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the atlantic coast  •  1928A, p. 3
MARCH 8 - APRIL 15, 1928

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
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   THIS IS THE THIRD PAGE OF DOCUMENTS FOR THE FIRST HALF OF 1928 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing materials dated during the 39 days from March 8 to April 15.

      For the first time, Sandino & Sandinismo are beginning to make themselves felt on the Coast.  "There appears to be an increasing feeling in this section in favor of Sandino and Sacasa as against Moncada," writes Major Utley in his report of March 11.  If Sandino were to "enter this area . . .  many recruits . . . would be available to him."  Or, as Major Sage tells Col. Dunlap in a personal letter of March 14, "I have no doubt but what Sandino has a number of adherents here but they are very chary about expressing themselves."  On March 27, US Consul T. M. Fisher in Puerta Castillo, Honduras, conveys the troubling report that mahogany contractor Philip A. Martinez of Cape Gracias is in cahoots with Sandino, while closer to home in False Bluff across the bay from Bluefields, the initial reports on the captured illegal arms shipment under former Liberal General Connor suggest the degree of mounting Marine concern.  It would be easy to overemphasize these concerns, however, as overall the Marines' continue to consider that the Coast remains "quiet."

      The first credible reports that the Sandinistas are moving into the Pis Pis mining districts come in early April.  A series of Sandinista robberies of property-holders along the Río Coco precede the assaults on the mining properties, which begin on April 12, with the EDSN under General Manuel María Girón Ruano sacking & looting & destroying the US-owned La Luz Mine, before moving on to the Neptune Mine on the 15th to do the same thing (on these events see also the TOP 100, PAGE 9; on Gen. Girón's capture and execution almost a year later, see TOP 100, PAGE 27).  The flurry of telegrams & missives that follows bespeaks the surprise & concern generated by the rebel offensive and offers many important details about local conditions and the counterinsurgency campaign — such as Capt. Matteson's 13 April euphemistic assessment of Lt. Carrol's "subnormal mentality" (Moravian missionaries had accused Carrol of sexually abusing indigenous women; see Charles Hale, Resistance & Contradiction, pp. 54-55).  In the coming months, the aftershocks of this first EDSN offensive into the mining districts are still rippling throughout the northern parts of the region.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

8 March 1928.
"Importante captura de elementos de guerra," La Información, Bluefields [see accompanying note of Mr. Cesar, 20 March 1928].  
"El señor Comandante del destacamento de Marines acantonados en esta ciudad, Capitán Donald J. Kendall, hizo una importantísima captura de elementos de guerra el lunes de esta semana en el punto llamado Falso Bluff.  1 máquina marca “Browning”, 50 rifles y 5 mil tiros fue lo aprehendido.  Este armamento le fue capturado a los liberales Naaman Connor, George Benhan y Pedro J. Alvarado, en el momento en q’ iban a embarcarlas en un dori con máquina de gasolina llamado “Flor de Mayo”, en cual llevaba zarpe para el Cabode Gracias a Dios, y a cuyo bordo estaban los hondureños, General Luis Alonzo López y un doctor Hernández.  Estos señores estuvieron varios días en esta ciudad hospedados en el Hotel Atlántico, siendo muy visitados por los principales liberales de Bluefields.  ¶  A propósito de la captura de estas armas, vamos a dar el detalle siguiente:  ¶  La máquina que acaba de capturar el Capitán Kendall, fue avanzada a las fuerzas del Gobierno en Santo Tomás, por el revolucionario Cherry Jackson.  Hay más, esta misma máquina la tenía como trofeo de guerra, frente a su tienda de campaña en su campamento de Guadalupe, en Río Rama, el Jefe de ese sector, doctor y General Onofre Sandoval.  ¶  Ahora preguntamos nosotros, ¿para dónde iban destinadas esas armas?  ¿para donde Sandino?  Esto sólo los liberales de Bluefields lo saben."

10 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 1.    "(A) General States of Territory occupied.  ¶  Quiet.  Captain Kendall, Commanding Marines here intercepted a shipment of arms and ammunition from False Bluff on March 5, 1928.  Four natives were captured, the leader, a native called General Connor, who participated in the last revolution on the Liberal side, engineered the move.  It is my opinion that he intended to move the arms up the coast to the vicinity of Cape Gracias where they would have been available for disposal to the highest bidder, either Nicaraguan or Honduran.  The Liberal leaders here disclaim any connection with the affair and it would seem logical that at this particular time any such move would be avoided.  Connor led a band of creoles in the last affair and is very popular with that class of people here.  The Tulsa guard and a detachment of the 51st Co., under Major Utley remain at Puerto Cabezas.  Reports received from there show everything quiet.  ¶  (B) Attitude of the civil population toward the Guardia.  ¶  Very cordial.  Many more of the leading citizens of both parties have been met and the sentiment seems to be much in favor of the Guardia on this Coast.  As in all former cases, however, all our moves are regarded with interest and note made of whether this is to be an organization like the former force or whether it will be really under the control of American officers and partisan and non-political.  The attitude of the press here is favorable.  They have all given space to our arrival and our aims and mission. No unfavorable comment has been noted.  ¶  (C) Economic conditions.  ¶  The Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company is still looking for laborers.  The fruit season here is now coming to a close.  There is plenty of work for all who desire it.  The merchants here all report a poor season however, this may be a cry of wolf, as no firms have been reported as going to the wall.  Prices of foodstuffs remain about the same.  The meat here is of very poor quality, the cattle being brought in here from the nearby cays and up the river and are generally poor.  ¶  (D) Police operations.  ¶  Careful study has been made of the local police force, their method of operation, hours of duty, etc. Most of the arrests are for minor offenses, the Marines handling the serious ones involving capture of arms, etc.  ¶  (E) Friction between the Guardia and Civil population.  ¶  None.  The officers are familiarizing themselves with the occupations and names of the leading citizens and with local conditions.  ¶  (F) Military operations.  (GUARDIA)  ¶  None.  ¶  (G) Political situation.  ¶  Quiet.  Considerable doubt here exists as to the passage of the McCoy election law. Interest is expressed as to just what methods will be used by our forces in such an event.  The general sentiment here seems to be for the nomination of Carlos Cuadro Passos for President of the Conservative ticket . . ."

10 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 2.   " . . . (H) Miscellaneous.  ¶  Work is progressing favorably on the barracks and grounds to be used as a recruit depot and training center.  Cots and locker boxes have been completed and are in the barracks.  Galley equipment and stores are being assembled.  Regulations and routine for the Depot have been promulgated.  Wednesday, March 16, should see the barracks completed and recruiting will be started on March 15, 1928.  It is hoped to enlist between ten and twenty men within the first week, should weather conditions permit and the training progress favorably it is planned that a detail for duty as the police force of Bluefields will be ready to take over about April 14, 1928.  As soon as the first details of enlistment and training are inaugurated and running satisfactorily it is my intention to start for the interior, making short tips of three or four days each, this both with a view toward recruiting and reconnaissance of the territory.  ¶  A. B. Sage.  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander."

