka. This detachment moves to Prinzapolka via schooner Anderson, the first transportation leaving Bluefields for that place subsequent to the receipt of reference (a). ¶ 2. The following facts are submitted, not with any idea of requesting reconsideration of this matter, but as pertinent facts of which I believe I should inform the Jefe Director: ¶ (a) For a period of two years the la Luz y Los Angeles Mining Company has made no effort to protect their own property by acts of their own employees though they have maintained two paid employees to live near this mine. ¶ (b) The suggestion made by this office that the pipe line supplying water to the mine property be cut at its source, thus preventing illegal mining and panning for lack of water, has not been complied with. ¶ (c) To send these three men to La Luz will cost the Guardia about $150.00. There are no boats making regular scheduled trips to La Luz. Often over a month passes without a boat making the journey up the Prinzapolka river. Unless one happens to be making a trip at this time the detachment will proceed by special boat to prevent delay in compliance with references. ¶ (d) This movement involving an unanticipated expenditure of about $150.00 under Title E-6 will create a corresponding deficit under that title for May. Each time the detachment is relieved by fresh personnel or is inspected (the two should occur simultaneously) for reason of economy) a large charge will again occur under E-6. Of course every effort will be made to make up these deficits by savings under other titles. ¶ 3. It is specifically requested that this Area be allowed to make up similar unexpected deficits under one title by a responding saving in another without reference to Headquarters Guardia Nacional, it being understood that savings under ‘Pay, Officers’ and ‘Pay, enlisted’ are not available for offsetting other deficits. ¶ 4. Colonel Marston has always been of the impression that the Quartermaster has no objection to such adjustments provided that the entire allotments (less pay) were not exceeded. I can find however no specific authority for that privilege being given this Area. ¶ 5. May I request that I be informed by radio as to the decision with respect to paragraph 3 above. ¶ H. D. LINSCOTT"

19 May 1930 (6:30 p.m.)
Telegram from US Consul Fletcher, Bluefields, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C.  
"It is reported bandits were raiding Tunky on the 15th Commissary at Bonanza looted but property believed undamaged. Bandits now estimated at 100."   [Note:  This is among the first reports on the second major EDSN raid into the mining districts, coming more than two years after the first in April 1928.]

22 May 1930.
Cable from US Minister Matthew Hanna, US Legation Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.  
"I have the honor to report that on May 17 a representative of the La Luz Los Angeles Mining Company in Managua received information by radio that a group of bandits estimated at from 400 to 500 had raided the mining property belonging to that company.  Confirmation of the preence of bandits was later received from Guardia headquarters in Bluefields.  Later reports indicated that the bandit group had continued on to the Bonanza mine and were proceeding down the Prinzapolka River to the coast.  Other reports were to the effect that they were proceeding down the Banbana River, and still other information indicated that they might be headed in the direction of Puerto Cabezas.  The estimated number of bandits varied according to the source of information, and it is now belived that the bandits consist of forty or fifty men led by Pedron Altamirano, the bandit leader who ordinarily operates in the Matagalpa-Jinotega area.  It is suspected that he is on his way to the East Coast to obtain arms and ammunition which may have been smuggled into the country.  As far as local military authorities have been informed, the bandits have not destroyed property or taken lives but have limited their operations to raiding commissaries.  This ..."

22 May 1930.
Cable from US Minister Matthew Hanna, US Legation Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
"This would appear to indicate that their objective lay beyond the mining area through which they passed.  Guardia Headquarters reports that a combined Guardia patrol from Bluefields and Puerta Cabezas is headed up the Prinzapolka River in search of the bandits.  There are no Marines in Eastern Nicaragua.  Admiral Campbell is proceeding aboard the U.S.S. DENVER to the East Coast of Nicaragua and is expected to arrive in Bluefields on the morning of May 22.  His object is apparently to quiet the inhabitants of the coast towns.  I have the honor to be, Sir, ..."

1.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 1.  
(SOURCE:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)    "1. Lieutenant RIEWE reported by radio from EL GALLO on 17 May, 1930, as follows: ¶ ALTAMIRANO AND GROUP OF BANDITS ROBBED STORES AT WUANI AND SIUNA-ON WAY TO PIS PIS. ¶ 2. On the afternoon of 17 May, 1930, the following radio was received by Mr. H. F. SPRINGER, BLUEFIELDS, sent from RIO GRANDE BAR: ¶ RIO GRANDE BAR MAY 17TH 1930. ¶ TO SPRINGER, BLUEFIELDS. ¶ BANDITS RAIDED NEPTUNE ON TWELVETH NO LIVES LOST NO PROPERTY DAMAGED I HAVE BULLION SEVEN FORTY COMING ON POWER BARGE. ¶ ADRIAN. ¶ This message was sent by ADRIAN PINEDA, the manager of NEPTUNE MINE who at the time of the raid was enroute on his return to the mine from BLUEFIELDS: A few minutes later the following was received by the AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY, BLUEFIELDS: ¶ RIO GRANDE BAR, MAY 17TH, 1930. NOON ¶ AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY, BLUEFIELDS. ¶ DEAR SIRS HAVE CANCELLED FRUIT ORDER FIVE HUNDRED BANDITS WELL ARMED AND EQUIPPED ARRIVED SIUNA MAY TENTH MERCHANTS INCLUDING HARRY JOHNSON ARRIVED AT BOOM THIS AFTERNOON PROBABILITY BANDITS COMING HERE BELIEVE WOULD BE IMPRUDENT TO RISK CASH AND LAUNCHES AT TUNGLA KINDLY ADVISE AUTHORITIES TO RUSH HELP ¶ DEAN LEEMING"

