Header image
the atlantic coast  •  1931B, p. 4
oct 26 - nov 15, 1931

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   THIS IS THE FOURTH PAGE of documents for the SECOND HALF of 1931 on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region, housing material dated in the 21 days from October 26 to November 15.

     The Sandinistas are on the offensive again — their third major Atlantic Coast offensive of 1931 — as we see in Lt. Gaitan’s grippingly detailed & at times lyrically poetic 8-page combat report that opens this page (27 Oct); in the following 2-page combat report by Lt. Stephenson (same date); & in Lt. Levonski’s 5-page patrol report on the same events (10 Nov).  As summarized by Col. Leech (7 Nov), the month of October was exceptionally active for both sides, with five military clashes:  at Neptune Mine on Oct 12 & nearby El Salto (Big Falls Power Plant) Oct 13; at Laimus on Oct 24; and at Cuyutigne & at Saulala on Oct 27 — a day that also saw the looting of the Louisiana Farm commissary by disgruntled discharged laborers, probably Western Nicaraguan migrants acting in spontaneous concert with the attacking Sandinista rebels.  The assaults on the Neptune Mine on Oct 12 & 13 were relatively small & short-lived — some 50 rebels quickly beaten back by the better-armed Guardia.  In contrast, the Oct 27 attack on the farms & commissaries at the end of the railway was a big one — between 150 & 200 men by most accounts — and nearly defeated the outnumbered Guardia.

     If the banana plantations & lumbering camps
along the railway inland from Puerto Cabezas seem something of a social tinderbox among Spanish-speaking western Nicaraguans, elsewhere on the Coast & among other social groups political conditions seem far less volatile.  Bluefields remains calm despite the depressed economy & active political campaigning for municipal posts (7 Nov).  Further north the rebels plunder the stores & commissaries they can plunder and fight the Guardia when they must, but the counterinsurgency forces retain the upper hand.  Meantime the US State & Navy departments debate the extent of the US commitment to protecting US lives & properties and whether parking a warship permanently off Puerto Cabezas would be warranted or wise (29 Oct, 1 Nov).  By late October the rebels cease their forward assaults and either lay low or retreat to the remote fastnesses of the Upper Coco & Bocay valleys, as this third EDSN offensive meets the same fate as the year’s previous two, repulsed by an increasingly capable & combat-ready Guardia Nacional.


PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

1.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 1.

2.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 2.

3.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 3.

4.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 4.

5.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 5.

6.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 6.

7.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 7.

8.     27 October 1931.
Information contact with a band of bandits at a place named Collotine [Cuyutigne] on this date.   2nd Lt. Francisco Gaitan, Dept. of Moss Farm, Tigni District, to Dept. Commander O. A. Inman, Puerto Cabezas, p. 8.

27 October 1931.
Report of Contact, 2nd Lt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Kisalaya, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 1.

27 October 1931.
Report of Contact, 2nd Lt. Theodore M. Stephenson, Kisalaya, to Jefe Director GN Managua, p. 2.

27 October 1931.
Copy of letter of appreciation from Smedley D. Butler to be made part of military record, J. T. Myers for the Major General Commandant, Washington D.C., to Major John Marston, Quantico VA.

27 October 1931 (9 a.m.).
Telegram from US Consul Fernald, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Washington D.C.   
"The Company's store at Louisiana Plantation near the railroad was looted this morning two o'clock by a small body five up to fifty bandits; Lieutenant Gaitan patrol met with a group three a.m. and some shots exchanged, Lieutenant Levonski's patrol left here four a.m. and is seeking contact with Gaitain, further information expected every moment.  ¶  This is probably not a large movement."

27 October 1931 (11 a.m.).
Telegram from US Consul Fernald, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Washington D.C.   
"Levonksi just advised by wire from the end of the railroad that only bandit contact was by Gaitan 3 o'clock; patrols continuing search.  Group consisted of about 12 bandits and also about 20 local laborers, loot being carried by 13 stolen mules.  ¶  Kisalaya Guardia notifies that a contact with bandits was just had there near the river.  Fairly large body believed in the Cuculaya Valley.  ¶  Planes due yesterday from Managua expected to arrive this afternoon too late to see the body.  ¶  It is desirable that planes remain for a while.  ¶  Will you kindly suggest to the Admiral that the presence of a ship seems advisable?"