11 March 1928.

Intelligence Report from 0000 3 March 1928 to 2400 10 March 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED.  ¶  Calm on the surface with no uprisings or operations but there is an undercurrent of unrest among a certain portion of the population.  This feeling is believed to be festered by doubts of there being a fair election this year.  As by far the greater portion of the people in this area are Liberals, and firmly believe that a fair election will result in a Liberal victory, and that victory by force of arms was within their group when the Stimson agreement was made, any failure to hold the election or any report that no election will be held, has an unfavorable reaction at once.  ¶  A plot was discovered to transfer arms and ammunition that had been hidden during the late revolution, either to the vicinity of PUERTO CABEZAS, to HONDURAS, or via one of these localities to Sandino.  The plan was frustrated at least in part by the prompt action of Captain Kendall at BLUEFIELDS, who with a mounted patrol captured some of the conspirators, a machine gun, sixty four rifles, and several thousand rounds of ammunition.  The boat that was to take off the stores did not come close enough to be captured.  She was reported as being off KING KEY the night of the ninth-tenth, and request was made on the Senior Officer Present Afloat to seize her.  At the time the request was made the TULSA en route for this port and it was understood she was south of KING KEY.  This proved incorrect as she was sighted a few minutes after the message was sent.  Owing to the shallow water it was considered impracticable for the GALVESTON to effect the seizure and any unsuccessful attempt was considered undesirable from the standpoint of morale.  ¶  A patrol was sent to BUCBUC via the WANKS river.  It is still out.  A second patrol was sent via WAWA CENTRAL to SACKLIN to establish an outpost there during the time the first patrol was up the river.  A patrol previously sent to the PIS PIS section is still out.  ¶  POLITICAL SITUATION.  ¶  From all reports received from this vicinity there appears to be an increasing feeling in this section in favor of Sandino and Sacasa as against Moncada.  This may have been caused by recent rumors of the intention of Sandino to come into this area, or by propaganda from Sacasa who is reported to be in GUATEMALA CITY plotting a revolution in HONDURAS which it is proposed shall ally itself with Sandino and after sweeping the east coast of HONDURAS, enter this area.  There appears to be no doubt that if such an attempt were made, many recruits and such supplies as could be secured would be available for him.  There are increasingly frequent rumors of the probability of a revolution in HONDURAS in the near future.  ¶  Harold H. Utley."

14 March 1928.

Letter to "My Dear Colonel" from Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.    "Dear Colonel,  ¶  This will supplement my personal letter dated March 3rd.  This letter should leave by mail tomorrow and if carried through without delay should arrive at Managua about March 23rd.  I am informed that a Marine mail courier goes as far as San Carlos on Lake Nicaragua where the mail is turned over to a river boat for further transportation to San Juan del Norte where it is again transferred to a schooner coming up the coast.  If it develops that mail is going astray I believe that it will be a desirable scheme to send a courier form here to the lake to deliver and receive mail. If important papers and documents are to be continually going astray it will be readily seen that great confusion will result in the keeping of records and the correct handling of correspondence.  The matter of sending mail by the way of the Canal is out of the question.  It takes at least three weeks and is handled by too many people.  Of course a weekly plane service would be the most desirable by that may be out of the question.  ¶  We have the barracks at Bluff in fairly good shape.  It will make an excellent recruit depot and training center and will be a location that will make an excellent base for patrols to leave from.  There are no outside distractions and the men will be under close supervision at all times.  I have lined up about fifteen men for enlistment and contemplate fitting them out and swearing them in tomorrow the 15th.  We will probably take only about five or six a day for the present as we must organize as we go along.  The question of the mess is giving us considerable thought.  We will probably run quite a bit in the hole at the start but should pull up after experience in handling the foods used here.  The old reliable rice and beans are not thought so much of here as a diet and of course it will have a bad effect if our mess is not satisfactory at the start.  ¶  Captain Matteson has arrived here and has taken over command.  I am fairly well acquainted and our relations should be the same as under Captain Kendall.  Major Utley and our relations should be the same as under Captain Kendall. Major Utley remains at Bragmans Bluff and will probably make it his C.P., as it seems to be the center of activities.  I plan to make a trip there as soon as we are settled down and the Depot running satisfactorily.  I believe we can get some recruits there and at any rate I shall make a study of condition in that vicinity.  ¶  Conditions continue quiet here, everybody is interested in the passage of the McCoy law and in case of its failure as to what steps will be taken by our forces.  The news of the engagement on the 28ith of Feb., came as quite a shock, I have no doubt but what Sandino has a number of adherents here but they are very chary about expressing themselves.  The Liberal leaders here have very definitely gone on record as having no connection with the movement of arms which Kendall intercepted last week and I believe that it was an individual affair.  Connor, who engineered the deal was probably figuring on selling the lot to the highest bidder.  ¶  Everything is satisfactory with the personnel, the lack of mail and news from Managua being the only fly in the ointment.  I hope to be able to give you some information in my next letter on the type of recruits here and the final chances of reaching the quota fixed.  ¶  Respectfully,  ¶  A.B. Sage."

15 March 1928.

"En nuevo servicio radiográfico," La Noticia, Managua.

18 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.   "(A) General State of Territory Occupied.  ¶  Quiet.  The conservatives here are trying to make political capital out of the seizure of arms at False Bluff on March 5, 1928, attributing the affair to the leaders of the Liberal Party here.  This has been vigorously denied by the Liberals who state that the move was a personal matter by the leader, General Connor, and that he was planning to sell the arms for his own personal gain.  There is no evidence to show that any other people were implicated and it appears that this is the correct solution of the matter.  Captain Kendall of the detail here made a surprise patrol to Rio Grande Bard up the coast on a report that there was to be another shipment of arms but found nothing out of the way.  ¶  (B) Attitude of the Civil Population toward the Guardia.  ¶  Favorable.  No unfavorable comment has been heard or noted in the press.  A report was received by me that there was comment to the effect that we intended to draw a color line in the Guardia.  This could not be traced down but to offset any such rumour I have let it be known that the qualification is citizenship, health and willingness to take the oath and that we have no lines of demarcation in complexion.  ¶  (C) Economic Conditions.  ¶  Favorable.  There is plenty of employment on this coast.  The Fruit and Mahogany Companies are in the field for men.  It has been dry for the past week and according to reports the dry season is now on and will last until about May.  This is the best season for hauling out mahogany and they will be working at full capacity.   The season will be finished as soon as the rains start.  This is different from the fruit season as there is a lull during the dry season.  There is a great difference also between the different classes of labor.  The black element being satisfied to work a week or two, accumulate a few dollars and lay off until it is spent while the natives from the interior work right through the season.  Prices of foodstuffs remain high and the market has very little to offer.  ¶  (D) Police Operations.  (Civil and Marine)  ¶  Ordinary arrests for loitering, drunkenness, etc.  No serious crimes reported during period covered.  ¶  (E) Friction between the Guardia and the Civil Population.  ¶  None.  ¶  (F) Military operations, Guardia.  ¶  None.  ¶  (G) Political Situation.  ¶  Quiet.  Considerable interest is manifested in the passage of the election law.  Speculation is rife as to what move will be made by the American Forces in the event of the failure of the Legislation.  The platform of the Liberal Party as adopted at Leon has been circulated here and received very favorably by the members of the Liberal party here.  The Conservative element, outwardly, is in favor of the passage of the law but in my own opinion I do not believe that they will be unduly sorry if the act fails in passage as they all desire to hold their own party in power here and in case of an impartial, supervised election, the Liberal candidates will undoubtedly be elected."