2.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 2.  
(SOURCE:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)     ". . . 3. Effort was made to secure further information from the above persons at RIO GRANDE BAR and on May 18th, the following was received from SINCLAIR, the AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY’S representative there: ¶ RIO GRANDE BAR MAY 17TH, 1930 6PM ¶ AFRUCO BLUEFIELDS. ¶ WANDA NELL HERE WITH LEEMING AND PINEDA PINEDA REPORTS APPROXIMATELY ONE HUNDRED BANDITS SACKED NEPTUNE NO PROPERTY DAMAGED OR LIVES LOST BANDITS VACATED MAKING HEADQUARTERS AT SMALL HILL LONE STAR MINE ¶ SINCLAIR ¶ 4. On 19 May, 1930, a written report was received from Lieutenant RIEWE at EL GALLO, dated 17 May, 1930, containing the following information: CARLOS VASQUEZ, A NATIVE RESIDENT OF TUNGLA, arrived at EL GALLO late in the evening of 16 May, 1930, and stated as follows: ¶ On May 8th he was at WUANI loading his boat for return to TUNGLA when ALTAMIRANO and a group of bandits crossed the ULI RIVER at WUANI and robbed two stores there. He said at least 20 men crossed the river with horses and a few mules by the time they left WUANI that afternoon there were at least 100 of them. He said he did not know how the additional men got there. VASQUEZ reported that he talked to ALTAMIRANO while they were in WUANI. The band left WUANI the afternoon of May 8th, arrived in SIUNA the morning of May 9th, robbed the stores and some of the people there and left for the PIS PIS AREA where NEPTUNE MINE is located. ¶ 5. On the morning of 19 May, 1930, Mr. ADRIAN PINEDA arrived in BLUEFIELDS and gave the following information: ¶ He left PRINZAPOLKA for NEPTUNE MINE on 12 May, 1920. Some distance below TUNKY he began to receive reports that the bandits had raided NEPTUNE MINE. He proceeded to a few miles below TUNKY and sent a runner into the village, who brought back the following information, along with thirteen Indians who had been employed by the mine, recruited by the bandits, but had escaped during the night: ¶ ALTAMIRANO and a force of about 100 bandits entered NEPTUNE at 2:00 P.M., 12 May, 1930, sacked the town, looted the . . . "

3.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 3.  
(SOURCE:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)     ". . . mine commissary, compelled Mr. NAPOLEON, the mine superintendent to run off the small amount of gold in the boxes and then let him go. NAPOLEON along with ARTHUR PINEDA and some of the more responsible of the mine employees were hiding in the bush. No lives were taken by the bandits and none of the mine machinery had been damaged. The bandits were reported as well equipped with rifles, pistols, several machine guns, were not drinking intoxicants, seemed well controlled, were not molesting women, and were shouting “VIVA SANDINO”. ¶ The bullion had all been dispatched down the river at 9:00 a.m. the day of the raid, was met by PINEDA and brought to BLUEFIELDS. PINEDA reported that from the information he could gather on May 14th, the bandits were disposed as follows: ¶ TUNKY 20 men ¶ NEPTUNE MINE 20 men ¶ SAN PEDRO DE PIS PIS AND LONE STAR MINE REMAINDER OF BAND. ¶ At the same time DEAN LEEMING reported that HARRY JOHNSON, WING LONG, and REMIJIO PINEL from SIUNA were in PRINZAPOLKA waiting for transportation to BLUEFIELDS or PUERTO CABEZAS. He reported that WING LONG had told him he counted 305 bandits from his hiding place in the bush where he fled when they first entered the town. WING LONG had also reported the possession of several machine guns by the bandits and that they were well controlled, were not drinking, and had molested no women. ¶ 6. On May 20th the following radio was received from Lieutenant RIEWE, EL GALLO: ¶ ALTAMIRANO AND ABOUT FORTY BANDITS LEFT SIUNA MAY NINE FOR PIS PIS AREA STOP ARMED WITH RIFLES PISTOLS AND TWO MACHINE GUNS VERY LITTLE AMMUNITION. ¶ On May 29 the following was received from Captain WOOD, PUERTO CABEZAS: WING LONG HARRY JOHNSON REMIJIO PINEL REPORTED PERSONALLY QUOTE PEDRON REPEAT PEDRON DEFINITELY IDENTIFIED WITH THREE HUNDRED FIVE COUNTED BANDITS ALL WELL ARMED PRACTICALLY ALL MOUNTED TWELVE AUTOMATIC WEAPONS STOP TENTH SIUNA TWELVTH EL DORADO FOURTEENTH NEPTUNE STOP ACTIONS AS REPORTED AND TOOK TWENTY MULES STOP UNIFORMS RED AND BLACK DECORATED PEDRON DESCRIBED MOUNTED LARGE HORSE IN PLAIN KHAKI STOP HIS ORDERS NO LIQUOR OR WOMEN MAKE QUICK RAID THEIR REPORTED OBJECTIVE GIVEN AS PUERTO CABEZAS UNQUOTE INFORMANTS BELIEVED END 18020 . . . "