27 October 1931 (4 p.m.).
Telegram from US Consul Fernald, Puerto Cabezas, to Sec. State Washington D.C.   
Planes arrived at one and are still out; looting was of the store and the overseer house.  ¶  The leader was Colonel Chavarria, looting seems to be the only purpose took away shoes clothes canned foods, no persons reported harmed.  Rivers are high and they with the the mules may not elude Guardia and planes.  Looting on railroad by local laborers tonight somewhat feared.  ¶  If the amphibians cannot be stationed permanently then it is urged that pairs alternate weekly.  ¶  According to a report a large group is also concentrating at Caratasca Lagoon on Cuarunt islet in Honduras preparing to raid down the coast line Cape Gracias and here.  ¶  Planes now returned saw nothing unusual."

28 October 1931 (1030 and 1430).
Radiograms received from Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, by Jefe Director GN Managua (2 images).  
1.  "GAITAN WAS REPULSED AT CUYUTIGNE YESTERDAY BY GROUP ESTIMATED AS FIFTY UNDER CHAVARRIA PERIOD RASO FRANCISCO DIAZ REPORTED KILLED  ¶  PERIOD LEVONSKI AND GUARDIA PATROL OF TWO FOUR ENLISTED ATTEMPTING TO GAIN CONTACT ON LAIMUS TRAIL PERIOD DENSE FOG PREVENTS PLANE  ¶  RECONNAISSANCE PERIOD STEPHENSON REPORTS CONTACT WITH ALTAMIRANO AND LARGE GROUP AT SAULALA PERIOD NO GUARDIA CASUALTIES PERIOD  ¶  BANDIT CASUALTIES BOTH CONTACTS UNKNOWN PERIOD LEVONSKI WILL ATTEMPT UNION WITH STEPHENSON PATROL 10328 LEECH."   ¶  2.   "FOLLOWING FROM INMAN QUOTE PICKUP NEPTUNE NO BANDITS SINCE FOURTEENTH RADIO INTACT NO GUARDIA CASUALTIES IN CONTACT UNQUOTE 14328 LEECH"

29 October 1931 (0900).
Radiogram from Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN Managua.  
"LOUISIANA COMMISSARY LOOTED BY BANDITS AT TWO THIRTY THIS MORNING GAITAN IN PURSUIT LEVONSKI AND PATROL NOW AT MOSS 0929 LEECH"  [0900, 29 Oct.]

29 October 1931.
Radiogram from Willard L. Beaulac, US Legation Managua, to Sec. State Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"ONE NINETY ONE OCTOBER TWENTY NINE PERIOD I HAVE SENT THE FOLLOWING TELEGRAM TO COMMANDER SPECIAL SERVICE SQUADRON SUPPLEMENTING MY ORIGINAL RECOMMENDATION MADE YESTERDAY THAT HE SEND A WARSHIP TO PUERTO CABEZAS QUOTE YOUR OCTOBER TWENTY NINE PERIOD REPORTED BANDIT ACTIVITIES NEAR PUERTO CABEZAS WITHIN LAST TWO DAYS HAVE INVOLVED LOOTING OF COMPANY'S COMMISSARY ON THE RAILROAD COMMA REPULSE OF GUARDIA PATROL BY BANDIT GROUP OF FIFTY COMMA AND A CONTACT WITH ALTAMIRANO AND LARGE GROUP ON OR NEAR COCO RIVER NEAR KISALAYA PARAGRAPH THIS SITUATION CONSTITUTES A THREAT TO AMERICAN LIVES AND PROPERTY COMMA PARTICULARLY ALONG THE RALIROAD LEADING FROM PUERTO CABEZAS TO THE INTERIOR PERIOD THE PRESENCE OF A WAR SHIP IN PUERTO CABEZAS WILL REASSURE THE POPULATION THERE AND FREE A NUMBER OF GUARDIA FOR SERVICE ALONG THE RAILROAD AND IN THE INTERIOR PERIOD THE ATROCITIES OF LAST APRIL HAD A DEMORALIZING EFFECT UPON THE PERSONNEL OF THE LARGE AMERICAN FRUIT COMPANY AT PUERTO CABEZAS AND A REPETITION OF THESE ATROCITIES OR A ..."