18 March 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 March 11 to 2400 March 17, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "Map used:  None.  ¶  Location of outpost: WAWA CENTRAL AND SACKLIN.  ¶  Location of Main body: PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  Patrols sent out to:  Patrol via WAWA CENTRAL TO SACKLIN reached outpost.  Its arrival a complete surprise to inhabitants.  Captain EDSON’s patrol reached SACKLIN at 0800 18th.  Delayed by engine trouble.  Perspective arrival known in advance.  Left for BUCBUC about 1030.  All quiet.  12th, Lieut. SHEARER and one man to SASSINE FARM, 30 miles up WAWA RIVER, investigating condition.  Cpl. RICHARDS and patrol from WAWA to TULEDO WAY to investigate new trail and conditions.  Returned 13th.  Outpost from BLUEFIELDS established at GRANDE BAR 14th consisting of eight men.  Lieut. SHEARER and patrol to WAWA BAR 14th to investigate Commandante and conditions, same day to WAWA CENTRAL – regular inspection trip.  Returned the 16th.  Captain TEBBS and patrol from WAWA BOOM to CAPE GRACIAS 16th. by boat, to search for arms and investigate conditions.  Still out.  ¶  Duty performed:  Reconnaissance, preservation of order, and search for arms and ammunition.  ¶  Condition of trails:  Detailed report not received.  ¶  Ammunition on hand:  Rifle: 27,500; M.G.: 2,250; Pistol: 5,000.  ¶  Rations on hand:  23 days  ¶  Health of troops:  Good.  ¶  Orders received:  Brigade Order No. 24.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua"

20 March 1928.
Note accompanying newspaper article, from Alejandro César, Nicaraguan Ambassador to the USA, Washington, to Mr. White, State Dept., Washington (817.00/5829), p. 1.  
"Muy estimado Mr. White  ¶  Juzgando qu esta información puede ser de algún intereés, me permito incluirle un recorte de periódico de Bluefields en que aparece una acusación concreta de que algunos liberales de los mas importante de ese departamento estan participando en el movimiento de Sandino.  Esta acusación no ha sido desmentida, . . . "

20 March 1928.
Note accompanying newspaper article, from Alejandro César, Nicaraguan Ambassador to the USA, Washington, to Mr. White, State Dept., Washington (817.00/5829), p. 2.  
" . . . que yo sepa, por ningún periódico liberal.  ¶  Aprovecho esta oportunidad para reiterar a Ud. las seguridades de mi consideración y aprecio.  ¶  Alejandro César"

23 March 1928.

"Tarífa de mensajes al litoral Atlántico," La Noticia, Managua.   "La Tropical Radiograph Telegraph Company ha resuelto poner en vigor la siguiente tarifa para los radiogramas al litoral atlántico:  ¶  Por palabra por radios a la Comarca del Cabo Gracias C$0.35.  Para El Gallo C$0.45 y para Puerto Cabezas C$0.49.  ¶  Para el gobierno se cobrarán C$0.42.  ¶  Para el servicio doméstico, a cualquiera de los cliados lugares, C$0.15 y para el gobierno C$00.7½."

25 March 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 March 18 to 2400 March 24, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.    "Map used:  None.  ¶  Location of outposts:  WAWA CENTRAL AND SACKLIN.  ¶  Location of main body:  PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  Patrols sent out to:  Captain EDSON’s patrol reached WASPUC on the evening of the 14th.  Captain TEBBS’ patrol still operating around CAPE GRACIAS.  24th mounted patrol to south along coast as far as PRINZAPOLKA to observe conditions, intercept and return armed band of revenue agents coming up the coast.  ¶  Duty performed:  Reconnaissance, preservation of order, and search for arms and ammunition.  ¶  Condition of trails:  Detailed report not received.  ¶  Ammunition on hand: Rifle: 27,500; M.G.; 2,250; Pistol: 5,000. ¶  Rations on hand:  16 days.  ¶  Health of troops:  Good.  ¶  Orders received:  None.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps.  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

25 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 1.   "(A) General State of Territory Occupied.  ¶  Quiet.  The action of the Congress is adjourning without passing the new election law has created considerable comment.  The majority of people here who are engaged in labor are too busy to pay much attention to politics or the political situation and desire to be left alone.  The so called leisure class and the office holders are of course talking politics at all time but outside of this small body of people there is little interest manifested in the coming election.  The feeling seems to be general that it will be supervised in some manner by the American forces and that it will be a fair, non-partisan election and that the Liberals will elect a president.  ¶  (B) Attitude of the Civil Population toward the Guardia.  ¶  Favorable.  The installation of the Guardia as the police force throughout this area is considered by all as a good move toward the stabilization of law and order.  ¶  (C) Economic Conditions.  ¶  Favorable.  The Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company is still seeking laborers.  This is the season that the cutting of logs and hauling to the waterways starts.  The Banana crop is reported as excellent throughout the area and the common laborer here can make from $9.00 up for two days work in loading the weekly banana boat leaving for the States.  Prices of foodstuffs remain high and very little green stuff is available in the market.  ¶  (D) Police Operations (Civil and Marine).  ¶  Ordinary arrests. No serious crimes.  ¶  (E) Friction between the Guardia and Civil Population.  ¶  None.  ¶  (F) Political Situation.  ¶  Quiet.  The various public officials here seem to be carrying out their duties to the satisfaction of the citizens.  ¶  Miscellaneous.  ¶  Recruiting is progressing slowly.  The pay, length of enlistment, etc. seem to scare most of the permanent population off. In all probability most of the recruits obtained here will be floaters passing through here on their way from the camps and plantations.  Diligent efforts have been made by means of personal conversation and written publicity to get recruits but they are coming very slowly.  A separate report is being submitted in connection with a recruiting and reconnaissance trip up the Rio Grande River by the undersigned.  ¶  A. B. Sage.  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional, Area Commander . . ."

25 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 2.   " . . . Miscellaneous.  ¶  Recruiting was opened on Thursday, March 15, 1928.  To date five men have been enlisted.  These men were all from the interior and have been working in the mahogany camps.  I have been informed that there are a number of men working up in the banana fields and mahogany camps that desire to enlist but that until the season is over they will not quit the work.  A number of men on the local police force have expressed a desire to join but want to draw their pay before quitting the police.  The next week will determine whether it will be necessary to send a recruiting party to the interior.  It does not appear at this time that we will be able to recruit any number of men from the permanent population of Bluefields.  The floating population seems to be the best grounds for recruiting and I have an officer that meets all boats at the Bluff and looks for recruits.  The Barracks has been practically complete.  The Jefe Politico has furnished all the lumber and roofing without cost to the Guardia, a mess has been started and the plant should eventually develop into a base for this entire coast.  The recruits are under close supervision at all times and as the drill field and maneuver ground are within a few hundred yards of the Barracks considerable progress should be made in turning out suitable men.  ¶  A. B. Sage.  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander."