4.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 4.  
(SOURCE: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18) . . . 7. On May 21st the following was received from Captain WOOD, PUERTO CABEZAS: ¶ FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON TOTAL NUMBER REMIJIO PINEL REPORTS THREE DAILY OCCASIONS WHEN QUOTE TWO CATTLE ONE PIG SLAUGHTERED FOR ONE DAYS RATIONS 12221 ¶ 8. HARRY JOHNSON, WING LONG, REMIJIO PINEL, AFAT LOW, and SAM BALAN were interrogated in AREA HEADQUARTERS on the afternoon of 23 May, 1930, with the following results: ¶ HARRY JOHNSON, the most reliable of the group, was in the bush some distance down from SIUNA CREEK below SIUNA when the raid occurred. He was informed of it at the time and did not enter SIUNA until the morning of May 11th. He agrees with all the other witnesses of this group that the raid occurred on the morning of May 10th. When he entered Siuna he saw many evidences of the raid in rifled homes, stores, etc. ¶ WING LONG, Chinese merchant of SIUNA, states that on the morning of May 10th about seven o’clock, he was having his morning coffee. A group of bandits entered SIUNA, several of them came in the front door of his store and inquired for the owner. He went out the back and ran into the bush. He says he hid in the bush on top of a hill overlooking SIUNA and at about 11 a.m. counted the bandits as they were leaving and that there were three hundred and five of them. He said it took them about thirty minutes to pass out of the town. (I think he is deliberately lying as to the number). ¶ REMIJIO PINEL, the Commandante of SIUNA states he was in his house when the bandits entered the town. About twenty of them came to his house and inquired for the Commandante. He told them that the Commandante had gone down the river about two days before. PINEL says the bandits seemed frightened describes how their hands trembled as they were rifling the house. He left in about twenty minutes and also took to the bush. He saw only about twenty men in all but seems certain there were more, probably because WING LONG says so. PINEL says his woman knows ALTAMIRANO and recognized him as the leader of the group. ¶ AFAT LOW, another Chinese merchant of SIUNA, gives the time of the raid as the same date but fixes the number at 250 men. He says they took 21 men from SIUNA to carry what loot they could not get on their mules as far as EL DORADO. These men were later released and came home the next day. LOW says one of the bandits told him the Jefes name was ALTAMIRANO. . . .

5.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 5.  
(SOURCE:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)    ". . . SAM BALAN, Chinese merchant of WUANI was looted commencing about noon, May 9th. That the leader of the band was ALTAMIRANO. That the bandits entered the town from all sides at once so that none had a chance to flee. He says they did not drink any guaro but did drink all his fresco and wines and looted the store. They left in the afternoon for SIUNA. BALAN fixes the number at 250, but says they were nearly all mounted and when asked how many animals he saw, says there were about a hundred or perhaps more. ¶ It is an interesting fact that JOHNSON, WING LONG, and REMIJIO PINEL fled together to TUNGLA with the specific intent of securing help. They continued together to PRINZAPOLKA and then to PUERTO CABEZAS, doubtless hearing each other tell the story several times on the way. On the way to BLUEFIELDS to PUERTO CABEZAS they were joined by AFAT BLOW and SAM BALAN, who doubtless talked the matter over with them. I think this accounts to some extent for the similarity in their tales, as regards the number of bandits in the group. JOHNSON, probably the only reliable one of the crowd is silent on the subject of the number of men in involved for the reasons given above. He seems inclined to believe WING LONGS account. However he admits that WING LONG was badly frightened and might have been mistake. ¶ 9. The following description of ALTAMIRANO was given by AFAT LOW and SAM BALAN: ¶ Age About fifty years. ¶ Wore a large felt hat. ¶ Large, heavy set body, larger than any of his men. ¶ Height Over 6 feet. ¶ Face Very dark, but not black or negroid. ¶ Face: Full and broad. ¶ Head: Large ¶ Right eye: Crossed or cocked. ¶ Wore khaki (Guardia colored) trousers and shirt. ¶ Wore high laced boots. ¶ AFAT LOE STATES HE WORE A MUSTACHE BUT NO BEARD. ¶ SAM BALAN STATED THAT HE HAD A STRAGGLY BEARD OVER HIS FACE BUT NO MUSTACHE. ¶ This is the only detail they disagree in on the description. All four eye witnesses agree that the bandits were well controlled, molested no women, had their clothes decorated with red and black cloth, most of them wore ordinary civilian clothing, with some khaki mixed in, and gave the number of machine guns as anywhere from four to twelve. . . . "

6.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 6.  
(SOURCE:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)    ". . . 10. JOHNSON says that CHARLIE HASLAM from GUASACA was in SIUNA about sixteen days before the raid with six pack bulls and two hundred pounds of coffee for sale. He had two mozos with him, one of whom remained in SIUNA. Every time this man got drunk he is reported to have said, “Pedron will be here”. JOHNSON says the people of SIUNA blame HASLAM as a spy sent in to see if there were any troops in that locality. JOHNSON himself does not believe this. It does not tally with what I have heard form HASLAM. ¶ 11. On May 26th a written report form Lieutenant RIEWE dated May 23rd was received. RIEWE had interrogated several people who were in SIUNA at the time of the raid, or who had talked to people who were there. From this information RIEWE reports the bandits were drunk the afternoon they raided WUANI. This is the first information to conflict with their reported orderly organization. RIEWE also reports that the information sifting down from the PIS PIS AREA was to the effect that the bandits had already left there. ¶ 12. Verbal reports of air reconnaissance of 25 May, 1930 was to the effect that two Guardias were definitely recognized at TUNGLA. These were probably part of RIEWE’S patrol. One of them planes identified two Guardia at WUANI. These two were probably part of Sergeant COLOMER’S detachment (three men). Due to the thick weather the planes were unable to search any of the MINING AREAS. ¶ 13. Verbal reports of air reconnaissance of May 26th, 1930, was to the effect that on the forenoon of that date BENSON’S patrol was about ten miles below TUNKY and that all was well and that they had nothing to report. Two drop messages were recovered. All appears normal at NEPTUNE MINE. ¶ 14. Captain WOODS at PUERTO CABEZAS reports considerable radical CONSERVATIVE agitation in the vicinity of PUERTO CABEZAS during the past week. Some of the most radical of the agitators have been confined. ¶ 15. CONCLUSIONS. ¶ (a). WUANI was raided by bandits on May 9th, SIUNA on May, 10th, and NEPTUNE MINE on May 12th. ¶ (b). The raiding band consisted of about forty bandits under ALTAMIRANO. ¶ (c). This band was probably poorly supplied with ammunition for there are no reports of wild and random shooting, so common in one of these raids. . . . "

