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the atlantic coast  •  1933+  •  p. 1
the year 1933

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE first PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE PERIOD AFTER 1932 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing documents dated in the year 1933.

     With the US Marines gone, the Guardia Nacional is now the country’s supreme military authority — de jure and de facto — except in the deep interior zones centered on the Bocay and upper Coco valleys and across much of Las Segovias, where Sandino’s Defending Army has carved out an alternative jurisdictional space, a kind of rebel republic with its own laws, civil and military authorities, taxation system, forms of identity, and symbols, myths & legends.  Untenable in the long term, this fragmented sovereignty would last a little over a year, until Sandino’s assassination in Managua on 21 February 1934 at the hands of the Guardia Nacional and its Jefe Director Anastasio Somoza García.

     The documents on this page speak to some of the ongoing dynamics in the Atlantic Coast during this so-called “Year of Peace,” though there’s also a lot of what might be described as general information on the Coast.  Two long reports stand out:  Admiral C. H. Woodward’s Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections (25 January), which conveys a boatload of information about the Coast in general and Bluefields politics in particular; and the sections of the US Marines’ Monograph of Nicaragua on the Coast (12 December).  Much can be learned from these two lengthy documents.

     Moravian Bishop Guido Grossman is prolific during the year, with his long letters of 30 May, 27 June, 31 July, and 4 October and circular of 7 November offering another valuable lens on the Atlantic Coast’s social, cultural, and religious landscape in the wake of the US withdrawal.  As seen in his report on his meeting with the governor of the Comarca of Cabo Gracias a Dios (30 May), the Nicaraguan government favors the Moravians and wishes to be rid of the Sandinistas, but needs time to consolidate its control of the upper reaches of the Río Coco.  Who has power & influence where?  Grossman negotiates with the Sandinistas for access to the interior districts and wonders whether Sandino will allow it, which of course he does not.

      The spy reports of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company / Guardia Nacional, forwarded to the US Consul in Puerto Cabezas Sheridan Talbott, are also noteworthy (in the absence of the original reports, included here are only the research notes of David C. Brooks; inspection of the originals documents must await the next visit to College Park MD). The spy’s report on Abraham Rivera’s band on the lower Río Coco (“Jakal Centro”, 25 January) sounds very plausible, and is corroborated by the GN-2 reports covering the end of 1932 cited on the previous page.  Consul Talbott’s January 3 comments on Henry Springer are pretty hilarious, but his report is emblematic of continuing US imperial muscle-flexing in the absence of an overt military presence.

     Not included here are Sandino’s missives & circulars concerning his Río Coco Cooperative on the upper Coco, which lay well outside the Atlantic Coast region proper (on this topic, see the letters from Granada merchant Daniel Ortega Cerda [father of latter-day Nicaraguan president Daniel Ortega Saavedra] to Sandino proposing a commercial agreement to market the products of Sandino’s Río Coco Cooperative, and Sandino’s response:  EDSN-DOCS: LA COLECCIÓN DANIEL ORTEGA CERDA). 

     More relevant to the core dynamics shaping the lives of Costeños in 1933 are the “labor troubles on the banana farms” and “labor agitators . . . soliciting funds from the workmen on the farms for the purpose of organizing a union” reported by Consul Talbott (January 3).  Further research would likely reveal much more along these lines.

     In sum, the EDSN still maintains a small but viable presence in a strategically vital section of the Coast — Abraham Rivera’s band on the lower Coco — but its military offensives are a thing of the past and on the whole its political-cultural influence remains miniscule.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 1.   
"SIR:  ¶  I have the honor to inform the Department that all the American marines who were stationed in this district of Nicaragua have departed, the last five consisting of two commissioned and three non-commissioned officers having left here on the United States destroyer “Overton” for the naval base at Coco Sola on December 31, 1932.  ¶  The Nicaraguan National Guard in this section consisting of about one hundred and fifty men is now entirely in command of Nicaraguan officers. The commander, a civilian from Masaya, has already had some difficulty with the manager of the American fruit company here over labor troubles on the banana farms, and the manager is endeavoring to have the new commander removed from this post. It appears that labor agitators have been soliciting funds from the workmen on the farms for the purpose of organizing . . . "

2.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 2.   
" . . . organizing a union, promising them increased wages and better conditions.  The manager of the company had these agitators removed from the company’s property on the ground that they were mischief-makers whereupon the commander objected, informing the company that the workmen had a right to make request for better wages and conditions of labor in their own country.  When I called on the commander to offer my congratulations on his assumption of the command and to wish him a successful administration he informed me, somewhat truculently, and, in my opinion, unnecessarily, that his duty was to protect Nicaraguans as well as foreigners --- an obligation which I have never heard questioned by anybody here.  Whether his remarks were intended to be transmitted to the fruit company I do not know, but I quieted him by saying that I had no doubt the company would cooperate with him in the discharge of his duties.  The manager later told me that he intended to have the commander removed, and that he had already communicated with the appropriate authority at Managua concerning the matter.  ¶  I am bringing this to the attention of the Department for the reason that any lack of cooperation between the Guardia and the company may have an unfortunate . . ."

3.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 3.  
 ". . . effect on American lives and interests in this territory.  ¶  There is now no air-plane service between this port and Managua, and any correspondence for the Legation must go by way of Bluefields, and thence to the interior, an infrequent and lengthy trip.  Radio communication is available in the event of any serious situation which should be brought to the attention of the Legation promptly.  ¶  There have been no bandit activities in this section for nearly six months, but there are rumors in circulation from time to time of groups having been seen along the Wanks River.  It is possible that the recent political disturbances in Honduras may have attracted some of the outlaws to the neighboring republic.  ¶  Respectfully yours,  ¶  Eli Taylor,  ¶  American Vice Consul."

4.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 4.  
"SIR:  ¶  I have the honor to advise the Department that the Acting Governor of the Bluefields’ District has furnished me with a copy of the telegram from President Sacasa listing the members of his Cabinet, and included is the name of Franklin Springer as assistant Secretary of Foreign Relations (Sub Secretario De Relaciones Exteriores).  ¶  Mr. Springer, the son of H. F. Springer, Sr., was registered as a citizen of the United States until his candidacy for, and election as, mayor of Bluefields in the fall of 1931.  His father has resided in Bluefields for many years doing a commission business and acting as “aviador” of the Bonanza Mines Company, and his activities are already well known to the Department through his connection with the mining company mentioned and more recently, through his complaints against the working of the exchange control regulations.  ¶   Mr. . . ."

5.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 5.   
" [missing line] . . . being a certain amount of physical courage and some political following through intimacy with the Negroes in Bluefields.  ¶ He has made little effort to administer the position of mayor of Bluefields, spending the first few months after his election largely engaged in digging in a hill back of the town for a treasure reputedly buried there, and even going so far as to wear a peculiar scarf recommended as necessary to success in this direction by a fortune teller he was consulting at the time.  He has made practically no attempt of late to attend to his duties as mayor of this city and recently took leave of absence to go to the mines in an effort to look after his father’s interest as the mine has been operating under difficulties of late.  However, it is generally believed that he lacks the capacity to administer any position effectively.  ¶  He has had difficulties publicly with his wife since I have been in Bluefields while he was drinking, on one occasion knocking her down on the street and more recently striking her while attending a ball at the local club.  Only a short time ago he became involved with one of the officers of the Guardia (enlisted American marine) in an affair where a creole girl alleged that he had held her while the marine had offered her certain indignities; this affair while generally known was quieted and no action was taken as at first threatened by the girl.  It is not . . . "  [my emphasis]

6.     3 January 1933.
The Situation at Puerto Cabezas, US Consul Sheridan Talbott, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Wash. D.C., p. 6.  
 " [missing line] . . . negro.  The foregoing are a few of a number of incidents which will serve to indicate his personal character.  ¶  He is politically a Liberal and was an early and ardent supporter of Dr. Enoc Aguado.  I am not aware from what course his influence arises, but, it is possible that his appointment has been influenced by a desire to obtain harmony between the factions led by him and by General Eliseo Duarte, who, rumor has it, will be appointed Governor (Jefe Politico) of Bluefields.  Also, it should be noted that the only appointments from Bluefields so far have been men registered, or formerly registered as Americans; Joseph Harrison, appointed a captain in the Guardia, was at the time registered as an American citizen, and Mr. Springer was registered at the time he became a candidate for mayor.  ¶  I assume that there is nothing that can be done in the matter, but it appears unfortunate that the new Government should initiate its administration by selecting persons for office so obviously unfit as Mr. Springer.  While, General Duarte is better qualified for the position which rumor indicates he will occupy, his appointment offers no encouragement that honest and capable officials may be expected to administer the affairs of this coast during the coming difficult period.  ¶  Respectfully yours,  ¶  Sheridan Talbott,  ¶  American Consul."

1.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 1.  
 "Synopsis:  ¶  I Political conditions in Nicaragua in July, 1932.  ¶  II Electoral procedure.  ¶  III Plans for American supervision.  ¶  1. Original plans.  ¶  2. The plan as adopted.  ¶  IV The Department of Bluefields.  ¶  1. Topographical features.  ¶  2. Racial features.  ¶  3. Political conditions.  ¶  4. Electoral organization.  ¶  5. Problems arising, and their solutions.  ¶  6. Final comments on results attained."

2.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 2.  
"I.  POLITICAL CONDITIONS IN NICARAGUA IN JULY, 1932.  ¶  The resignation of President Emiliano Chamorro on 30 October 1925 was the beginning of the period of American intervention which terminated on 2 January 1933.  Chamorro had seized the government by a coup d’etat and was unable to secure recognition from the Department of State in Washington.  After the presidency had become vacant eighteen congressmen who had been expelled by Chamorro were persuaded to return to Managua and the Congress, which was assembled at once, elected as president of the republic Senor Adolfo Diaz who had formerly been president from 1911 to 1916.  Both Chamorro and Diaz were Conservatives.  The regime which was overthrown in 1926 were Conservatives.  The regime which was overthrown in 1926 was a coalition government headed by President Solorzano, a Conservative, and Vice President Juan Bautiste Sacasa, a Liberal.  When Chamorro had seized the government and forced the resignation of Solorzano, Sacasa fled the country in fear of losing his life and went to Mexico where he gathered about him a small group of sympathetic supporters.  ¶  In December, 1926, Dr. Sacasa, vigorously maintaining his right to the presidency accruing to him by constitutional provision upon the resignation of Solorzano, returned to the east coast of Nicaragua with a small armed force and set up a provisional government of his own at Puerto Cabezas.  Mexico accorded him instant recognition. Armed conflict with the Diaz government began at once and the East Coast became the theater of a revolutionary campaign of considerable proportions. Volunteers flocked to the Sacasa banner. Basing his action on requests from the British, Belgium, Italian and Chinese governments that their nationals be given protection in the disturbed area, and convinced that Mexico for reasons of her own was giving active support to the Sacasa forces, President Coolidge intervened and landed marines on the East Coast, justifying his actions in a note to Congress by stating that he was acting on the grounds of public expediency. ¶  The Diaz government, having purchased a quantity of war materials in the United States, attempted to destroy the revolutionaries by force of arms but it met with decided reverses.  While the Sacasa army was winning a series of short skirmishes and small battles between Rio Grande Bar and Pearl Lagoon, the marines established neutral zones at Bluefields, Puerto Cabazas, and on the Rio Grande for the protection of American and foreign interests.  ¶  Just after Sacasa had initiated a march on Managua and his successful, well-armed troops had started and advance across . . . "