1.   27 March 1928.
Telegram from US Consul T. M. Fisher, Puerta Castillo, Honduras, to the Secretary of State, Washington, p. 1.  
"Sir:  ¶  I have the honor to inform the Legation of certain activities in this consular district of one Philip A. Martinez of Cape Gracias, Nicaragua, a dealer and contractor in cedar and mahogany logs, believed to be giving aid to General Sandino in Nicaragua.  ¶  Mr. Martinez until recently was under contract to Captain Byron C. Brown, an American citizen and President and General Manager of the Honduras Timber Corporation, to cut and deliver mahogany logs from a concession granted to Captain Brown on the left bank of the Patuca River.  Captain Brown has informed this office that recently he cancelled the contract, as Martinez did not comply with the terms of the document.  ¶  Captain Brown also informed this office that as a result of his investigation into the operations of Martinez in the Patuca section, he is firmly convinced that Martinez and his family in Nicaragua have been aiding Sandino financially and materially, although no proof exists of such assistance . . . "

2.   27 March 1928.
Telegram from US Consul T. M. Fisher, Puerta Castillo, Honduras, to the Secretary of State, Washington, p. 2.  
" . . . In the presence of Captain Brown and some of his men Martinez has openly expressed sympathy for Sandino, and approval of his action in Nicaragua, and strong disapproval and hatred of American Marines in that country.  ¶  In the course of the investigation made by Captain Brown, and from my own conversations with the Commandante de Armas in Truxillo, it appears that Martinez during the past six months has smuggled from Nicaragua logging equipment, food supplies, clothing and about 40 head of oxen.  ¶  This office has been informed by good authority that for years Martinez has been cutting mahogany in the Mosquito Territory, and shipping same through the port of Cape Gracias without paying duties or taxes to the Government of Honduras.  About five months ago he cut a trail from Nicaragua to the Patuca River, for the purpose of bringing into that section of Honduras, cattle and supplies for logging operations.  ¶  Several persons, including Mr. Hans Bossard, a representative of the Astoria Importing & Manufacturing Company, Inc., of Long Island City, New York (mahogany concern), state that at one time the Government of Honduras sent soldiers into the Mosquito Territory, in an effort to prevent Martinez from operating in that section of the country . . . "

3.   27 March 1928.
Telegram from US Consul T. M. Fisher, Puerta Castillo, Honduras, to the Secretary of State, Washington, p. 3.  
" . . . Martinez, who recently left here for Cape Gracias, by boat to Brewers Lagoon and from that point by foot to Cape Gracias, speaks the Mosquito language and is thoroughly familiar with the Northern section of Nicaragua and the Mosquito Territory.  It is reported that he and his father own a ranch at Saulala on the Segovia River.  ¶   One Jose Donaire, who stated that he was a citizen of Nicaragua, came to this office today for the purpose of collecting from Captain Brown money due to work performed for Martinez.  Donaire appeared to hold a grievance against Martinez, and informed me that to his knowledge the latter had assisted Sandino, but refused to give definite information, stating that Martinez had a bad reputation and he was afraid to give further data.  ¶  Several Americans, who have resided in Honduras for many years and know the country well, have informed this office that in their opinion it was comparatively easy to smuggle supplies into the Mosquito Territory and then into Nicaragua.  The Mosquito Territory is practically without police protection, and so far as known the only official of Honduras located therein is the Commandante de Armas at Caratasca.  ¶  The Commandante de Armes in Truxillo has informed me confidentially that he believes Sandino obtains arms . . . "

4.   27 March 1928.
Telegram from US Consul T. M. Fisher, Puerta Castillo, Honduras, to the Secretary of State, Washington, p. 4.  
" . . . and ammunition from Mexico, shipped in small schooners via Belize.  The Commandante stated that in his opinion the supplies were landed in Nicaragua, although he did state that it would be comparatively easy to land shipments on the coast of the Mosquito Territory and transport them to Sandino in Nicaragua.  ¶  Should Sandino receive supplies through the Mosquito Territory it is certain that he has an agent there to facilitate matters.  ¶  During the past month rumors have been received to the effect that Sandino was expected to enter Honduras in the near future.  ¶  I have the honor to be, Sir,  ¶  Your obedient servant,  ¶  T. Monroe Fisher,  ¶  American Vice Consul."

1.   29 March 1928.

Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas, to "My dear," USA, p. 1.   "My Dear:-  ¶  At about eleven o’clock last night, I and five of my men returned to this place after just three weeks in the interior.  If you will look on some map of Nicaragua, you will find at or near the northern border a fairly large sized river called the Wanks or perhaps the Coco River.  You see the Indian name for the thing is Wanky – which means river – and some Englishman or other named it the Coco and as a result it has at least those two names and probably three or four more.  Anyhow, that was our means of travel and we went up it by boat for a distance of 275 miles.  From the time we left here until we returned, we traveled a total of something like nine hundred and fifty miles.  After we got back there was talk with the major and the two other officers here until around three in the morning.  Then since I was not so very sleepy, I reread the couple of letters I found here, and part of a copy of Time which has survived the courses of my mail and finally reached me until nearly four. At five thirty, such is the result of habit formed on the trip, I awoke and have been up ever since.  It is once again nearly eleven at night, so this will be only a bit of a scrap of paper for the boat leaving for the States tomorrow morning to let you know that I am back once more, and that a more full and better description of the journey will follow.  ¶  You should have seen me before I reported to the barber this afternoon.  There was a full three weeks growth of beard, and it was a regular one at that.  Being the “Old Man” – I overheard some of the men calling me that among themselves the other day – it was of course absolutely necessary that I surpass them all in the raising of the once necessary adjunct of all men – a full beard. We did not take razors on the trip because little of the time did we want to stop long enough after light in the morning to attend to the function of shaving.  The major has a picture which I hope will be good enough to give you some idea of the thing you were unfortunate enough to marry, and as soon as one can be developed and printed, it will be sent on its way rejoicing – at least it should be rejoicing, for it will be on its way to you and the young son . . . "

2.   29 March 1928.

Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas, to "My dear," USA, p. 2.   " . . . Captain John A. Tebbs and the outfit from the USS TULSA came ashore here the tenth of last month.  They were not particularly pleased for the ship was on its way to the States for its annual overhaul period and they had all planned for a glorious time up there.  Over two thirds of the men have been on the ship for over two years, and the last cruise down here for them has been for thirteen months. They will be here until the TULSA comes back bringing the replacements for the men whose tour is up, and from the appearances now, they will probably stay here until after the elections in November.  Their complement is only thirty two, but they are eight men under strength now.  ¶  The election law failed to pass the Nicaraguan congress the middle of this month. President Coolidge has pledged himself to carry out the terms of the Stimpson agreement made last year which means a fair election this coming November, supervised by the U.S. Unless the natives come to some agreement and pass this bill before that time, I fully expect that we will take over the entire government temporarily and hold the thing ourselves. If that is the case, we can expect to be here from now until sometime next year.  ¶  In my last letter I wrote you about hearing from Ralph DeWitt.  I have since heard unofficially that he is to be relieved from his present station as recruiting officer in Cleveland about the first of April; that he will be granted a months leave; and then he will go to the ROCHESTER, relieving Captain Frank A. Mart, who is due for relief the last of May or the first of June.  This is quite a surprise to me as I think I told you before.  The Rochester is the flagship of the Special Service Squadron and it is the policy to send senior captains to duty with her, instead of one who has just made his number.  The guard has over a hundred men; in fact it is the largest Marine guard afloat.  There is a second lieutenant in the detachment as well.  He has just been sent down from the States a Lieutenant Snead, whom I have met in Philadelphia.  In fact I think that he went through the school a year ago, when we first went to Phila.  He is a good man and will be all right for me.  The great fault I will have with the detail is that it will involve more expenditure than the present duty.  Being on the flagship means more and better uniforms; some cits clothing, probably, and stepping out with the Admiral whenever he happens to want my company.  However I consider it something of a complement to be picked for the place . . . "

3.   29 March 1928.

Letter from Capt. M. A. Edson, Puerto Cabezas, to "My dear," USA, p. 3.   " . . . The ROCHESTER is now on the west coast.  She usually goes there if she leaves the Zone at all because it is much better cruising on that coast, nearly always calm and very few storms.  Her marines are now ashore at Corinto, but I think she will have them aboard again as soon as they begin to take any of the ships detachments off this shore duty.  If the situation warrants, and there is any probability that she will be in the Zone much of the time, of course you and the youngster will be coming down this summer of next fall.  So better begin saving the shekels for new dresses and all the rest – although I know that you have been doing that right along.  But more of that when the thing is definitely settled, for this may all fall flat between now and June.  ¶  There is also a rumor here, which Tebbs gave me, that I was to be relieved and sent to duty with aviation here in Nicaragua. I think that if I requested it, or if I had gone up the west coast with the Denver, I would probably have been able to get back as an observer with them.  But I will not do anything about that for the time being. I think it more advisable to finish the sea duty and get that off my chest right now than to go back to aviation.  I wonder if you saw in the papers of the death of Captain William C. Bird.  He was killed not long ago here in Nicaragua when he flew into a buzzard and broke the propeller of his machine.  He and his observer crashed and I think that both were killed.  I know that Bird was.  I have also been informed that Lutz was to be taken out of aviation sometime this year.  If that happens, that will remove the two whom I cared least to serve within that branch.  Any of the others are all right, and I do not think they would pull anything for the sole reason of getting someone in bad.  I would not care to serve under Lutz again anywhere or any time.  ¶  The only letter which I found waiting from you when I came back was one written the 14th of February.  Previous to that, a month ago in fact, I received one dated about the 18th of February.  So you see the mail is more or less mixed up right now.  There was, too, the excellent picture of Austin.  You can well imagine that I am mighty well pleased with that.  The only thing now is that I would like you to have your own dear self photographed so that the two of you can go into a common portable frame.  Will you not have yourself taken and send me it “pronto”?  Call it a birthday gift or an anniversary gift from me to myself for I would like it more than anything else.  ¶  Lots of love to both you and Austin,  ¶  Merritt  ¶  By “common” above, I mean of course “the same”. It does not read as clearly as it might.  You would interpret it in its right sense anyhow."     

[NOTE:  The Official List of Marine Corps Casualties reads as follows:  Capt. William C. Byrd died in a plane crash in Estelí on March 8, 1929.  Since Edson's letter is dated 29 March 1928, the Official List must be off by one year.  Byrd's "Accidental Death" has therefore been corrected to 28.03.08]

30 March 1928.

Non arrival of clothing, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   "1. The clothing recently requested by me has not been received although a copy of the invoice to the QM 51st Co. has reached me.  It is understood that there is some difficulty being experienced with all packages mailed here due to a misconception regarding packages intended for individuals of this command.  ¶  2. Will you please investigate the delay in the receipt of this package and if possible, straighten out the tangle that seems to exist either at the New Orleans Post Office or at the offices of the steamship company?  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY"

30 March 1928.

Request for purchase of supplies, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.   " . . . 1. I am badly in need of two (2) pairs leather full soles for boots and one (1) pair rubber full soles for Spalding tennis shoes.  Local material is of poor qu ality. Can you arrange to send this material by mail to me and let me pay you by check in return mail?  If not please advise me of the amount and I will send check in advance.  ¶  2. I am informed that some difficulty exists in sending packages through the mail to this station, due either to the post office at New Orleans or to the steamship company.  Since all articles intended for the use of Marines in Nicaragua are admitted duty free here there should be no difficulty on that score, if the matter were explained to them.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

31 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 1.   "(A) General State of Territory Occupied.  ¶  Very Quiet.  The Presidential Decree relative to the adoption of the supervision of elections by General McCoy was received here by the Liberal party with rejoicing.  The Conservatives are more or less divided in their opinions.  The great mass of the people do not appear to be greatly interested in the political aspects of the situation, the majority being Liberal in sympathies and feeling that if the election is held under the supervision of the American forces that the Liberals will be installed in government positions and they are accordingly biding their time.  ¶  (B) Attitude of the Civil Population toward the Guardia.  ¶  Favorable. The installation of the Guardia as the police force throughout this coast will be favorably received by all classes of people except the present office holders and their friends.  ¶  (C) Economic Conditions.  ¶  Favorable.  The lumber and fruit companies offer plenty of employment of all who seek it.  This should be the dry season and the lumber companies may suffer considerable loss unless the rain ceases.  This is the time of the year for hauling logs to the river banks but the trails and roads are still difficult.  Cutting is going on however throughout the area.  The fruit continues plentiful.  Bluefields is a poor market for foodstuffs, very little being raised here and very little brought here.  ¶  (D) Police Operations (Civil and Guardia)  ¶  Ordinary class of arrests for minor offenses.  No Guardia yet operating as police.  ¶  (E) Friction between the civil population and the Guardia.  ¶  None.  ¶  (F) Military operations, Guardia.  ¶  Reconnaissance and recruiting patrol to Rama and vicinity by Lieutenant Peterson and Cadet Bowersox.  Separate report being forwarded.  Eight recruits obtained in Rama.  ¶  (G) Political Situation.  ¶  Quiet.  A number of Conservative office holders have been shifted but this has not created any particular comment.  ¶  Miscellaneous.  ¶  Nine applicants are awaiting enlistment at the close of this report.  This will bring the total enlisted from March 15th up to seventeen.  It is hoped to increase the number considerably after the religious holidays.  ¶  A.B. Sage  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander . . . "

31 March 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields, p. 2.   " . . . Miscellaneous.  ¶  Recruiting was opened on Thursday, March 15, 1928.  To date five men have been enlisted.  These men were all from the interior and have been working in the mahogany camps.  I have been informed that there are a number of men working up in the banana fields and mahogany camps that desire to enlist but that until the season is over they will not quit the work.  A number of men on the local police force have expressed a desire to join but want to draw their pay before quitting the police.  The next week will determine whether it will be necessary to send a recruiting party to the interior.  It does not appear at this time that we will be able to recruit any number of men from the permanent population of Bluefields.  The floating population seems to be the best grounds for recruiting and I have an officer that meets all boats at the Bluff and looks for recruits.  The Barracks have been practically completed.  The Jefe Politico has furnished all the lumber and roofing without cost of the Guardia, a mess has been started and the plan should eventually develop into a base for this entire coast.  The recruits are under close supervision at all times and as the drill fields and maneuver ground are within a few hundred yards of the barracks considerable progress should be made in turning out suitable men.  ¶  A. B. Sage.  ¶  Major, Guardia Nacional.  ¶  Area Commander."