7.   26 May 1930.
Intelligence Report, Capt. H. D. Linscott, Bluefields, to Jefe Director, Managua, p. 7.  
(Source:  USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)    " . . . (d). The chief mission of these raids was to secure supplies for the rainy season. A secondary mission may have been an attempt feint on the East Coast to conceal the main effort elsewhere in Nicaragua. ¶ (e). The bandits have already left the NEPTUNE MINE AREA, probably over the same trail taken by JIRON two years ago., i.e., to CASA VIEJA, thence to the BOCAY RIVER, thence up the BOCAY RIVER to the vicinity of GARROBO and BOCACITA, thence to the YALI RANGE. The absence of any horses and mules in the vicinity of NEPTUNE MINE, as reported by the pilots of the reconnaissance planes seems to strengthen this belief."

1.   29 May 1930.
Patrol Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, p. 1.  
"1. In compliance with your orders dated May 19, 1930, this patrol cleared Prinzapolka at 2115 May 22, 1930 and proceeded up the Bambana River, arriving at Neptune at 1620 May 28, 1930. Nothing of importance was discovered enroute. ¶ 2. Investigation here reveals the following: (a). Pedron Altamirano with between 150 and 200 bandits entered Neptune by the back trail from the old Bonanza Mine at about 1530 May 12, 1930, and left at about 0600 May 15, 1930. The bandits had come from Siuna, and their arrival was a complete surprise to all the inhabitants of this place, who were at work. The identified sub-jefes were General Diaz, and Colonels Hernandez and Velasquez, first names of each unknown. ¶ (b). This group of bandits was not well organized. There was no particular unit to which each man was assigned, nor was there any organization with the three separate groups. The three groups were: an advance guard of between thirty and fifty men under command of Velasquez, which remained in Neptune, a main body of about one hundred men under command of Diaz, which based at San Pedro, and a rear guard under command of Hernandez, which proceeded to Lonestar Hill immediately after arrival in Neptune and remained there until the band left. ¶ (c). The bandits were armed with nondescript arms, varying from modern automatic pistols to Springfield rifles, but the majority carried useless pistols and muzzle loading shotguns. Ammunition was very scarce and Pedron’s orders were that none was to be wasted. He said that if it became necessary to kill anyone, that a machete was the proper weapon to use. Six Thompson submachine guns, one Lewis Machine gun and one Vickers machine gun were in the possession of the bandits. These arms were identified by Arthur Pineda, an employee of the Bonanza Mines Company, who served one enlistment in the U.S. Calvary. . . . "

2.   29 May 1930.
Patrol Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, p. 2.  
". . . (d). George A. Napoleon, U.S. citizen, electrician at the mine, and Alfred Kirkland, Nicaraguan, bookkeeper, were force to open the safe and reveal the hiding place of the dynamite. There was about $250 in cash in the safe and ten cases of dynamite, about 3500 feet of fuse, and about 2000 dynamite caps in the hiding place. The dynamite was carried to San Pedro and made into bombs in grapenut and sardine cans. Napoleon was forced to clean up what gold was in the zinc boxes, obtaining 113 ounces of very poor grade bullion, as the tanks had been cleaned up only three days before. ¶ (e). Next to arms and ammunition, clothing was the main desire of the bandits, as they took all the clothing in Neptune and San Pedro, leaving only the clothing actually worn by the people. Upon their arrival in Neptune the bandits were clad in ragged clothing, some wearing no shoes and about seventy five percent of them without shirts, but, after robbing the commissary of the Bonanza Mines Company, and Wang Sing, a Chinese merchant of San Pedro, all left wearing new shoes, trousers and shirts. Foodstuffs did not appeal to them and they threw the commissary and the Chinaman’s store open to the public after they had removed the clothing. The natives helped themselves to all that was left. Both stores were absolutely cleaned out. ¶ (f). Pedron ordered that there be no drinking, and those orders were carried out almost to explicitly. The liquor supply was confiscated and poured into the creek. No native was hurt, nor was any woman molested, strange as it may seem. ¶ (g). The mill of the Bonanza Mines Company was not damaged and could start work at once, if there were any dynamite here. Pineda states that the value of the goods taken from the commissary is about $13,000 which was not insured. Wang Sing states that the value of his merchandise was about $6000 and that it was insured for the full amount. ¶ (h). There were several cases of measles among the bandits. When they left two men were to be left behind for treatment, but they refused to take a chance with the natives and departed with the main body. ¶ (i). The entire group left this vicinity about 0600 May 15, 1930, taking with them about fifty mules and horses from the district, making a total of about seventy mules in their possession. The bandits returned over the Neptune-Siuna trail as far as El Dorado, where they took an old trail cut by mahogany workers twenty years or more ago which goes to Asa, Gollondrina and Garrobo. . . . "