3.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 3.  
". . . country towards Managua.  President Coolidge sent Mr. Henry L. Stimson, at present Secretary of State, to Nicaragua to make an effort to negotiate peace terms between the warring factions.  Mr. Stimson was successful and both sides laid down their arms following the signing of the Tipitapa Agreement.  Under this agreement, President Dias was continued in office until he was superseded by General Moncada, the successful Liberal candidate in the 1928 elections.  These elections were supervised by an American Electoral Mission headed by General McCoy of the United States Army and conducted by a group of Army, Navy and Marine officers.  ¶  Dr. Sacasa’s army disbanded and peace probably would have been restored throughout the entire republic had not Augustino Sandino, a relatively insignificant “general” under Moncada who was chief of the Sacasa forces, refused to recognize the Tipitapa Agreement and opened a guerilla warfare which, up to the present time, has not been brought under control.  ¶  Thus Jose Maria Moncada became president of Nicaragua after the 1928 election and the second phase of the American intervention period began.  President Moncada was a Liberal.  Some years before he became a general in the Sacasa revolution, he was the editor of a paper in Leon, a man without much fame and with little if any money.  Most editors and publishers in Nicaragua are very poor men, and Moncada was no exception.  During his four years as president he amassed an extremely large fortune, judged by Nicaraguan standards.  Most of this fortune was invested in Nicaragua by purchasing under favorable terms a number of extensive agricultural properties.  It was the impression in Nicaragua that Moncada’s desire to retain the presidency after his term had expired (in direct contravention of the provisions of the constitution) or, failing that, to control the new incumbent, was due to his apprehension over possible loss of his personal fortune which might follow a Conservative victory.  He was almost as worried over the loss which might follow the election of a Liberal who was not a member of his own particular political coterie.  ¶  Moncada first made the suggestion to the State Department that he be permitted to serve beyond his normal and legal term in order to effect economy in government expenditures, i.e. that the poverty-stricken national government would save the large expense necessary to pay for a national election.  This suggestion was not acted upon favorably by the Secretary of State in Washington.  Moncada’s next move appeared to be an effort to disrupt the Liberal party with the object of dividing the Liberal votes between two separately nominated Liberal candidates.  This would make it probable that no candidate would secure the necessary plurality in the general election and would throw the final selection of a president into the Nicaraguan Congress.  Here Moncada felt he controlled a large and potent majority.  To this end, he persuaded a faction of the Liberal . . . "

4.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 4.  
". . . party to call a convention before the regular party convention.  This group, having met, placed in the field a Liberal ticket or “formula” as it is called in Nicaragua, headed by one Arguello who was a staunch Moncadista.  This formula was received with little enthusiasm by the Liberal party at large, and by violent opposition by the Sacasa group.  Perhaps a month later, the regularly scheduled Liberal convention met and nominated a national formula in which Dr. Juan Bautista Sacasa was named as candidate for president.  A Dr. Espinosa was named as candidate for five-president.  ¶  Dr. Sacasa had been Nicaraguan Minister to Washington under the Moncada regime and was certainly the most popular Liberal who could have been placed in the field.  He had opposed himself to the Moncada clique which was ruthlessly trying to retain control of the party and the government.  He was known to be pro-American in the sense that he was a sympathizer with the expressed policies of the United States Department of State, particularly in regard to Latin-American relations.  His education had been thorough (he is a doctor of medicine and a graduate of the University of Paris) and his culture, happily expressed through a charming, gracious personality makes him one of the outstanding men of affairs in Nicaragua.  His integrity is unquestioned.  He is handicapped, I fear, by his altruistic attitude of mind which makes it difficult for him to appreciate or comprehend the selfish motives and the pernicious political activities of his associates and supporters.  ¶  To further complicate the political situation in the Liberal party, a small but vociferous group endeavored to secure the presidential nomination for Dr. Aguado [Enoc Aguado], Vice-president under Moncada.  This group was encouraged by Moncada to advance its claims with the object of undermining some of the Sacasa support and thus throwing a larger component of power to the Moncada faction.  The Aguado group was not successful in nominating their candidate, but it did develop considerable power and undoubtedly secured from the Sacasa faction at the post-convention conference important concessions which assured it of participation in the new government of Dr. Sacasa if and when he was elected.  ¶  Thus, when the Electoral Mission arrived in Managua in July, 1932, it found two Liberal formulas in the field, each regularly nominated by a convention which claimed for itself the legal power of naming the party’s national ticket.  The Conservative party whose convention had not yet been held, appeared determined to nominate ex-President Adolfo Diaz for president and ex-President Emiliano Chamorro for vice-president. . . ."

5.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 5.  
 ". . . The party later agreed on these two selections and they became the official candidates of the conservatives in the election.  ¶  Shortly after arriving in Nicaragua, Rear Admiral Clark H. Woodward, Chairman of the National Board of Elections and Chief of the U.S. Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, decided that the Liberal Party could not have two formulas in the field but would have to agree on a single party ticket.  Over President Moncada’s personal protest to the Department of State, which as forwarded to Washington by the American Minister in Managua without prior reference to Admiral Woodward, he (Admiral Woodward) directed that a third convention be held by the Liberal party for the selection of an official ticket which could be recognized by the Mission.  An exhaustive legal investigation into the matter revealed the fact that there was no way by which the legality of either one of the earlier conventions could be determined.  The Department of State declined to interfere with the action of Admiral Woodward.  As a consequence, a third Liberal Convention was held in the city of Leon and Dr. Sacasa and Dr. Espinosa were nominated as the Liberal candidates for president and vice-president respectively.  Prior to and during this convention, the three Liberal factions I have mentioned undoubtedly made definite agreements affecting important selections for political and military appointments because thereafter the entire Liberal party wholeheartedly supported the national ticket and serious internal party dissension was at an end.  ¶  This, briefly, is a description of the state of political affairs in Nicaragua when the various Departmental Chairman of the Electoral Mission took up their pre-election duties in September, 1932.  ¶  II.  ELECTORAL PROCEDURE IN NICARAGUA.  ¶  The superior electoral body in Nicaragua, provided for in the so-called Dodds Law which governs the entire electoral procedure at present, is known as the National Board of Elections (Consejo Nacional de Elecciones).  It consists of a chairman, appointed by the President of the Republic, and two political members, one each from the Liberal and Conservative parties, who are nominated by the national “juntas” of those parties.  Each party “junta” nominates a “suplente” (assistant) political member who sits on the board only in the absence of his principal.  The National Board appoints its own secretary and other assistants such as legal advisor, etc.  The National Board interprets the electoral law, adjudicates questions submitted to it by the national parties and their candidates and by departmental boards of election, verifies the departmental reports on the result of the election and makes its own final report to Congress when the final count has been determined. . . . "

6.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 6.    
". . . Nicaragua is divided geographically into sub-governmental and sub-political areas known as departments.  Departmental Boards of Election (Consejos Departmentales de Elecciones) each have a chairman selected and appointed by the National Board of Elections, and the political members and two suplentes appointed by the departmental board but nominated by the national juntas of the two major parties.  Departmental Boards appoint their own secretaries.  Those boards supervise the work of the subordinate electoral bodies (the directories) under their jurisdiction, decide local questions submitted to them or refer debatable questions to the National Board for decision, collect and tabulate the results of the election for their respective departments and make their final departmental reports to the National board.  ¶  Every department is divided geographically into subdivisions called cantons.  In every canton there is placed at least on voting place called a “mesa” which is controlled by a group of officials known as a “directorio”.  A directorio consists of a president, and two political members and two secretaries all of whom are appointed by the Departmental Board of Elections upon nomination of the departmental juntas of the two major parties.  If personnel is available, suplentes to these five officials are appointed to act in the place of their principals in case of illness or other inability to serve.  The departmental junta of each party is privileged and expected to appoint for duty as each mesa two vigilantes or watchers whose duties are to scrutinize voters of the opposite party and to instruct adherents or their own party in the correct method of casting properly marked ballots.  The directorio is charged with the duties of registering voters during the registration period and, on election day, of receiving, recording and counting the votes cast.  It makes it final report to the departmental board.  The directorio, as far as it is able to do so, settles local disputes, especially those involving the qualifications of voters, and refers to the departmental board such questions upon which it cannot agree.  It will be observed that a complete directorio consists of five regular members and four vigilantes which makes a total active personnel of nine men.  To this may be added from five to nine suplentes who are standing by to take up the duties of their principals when necessary.  Since military guards are detailed for duty at all means of registration and election days, the group of government officials and employees form quite a considerable body of men.  ¶  The presidents of the directorios were chosen alternatively from the Liberal and Conservative parties.  In the Department of Bluefields, the Liberal party, being the larger, was given the first selection.  The political members on the Departmental Board were the instruments by which these selections were made. . . . "

7.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 7.  
". . . The national, departmental and local juntas of the two major political parties are political bodies recognized by law and they play a considerable part in electoral and other political affairs.  Not only do these juntas indulge in active propaganda for the candidates of their respective parties but they are usually consulted when the nomination of public officials are under consideration and generally control the activities of their parties in their respective localities.  ¶  Five registration days were provided for during the 1932 pre-election period, the first being Sunday the 18th of September and the successive ones being the two next following Wednesdays and Sundays.  The last registration day was the 2nd of October upon which date the inscription lists were finally closed.  The election occurred on the 6th of November.  ¶  In the 1932 election, the presidency, vice-presidency and secretaryship of the National Board of Elections, and the presidencies and vice-presidencies of the several Departmental Board of Election were filled by appointments from the officer personnel of the Electoral Mission.  Enlisted men attached to the Mission were appointed as clerks and assistants at the Electoral Mission headquarters in Managua and directorios were presided over by selected enlisted men.  There was a considerable staff of officers attached to Mission headquarters as chiefs and assistants of staff sections.  All other officials connected in any way with their work of the Electoral Mission were native Nicaraguans.  ¶  III.  PLANS FOR AMERICAN SUPERVISION  ¶  1. Original Plan.  ¶  Based upon the experience of the two earlier American missions sent to Nicaragua in 1928 and 1930, it was planned originally to send a mission to Nicaragua in 1932 consisting of enough officers and enlisted personnel to provide not only a completely staffed Mission Headquarters but also a considerable number of assistants, both commissioned and enlisted, for each departmental headquarters.  It was also planned to have every directorio presided over by an enlisted man of the Navy or Marine Corps with enough additional enlisted personnel present at every mesa, even in the quiet sections of Nicaragua, to . . . "