1 April 1928.

Intelligence Report from 0000 March 25 to 2400 March 21, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "(A) GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED:  ¶  Quiet on surface.  There is considerable movement toward the interior on the part of small bands of ten men or less.  A few of these are reported to have arms.  These bands apparently use two routes – one up the WANKS, the other up the PRINZAPOLKA and through the PIS PIS sector.  ¶  (B) ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD MARINES:  ¶  Generally favorable.  When the patrol went up the WANKS every village was found deserted except for old women and children.  On his return the entire population remained in their villages and appeared friendly and willing to talk.  The Indians are naturally friendly, and now that the beginning has been made towards gaining their confidence, it is believed no opposition need be expected.  The Spaniards are not friendly as a whole, except at CAPE GRACIAS.  All nationalities and both parties seemed to desire frequent patrols on the part of Marines.  ¶  (C) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS:  ¶  WANKS RIVER: - The crops in the lower part are scarce and up as far as ULWAS.  Some of the people are hard put to get enough to live on.  The banana bit industry is increasing and will relieve the economical situation to considerable extent.  The operations of SANDINO and the decree he enforces above BOCAY have curtailed the mahogany and balsa industry, this years output dropping to about 1700 mahogany logs from about 18,000 last year.  The only mahogany cutting of any size now in operation is that of PHILLIP MARTINEZ along the PATUKA RIVER in Southern HONDURAS.  A large percentage of men in the territory are working either for MARTINEZ or for BRAGMAN’S BLUFF LUMBER CO., PUERTO CABEZAS.  Employment is uncertain and the labor of the drifting variety, the men working only so long as it pleases them.  In the remainder of the Sector conditions are normal.  ¶  (D) POLICE OPERATIONS:  ¶  None. There is at present to Commandante in WASPUC, SANG SANG, and BOCAY.  A Liberal named JOAQUIN ALVARADO has been appointed Commandante at WASPUC and a Conservative named OBONO at SANG SANG.  The acting Commandante at BOCAY is a Liberal and PRO-SANDINO . . . "

1 April 1928.

Intelligence Report from 0000 March 25 to 2400 March 21, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   "(E) MILITARY OPERATIONS:  ¶  A group of ten (10) men used the WAWA CENTRAL-ULWAS-WANKS RIVER route in September, 1927 to join SANDINO.  A group of five (5) men joined him via this route in February, March, 1928.  In this band is MARCO AGUERRO, Ex-Commandante (Liberal) at SANG SANG and one man (name unknown) from BILWAY, reported to be a Colonel of SANDINO and possibly an occasional courier or agent uses this trail to reach PUERTO CABEZAS.  There is a considerable flow of traffic up the river but practically none coming down.  When SANDINO passed through this section in March, April, 1927, he treated the inhabitants with every consideration, paying for all supplies and keeping his men under excellent control.  Persistent but uninformed rumors prevail that SANDINO is to come down the WANKS RIVER.  A report later denied, was received that all boats in BOCAY had been commandeered for some movement down the river.  Reports were received from three separate sources that SANDINO had been in HONDURAS during February, 1928, but had returned to Nicaragua after a few days.  His reception there was reported as very cold, which hastened his departure and most of the Commandantes appointed by him are such as to ferment trouble and should be carefully watched.  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

forthcoming

4 April 1928 (0200).

Radiogram from Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, to Gen. Feland, Managua.

6 April 1928.

Radiogram from R. Med. López, Governor, Cape Gracias, to Pres. Díaz, Managua.  

8 April 1928.

Intelligence Report of Incidents, Major A. B. Sage, Bluefields.   "

8 April 1928.

Intelligence Report from 0000 April 1 to 2400 April 7, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas.

1.   8 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 1 to 2400 April 7, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "Map used: MAPA COMMERCIAL REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA, Scale 4 3/8” – 30 mi.  ¶  Location of outpost: WAWA CENTRAL  ¶  Location of main body: PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  Patrols sent out to:  4th: - Captain TEBBS and eighteen men left 2100 for PIS PIS sector via ULTRAMAR to PRINZAPOLKA and up BAMBANA RIVER towards TUNKI to operate against band of bandits reported to be two hundred strong.  ¶  7th:- Captain EDSON, Lieut. COOK and thirty-eight enlisted left 0400 for BUCBUC via CAPE GRACIAS to close WASPUC and WANKS Rivers at their junction and operate up either at discretion.  ¶  Duty performed:  Reconnaissance, preservation of order and search for arms and ammunition.  ¶  Conditions of trails:  Detailed report not received.  ¶  Ammunition on hand:  Rifle: 27,500; M.G.: 2,250; Pistol: 9,000  ¶  Rations on hand: 25 days, except fresh vegetables which are received weekly from the States.  (This does not include 30 days rations issued to Patrol of 58 men.)  ¶  Health of troops: Good.  ¶  Orders received:  None.  ¶  Messages received: 5th: Radio from SECBRIG, MANAGUA: “Two hundred armed bandits headed for PIS PIS.  Had very little ammunition, did not care to fight, were looting as they went.  Bandits said they were going to PIS PIS and PUERTO CABEZAS.  Well mounted and have two machine guns.  SANCHEZ recognized as second in command.  Stopped at LOS CARPOS, forty miles NNE of TUMA yesterday.  Information furnished by reliable native.  ¶  5th: Letter from H. CARLOS, SACKLIN: “I beg to inform you that a day after my arrival at WASPUC MOUTH, the news reached there that a gang of so-called SANDINISTAS on a raid, cleaned up everything at AWASBILA.  They caught MULLER’s wife and made her pay $150 ransom.  He [held] up at A. MARTINEZ at SANG SANG for cash, provisions and clothing to amount of $500.  Left a notice at SANG SANG they were coming back with balance of forces and make . . . "