3.   29 May 1930.
Patrol Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, p. 3.  
" . . . (j). Candelario Altamirano, Pedron’s brother, who has made his home in Neptune for the last seventeen years, was forced to accompany his brother. This statement is made by several natives who also states that he was tied to his mule when he left. Candelario had pleaded with Pedron to spare the lives of Napoleon, Kirkland, and the local Inspector of Police, Manuel J. Mendoza, who had been sentenced to death and for whom graves had been dug. Pedron is reported to have said that his brother must have been keeping bad company, since he was so low as to speak for an American’s life, and stated that he would take Candelario along and make a soldier out of him. Neither Napoleon, Kirkland, nor Mendoza was killed. ¶ 3. It is believed that there were two spies in Neptune up until about three days before the arrival of the bandits. They are: Andres Leiva, of Siuna, formerly of Neptune and now of parts unknown, and Geronimo Ruiz, who was captured by the Local Inspector who will take him to Bluefields next week. It is my opinion that the spies had been here long enough to find out at what time of the month there would usually be a large amount of gold in the zinc boxes and that the raid was timed to catch a large amount of bullion. The mine cleaned up four days earlier than usual. Had the bullion left here about four hours earlier, the bandits would be richer by about $7500 worth of gold bullion. ¶ 4. On May 15, 1930, the day of departure, all natives were summoned to San Pedro, where Altamirano read a manifesto purporting to be from Sandino to the effect that: President Moncada is a “machista” and is kept in office only by the backing of the U.S. Government. That the Marines were driven from Nicaragua by the Army of Liberty after the Marines had suffered losses running into the thousands. That there is now only the Guardia Nacional standing between oppression and liberty. That Sandino will return in August to personally lead the Army of Liberty in an attack on Managua. And that all men are urged to join the Army of Liberty.” Two men from here joined, Hipolito Picado and Octaviano Alvarez, both mozos in the mine. ¶ 5. I believe that Pedron Altamirano and his bandits have cleared from the mining areas and returned from this section of the country to their hangouts in Jinotega and Nueva Segovia. ¶ 6. I also believe that a Guardia outpost should be established here at Neptune. This subject will be dealt with in a later report."

30 May 1930.
Letter from Benjamin C. Warnick, President Bonanza Mines Co., New York, to Green H. Hackworth, Esq., Solictor, Dept. of State, Washington D.C.

1.   31 May 1930.
Report on Mining Properties Destroyed by Bandits in Nicaragua since 1927.  Second Brigade Commander Col. R. Y. Rhea, Managua, to Major General Commandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., p. 1.  
"Reference: (a) Radio Major General Commandant to the Brigade Commander, 8628-1056. ¶ Enclosures: (A) Copy of letter Captain H. Rose, U.S. Marine Corps to the Commanding General, reporting damage done at La Luz Mine, dated 18 June, 1928. ¶ (B) Copy of letter from Commanding Officer, Eastern Area, to the Commanding General concerning damage at La Luz Mine, dated 29 June, 1928. ¶ (C) Copy of letter from Lieutenant J.M. Ranck, Jr., U.S. Marine Corps, reporting destruction in Neptune Mine Area. ¶ (D) Copy of certified letter from Julio Antonio Rivera, regarding destruction of property at Neptune Mine by bandits. ¶ (E) Copy of letter Hopkins and Hopkins to the Major General Commandant, dated 3 September, 1928, regarding records of Bonanza Mine with endorsements. ¶ (F) Two sets of five photographs showing damage done by bandits at La Luz Mine. ¶ (G) Two copies of photographs of San Albino Mine from air."

2.   31 May 1930.
Report on Mining Properties Destroyed by Bandits in Nicaragua since 1927.  Second Brigade Commander Col. R. Y. Rhea, Managua, to Major General Commandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
". . . (H) Copy of extract from Field Message number 9, San Albino, dated 2 August, 1927, regarding damage done at San Albino Mine. ¶ 1. The records of this office have been searched and all data pertaining to damage done American Mining property by bandits in Nicaragua since 1927 is herewith enclosed, enclosures (A) to (H), inclusive. ¶ 2. The following facts regarding amounts claimed by the various mining officials for damage done have been furnished by the Claims Commission:- ¶ (a) La Luz and Los Angeles Mining Company. ¶ $1,058.25 on 31 October, 1927. ¶ 455,821.45 on 17 March, 1930. ¶ (b) San Albino. (Mr. Butters) ¶ $914,006.47 on 24 December, 1927. ¶ (c) Bonanza Mine, Pis Pis. ¶ $1,524.28 on 26 September, 1927. ¶ 111,790.00 on 25 March, 1930. . . . "

3.   31 May 1930.
Enclosure:  Report of 18 June 1928, Capt. Herbert Rose, "Damage done at La Luz by bandits," with photos, with Report on Mining Properties Destroyed by Bandits in Nicaragua since 1927.  Second Brigade Commander Col. R. Y. Rhea, Managua, to Major General Commandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., p. 3.  
"1. The following report based on my personal observation and such technical information as I was able to obtain regarding damage done at La Luz by bandits is submitted: ¶ (a) Mill dynamited and contents destroyed. Principle machinery contained in same - 3 Harding mills, 10 stamps, ice machine, 3 gasoline motors, lathe, water wheel, and many tools. ¶ (b) Retort house and assay office - contents ruthlessly destroyed. Principle contents - scales - ovens, crucibles, and acids. ¶ (c) Six cyanide tanks dynamited and destroyed. ¶ (d) Commissary burned and destroyed. ¶ (e) Superintendent’s house burned and destroyed. ¶ (f) Assistant Superintendent’s house burned and destroyed. ¶ 2. Everything of value in the line of food, clothing, tools, etc., that could possibly be taken was carried away by the bandits. This statement is based on many reports from inhabitants of this area. ¶ 3. The Mine cars, tracks, and water line are intact. There are remaining on the mine property eight small frame buildings and six native houses."