8.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 8.  
". . . form a guard for the protection of the local electoral group.  The entire force to be assigned to the Electoral Mission was to be assembled in the United States, given some preliminary training and sent to Nicaragua in July, 1932.  The Electoral Mission detachment originally was intended to be a force over and above the forces of the second Brigade of Marines and the Marine Detachments of the vessels of the Special Service Squadron, which were expected to supply the additional guards that might be necessary in disturbed sections of the country.  ¶  However, political opposition in the American Congress to the sending of a large electoral mission to Nicaragua made it necessary in June, 1932, to abandon this first suggested and planned scheme and adopt another one.  ¶  2. The Plan as Adopted.  ¶  Animated in part, at least, by the determination to conserve the expenditure of public funds, the Congress of the United States inserted a clause in the Naval Appropriation Bill for 1932-1933 which prohibited the use of public funds for sending officers and enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps from the United States to Nicaragua for electoral duty.  This made it impossible for the Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps to assign to the Electoral Mission the two groups of enlisted men then (in May, 1932) undergoing special training at Quantico and San Diego.  The United States Electoral Mission to Nicaragua thereupon was forced to rely upon the Second Brigade of Marines, then in Nicaragua, and the Marine Detachments of the Special Service Squadron for assistance in its supervision of the 1932 election.  A group of about thirty Naval and Marine officers, already having been designated for duty with the Mission, were directed to report on board the U.S.S. Henderson at Hampton Roads, Virginia, before midnight of 30 June 1932 (the transport was scheduled leave that port for Cristobal and Corinto on 8 July) in order to permit the payment of their land transportation out of the 1931-1932 appropriations.  ¶  The significance of this change in plan can be appreciated by its effect on the Department of Bluefields.  The original plan specified that five (5) officers and ninety (90) enlisted men would make up the contingent of the Electoral Mission for that department.  The number actually sent last summer was two (2) officers and nine (9) enlisted men.  Other departments were reduced in about the same proportion, except in Granada, Managua and Leon where nearly all the mesas were assigned enlisted men as presidents. . . . "

9.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 9.  
". . . IV. ACTIVITIES IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BLUEFIELDS (EAST COST OF NICARAGUA) ¶ B. Geography. ¶ The East Coast of Nicaragua is an alluvial plain from 30 to 75 miles wide, divided perpendicularly to the north-and-south shoreline by a number of rivers upon which are located the most important and settlements. Inland communication between these rivers is almost impossible and up-river garrisons can be supplied, reinforced or relieved only by sea-and-river lines of communication from the principal towns of Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas where the Guardia Nacional maintains it largest forces. ¶ The climate on the East Coast is wet and humid. The rainfall in Bluefields is almost invariable amounts to 188 inches per year. The rains begin in late April or early May; the maximum rainfall occurs in July when the rivers are in flood; and the rains end in January. The entire population, except those living near natural sources of potable water, is dependent for drinking water upon accumulations of rainwater collected in tanks and other containers during the rainy season. The principal staples of food are rice, beans, beef, fish, plantains, bananas (usually prepared by being boiled in their green state and eaten like a boiled potato), and tropical fruits. Few residents of the coast eat corn or corn products in which respect they differ from nearly all other native residents of Central America from the Rio Grande to the Panama Canal. ¶ Beyond the plains to the westward lie the foothills of the mountains that divide Nicaragua into two separate and distinct areas. Intercourse between these two areas normally is by the slow and tortuous route of the San Juan river (location of the proposed Nicaraguan Canal). Lakes Nicaragua and Managua and the railroad whose eastern terminus is Granada. The few direct trails involve long, arduous rides or marches through a veritable wilderness of uninhabited terrain and are seldom used except by cattle buyers or marauding bandit groups. Coastwise traffic is born by small but seaworthy schooners. The San Juan river traffic is carried by small barges towed by gasoline launches. There is a fair sized lake steamer on Lake Nicaragua which makes the round trip of the lake once a week. Travel facilities are primitive indeed. It will be . . . "

10.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 10.  
". . . noted that Bluefields, in point of time, is four days nearer New Orleans than it is to Managua and a resident of Puerto Cabezas, wishing to visit a relative in Ocotal, finds himself facing at trip which requires about the same time as that from New York to Yokohama.  It is not difficult to realize that most of the government functions in Eastern Nicaragua are regulated from Managua by "remote control".  The purchase of large quantities of foodstuffs from the western part of Nicaragua, made necessary by the undue length and wetness of the rainy season on the East Coast, has encouraged quite a considerable freight business from Granada to Bluefields.  The freight rates are high and operate to increase the cost of living on the entire coast.  ¶  2. Racial characteristics.  ¶  The true native of the East Coast is (1) a pure blooded negro of one of the coastal tribes; or (2) a pure blooded negro descendent of emigrants from any one of the European colonies in the Caribbean area who have lived in the region for several centuries; or (3) a cross-breed of these two strains.  The Spanish (or West Nicaraguan) element is a relatively recent arrival.  The white element is small and politically unimportant.  ¶  The Indians are the "hewers of wood and drawers of water".  They are a suppressed class, protected in their land rights with treaties, agreements and conventions between Great Britain, under whose protection the old Mosquito government existed and Nicaragua who assumed sovereignty over the East Coast in 1898, but cheated and imposed upon by all other classes particularly the Spanish Nicaraguans who seem to look upon the more favorably located Indian reserve lands as fair game for themselves.  The Indians vote as they are ordered to vote by their immediate superior whether he be chief, labor foreman, employer, priest or political jefe of the canton.  ¶  The negroes, known locally as Creoles, are important politically and economically.  They control a little better than half of the political power. They are engaged in the professions, in trade and in agriculture.  The Spanish Nicaraguans are exercising increasing power owing to their close affiliations with the governments in Managua.  While the Creoles and the "Spaniards" are antagonistic locally, possessing as they do their separate clubs and social organizations and rarely intermarrying, it is remarkable how they combined against the "interior" when governmental questions arise on the coast.  Another fact is worthy of record. I was astonished to learn that probably not more than . . . "

11.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 11.  
" . . . 6% of the Spanish speaking element can speak English and not more than 10% of the Creole element speak Spanish fluently.  ¶  The coast is Liberal by a large majority.  About one out of every six of the voting population is a Conservative.  This fact made the supervision of the 1933 election in the Department of Bluefields a relatively simple matter.  ¶  3. Political conditions on the East Coast.  ¶  In spite of their formal party affiliations, residents of the coast, due to their insularity and to the fact that they have been sadly milked for years by the payment of high import duties which accrue solely to the advantage of the central government, are thoroughly agreed upon a slogan which may be briefly given as "The Coast for the Costenians".  Both parties voice this sentiment in all pre-election speeches and pamphlets, and this unanimity of feeling tones down political antipathies and greatly lessens the tension between the Liberals and Conservatives.  Another influence for political amity is the racial groupings where Liberal and Conservative negroes and Liberal and Conservative "Spaniards" belong to the same social organizations within the racial groups and tolerance on political matters is much more noticeable than it is in Granada, Managua and Leon.  ¶  The presidential and vice-presidential candidates of both parties were well-known on the coast and were generally recognized as capable, representative Nicaraguans of the better class.  After a study of the situation in July, I reached the conclusion that the election in the Department of Bluefields would pass without incident if the national juntas in Managua would keep their hands off.  There was some fear that local disturbances would be "ordered" at mesas on registration days and on election day with the view of reducing the votes cast in the election to such a point that a "no election" would be declared and the selection of a president thrown into Congress.  This fear did not materialize.  ¶  Both parties placed in the field eminently satisfactory candidates for senator and senator-suplente and, in three districts of the department, quite respectable candidates for deputy and deputy-suplente.  The Liberal party was well provided with funds for the pre-election campaign; the Conservative party virtually had none.  The Liberals hired boats, provided food and refreshments, distributed campaign buttons, rosettes and banners, . . . "

12.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 12.  
". . . employed bands on registration and election days and, in general, conducted a lively and thoroughly organized campaign.  The Conservatives were not able to do any of these things.  On one occasion the candidate for deputy from the district of San Juan del Norte was unable to raise eight dollars for boat fare from Bluefields to Punta Gorda where he was anxious to be present during one of the days of registration.  The lack of funds undoubtedly reduced the Conservative vote but I do not believe it had any effect whatever on the final outcome of the elections in the Department of Bluefields.  ¶  4. Electoral Organization in the Department of Bluefields.  ¶  The headquarters of the Electoral Mission in the Department of Bluefields was the city of Bluefields where I stationed myself as Departmental Chairman with six (later five) marines.  This community of about 10,000 inhabitants is the political center of the East Coast where the Governor (Jefe Politico), the justices of the Court of Appeals, the Area Commander of the Guardia Nacional and other important departmental officials are stationed.  ¶  Lieutenant Walter I. Jordan, U.S. Marine Corps, was Vice-Chairman of the department and was stationed with three marines at Puerto Cabezas located as I have previously mentioned about 125 miles to the north.  We had regular mail service between ourselves and Managua by planes once a week.  Special plane trips were not infrequent so that we had ample means at hand to make trips to Managua or from Puerto Cabezas to Bluefields and return at almost any time.  Without the assistance of the air squadrons of the Second Brigade, I do not see how the Electoral Mission could have functioned satisfactorily.  ¶  At Bluefields, one enlisted man acted as office assistant to the Departmental Chairman.  Four other enlisted men were designated presidents of the four mesas in Bluefields.  The other remaining enlisted man (extra and unassigned) was used for investigation until he was returned to Managua early in October.  He was not replaced. In Puerto Cabezas, one enlisted man was office assistant to the vice-chairman and the two additional men were assigned presidents to the two mesas in that community.  All other electoral officials in the entire department were native Nicaraguans.  ¶  There were fifty two directorios in the Department of Bluefields scattered widely throughout the entire area from the Rio Coco to the San Juan River (see map attached).  The electoral . . . "

13.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 13.  
". . . personnel assigned as follows:  ¶  [Chart]  ¶  In addition to the regular appointments listed above about two hundred (200) additional native Nicaraguans were designated suplentes to a very large majority of the presidents, political members and political secretaries.  ¶  With the limited clerical assistance available from the enlisted personnel of the Electoral Mission, it was necessary at Departmental Headquarters from time to time to employ native assistance for typing the resolutions of the National Board for distribution to the various directorios and for bundling and dispatching electoral stationery and ballots as the latter were received from Managua.  The attached map of Nicaragua showing the locations of the mesas in the Department of Bluefields will give a fair idea of the problem involved in sending out supplies and ballots to the presidents of the several directorios, particularly if one bears in mind the time-distances involved and the irregular and primitive transportation facilities available.  Plane drops were utilized when shipments went astray and were lost en route to the destination.  Occasionally special and urgent instructions were dropped by planes in the mining area around San Pedro de Pispis which was the most inaccessible section of the department.  As a matter of fact, these matters of supply and communication and the collection of the electoral returns after the election proved to be my own chief concern during the entire period.  ¶  Bluefields had radio communication with Managua, Puerto Cabezas, Cabo Gracias a Dios, El Gallo (near La Cruz on the Rio Grande), San Pedro de Pispis and Wauni.  Unfortunately the radio set at Wauni broke down two days before the first day of registration and did not resume service until after the election so that communication with that remote locality was impossible except by plane drops, or by mail by which means a reply might be expected in six weeks. . . . "