2.   8 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 1 to 2400 April 7, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . another raid.  The MOARVIAN Missionary at SANG SANG writes to OTTO MAIZENER warning him they are out to get him for having taken the marines down to CAPE with outboard motor.”  ¶  6th: Radio from ALBERTO FAGOT, CAPE GRACIAS:  “Men reported on river robbing public authorities.”  ¶  6th: Radio from SALAZAR, Collector of Customs at CAPE GRACIAS: “SANDINISTA forces sacked SANG SANG and coming enroute to WASPUC according to official advices and reliable sources.  People abandoning their posts.”  ¶  6th: Radio from MULLER, MULLERBANK: “On March 29th a group of twenty-one men came down from upper river and taken $500 from MARTINEZ and $150 from Mrs. MULLER, also cattle and provisions and then went to AWASIBILA and took everything CUBANO had, including three boats.  The chief of these men named RODOLFO ALEMAN, second MARCOS AGUERO.  Had about eight or ten rifles and some shotguns.  They said they were going to stay at the falls to await marines and that they expected more soldiers from up river.  ¶  6th: Radio from Governor, CAPE GRACIAS:  A long dispatch containing no additional information, but showing evidence Governor is extremely worried and earnestly desires many Marines stationed at CAPE GRACIAS for his personal protection.  ¶  7th: Radio from Capt. EDSON-WANKS RIVER PATROL:  “Arrived at anchorage 1130 – disembarked at 1330.  Have secured barge and gasoline motor at $28.00 per day or $18.00 if I furnish gasoline.  Request you send an additional fifty cases gas and fifty gallons oil via ESPERZO which will be in CABEZAS next Tuesday or Wednesday, also any additional information or messages sent via her will be forwarded immediately by FAGOT.  No additional news here – bandits last heard from at AWASBILA or AWAWAS.  Rumors not confirmed that they will soon attack WASPUC.  Stories here among Bamboo Whites and probably natives that we learned to their coming down river and so turned back.  Governor and Customs Official want ten men here.  I refused to leave any.  No military value here unless as a curb to gun running in vicinity.  Am leaving with entire patrol at about 1800.  Will leave BURTON and three men at SACKLIN with three weeks rations.  Request you send fifteen days rations and supplies for entire patrol not later than April 27th.  My number twelve is radio for you to be sent next schedule with CAB from the station in CAPE GRACIAS.  Will send next message from WASPUC via SACKLIN.  ¶  Messages sent:  ¶  6th: Radio to SECBRIG MANAGUA:  “Information received today believed originated from one source considered reliable through four channels that party about, twenty men with rifles were looting on WANKS RIVER-AWASBILA; SANG SANG; WASPUC sector at AWASBILA 29th March.  Returned up river stating they would await enforcements at BOCAY and return EDSON, COOK, and thirty-eight enlisted leave at 0400, 7th for BUCBUC via CAPE GRACIAS to close WASPUC and WANKS rivers at their junction and operate up either at discretion . . . "

3.   8 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 1 to 2400 April 7, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   " . . . 6th: Radio to SECBRIG:  “TEBBS should be two days up BAMBANA RIVER towards TUNKI.”  ¶  6th:  Note to Capt. TEBBS by PRINZAPOLKA and via INGLESING:  “Information form BRIGADE-Patrol of CARATERA AREA reports two hundred armed bandits disinclined to give battle, mounting little ammunition, two machine runs, forty miles NNE TUMA 4th.  Headed for PIS PIS AREA.  TUMA seventy miles SSW TUNKI.  Probably using old JINOTEGA-PIS PIS-ULWAS Trail.”  ¶  7th: Radio to CO BLUEFIELDS:  “SECBRIG advises two hundred bandits moving NNE from vicinity TUMA towards PIS PIS Sector.  TEBBS now moving up PRINZAPOLKA RIVER on TUNKI.  If he intercepts band they may turn towards GRANDE RIVER.”  ¶  7th: Radio to CO EL GALLO & NCO GRANDE BAR:  “SECBRIG PIS PIS Sector.  TEBBS with seventeen men now moving up BAMANA RIVER on TUNKY.  If he intercepts band they may turn towards GRANDE RIVER.”  ¶  HAROLD H. UTLEY, Major,  ¶  U.S. Marine Corps.  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

13 April 1928.

Letter from Capt. C. P. Matteson, El Gallo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "My dear Major:  ¶  Fitz sent my 8613-1910 tonight – to Cabezas.  He stuck around till 9:45 PM for a possible answer.  Major, this is characteristic of Fitz in every dealing I have had with him.  I have found him cooperative in trying to get the other operators to work this place.  ¶  I will leave here at 5:45 tomorrow and arrive at Tungla in the PM.  I have gotten a lot of good information from Julio Lalinda and others who are acquainted there and with two letters of introduction from him, I should be able to get any info they have.  The town of Yauscatara is about 12 miles downstream from Tungla.  The native, Urbina, whom Kendall sent up here will go along, and will proceed to Tebbs with information at hand and that may be got.  My return trip will be governed as to route by info I gather.  It appears thought that Lalinda would have heard of any disturbance there, from some of the many men who have come to Cruz for money and supplies for the camps – mahogany – over there.  ¶  Everything is well organized here and Julio Monteray who has camps above Pal Punta will be on the lookout for any disturbance up the river as will the man in the camps of Juan Pinada [Juan Piñeda].  Conditions are exceptionally quiet here, and everyone seems most desirous of continuing with their work.  ¶  We were on the lookout for the 5 Spaniards who came from Bragman’s but they did not come on the river.  Johnny Williams came up on the barge and told us, as did Johnson by radio that they went on down the shore.  ¶  The holy week passed off quietly.  There were three murders up river, and one here in Gallo, in drunken brawls.  We looked the two pals of the murdered man in the brig, who with another temporary prisoner were delivered tonight about 8015 by someone sawing the lock off the brig.  I would have shipped the three to Bluefields, but their escape just save bother as there was not much of a case against them.  The two, and the one murdered started an argument with a harmless old fellow in camp here, who after they had cut his wrist, took a machete and split the head of the dead one, the others though drunk, disarmed him and slapped him on the head with the machete but being drunk were not as accurate as they should have been.  The commandante up the river where the other killings took place arrested these men, but subsequently turned them loose.  He wanted me to sent up and arrest them.  I told him that he was given rifles and arms to enforce law, that I would help him when he failed, but that he would be expected to discharge his obligations as a lawful representative of the Government.  He has been working better all the time, and it appears that if they are encouraged our work will be minimized and a better taste will remain all around.  Cajina Commandante in Cruz is quite a problem.  I am of the firm belief that he knows the location of the sub Thompson but he won’t jar loose.  I have offered $10 to three people who also believe Cajina knows its location.  One man says positively that he saw it in the office there.  He stood before Cajina and told me so.  ¶  There is rather a serious report of scandal in our circle in Bluefields.  I shall not report what I have heard for you will no doubt hear it as correctly from other sources.  Johnny Williams was my informant and Doty told me it was in the mouth of all the men.  If you write to Kendall, I suggest that this be not mentioned as it involves his family.  There is however, a report, same source, that the men are going bad there.  This is meant only to place you in a receptive mood for other reports.  Perhaps Shearer will communicate it to you.  ¶  Rather enjoyed Shearer while here.  His task was disagreeable at best.  All I have heard about Carrol’s carriage down there so far only tend to indicate that he is a bit subnormal mentally.  This may not be true, but it is a protective excuse for him.  ¶  Relative to the radio situation.  A good example of the difficulties in Bluefields came again this evening – Kendall’s 8613-1345.  Fitz got it on his overtime schedule at 2127.  Of course, this message was routine but it is typical of others if I remember that at one time while I was there we had an encoded message which with the coding and delay in getting to the staff held it up in departure for 26 hours . . . "