4.   31 May 1930.
Photos accompanying Report on Mining Properties Destroyed by Bandits in Nicaragua since 1927.  Second Brigade Commander Col. R. Y. Rhea, Managua, to Major General Commandant John A. Lejeune, Washington D.C., p. 4.   (2 images)

1.   3 June 1930.
Monthly Record of Events, Eastern Area, May 1930.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
"A. PERIOD. May 1930. ¶ From: 1 May 1930. ¶ To: 31 May 1930. ¶ B. STRENGTH OF COMMAND. ¶ Officers 16 ¶ Enlisted Men 220 ¶ C. MILITARY OPERATIONS. ¶ 1. Movements of patrols and other Guardia personnel. ¶ 2 May. Lieutenant SIMMER and two enlisted left for PUERTO CABEZAS by schooner. Interviewed Mr. PINEDA of NEPTUNE MINE. All quiet in that locality. ¶ 4 May. Colonel MARSTON left for one months leave in UNITED STATES via S.S. MANAGUA, port of debarkation, NEW ORLEANS. ¶ 8 May. Sergeant COLOMER and two rasos left for duty at LA LUZ MINE via PRINZAPOLKA on coastwise schooner. Men transferred by staff returns to Ninth Company. ¶ 17 May. Reported by Lieutenant RIEWE, Mr. PINEDA, and AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY that bandits raided LA LUZ and NEPTUNE MINING AREAS on May 10-12, 1930. ¶ 18 May. Reported by PINEDA 100 bandits raided NEPTUNE MINE on May 12th. Lieutenant RIEWE and three enlisted left LA CRUZ for TUNGLA on patrol to investigate bandit rumors. ¶ 19 May. Lieutenant STONE and ten enlisted cleared for PRINZAPOLKA as part of Lieutenant BENSONS patrol to NEPTUNE MINE. ¶ 20 May. Lieutenant RIEWE and three men returned to LA CRUZ from patrol to TUNGLA. SERGEANT COLOMER and two rasos left TUNGLA for patrol to WUANI. Lieutenant CURCEY left by fruit barge for duty at LA CRUZ. . . . "

2.   3 June 1930.
Monthly Record of Events, Eastern Area, May 1930.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.  
". . . C. MILITARY OPERATIONS (continued) ¶ 1. Movements of patrols and other Guardia personnel. (continued) ¶ 22 May. Lieutenant BENSON and 17 enlisted cleared PUERTO CABEZAS at 0130 via schooner to PRINZAPOLKA to join Lieutenant STONE and 10 enlisted for patrol to NEPTUNE MINE. USS DENVER arrived at BLUEFIELDS and departed for PUERTO CABEZAS. Two 0L8 planes arrived from MANAGUA and departed for PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ 25 May. Lieutenant RIEWE and five enlisted left LA CRUZ for patrol to TUNGLA and upper PRINZAPOLKA RIVER. ¶ 26 May. Two 0L8 planes arrived from PUERTO CABEZAS. ¶ 27 May. Two 0L8 planes, Lieutenant RIEWE and Corporal GARCIA left TUNGLA for patrol to LA LUZ MINING AREA. Four Guardia rasos patrolled from TUNGLA to LA CRUZ. Planes made contact with BENSON ten miles below TUNKY. ¶ 28 May. Captain Shaughnessey to RAMA on inspection. ¶ 29 May. Captain Shaughnessey returned from RAMA. ¶ 30 May. Colonel MARSTON returned from leave in UNITED STATES via S.S. MANAGUA. RIEWE returned from LA LUZ. ¶ 31 May. Two 0L8 planes, Lieutenants FIKE and YOUNG pilots, arrived from PUERTO CABEZAS via NEPTUNE MINE. Made contact with Lieutenant BENSON’S patrol at NEPTUNE. Patrol signaled to NO ENEMY. ¶ 2. Military duties performed. ¶ Military training of personnel, police duties in EASTERN NICARAGUA, patrol of EASTERN NICARAGUA. ¶ 3. No contacts with enemy force. Sergeant COLOMER and two rasos arrived in WUANI on May 21st, two hours after the last elements of ALTAMIRANOS band had cleared that place. ¶ D. POLICE OPERATIONS. ¶ See Departmental Records of Events. There has been a decrease in police operations over those of the previous month. ¶ E. INTELLIGENCE. ¶ 1. General State of Territory Occupied. See Intelligence report of 26 May 1930. ¶ Outlaw band under ALTAMIRANO (definitely identified) looted WUANI, SIUNA, and NEPTUNE MINE on May 9-12, 1930, then returned to interior, last elements clearing WUANI on 21 May 1930. This band consisted of about sixty (60), largely boys of 14 to 16 years. A few of the band had rifles but very little ammunition. Carried two Lewis Machine Guns with about thirty (30) rounds of ammunition per gun. No killings reported during raid. News of raid reached BLUEFIELDS on 17 May 1930. Patrol now in the . . . "