14.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 14.  
" . . . There was a telegraph line from Bluefields to Rama and also one from Puerto Cabezas to Mesa Farm and other directories located on or near the railroad which ran to the northwest for about 125 kilometers out of Puerto Cabezas.  Communication with all other directories could be had only by special messenger or native mail.  ¶  I had been Area Commander of the Guardia Nacional in the Department of Bluefields in the years 1929-1931 so, upon my arrival there in 1932, I was familiar with local conditions and knew personally almost every man of importance on the coast.  Since form this group of men were to be selected most of the native electoral officials, it was fortunate that I knew the personalities of these individuals and they in turn knew something about me.  I had achieved some measure of success in establishing friendly relations with the residents of the coast during the two years I was serving with the Guardia Nacional and I determined to maintain these relations if possible on the same cordial basis during the short period I was to be in Bluefields on electoral duty.  Of course, I had no formal rules to govern my own personal conduct but it may be of interest to record a few "principles" which certainly had their effect upon my attitude toward classes of the native populace.  First of all, I endeavored on all occasions to treat the native with consideration and courtesy. In this I was only dealing in the same coin I received.  I trusted the native, and let him know I trusted him, until he proved himself unworthy of further confidence.  The failures were not more than one would expect in an American group of the same size.  It was necessary to exercise patience – and then considerably more patience.  I think this was the most difficult task of all but I must confess, looking back, the natives appear to have manifested as much patience without apparent effort as I did with a good deal of strain.  If correctional action was necessary, I acted quickly and was sure that the individual directly concerned and everyone else connected with the incident knew the reason for my action.  Needless to say, I was careful not to act under these circumstances until I was thoroughly convinced of the justice of the step.  ¶  I found in Lieutenant Jordan an excellent assistant who handled his affairs at Puerto Cabezas in a splendid manner.  We were in such thorough accord that upon no occasion was it necessary for me to inject myself into any matter that Lieutenant Jordan was competent legally to decide himself.  ¶  The two political members of the Departmental Board of Elections were representative and cooperative men from the liberal and Conservative parties.  The Board appointed as secretary a Nicaraguan who was a proficient interpreter and . . . "

15.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 15.  
" . . . translator of English and Spanish.  He also was familiar with the Mosquito tongue which is the language of the Indians resident around Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas and on the lagoons along the entire East Coast.  This man was of great assistance to me in my interviews and correspondence with the presidents of the directories some of whom were familiar with the English language only and for whom all electoral instructions (which were received in Spanish) had to be translated into their own tongue.  ¶  6. Problems arising during the election period.  ¶  One of the most important problems faced by the Mission was the selection of the native personnel for electoral duty.  I rather easily solved this problem by making it a rule not to agree to an appointment unless both political members of the Departmental Board of Elections were favorable to the persons nominated by the Liberal and Conservative juntas.  I think not over three or four men were replaced later on complaint of either one of the parties.  I knew personally all of the members of the executive committee of both departmental juntas in Bluefields and it was not a difficult matter to persuade them to confine their nominations to reasonably fair-minded men.  ¶  As president of the departmental board, I addressed a letter to all of the native electoral personnel. In this I made an effort to appeal to their sense of fairplay and asked them to cooperate with the departmental board in making the election on the East Coast a true and faithful record of the wishes of the people.  While the letter was issued more or less as a formality, I was much surprised at the native response to it.  With possibility three exceptions, the Nicaragua personnel responded to a man and gave the Electoral Mission entire cooperation.  In the five months of the pre- and post-election period only two incidents transpired which I consider worthy of record to illustrate the types of annoyance which were unexpected to be of daily occurrence.  These will be related in the next succeeding paragraphs.  ¶  The first incident took place in Lieutenant Jordan’s bailiwick, not far from Puerto Cabezas.  At an isolated mesa, Mesa Farm, where the population was overwhelmingly Liberal, it fell to the lot of the Conservative party to nominate the president of the directorio and a Conservative was appointed to preside.  On the first day of registration, a group of disgruntled Liberals charged this man with drunkenness and intimidation of voters, swore out a warrant for his arrest before the local judge at Puerto Cabezas and had the electoral official . . . "

16.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 16. 
   ". . . locked up.  The idea back of the move was to frighten the Conservative and force him to resign.  Jordan heard of the incident by telephone from the Conservative political member, preceded immediately by railroad to the station nearest Moss Farm (about 60 miles) and made a hurried investigation.  He quickly decided that the charges against the president of the directorio were without foundation and ordered the man’s release which was effected at once.  Later a full report with supporting affidavits was received in Bluefields confirming Jordan’s original findings and the National Board of Elections, at my request, recommended to the Supreme Court of Nicaragua the removal of the local judge who had interfered with the orderly electoral procedure at Moss Farm.  The judge was removed from office and there were no further incidents of this kind the department.  ¶  The other incident was a little more complicated and not so clear in the legal implications.  Senators, deputies, and their suplentes of the National Congress are immune from arrest under the provisions of the national constitution.  The leader of the East Coast Liberals was, and is, Senator Onofre Sandoval.  He is an aggressive, clever, rather unscrupulous, bull-voiced, corpulent man of Indian extraction who had been an intimate of Dr. Sacasa in the revolution of 1927 and who was presently offered (and refused) the appointment of Minister of Agriculture in the Sacasa cabinet.  Sandoval draws a good deal of water and knows it.  Last summer he was running the Liberal departmental junta in Bluefields.  As his own contribution of personal services to pre-election propaganda, he decided to look after, on behalf of his party, the registrations at Pearl Lagoon, an important little town about eight hours north of Bluefields accessible through an island waterway.  The local problem at Pearl Lagoon was one involving the dispatch of small boats up the many streams entering the lagoon and bringing down into the town the scattered inhabitants of these rural sections for registration first, and then for voting on election day.  ¶  Sandoval preceded to Pearl Lagoon on the 16th of September with a number of small boats and a considerable quantity of food supplies for a Liberal barbeque on Sunday the 18th, the first day of registration.  The second registration day was designated as the following Wednesday the third the following Sunday.  All directorios had received instructions to register voters on all five of the designated registration days.  The 18th passed with a satisfactory registration of voters. . . ."

17.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 17.  
" . . . Sandoval, however, found his gasoline and food supply too low to permit him to carry on his propaganda activities on the following Wednesday so he returned to Bluefields.  Realizing he could not get back to Pearl Lagoon in time for the Wednesday registrations, Sandoval persuaded the president of the local directorio to keep his registration books closed on the second day of registration.  The president was a Sandoval Liberal and no doubt was easily persuaded.  The Conservative members of the directorio protected this action in a letter sent to me by special messenger who did not arrive in Bluefields until Tuesday evening, too late to communicate with Pearl Lagoon in time to order the electoral officials to continue registrations on Wednesday.  Senator Sandoval was interviewed within the hour and stated that he only remarked to the president of the Pearl Lagoon directorio that “he himself could not appear on Wednesday”, a point of view not held by any other party to the incident.  The president of the directorio admitted receiving Sandoval’s orders but claimed he accepted them only because the Senator had given them as coming from the Departmental Board of Elections.  On Thursday I removed, by action of the Departmental Board, the president at Pearl Lagoon for failure to carry out his written instructions in regard to the days and hours of legal registration and released him by a Liberal who did not belong to the Sandoval faction.  Thereafter, both political juntas in Bluefields [?] interfere with electoral personnel in the performance of their official duties. ¶ 6. Final comments.  ¶  To seek an explanation of the successful accomplishments of the U.S. Electoral Mission, in the face of the apprehensions which certainly were in our thoughts in July, 1932, is to me a profitless pursuit.  There is no question the Mission successfully accomplished its task.  The cooperation of the Second Brigade of Marines and the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua was, in a very great measure, contributory to the satisfactory results obtained.  Too much emphasis cannot be laid upon the particularly fine work of the Guardia Nacional in maintaining order throughout the republic during the entire electoral period.  In the Eastern Area, the regular Guardia garrisons were augmented temporarily by a group of selected men who, in most part, were ex-noncommissioned officers of the Guardia with good character discharges.  These men enlisted as privates and rendered excellent service until re- . . . "

18.     25 January 1933.
Report on the 1932 Nicaraguan Elections, Admiral C. H. Woodward, Chairman of the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, p. 18.  
 " . . . -leased two weeks after the election.  ¶  I feel quite safe in saying that the election in the Department of Bluefields was as fair and represented the wishes of the electorate as faithfully as any recent election for president in the rural districts of the United States, without exception, the registrations and the voting were orderly and free from intimidation or coercion.  No election official grossly violated the trust reposed in him.  No votes were protested in any directorio and, so far as I am aware, no voter was deprived of his right to vote for the candidate of his own selection.  About twenty thousand votes were cast in the department of which approximately forty seven hundred were Conservative.  All Liberal candidates on the East Coast were elected except the deputy and deputy-suplente from the district of San Juan del Norte who lost from their opponents by eight votes.  About four hundred votes cast in this, the smallest (in point of voting), district in Nicaragua.  The defeated candidate for deputy was a resident of Granada.  ¶  Much credit has been given the American members of the U.S. electoral Mission and the Guardia Nacional, and the Second Brigade of Marines in Nicaragua for the satisfactory results of their work in their respective fields.  I think this credit is, in a considerable degree, merited.  However, acknowledgement must be made of the fact that the Electoral Mission was successful, not chiefly on account of ourselves and our own plans, but because of the loyal, honest and unwavering support of thousands of native Nicaraguans who served without pay, oftentimes at their own personal inconvenience and sacrifice and who, in this disinterred and patriotic service for their country, led me to wonder if there is not in the Nicaraguan people a better foundation for self-government than we, in our supervisor attitudes, are apt to suspect."

25 January 1933.
Letter from H. D. Scott, Manager, Bragmans Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, to Capt. Ernesto Matamoros, GN, Puerto Cabezas  (Research notes of David C. Brooks, ca. 1990).
   "Enclosure has a report from two spies of the company on banditry up the Wanks river.  Report is entitled, "Jakal Centro Enero 24, 1933."  Spy is said to have arrived at Moss Farm the night before.  Report is directed at Mr. Weimer.  Said he talked to two men who had been captured by the bandits and then escaped and came to Saupuca where he met them and they told him their experiences, "y dieran noticias de los reeranos de más arriba, esto es lo que me relataron:  Las cosas están malas arriba del río, los bandidos están matando mucha gente inocente, un tio de Bolsirpe (Fredricks) quien trajó una carta para los bandidos de la barra del Wanks, pidiéndoles que salieran y fueran amigos, fue torturado y decapitado y le dijeron que no deseaban ser amigos de nadie.  Los bandidos asimismo reciberon una carta del cuartel general del río y creemos que sea de Sandino, pues dijeron y protestaron que ellos no eran amigos de Sandino ni de nadie más.  Los bandidos están estacionados en tres lugares diferentes en el río y el Jefe de ellos es Abraham Rivera.  Su cuartel general está en el campo más allá arriba del río y era esperado en el lugar donde estuvimos el día que nos escapamos.  El desea capturar el bote de la fruta y merodear en las propiedades de la Compañía.  Hay diez españoles, diez rifles, muy pocas municiones y muchos indios con machetes en el campo donde estuvimos prisoneros pero no sabemos cuantos hombres y armas tiene Rivera.  Los bandidos matan a todo el que pueden capturar y si no son detenidos pronto ventrán a la línea."  Another report from Sapuca, 1/22/1933. Bandits are in "Crin Crin ... Rivera está más arriba del río, cuantos hombres tiene el no lo sabemos, pero se le espera abajo en el río diario, mataron uno de mis tios hace pocos días.  Los hombres que se escaparon deseñar a la Guardia Nacional donde campamos los bandidos."