13 April 1928.

Letter from Capt. C. P. Matteson, El Gallo, to Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . Fitz told me that Bluefields told him that messages to or from marines went, no charge.  I know for a fact that he has sent rush messages for me direct, as note, though if there is any knowledge of involving him, I would prefer this not to be mentioned.  He also stated that if he had a letter class of receiver similar to the Navy type, he would be able to hear the Bluff but that he can scarcely hear them now.  He did a thorough, snappy piece of work in putting the Bar in commission.  Talir had contended that the Bar set could not be made to function by the best man in the world. ¶  Have had no trouble with my men here and everything is going smoothly.  I have put a MG implacement on the bend in front of the barracks, and an auto rifle and grenade pit on the bank near the hospital.  No one here is excited but everyone is interested.  ¶  Will turn in now.  Very best wishes,  ¶  Obediently and sincerely,  ¶  C.P. Mattson"

14 April 1928.

"Lo que es y lo que ha hecho la United Fruit Company," La Noticia, p. 3, Managua, p. 1.    [NOTE:  This is a fascinating piece of pro-United Fruit propaganda, doubtless penned and paid for as "news".]

14 April 1928.

"Lo que es y lo que ha hecho la United Fruit Company," La Noticia, p. 3, Managua, p. 2.

1.   15 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 8 to 2400 April 14, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.   "Map used:  MAPA COMMERCIAL REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA.  Scale 4 3/8” – 30 mi.  ¶  Location of outpost: WAWA CENTRAL AND SACKLIN.  ¶  Location of main body:  PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  Patrols sent out to: 14th: Pack train, with support of six (6) men, Cpl. PORTER in charge, left WAWA CENTRAL at 1430 for SACKLIN.  ¶  10th: Part of Captain EDSON’s patrol reached SACHLIN [SACKLIN] and established outpost there.  ¶  Duty performed:  Reconnaissance, preservation of order and search for arms and ammunition.  ¶  Condition of trails:  Detailed report not received.  ¶  Ammunition on hand: Rifle: 27,500; M.G.: 2,250; Pistol: 13,000  ¶  Rations on hand:  13 days, except fresh vegetables which are received weekly from the States.  (Not included in above is rations furnished to patrols of 18 men to include 14 May, 1926.)  ¶  Health of troops:  Good  ¶  Orders received:  Brigade Order #24.  ¶  Messages received:  8th: Radio from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  “Bearings in the motor boats taking us up river burned last night twenty-five miles up.  Expect to get underweight this evening.”  ¶  8th: Radio from SECBRIG:  “Received from TUMA that bandits have gone to YAUSCA to await another force.  Had very little ammunition.  The REISA Trail between YAUSCA leading to OUILALI.”  ¶  11th: Radio from NCO RIO GRANDE BAR:  “Received information from one of the mosquito indians who is Conservative that he overheard that SANDINO would be here inside of two weeks.  Conservatives here seem much worried.  Trying to get more information.” . . . "

2.   15 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 8 to 2400 April 14, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.   " . . . 12th:  Message from WANKS RIVER PATROL:  “Motor trouble continued up the river.  Proceeded main body in outboard motor with Cpl. BURTON and four men.  Established outpost at SACHLIN [SACKLIN] at 1630 this date (10th).  I will rejoin main body tonight.  Will probably establish outpost at WASPUC at dark April 12.  Message in code will leave here within 48 hrs.”  ¶  12th:  radio from SECBRIG:  “Unconfirmed reports that a band of one hundred armed men were last seen moving east on RIO GRANDE in small boats.  Reports stated in vicinity of RIO NEGRO on 10 April.”  ¶  12th:  Message from O’CONNOR, HONDURAS:  “Everything quiet so far and there is no indication of any trouble for next two or three months although there is talk of FERRERA expedition likely to come from GUATAMALA side.”  ¶  Messages sent : ¶  9th:  Radio to CO BLUEFIELDS:  “SECBRIG advises bandits from TUMA went to YAUSCA to await reenforcements.  Have arms and machine gun but little ammunition.  Where is YAUSCA?”  ¶  10th:  Message to WANKS RIVER PATROL:  “Rumors of outbreak in HONDURAS increasing in numbers but nothing reported at YAUSCA awaiting reenforcments.  Imperative you block both WASPUC and WANKS at their junction.  Supplies requested will be furnished.  Your two radios and No. 11 received.”  ¶  10th:  Message to PIS PIS PATROL:  Following from KENDALL:  “I have information that JOSE ORROLICO was at TUNKI March 30 and said he expected two hundred men there whom he would take to TUNGLA and arm from rifles hidden there.  SECBRIG states band went to YAUSCA to await reenforcements eighth.”  ¶  12th:  Radio to CO EL GALLO, CO BLUEFIELDS, NCO RIO GRANDE BAR:  “SECBRIG states unconfirmed report band one hundred armed men seen moving east in small boats on RIO GRANDE in vicinity RIO NEGRO 10 April.”  ¶  13th:  Radio to USS DENVER:  “SECBRIG reports one hundred bandits in small boats moving down GRANDE at RIO NEGRO sixth.  PIS PIS band encamped at YAUSCA.”  ¶  13th:  Radio to CO BLUEFIELDS, information SECBRIG:  “Report of three small bands moving down WANKS, GRANDE and towards PIS PIS, with press reports surrounding SANDINO completed, support previous estimate probably bandit intention.  Watch out for band down KURINGWAS or ESCONDIDO next.  Report present strength and disposition your sector.” . . . "

3.   15 April 1928.

Weekly Report of Events from 0000 April 8 to 2400 April 14, 1928, Major H. H. Utley, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.   " . . . HAROLD H. UTLEY,  ¶  Major, U.S. Marine Corps,  ¶  Commander, Eastern Area, Nicaragua."

15 April 1928.

Radiogram, A. H. Head, Neptune Mine (?), to A. E. Ingram, Tunki.  "WE ARE EXPECTING SANDINO IN HERE THIS AFTERNOON, AND A BUNCH OF US ARE COMING OUT.  PLEASE HAVE BOATS UP TO CARRY 8 OR 10 PEOPLE AND IN CASE THERE'S ANY TROUBLE AT TUNKI BEFORE WE ARRIVE TRY TO SEND WORD UP THE RIVER AND HAVE A SIGNAL OF SOME KIND OUT SO WE WONT RUN INTO A TRAP."


15 April 1928.

Radiogram, A. H. Brown, La Luz Mine, to L. Elizondo & Co., Puerto Cabezas.  

 

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