3.   3 June 1930.
Monthly Record of Events, Eastern Area, May 1930.  Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to the Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.  
" . . . E. INTELLIGENCE (continued) ¶ (1) General State of Territory Occupied (continued) ¶ NEPTUNE MINE AREA for the protection of life and property. ¶ All other portions of the Area are quiet. Considerable Radical Conservative agitation in PUERTO CABEZAS was reported to Captain WOOD, dating from the receipt of the first news of the raids on the mining areas. It is believed these reports can be discounted to a great extent as prompted largely by the excitement and undue alarm evinced by the civilian population. ¶ (2) Economic Conditions. Bad. ¶ Continued and increased financial depression in the SOUTHERN portion of the AREA has caused considerable alarm in the minds of the civilian population as to the financial future of this part of the Republic. Continued discharge of employees by the CUKRA DEVELOPMENT COMPANY is causing increased unemployment. The last drastic measure by that company is the reported order to purchase no more bananas from the independent planters. This has caused increased alarm. ¶ (3) Military Situation. See paragraph 1 above. ¶ (4) Friction between Guardia and Civilian Population. One isolated case in Rama, only one Guardia involved. He has been discharged by order of the Jefe Director and turned over to the courts for trial. ¶ Civil attitude toward Guardia - Good. ¶ Press - Favorable to Guardia. ¶ (5) Political Situation. Quiet. But little interest is being taken in the coming elections of deputies and suplente deputies in the coming fall. It is a safe prediction that whichever Liberal Candidate is nominated will be elected. No Conservative candidates have presented themselves so far and the population is predominantly Liberal. ¶ (6) Weather. The rainy season has commenced in this part of the Republic and the effect thereof on roads and trails will soon be felt. ¶ (7) Conditions of roads and trails (such as exist) - Fair. ¶ (8) Telegraph and telephone communications. The line to RAMA from BLUEFIELDS was out of commission for almost a week during the month, a common occurrence after heavy rains accompanied by strong wind. No other change. ¶ F. CONFISCATION OF ARMS. ¶ See Departmental Records of Events."

4 June 1930.
Intelligence Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, to Area Commander, Eastern Area. 
 (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)

5 June 1930.
Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, to Area Commander, Eastern Area.   (
Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)

7 June 1930.
Report, intelligence, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, to Area Commander, Eastern Area.  
(Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)

8 June 1930.
Intelligence Report, Lt. W. W. Benson, Neptune Patrol, Neptune Mine, to Area Commander, Eastern Area. 
 (Source: USNA/RG127/E38/Box 18)

1.   18 June 1930.
Report on Political Conditions on the East Coast, Col. John Marston, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1. 
 "The attached clipping, after eliminating the personalities involved, is a clear exposition of the feeling of the Creole (negro) and Moskito (Indian) elements of the East Coast population toward the central Nicaraguan Government in Managua. A complete understanding of East Coast conditions is not possible unless the facts set forth in the enclosure are constantly kept in mind. It has been estimated that the East Coast has contributed over $30,000,000.00 to the Nicaraguan Government in the past twenty-five years, a very small percentage of which has been spent in this part of Nicaragua but has been transferred to Managua and used in the general and extraordinary expenses of the Government and for public improvements in other parts of the country. ¶ JOHN MARSTON"

2.   18 June 1930.
"Open Letter to Mr. A. W. Hooker by Creoles of Bluefields," La Voz del Atlántico, Bluefields, ca. June 1930, enclosure in Col. John Marston, Report on Political Conditions on the East Coast, p. 2. 
 [Note: A. W. Hooker was the editor & administrator of The Bluefields Weekly.]   "Mr. A. W. Hooker: Sir—¶ We have read in your “Weekly” of June 7th, your vile and malicious attempt to set the Government of Nicaragua, our Government as you expressed it, more against us, if that were possible. We are not surprised at this, as it is now quite a while we have learnt “what you give” as the boys say. We are not surprised since we are all familiar with the vanity and unholy ambition that has already destroyed your soul, and is now eating out your heart . We know that it would be your greatest pleasure to see every other creole in the mire, or even extinct, while you alone survive as irrefutable proof of your far fetched superiority. ¶ We fully realize that you would not feel the slightest compunction to have the entire creole community crushed and ground to powder if only thereby you would gain higher personal honors. If the creoles were guilty of disloyalty to Nicaragua, and by your information you could have every mother’s son exiled and slain, we are agreed that nothing would stop you, as long as you saw some individual, personal advantage ahead. ¶ We are not surprised that you should try to put the Government against us, but we are surprised at the hypocritical, false, misrepresentation you are trying to make, and the entire illogical trend of your discourse. ¶ A man can never be a traitor to a cause to which (------) to get in touch with some representative of the British Government,--one of the signatory powers of the Harrison Altamirano Treaty—to see to it, if possible, that Nicaragua comply with the terms of the Treaty. ¶ There is nothing in that treaty which conflicts in any way with the treaty made between Nicaragua and Mosquito in 1894, called the Mosquito Convention, but Art. 2 of said Convention, guarantees to the Mosquito Coast that all the revenues collected by the Coast shall be expended for the upbuilding and development of the Coast, instead of for the benefit of the Interior, which leaves the Coast (the goose that lays the golden egg)—to perish. ¶ Patriotism is what has always urged us to struggle forward in our efforts to obtain justice for our Coast. Bluefields must be built. ¶ Comparing us with traitors, while your Mr. Hooker have fought in the hundred—one revolutions since 1894 against your Government. You have been a leader, in revolutions against the liberal Zelaya, you served as Senator with the Conservatives, and when they rejected you from being Senator, you fought against them until they were overthrown. So you are neither Zelayista, Liberal, nor Conservative. What are you? ¶ If at any time we Indians and Creoles should take up arms against Nicaragua, (for discontent caused through injustice and ill treatment on the part of the government, which have been our lot for the last thirty-five years), it could only be a justifiable struggle against oppression, as was fought by George Washington, and also by the Central American republics, by Nicaragua herself against the oppression of Spain. ¶ The very fact that Great Britain had the faculty to impose a treaty upon Nicaragua which she was glad to accept, is proof enough that we did not belong to Nicaragua formerly, and we repeat that Nicaragua had never been able to colonize the Mosquito Coast, for while Nicaragua was still subjected to Spain up to the year 1890 Mosquito was (------) praised and handed out promises on a silver platter. When the danger is over (--), we are entirely ignored except when it comes to the matter of taxation. ¶ When Nicaragua shall have complied with her obligation of spending the revenues of the Coast for the Coast’s benefit,--Bluefields shall become the “City Beautiful”, and the Coast will be given a chance to live, and develop. This will be no disgrace or humiliation to Nicaragua, as you argue, Mr. Hooker, for it will still be Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ To obtain this end, not only should we Indians and Creoles strive, but it should be the duty of everyone residing on the Coast, natives as well as foreigners to give their moral support to this cause,--one of justice and humanity, which cries out for immediate help, attention and action. ¶ Instead of knocking the Coast’s rights and privileges, you, Mr. A. W. Hooker, should be the first to stand firmly for the Coast and its rights. That is the way to show patriotism. ¶ You would like to nationalize the Coast,---but cease your vain endeavours, friend. The Coast will be nationalized just as soon as the government righteously complies with the terms of the Mosquito Convention and the Harrison Altamirano Treaty. ¶ With all your wrong sided patriotism, Mr. Hooker, you cannot deny that the town of Bluefields was one hundred per cent more moral, religious, and prosperous in the old Mosquito days than it is now. Demonstrate your patriotism by showing your Government the right road to take. Help it to solve the problem,---Nationalization so near and dear to you. ¶ You would put the National Government against us, but instead you are simply putting yourself in bad grace with every well thinking resident on the Atlantic Coast. ¶ We will close by reminding you of the opportunity you had for showing love of country, of patriotism, when we subscribed a goodly sum of money and sent you to Guatemala to present our wrongs before the British Minister. From Guatemala you went on to Managua. You returned without being able to give one sensible talk that you had with the Minister in Guatemala. ¶ You were advised by a certain lawyer in Managua, that as the Government,---your government— . . . "