30 May 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 1.  
"Dear Brother Gapp-:  ¶  I just have returned from my visit to Honduras, and before I am going up the Wangkriver, which will be perhaps tonight, I say perhaps, for I am here really in the “manana” country where one only can get “tal vez” out of the people.  ¶  I had here at the Cape a long interview with the Governor of the comarca.  Especially in regard to our going back to the upper Wangkriver.  Whilst Sandino has invited the merchants to come up again and extend their negotiation into that region again, he has also sent words time and again that he does not want us, that means the Moravian Missionaries in that district.  ¶  The Governor told me that General Sandino has no right whatsoever to issue such a decree, as the constitution of Nicaragua stands for religious liberty.  But at the same time, as the attitude of Sandino and his men is such, the Governor advised me not to go beyond the guard of the National Guard, which is at Kisalaya, just above Bilwas Karma.  He has all hopes that he, the Governor, will soon be able to place his own officials in the territory which now is claimed by Sandino.  In fact he told me that Sandino has been ordered already by the President of the Republic, to withdraw all his men from that district to Bocay.  So he said: wait still a few months and all will be right, I will have my officials there and will have the whole district under my control.  He was very nice and sympathized deeply with us, especially over the murdering of Bro. Bregenzer, whom he had considered “un amigo especial”.  ¶  At the Bar here I also met an official of Sandino and I took the chance to interview him.  He was reserved yet polite as all the Spaniards are by nature.  I asked his opinion of my intention to visit Sangsangta and the upper Wangksriver.  He was somewhat reluctant to answer and finally he said, that he had no right to pass any official opinion, but he would advise me at least for the present not to come into the region, but he hopes that after all differences with the government are settled we would not be molested in the future.  ¶  I took the liberty to ask him, what the reason might be, that General Sandino was so much against us, he ought to realize that we have been a great help to the people on the Wangksriver.  He realized this and told me that also Sandino knows this, but as far as he could speak he said there are two main reasons, that he Sandino is against us:  ¶  1. That the American officers and soldier made the mission house, especially in Sangsangia their home, thereby we showed that we sympathized with them.  Also we lent them our boats so that they could move about.  We should have known that Sandino’s feeling was bitter against the Americans, because their interference was unjust.  ¶  2. That Sandino thinks, and he has heard so, that we have extracted money from the Indians, and sent it to the States.  ¶  Of course, this is nonsense and [?] it was published so in a Bluefields paper last year, during my furlough and no doubt such publicity has given Sandino the idea, he believes it and thinks now he is doing the right thing to oppose us. . . . "

30 May 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Cabo Gracias a Dios, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA, p. 2.  
" . . . Finally after I had given him my viewpoint and also contradicted the false idea of the money sending to the States, that is just the contrary, that we bring so many thousand dollars into Nicaragua he changed his attitude.  I asked him the whether he thought General Sandino would accept an explanation from me by letter, I would be willing to write him a letter, he said it would do no harm to do so.  ¶  I am now still fighting within myself what to do.  When I read the daily texts of the day, I am almost ashamed of myself to say I cannot go?  There are the merchants, they are going there, carry their goods, yea even their whisky etc up among the people, and we, the servants of the Almighty, we shrink back and listen to human threats.  It is very very difficult to decide.  ¶  I have met here a number of our people from up the river, they were very glad, and strange to say they too all agreed that the time had not come as yet for us going up there and reorganize our work again.  So taking this all into consideration I may wait until the upper Wangksriver has been placed again under the jurisdiction of the Governor at the Cape.  ¶  The Danneberger’s and Stortz’s left last Thursday the 25th for the States and are by this time no doubt in their homes.  ¶  At present things look still very dark in the world, I wonder what will happen to the dollar still, as to whether he will still go lower.  May the Lord strengthen our faith in HIM who will not leave nor forsake us.  ¶  With my best greetings  ¶  Very sincerely yours, . . . "

8 June 1933.
Letter from US Vice Consul Eli Taylor, Puerto Cabezas, to US Minister Matthew Hanna, Managua.  (Research notes of David C. Brooks)   
"Relates story from the Fagots about their property loss and their inquiry about what will be done to get it back. Then also says same happened to Moravians. "... I have been informed by the Moravian missionaries that their church property at Waspook has also been taken away from them by Sandinistas, who warned them not to return to territory about Waspook. Bishop Grossman of the Moravian Church is now in Cabo Gracias a Dios and has promised to give me a report of the situation in that district when he returns to Puerto Cabezas." Where is this report? ..."

24 June 1933.
Letter from A. C. Sandino, Wiwilí, to Juan Alberto Fagot, Cabo Gracias a Dios, p. 1.   
"xxx"

24 June 1933.
Letter from A. C. Sandino, Wiwilí, to Juan Alberto Fagot, Cabo Gracias a Dios, p. 1.   
"xxx"

27 June 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Puerto Cabezas, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA.  
"Dear Brother Gapp:-  ¶  Many thanks for your letters of June the 13th. which came just to hand a few minutes ago.  As I have just to get the mail ready I will right away acknowledge the receipt of them.  ¶  I am especially thankful for the rules and regulations for the Board of Trustees for the Proposed Hospital in Nicaragua.  It is most important that such a new work from its very beginning has a clear and definite policy as well as rules and regulation.  This makes it for us on the P.B. more easy for we know where we stand and a proper relation between the Board and the medical missionary is established. Again I beg to thank you and the esteemed Board very much for this proceedings.  ¶  I returned back from my trip on the 15th. of June.  I was very glad to be home again, as the rainy season is just going to set in. It is not very pleasant to be out at such a time.  My various letters you have received no doubt which I wrote from the Cape.  The official report of the second part of my journey I will write with the next mail, as I had so many things to attend also in the congregation, I have not been able to do so, as yet.  ¶  I just received a letter from the official of Sandino with whom I had an interview at the Cape.  He wishes to inform me that Sandino will not return back into the Sangsangta district, that every thing is quiet and that the people are looking forward to see me.  Well this cannot be done until November, but then I will pay a visit into that district. In the mean time I have asked Leopold Omier to pay a visit to the Sangsangta district as he is from up there and then give me a proper report about conditions.  He speaks well Spanish and I have also asked him to find out the sentiment of the Spanish element, and now I am looking forward for his report.  ¶  I am also looking forward for the Haglunds, it is very hard for me to know that the whole Wangkriver is without a Missionary.  It is such an important work and therefore will be very much relieved when the Haglunds have taken charge of their work again.  ¶  Otherwise everything is quiet, only the unemployment question becomes more and more serious here in Nicaragua, as well.  ¶  I hope that the dollar does not go down more, I suffer much, as we lose on every draft which we have to send to Germany for our children.  We have to cut down our expenses to the mere existing point.  But we know the Lord is still alive, therefore we will not be afraid.  ¶  With my best greetings.  I beg to remain very sincerely yours, . . . "

1.     31 July 1933.
Circular No. 138, Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to his "Dear Coworkers," p. 1.    
"Dear Coworkers:-  ¶  Sometimes even an old acetylene gas plant can teach us a lesson for the day:  We installed one for our church, but it did not work properly, something was wrong.  The lights burnt dim.  Now last week we found out that the tank needed a little more pressure.  So we put something heavy on the top of the tank and to our greatest delight the light started to burn brightly.  The thought came to me:  God thought that His children need a little more pressure in order to have their lights shine a little brighter.  He permits therefore that we are pressed by inflation-depression-shortness of money and workers to give us more power to let our lights shine brighter through a stronger faith in HIM, who in the Master of the vineyard, and who not only knows our needs, but who is also able to meet all our needs.  He put a little more pressure on us to have more power to decrease of self, so that he might have in all things the preeminence!  He put a little pressure upon us, that we may hear the Lord also speak to us:  "My grace is sufficient for thee, for my strength is made perfect in weakness."  The also to be able to say with Paul:  "I rather glory in my infirmities that the power of Christ may rest upon me."  "Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities in reproaches, in necessities, in persecution, in distress for Christ’s sake for when I am weak then am I strong."  ¶  Official communication:  ¶  A letter of Bro. S. H. Gapp dated June the 14th. conveys the following news to the Provincial Board:  ¶  1. "The directors are glad to ratify the election of Brother Rufus Bishop as member of the Provincial Board.  ¶  2. Great interest was shown in the plan of beginning a native Indian Ministry.  It meets with our entire approval.  Circumstances seem to be forcing us more into dependence on native help, but the thing is right in principle.  ¶  3. On Dr. Theeler’s suggestion a special Board of Trustees is to be appointed for the proposed Hospital in Nicaragua.  ¶  You will hear more later on your conference, especially after we have received the minutes."  ¶  "We rejoice with you at the fine spirit that was manifested at the conference and feel sure the blessing of our Lord will rest upon your very important discussions and decisions."  ¶  "With kindest greetings from all the Directors and the prayer for the Lord’s blessing in your difficult but glorious work."  ¶  The Bluefields congregation and Rama Congregation have made through their Pastor Bro. K. Hamilton formal application to have a seat in the District Conference, when it is convened.  ¶  I have not heard anything from Pearl Lagoon.  I would like to have the first district Conference before the year 1933 closes.  ¶  The Super. visited from the 14th. of May to the 15th of June: Kaurlirain Honduras and the lower and middle Wangksriver.  Br. A. Kreitlow accompanied me as far as Kruta.  She took charge again of her work there in Wabamlayu.  It was really a joy to see how glad the people were to have her back again in her work.  How willingly they were carrying all her belonging from Kruta to Nahamlaya.  In a couple hours all her belonging were in her house.  By now I hope that her house is finished and she is well settled, and I think by the experiences which she had in building her house, she has become quite a carpenter herself! . . . "

2.     31 July 1933.
Circular No. 138, Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to his "Dear Coworkers," p. 2.  
" . . . The new place has been well selected, and we wish our Sister much blessing – joy and happiness in her new home.  ¶  Reports: of my traveling which are of general interest.  ¶  Happy days I spent in Kaukira.  What a difference between now and my last visit a few years ago.  At that time we were not even permitted to preach the Gospel, and now we have a home here, a church and the first fruits of our dear Brother and Sister’s labour.  I was saluted by the Honduranian National Anthem, well sung by the school children.  The progress in school is remarkable.  The services on Sunday were well attended and the attention was good.  The hymns are announced in Spanish, as well as the Scripture lessons.  A very good and practical way of teaching and learning the people to express themselves in that what they have heard in a meeting, which is held on Friday, in which the believers have to tell Bible stories, which they have heard.  The spot of our station is also well chosen and the buildings conveniently arranged. Bro. and Sr. Heath need our prayers, that the Lord may continue to give them strength and health to continue their Master’s work in Honduras.  ¶  On my way back services were held in Yamanta-Wahamlaya-Raya Bank and at the Port.  I was unable to visit Irlaya and Old Cape.  To save expenses I was depending on the gasoline boat going up the river, although I had made arrangements with Pedro to visit the Old Cape, yet the Captain changed his mind and left Tuesday instead of Wednesday, and so I had to leave with them instead of going over to the Old Cape.  ¶  At the Port I had an interview with one of General Sandino’s Officers.  He advised to wait a while yet before going up into the Sangsanta district.  He did also the Governour at the Cape.  According to his advice we should wait until the Waspuck and Sangsanta district has again been staffed with Government officials, which shall soon be done.  At the same time the water in the river was very low, so the boat could not go even to reach Wira pani.  ¶  Bilwas Karma here Dannery and his wife are one with the people.  They have suffered together well.  The people are still very poor in the line of clothes, some really came in just but rags, others I saw in tunu.  In the food line they are somewhat better now as they have plantain and bananas coming in now.  Also they are able to sell bananas and I think in a month or so they will be able to buy better clothes as well.  The services were well attended.  On Sunday the church was full, there were between 4-500 people.  At the H.C. we had about 300.  There were 59 candidates for Baptism and confirmation.  But only 22 candidates could be added to the congregation.  Four by baptism and 18 by confirmation.  Of the others some of them were away, and did not return in time.  Others had absolutely nothing to put on and in spite of urging they said: we would feel ashamed to appear in the Lord house with these rags; a few had to be postponed & couples were married.  I met here also not a few from the upper Wangksriver.  A few of them partook the H.C.  The people in the Sangsangta district are waiting for us.  It had been reported that some of our people had made common cause with the bandits.  Especially I heard from Pedro of Sangsangta a helper.  I was glad to hear from him, that he did it not heartily, as he said, he was forced into the service of the Bandit.  ¶  Wasla was a disappointment to me.  They have not stood the test very well.  Heathen practice and stealing have weakened not a few.  As also in Kumyea the whole neighbourhood.  I do not think it has been Leopold’s fault.  As I put the question before the helpers about Leopold, they said: he has done well to admonish us and we dare not blame anybody else, except our own self."  The confession gives me hope that after the whole trouble of the banditry and famine is over, they may respect and be newly inspired to walk in His ways.  It was a great test for them indeed. We have to admit that and just at such a trying time they were without a missionary.  At the H.C. I had only 53. . . . "