3.   18 June 1930.
"Open Letter to Mr. A. W. Hooker by Creoles of Bluefields" (cont.), La Voz del Atlántico, Bluefields, ca. June 1930, enclosure in Col. John Marston, Report on Political Conditions on the East Coast, p. 3.  
". . . He has not sworn allegiance, or has never espoused,---as you complain against us. We have never taken up arms against Nicaragua, and even had we done so through Nicaragua’s failure to comply the conditions under which the Act of Incorporation was signed, we could not be traitors, since this Incorporation was agreed to, between two distinct nations. ¶ Mosquito had never been colonized by Nicaragua, nor even by Spain, and Nicaragua having obtained the sovereignty over Mosquito in 1860, did not make Mosquito a Nicaraguan sate, but Mosquito retained its own flag, laws, and government, until clandestinely overthrown, and by deception coerced into accepting Nicaragua rule, and the promise of protection---in 1894. Incorporated, but not conquered or subdued. ¶ We, Indians and Creoles, have never taken up arms against Nicaragua—(our Government)---but love of country, a longing for the well being of our little hometown, a small touch of civil pride or in other words, Patriotism, is what make us long to the year 1820.  Mosquito was a free independent kingdom, having intimate intercourse with Great Britain from the year 1600. ¶ Indeed the only claim which Nicaragua ever had over Mosquito before 1894, was that of partial suzerainty, which was transferred to her in 1860 by the British Government through the Treaty of Managua, which was trampled under foot by Zelaya, who failed to comply with it having done everything in bad faith putting [---] over the British Government—as he, Zelaya—believed. ¶ The Harrison-Altamirano Treaty, the rights of which you have voluntarily relinquished is no hurt to your beloved government; since this treaty has been entirely ignored from the day of its ratification. In fact, it is foolish in us, as you say, to have vain hopes in such a treaty, which so far has never been complied with. ¶ But non fulfillment for twenty five consecutive years, of any contract or treaty does not signify that said contract or treaty is annulled, otherwise you would be right in your conclusion, Mr. Hooker. ¶ You would that we all become true Nicaraguans. Does Nicaragua want us as such? Yes, when there is trouble in the country. When our services are urgently require, then the people of the Coast are “[-----] the [---]”. [---] was at that time passing a financial crisis, you should not take up so important a matter just then; so you gave up your mission and returned on utter but willing failure. ¶ Once more you have been appointed to look after the well fare of your home, in Congress, and you renounced your high calling and returned to Bluefields to sell guaro destroying body and soul, and all the manliness of those belonging to the place you call HOME. ¶ You ought to go some place for a change. Freddie, Go to Jerusalem, for instance. ¶ CREOLES OF BLUEFIELDS"

30 June 1930.
General Conditions in the Department of Southern Bluefields, Col. John Marston, Bluefields.  
"General conditions throughout the Department of Southern Bluefields are good. The recent shortage in clothing is about to be overcome. Training of troops is progressing in a satisfactory manner. The morale of the enlisted personnel is good. The Miskito (Indian) element is not proving particularly desirable and there will some losses in the near future on account of inaptitude discharges. The recruiting of Indians in this area will be limited strictly hereafter to individuals of unusual promise. ¶ Officers are rendering excellent service as a general rule. First Lieutenant Chester A. Davis and First Lieutenant Walter J. Stone have been particularly valuable during the period covered by this report. The former in command of the District of Rama, and the latter as Drill Instructor at Bluefields, have been handling their assignments in an unusually successful manner. The weakest officers of the Department are Captain Shaughnessey and Lieutenant Curcey. These officers are not well adapted to service in the Guardia Nacional, though both are sober and dependable as far as personal habits are concerned. Their relief is not recommended until such a time as officers of demonstrated fitness area available in their places. ¶ (signed) JOHN MARSTON ¶ Colonel, Guardia Nacional, ¶ Area Commander."

 

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