3.     31 July 1933.
Circular No. 138, Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to his "Dear Coworkers," p. 3.  
" . . . Anris too is very backward, I could not keep H.S.  But we had very nice services at Boom.  The people there appreciated my visit.  ¶  There was plenty of medical work to be done.  I gave to over three hundred children Worm medicine.  A most splendid opportunity train ones self to become a prize fighter!  ¶  Congressional Reports:  Only Bluefields has sent in a report.  ¶  Bluefields:  ¶  Despite the poverty of our people, which tends to keep some away from God’s house, our Sunday services have been remarkable well attended.  The average for the morning service in the three months was 393, in the evening 483.  These figures do not include the special services of "Rally Day."  ¶  "On Maundy Thursday we met at the Lord’s table.  Counting those who had received sick communion the day before, 423 partook.  The largest number in Bluefields for eight years.  ¶  During the season of Lent we were able to hold a number of open air services in various parts of the town.  The Church Band provide a great help on these occasions, beautifying the services and leading many to attend, who would hardly otherwise have come.  Again the Lord gave us large number, including many whom we never reach by services held in the church buildings.  ¶  Further the weekly cottage meetings have been conducted regularly, and have brought comfort and help to may shut in members.  As fruit of the work, such as can be tabulated, we can report that five members were received in Preparatory service, either from other congregations or readmitted from discipline; 18 new members were confirmed on Palm Sunday and 20 others applied for membership since Easter (later news from Bro. Hamilton stated that 31 have made application).  We are specially happy by the large proportion of young people represented in these numbers.  Among those who went to their eternal rest was the oldest member of the congregation, Sr. Sarah Hodgson, aged 104.  No less than 161 descendants survived her."  ¶  Our Sunday School has been especially encouraging.  "The average attendance in three schools for the first quarter of the year was 780.  After Easter we held a contest between the three schools to see which could increase its attendance most.  As a result, during April and May we had an average of 1147 present, each Sunday.  On the 1st Sunday in May we held our ‘Rally Day", when 2105 people attended the three schools.  That is the largest proportion of the total population of Bluefields!  On that morning we conducted a union service of praise for the three schools.  No building could hold the number of people, we met in the open, just south of the Central Church.  The space between the Church and Mr. Smith’s shoe making establishment was packed with people.  It was an inspiring occasion."  ¶  Old Bank won the prize.  Central had the highest number present on the Rally Day itself and thus chose the Rally Day queen."  ¶  It is indeed inspiring for us all to read the report of Bluefields.  And indeed we thank the Lord with our Bluefields congregation and take new courage.  How about Rally days in other congregations?  Let us hear about it!  ¶  For today I have to close, bring me news for the next one!  ¶  With very fraternally greetings, yours in His service:  ¶  /s/ Guido Grossman"

1.     4 October 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to C. Conrad Shrimer, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "Dear Brother Shiner:  ¶  Many thanks for your letter of September 20th.  Sorry the mail came into my hands, just after the Ultra –Mar had left the Port, if one does not look out for those things personally one does not get the mail, but all that takes away precious time.  ¶  Indeed we are living in an extra ordinary difficult times and they cause us extra ordinary worries and sleepless nights.  One plans and replans how the province can be satisfactorily manned and yet one comes to no satisfactory solution.  My last plan which I conveyed to you was sent forth with the sincere hope that a solution had been found to keep the present staff of workers on the present 15000 budget, especially for the sake of the work on the Wangksriver, by the return of Bro. and Sr. Haglund.  But it met with disappointment.  We have to seek for another solution.  ¶  The plan you propose in your last letter is in so far acceptable as it permits us to keep Bro. and Sr. Heath in the field, which is indeed quite an important matter.  ¶  Yet I regret very much that the Haglunds are not able to return under your plan, which you suggested.  This puts the problem of the Wangksriver in a very serious condition.  It is quite impossible to leave the whole Wangksriver district with one ordained man, that means Hannery – but and I emphasize my statement: we dare not leave the Wangksriver any longer exposed, something must be done.  Your suggestion to put Coleman, Jack as school master to Bilwi just tells me, that you do not really understand the whole seriousness of the condition in which we are from a missionary point of view.  Otherwise you could not make such a suggestion to put a man, who can do missionary work, into the school work, which has been closed on account of the financial reasons.  By no means can we spare Jack Coleman for school work. Jack Coleman has to go to the Wangksriver.  ¶  Therefore in view of the fact that we cannot ask Bro. and Sr. Haglund to come back to the field, at least not at present, I ask that Jack Coleman shall be ordained and called to take charge of Sangsanta with the supervision of Musawas?  This is absolutely necessary!  ¶  As we have already the permission of our superior Board to ordain Jack, I wish to ordain him together with Dannery Downs on the 29th. of October, in Yulu.  ¶  The manning of the field will be then as follows:  ¶  No change in Bluefields:  ¶  Pearl Lagoon has to look after the Karawala district.  ¶  What will become of the middle district I do not know as yet, as I have not heard of Br. Newton Wilson as to whether he will be willing to serve the whole district that means: Quamwatla and Haulover district with the sacraments, as he it put on the pension list. In case he refuses to look at least over the Haulover district, that he only will take care of his Quamwatla district, then there will be no other way then that I have to take that district under my care.  In that case Bro. Bishop will have to be asked to take care of the Cape in regard of serving the sacraments. Palmer is out of question, it is my conviction that he not even will be able to look after Yulu district properly.  ¶  Yulu will remain as it is, under the Care of Bro. Palmer. . . . "

2.     4 October 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to C. Conrad Shrimer, Bluefields, p. 2.  
" . . . Bilwi will have an additional work of either looking after the Cape or Haulover.  ¶  Sandy Bay will have Dakura and perhaps the Cape District, if Bro. Wilson refuses to continue to assist.  The Cape District will include only the Old Cape and the Port and Irlaya. Raya Bnk and Halmalaya will be served with the sacraments by Bro. Heath.  ¶  Rinkerd will be at the Cape.  The ordination of Rinkard will also one of these days become necessary.  ¶  Kaurkira will remain under Bro. and Sr. Heath’s care, for the north we cannot do anything at present.  ¶  The Wasla District will be under the care of Bro. Dannery Downs.  He will remain in Bilwas Karza and Leop Miller will be stationed at Wasla.  ¶  Sangasanta district will be under the care of Jack Coleman with the Leopold Omier as assistant.  Perhaps when I have been is Musawas we may be able to ask Leopold to go to Musawas, but this will be arranged when I go to see the district.  ¶  Leopold Omier I have given order when he was here to move to Sangasanta and stay there until I come.  This will be in November if the Lord permits it.  ¶  I beg to emphasize it once more, that the Wangksriver must be properly manned and I cannot see that it can be manned better than suggested, since the Haglunds are unable to return.  This: that the newer work shall not be neglected on behalf of the older work is also in accordance with our superior Board, according to the Letter of Dr. Gapp.  ¶  Please realize that this plea has been carefully thought out and I also can say prayerfully.  I do think that it is the only way how we can under the present extra ordinary circumstances do better, so let us put the plan into effect.  ¶  About Dr. Thaeler I do not wish to say anything at present as we have to discuss the whole matter with him personally after his return from Managua.  To keep him in Bluefields I cannot see the need of it at all.  It would be a thousand pity to have him in Bluefields where they are already more doctors than needed.  They all believe they are "good" Doctors.  He has to enter there into competition with the rest of the doctors and his success means to take the bread away from the others.  This may be alright from a business point of view, but whether from a racial and political point of view be wise and help our mission.  I doubt very very much, as you know the slogan "Nicaragua first" is very much promoted in these days.  ¶  I do not understand your sentence: "we cannot pension a native brother and have the full foreign forces" where is the foreign force that means the "full"? If conditions do not improve very substantially – I cannot see how the Storz’s can come back.  And a worker like Bro. Haglund comes into consideration, we should not go so easy about it.  We have but few of his type.  We work for two indeed if needs be for three.  What he does it well done.  He would have been the back bone of the Wangksriver work.  ¶  The Palmer had accepted the call, we have to accept it on the ground of charity – I think we are all convinced that he cannot do the work.  This will be again another burden to me, having him so close at hand. . . . "

3.     4 October 1933.
Letter from Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to C. Conrad Shrimer, Bluefields, p. 3.  
"… But I do ask you dear Brother Shimer give him thorough instruction about his financial affairs and do not make me responsible for his financial transactions.  ¶  I would suggest the following.  ¶  1. Palmer should not receive a check book.  And please tell him that his checks signed will not be accepted.  ¶  2. Ask him how much he will need for his children in Bluefields and that amount will be taken off from his monthly salary.  The Children will have no credit in Bluefields, like in former years where they just could go and buy what they wanted.  ¶  He has to send to me every end of the month a statement what he has taken in on cong. cash and collection set.  This then will be deducted from his check which I will give him every month.  ¶  4. He shall have no open credit in Bilwi, if he buys at Pattersen in Yulu, Pattersen has to send a monthly statement to me so that this amount too [illegible] please write to [illegible] Commissary and Bilway Trading Company, but Pattersen I wish that you write to him.  ¶  Tell him if he again enters into debts, he will then be put on the pension list.  He has drawn the highest salary of the whole mission staff, and it is time that he looks very carefully into his business affairs.  ¶  With fraternal greeings,  ¶  Guido Grossman"

7 November 1933.
Circular No. 140, Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to his "Dear Coworkers," p. 1.  
"Dear Coworkers:-  ¶  If Jesus would have thought as we are thinking, and if His faith would have been like ours is, He would have said to the poor hungry multitude which confronted him, there in the desert:  I am very sorry indeed, but I have only five loaves of Bread and two fishes here, therefore 4990 of you have to go home, I cannot feed more than ten of you, with that what I have in my hand.  But, yes but, Jesus knew his Father and therefore he was able to say:  Not: go away- no- but to sit down- and they sat down and not one of them, got up again from its place- hungry!!!-  ¶  The last weeks I had many a sleepless night.  Only 15,000 dollars we can have!  Shall we now say to the poor hungry souls in Sangsangta and its district at Musawas and in the Brus district we cannot feed you- we must leave you alone?  If we would say and act like that, surely we would not deserve the name of "Moravian Missionaries".  Also I am sure God would be well displeased with us.  Now we dare not say so- we dare not send them away- if we claim to know that we have a God in heaven, whose servants we are. No- let us venture to do what God bids us to do in Faith in the Almighty.  Then God will manifest His Grace, that we can even do still more in His vineyard, with even still less money!!!-  ¶  Yes days of great perplexities are these days, and yet when I think of Yulu, where Dannery Downs was ordained October 29th, how God manifested His presence to us and when I still remember these splendid, yas powerful addresses given by some of our Evangelists and Helpers, who had come to Yulu, then I thank the Lord and take courage.  A work of God, which has produced such men, who stand steadfast and firm on the main point of our Christian Doctrine:  Jesus Christ the crucified risen and highly exalted Savior, cannot go to pieces, on account of lack of funds!!!!!!-  ¶  According to the decision of our Directing Board in Bethlehem, and the decision has been very painful to our esteemed Board of Directors, they only can allow us, on account of the extreme difficult financial situation of our Home Province 15,000 for the annual budget, 6,000 dollars less than last year. In spite of the reducing our salaries another 10% we could not make both ends meet.  Finally we had to come to the very very sad conclusion to cut our forces still more.  With great sorrow we had to ask our Brother Newton Wilson to go on the pension list and that Bro. and Sr. Haglund should stay in their Home province, in order to keep within the allowance of the budget.  We do hope that this is only temporarily.  Bro. Newton Wilson is still willing to serve his district as hitherto, and we are indeed very thankful to our Brother for this great sacrifice.  Also after a long correspondence with Bro. and Sr. Haglund, they have declared themselves willing- as they feel it is God’s will to return to this field again- to come out on pension salary, until better days are coming again.  We hope they will soon come.  We too thank our Bro. and Sr. Haglund for their willingness to serve still in the field. It is to them not a small sacrifice, which they bring.  Through their willingness we are now able to have the middle coast and the middle Wangksriver district properly served, which is a great relief to me especially.  ¶  Bro. and Sr. Palmer have received and accepted a call to Yulu, and will soon move there.  Karwala will be served for the time being by Bro. Hedley Wilson from Pearl Lagoon and Charley Moses will be stationed at Karawala to serve that district.  ¶  Leopold Omier has been asked to go from Wasla to San Carlos to serve the upper Wangksriver District. Further arrangements will have to be made after I return from my visit to the upper Wangksriver and Musawas.  ¶  Bro. G. R. Heath visited the people at Brus and has organized a congregation there.  I gave Dannery Downs instruction to go after the Week of Prayer to Brus to administer the Holy Sacraments to the people there.  ¶  Bro. and Sr. O Danneberger are in England and Germany.  They hope to be back again in the States by Christmas.  They sent their greetings to us all. Also Bro. and Sr. Stortz send greetings.  Bro. Stortz is busy to advocate for our work and we are glad to hear . . . "

7 November 1933.
Circular No. 140, Bishop Guido Grossman, Bilwi, to his "Dear Coworkers," p. 2.  
". . . that Sr. Stortz is gaining in strength and health.  ¶  Greetings from Br. And Sr. Schubert.  "We beg to thank you for the greetings which you sent us.  You made our hearts glad, because your kind words tell us that we are not forgotten in the work to which our heart belongs.-  We know the time of conference and have remembered you whilst you were on the way to Bilwi, and while you were in session.  Reports tell us that you felt the presence of the Lord.  That you have decided to make a step forward towards the Native Church is enough to gladden our hearts.-  Build on Christ the cornerstone and he will surely bless what his servants are doing.  Your in Christ Jesus. L. and H. Schubert."  ¶  Bro. Newton Wilson reports very interestingly about his trip to Ebenezer and Wasakin.  He writes for instance:  "The attendance at the Public service was most pleasing and a happy occasion; more so because the first fruit from Clarendon were among the number."  There is a "marked spirit of revival in Ebenezer".  Since the movement in Clarendon, negligent ones have been aroused.  Also in Wasakin our Brother could baptize five adults.  He was pleased with the Sunday school which is conducted by a young man: Ephraim Francisco.  The influenza has been raging among the people.  The Haulover district too was visited by our Brother as you know, he serves that district too since Bro. Fisher went to the Yulu district. The report from that district too is encouraging with the exception of Kukalaya, the people are very careless. ¶ Bro. Fisher is still on the go. He paid a visit to the various stations. He has instruction for confirmation everywhere. In Tuberus he could baptize 5 adults and readmit 9 persons. Sept. 24 "was a great day in Kalilakangban, were the Tuberus people are still living at present. Bro. Fisher will still help us out for some times for which we are very thankful.  ¶  Bro. Bishop complains "that the church attendance is not what it ought to be."  It is chiefly due to the plantation work up the river and also due to improper clothing, as every penny goes for food.  Their choir is encouraging, also the school work in Sandy Bay as well as in Baymuna and Dakura.  ¶  October 15 was a great day in Bluefields.  Brother K. Hamilton writes:  "We could confirm 37, baptize one adult and receive another, who had been instructed with the rest, but had been confirmed in the Catholic church a few years ago.  It was a happy service for me, though it was interrupted in a strange and saddening way, by the death of one of our members.  Sr. Eleana Hooker, originally from Grant Cayman.  She has a heart attack while in the congregation, and died on the church steps. It was an occurrence which could not but impress all who were present."  ¶  Bro. G. R. Heath writes from Kaurkira:  "you will be glad to hear that yesterday Oct. 22nd, we had the joy of baptizing four women from here, with the four children of one of them, and also two schoolboys and one school girl, who had made their own application and were therefore admitted as adults.  ¶  In Bilwi we had last Sunday also a great day we could baptize two adults and confirm 5 and one was readmitted.  At the Holy Communion we had 65 present.  I still remember the first H.C. six years ago, when only 8 were present.  We have three Sunday Schools now and last Sunday we have over 200 children present in the three schools.  ¶  I am just ready for the visit to the upper Wangksriver.  I will leave tomorrow if the Lord permits and will be away about five weeks.  It will be an important visit indeed to rearrange and reorganize the work in Sangsangta and Musawas. Please pray for me.  ¶  Soon after Easter the first District Synod will be held D.V. of the Southern District.  More particulars will be given later. Bluefields-Rama Key-Pearl Lagoon-Tasba pouni please prepare yourself for it.  ¶  With fraternal greetings, ¶ Guido Grossman"

1.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (with sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 1.   
[Note that some of these data apply to Nicaragua as a whole]   "SOCIAL CONDITIONS  ¶  200  ¶  TOTAL POPULATION 202-100:  ¶  The best available statistics place the total population of Nicaragua at 638,000 (year 1926).  However, no census has been taken within the last decade and estimates run as high as 900,000 souls.  ¶  DENSITY, POPULATION 202-200:  ¶  About one fourth of the total population lives in the six important towns, in the lake plains.  These are Leon, Managua, Grandaa, Chinandega, Masaya and Rivas.  About one half lives within an area of 4,000 square miles along the Pacific coast and about 32% in the uplands within an area of about 6,000 square miles.  The average density for the entire republic is 13 per square mile.  Nearly all of the negroes live along the Atlantic coast.  ¶  NATIVE POPULATION 202-300:  ¶  The native population is divided about as follows:  ¶  17% white or with a predominating percentage of white blood.  3% pure Indian.  9% Negro.  71% Mixed blood (Ladinos)  ¶  FOREIGN POPULATION: 202-400  ¶  It was estimated in 1928 that there were, exclusive of military forces, 1,100 American citizens residing in Nicaragua.  ¶  There are no estimates of the numbers of other foreigners except that there are about 55,000 negroes employed by the fruit and lumber companies along the Atlantic coast.  They are, for the most part, British subjects.  ¶  VITAL STATISTICS: 202-500  ¶  Vital statistics as yet are very crude in Nicaragua and are of comparatively little value except as more or less a guide to the gross mortality on account of the fact that at least 90% of the people in the rural districts have no medical attention even in their final illnesses and quite more than 50% are without medical attention in their final illnesses in the larger centers.  As a consequence the vital statistics which are collected through the civil registers at the present time are of little medical import and give a very crude idea of the principal causes of death."

2.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 2.   
"DEPARTMENT OF BLUEFIELDS (Con't) / 600 ¶  Communications:  (Con’t.)  ¶  Various companies have constructed narrow gauge railroads to facilitate their work of exportation.  There was one from the Pearl Lagoon to the sugar mill at Huahuashau.  A second railroad ran along the Rio Grande River through the banana plantations of El Gallo along the right bank to first deep water.  Another line was on the left bank.  A third was long the Cucalava River used for hauling timber.  A fourth was from the Eden mine to the Tunky River, 5 miles long, at present out of use.  A road for the extraction of mahogany was built from Lehmans Bodega on the Kukalaya River and ran along its north bank to Siska.  The last and most important is the line of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company.  It extends from its dock at Puerto Cabezas up the valley of the Wawa River to a point beyond Logtown.  This line taps a valuable pine country and runs through banana lands.  ¶  Wireless stations, operated by the Tropical Radio and Telegraph Company, are at Bluefields and Punta Gorda.  The Cuyamel Fruit Company have stations at Rio Grande and El Gallo.  The Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company has a station at Puerto Cabezas.  ¶  In the interior the routes of communications are long and wide apart.  The rivers are navigated with difficulty by canoes.  A trail from Puerto Cabezas gone to San Luis, Pis Pis, Siuna, Huani, Iyas and then branches off the Jinotega and Matagalpa.  ¶  There is a trail from San Pedro to Matiguas, one from La Cruz to Santo Domingo by Curinhuss.  A trail from Camoapa in Chontales has a branch down the Curinhuas and one down the Siquia.  There are also said to be trails from Santo Tomas, Acoyapa and La Manga in Chontales.  A trail runs from Quadelupe to Morrito and san Miguelito in Chontales.  ¶  The new Atlantic Highway has been constructed as far as Muelle de los Bueyes, the terminal.  This latter is to give truck transportation to Managua, from Los Bueyes to Bluefields transportation will be by water.  ¶  Population:  ¶  Inhabitants number 31,000, of which 7,000 are Mosquito Indians.  This department has two municipalities, Bluefields, the capital and El Rama.  There are also two police inspection districts called Rio Grande and Prinzapolka. For a description of towns see Section 601 and 602."

3.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 3.   
"DEPARTMENT OF BLUEFIELDS (Con't) 600  ¶  . . . tower, on the southeastern point of the western cay. This light is only shown when needed by the fruit steamers. ¶  ANCHORAGE. – In addition to the little harbor for fishing vessels between the eastern islets, there is anchorage in about 9 fathoms (16.6 m.) close westward of the western cay.  ¶  ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN BLUEFIELDS  ¶  The economic conditions in Bluefields do not improve, and if the banana market does not show more activity in the future the principal industry of the East Coast may cease to exist – in both Puerto Cabezas and Bluefields.  The United Fruit Company, operating in the Southern half of this area, has been gradually reducing their commissary stocks and have turned over all outlying commissaries to native contractors, who are paying for their store stocks of merchandise from monthly profits, on the long term basis.  With the exception of the local Bluefields retail store, the United Fruit merchandise business is now mainly wholesale.  During 1931 its stock inventory has been decreased from $230,000.00 to about $40,000.00, in value.  The miniature cities, such as EL GALLO and PUUTA GORDA, which a few years ago were thriving population and fruit centers, that required thousands of dollars for the weekly payroll, and even maintained local railways, are now practically deserted.  The dozens of modern-built residences are vacant and carry an official inventory value on the books of the United Fruit Company, of only $100 per house.  The local manager of the United Fruit Company frankly states that extensive holdings of banana lands in other countries is more than sufficient to supply the banana demand in the markets, and that they will cease to operate in Nicaragua if further taxes, imports and duties are levied.  The recent tax on commercial paper, drafts and checks conveying money from Nicaragua to the United States, is seemingly, a grossly exorbitant tax.  If affects foreign industries’ operating in Nicaragua to a grievous degree, and in particularly obnoxious to the local fruit company.  ¶  The Mobile lumber men who have been logging in the region between the PRINZAPOLKA and RIO GRANDE exported some 250,000 feet of pine and hardwoods to the United States for experimental purposes.  Their activities have been suspended for the present.  ¶  The large, retail, dry goods Jorge Dreyfus & Co., store in Bluefields, is closing out its business, and intends to reopen in Managua.  In common with other stores they have been losing money regularly, reducing stock to barest necessities, and have finally decided to accept their losses, and reopen in a more favorable locality."

4.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 4.   
"COMARCA (TERRITORY) OF CABO GRACIAS A DIOS (Con't). 600.  ¶  Commerce (con't):  ¶  pine and bananas. Manufactured articles are imported as is some corn from the United States.  ¶  Communications:  ¶  There are cattle trails from the bank for the Coco River and the Pis Pis mine area to Puerto Cabezas.  Nearly all traffic is by means of boats.  The Coco River is open to power boats to Andres the whole year round, smaller power boats to Sang Sang: above this point the river is open to canoes. Rapids are numerous between Balana and Bocay.  Nearly all the affluents of the Coco are navigable for canoes.  The lagoons and rivers that empty into them are used by small power boats.  ¶  The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company has a radio stations at Cabo Gracias.  ¶  Population:  ¶  This territory has 12,000 inhabitants, of which 10,000 are Mosquito Indians. This population is principally in two zones:  One along the Coco River with 79 settlements, the other about Sandy Bay.  There is no municipal division.  ¶  Banditry:  ¶  The principal bandit efforts have been along the Coco River, and, above all, in the valley of the Wawa River."

5.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 5.   
"Cities & Towns, Con't.  ¶  (600 Section)  ¶  PUERTO CABEZAS  ¶  601  ¶  Coordinates, Marine Corps Map - 555-423.  ¶  Importance 601-100  ¶  This and Bluefields are the leading towns and seaports on the east coast of Nicaragua. Puerto Cabezas is almost entirely by the Standard Fruit Company.  This company employs the greater part of the town’s population in its fruit exporting business.  It is anticipated that the banana farms will stay in production for at least three more years and the Standard Fruit Company at present plans to operate here for at least three more years before abandoning its holdings.  The large lumber mill located in this town and operated by the same company is inoperative due to lack of business.  It is expected that the town will shrink to a small village of no importance when the Standard Fruit Company ceases its activities here.  The town was built by the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company to house their employees.  It is of no military importance nor naval importance and is the most northern settlement in the district of Bluefields.  ¶ Population 601-200:  ¶  Approximately 50 and 1,000 natives.  Germans and Chinese are to be found.  ¶  Hydrography 601-300  ¶  See H. O. Chart No. 130.  A new light flashing “B” in Morse Code can be seen distinctly and easily recognized.  The town itself can be located from long distance by the smoke coming from the numerous stacks or by glare of town lights.  ¶  Anchorage 601-400  ¶  Usual naval anchorage is about 1.000 yards from the head of the dock.  Commercial steamers tie up to the dock.  Wind usually heavier in the afternoon than in the forenoon.  Open roadstand.  Deep draft vessels anchor 2 to 3 miles to seaward of dock.  Smaller vessels drawing less than 20 feet may anchor anywhere near the end of the dock.  ¶  Wharves 601-500:  ¶  One wooden pier 800 yards long on which a double track is held.  This pier is in good condition.  There is a 12” water line and a 7” oil pipe line on the dock.  The pier is also equipped with a crane and four banana loading machines.  There is 22 feet of water alongside the end of this pier."

6.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 7.   
"Cities & Towns, Cont. (600 Section) Puerto Cabezas, Cont., 601 601-2000 ¶  [Public Health 601-2000] . . . ago there were many cases, believed to be due to flies.  Since then all white employees and all first and second class native employees are vaccinated against typhoid.  Small pox: Sporadic cases may occur.  Eighteen months ago 5 cases (latter part of 1929) of small pox were imported from the Wanks (Coco) valley.  Following this, the whole local population was vaccinated, about 6000 vaccinations being performed.  In addition to this, Moravian missionaries vaccinate all the Indian villages in the neighborhood, about 2000 vaccinations being performed by them.  Venereal diseases:  Practically all the prostitutes live in Bilway, most of them are Indians, some are of Spanish descent.  There is no Government supervision or segregation and practically all are infected.  As a result, a large number of the white employees of the company have been infected with gonorrhea, syphilis and chancroid . ¶  Resources 601-2100  ¶  There are no natural resources of any great importance in this locality, although tropical fruits, cotton, maize and rice, are available.  A one month’s supply of food is kept on hand at all times by the Standard Fruit Company.  ¶  Public Works 601-2200  ¶  Gas companies and electric companies are owned and operated by the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company.  The company has extended its railroad across the Wawa River, built a fine steel bridge and expects to open up a considerable amount of new banana land.  ¶  Railroads 601-2500  ¶  There is one railroad in Puerto Cabezas which is owned by the standard Fruit Company.  It uses ten engines, ten gasoline motor cars (rail), and about two hundred banana cars.  This railroad runs about 60 miles into the interior to the plantations and lumbering activities owned by the company.  The track is standard gauge.  ¶  Personalities 601-2400 ¶  U.S. Consul; local Manager of the Standard Fruit Company, and several U.S. Marines on duty with the Guardia Nacional.  There are no persons in the town that are openly antagonistic to the United States.  A. G. Earle, the British Vice Consul, is a British subject and is employed by the Standard Fruit Company.  A previous report stated that Mr. Hinkley is or was Manager of the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, replacing a Mr. McKay.  See reports on Indi-[ans]"

7.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 7.   
"Cities & Towns, Cont. (600 Section)  . . . ¶  MUSAWAS . . . ¶ Located at the headwaters of the Waspuc River; 6 leagues or 10 hours to San Pedro de Pis Pis; 3 days by boat to Waspuc (Bucbuc), 3 days by trail to Wawa Central.  The trails are overgrown with brush and are swampy.  Population about 350 Indians, all Liberals.  The people were friendly toward the marines and Guardia.  There are about 65 houses all of bamboo with thatched roofs except the Moravian missionary’s house which is built of rough lumber.  Water is taken from the Waspuc River.  This is purely an Indian community, Indians exist off the fruits of the land and do not work.  They raise beans and bananas.  There are no stores.  The only prominent citizen is Rev. Karl Bregenzer, the Moravian missionary and citizen of the United States.  He was always very friendly with the marines and has offered his services as intelligence agent of the Guardia."   [NOTE: This was obviously written before 31 March 1931, when the EDSN under Pedro Blandón killed Bregenzer at Musawas.]

8.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 8.   
"Cities & Towns, Cont. (600 Section)  . . .  ¶  SACKLIN . . . ¶  Town is located on the Coco or Wanks River about 50 miles west of Cabo Gracias a Dios; 2 days by motor boat to Puerto Cabezas; overland route from Puerto Cabezas to end of the railroad 70 miles, means of reaching Sacklin from Puerto Cabezas would be to go to the end of the railroad by motor car (rail) thence northward over what is known as the Cuyutigne trail, by mules.  Mules are available at the end of the railroad line – time required, 12 to 14 hours.  Population about 100 Nicaraguans and about 800 scattered Indians.  The people were friendly toward the Guardia and the marines.  There are 30 crude native shacks and one small general store.  Water is taken from the river.  Health conditions are poor.  A majority of the Indians work for the Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., and on the Company’s banana lands.  A few cattle are raised.  ¶  Adolfo Cockburn, store owner, Liberal, half Indian and English, is the prominent citizen.  Cooperates with the Guardia.  ¶ . . . "   [NOTE:  Again, obviously written before Cockburn was implicated for his affiliation with the EDSN and before his death at the hands of the Guardia in October 1931.]

9.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 9.   
"Cities & Towns, Cont. (600 Section)  . . . SANG SANG . . .  ¶  Town is located at the mouth of the Sang Sang Creek on the Coco River.  Aguasbila 5 leagues upstream, 4 hours by power boat; 1-1/2 hours downstream.  Waspuc 9 leagues, 3 hours downstream, 1 day upstream.  Water is taken from the river.  Population 40 Indians, 2 Spaniards, 1 German and 2 English negroes; mostly Liberals.  The people were very friendly toward the marines and Guardia.  There are about 15 houses, 3 of wood construction with metal roofs, the remainder bamboo huts.  There is 1 general store.  The natives raise only enough food for their own needs.  Economical conditions are very poor.  ¶  Prominent citizens: A. E. Webster, owner of Plantations, neutral, friendly; Alberto Martinez, operates a general store, Liberal, friendly."

10.     12 December 1933.
Monograph of Nicaragua.   US Marine Corps Intelligence Division (sections on Atlantic Coast), p. 10.   
"Cities & Towns, Cont. (600 Section) . . . WASPUC . . . ¶  Town is on the Coco River at the mouth of the Waspuc River. Sang Sang 5 leagues; upstream 12 hours, downstream 3 hours.  Sacklin 25 leagues, downstream one (1) day.  Cabo Gracias a Dios 33 leagues; downstream 30 hours, upstream 4 days.  Musawas 6 days by pulling boat up the river.  There are no trails along the river above Sacklin.  Population 80 Indians, 20 Spaniards and about 6 other foreigners, mostly Liberals.  The people are very friendly toward the marines but suspicious of the Guardia.  There are 5 houses in the town but approximately 50 within a radius of 1 mile along the river banks.  All houses are of bamboo with thatched roofs.  There is 1 general merchandise store.  Economical conditions are very poor.  There is very little employment and practically no money in circulation.  Waspuc was a marine garrison for about two years during the occupation and was used as a forwarding station for supplies to the stations further up the Coco River.  ¶  The principal citizens were: Allen Miller, Liberal, manager of a general store, friendly to the marines and Guardia; Edwin Fagot, owner of a power boat which brings supplies to the stores, U.S. citizen, assisted the marines and was friendly to the Guardia."

   
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