29 October 1931.
Radiogram from Willard L. Beaulac, US Legation Managua, to Sec. State Washington D.C., p. 2.   
"... PROLONGED THREAT OF THEIR REPETITION MIGHT MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE FRUIT COMPANY TO CONTINUE IN OPERATION PERIOD YOU CAN BE OF GREAT ASSISTANCE TO THE COMPANY AND TO THE GUARDIA BY MAINTAINING A SHIP NEAR PUERTO CABEZAS UNTIL THE BRIGADE IS ABLE TO ASSIST BY PROVIDING AIRPLANES TO COOPERATE CONTINUOUSLY WITH THE GUARDIA THERE END QUOTATION  ¶  BEALAC"

29 October 1931.
Receipt from Col. Abraham Rivera, Campamento de Operaciones Militares, Boca Waspuck, to Sr. Joaquín González, Boca Waspuck.   
"Campamento de Operaciones Militares de la Columna Numero 6 del EDSNN Bajo las Ordenes del Coronel Abraham Rivera Por Instrucciones de Nuestro Jefe Supremo General César Augusto Sandino.  El suscrito Representante del Comando General y Jefe Expedicionario, con las facultades conferidas por la Jefatura Suprema, hago constar que entrego al Señor Joaquín Gonzales, una vaca obera colorada en cambio de otra, la procedencia he dicho semoviente era del ganado de Joaquín Alvarado éste cambio ha sido por uno de mejor condición, que el que se le entrega, el cual fue usado en el sostenimiento del Ejército.  Boca Waspuck, Octubre 29 de 1931,  ¶  Representante y Jefe Expedicionario  ¶   Patria y Libertad /s/  Abraham Rivera"    (Source: NA127/E38/Box 19, original document)

1 November 1931.
Confidential telegram from Willard L. Beaulac, US Legation Managua, to Commander Special Service Squadron, Panama, C.Z.   
"CONFIDENTIAL  ¶  MANAGUA, NOVEMBER 1, 1931  ¶  GOVT STATE COMMANDER SPECIAL SERVICE SQUADRON PANAMA C.Z.  ¶  NOVEMBER FIRST ON AUGUST FIRST THIS LEGATION TRANSMITTED TO YOU ITS RECOMMENDATION (COMMA) IN WHICH GENERAL MATTHEWS CONCURRED (COMMA) THAT THE ASHEVILLE OR SOME OTHER NAVAL VESSEL REMAIN CONTINUOUSLY AT PUERTOCABEZAS OR ELSEWHERE ON THE EAST COAST OF NICARAGUA UNTIL THE SITUATION THEN EXISTING CLEARED UP (PERIOD) THIS RECOMMENDATION WAS ACCEPTED BY YOU WITH THE FULL KNOWLEDGE OF THE STATE AND NAVY DEPARTMETNTS (PERIOD) IN THIS CONNECTION SEE LAST PARAGRAPH OF YOUR REPORT TO OPNAV DATED AUGUST TWENTY EIGHT ENTITLED BANDIT ACTIVITIES IN EASTERN NICARAGUA (PARAGRAPH) THE SITATION ON THE EAST COAST HAS NOT CLEARED UP (PERIOD) IN MY OPINION IT STILL CONSTITUTES A GRAVE MENACE TO THE LIVES OF MANY AMERICANS RESIDENT ALONG THE RAILROAD (PERIOD) I AM NOT REPEAT NOT OF THE OPINION THAT THE PRESENCE OF NAVAL VESSELS IN THE CANAL ZONE IS A SAFEGUARD PERIOD ON THE OTHER HAND I AM DECIDEDLY OF THE OPINION THAT THE MERE PRESENCE OF A WARSHIP AT PUERTOCABEZAS AT THIS TIME WOULD ACT TO SAFEGUARD AMERICAN LIVES AND PROPERTY AND WOULD LIKEWISE BE OF ASSISTANCE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF OUR MISSION IN NICARAGUA PERIOD I RECOMMEND THAT A NAVAL VESSEL BE SENT TO PUERTOCABEZAS WITHOUT DELAY PARAGRAPH NO ARRANGEMENETS HAVE YET BEEN MADE FOR THE CONTEMPLATED PERMANENT AIR PATROL ON THE EAST COAST PERIOD I AM INFORMED THAT THE ADDITIONAL AMPHIBIANS NEEDED HAVE NOT REACHED NICARAGUA BEAULAC"

1 November 1931 (1200 & 2000).
Telegrams from COMSPERON to US Minister Willard L. Beaulac, Managua.   
"CONFIDENTIAL  ¶  0030 FOR AMERICAN MINISTER MANAGUA QUOTE YOUR MESSAGE OF OCTOBER TWENTY-NINE I NOTE YOUR REQUEST MAINTENANCE OF VESSEL AT PUERTO CABEZAS UNTIL ARRIVAL OF MARINE AIR PATROL PERIOD IS ANY INFORMATION AVAILABLE AS TO WHEN THIS MAY BE EXPECTED QUESTION MARK I DESIRE TO COMMENT AS FOLLOWS ON YOUR MESSAGE PERIOD THIS DOES NOT SHOW THAT DANGER TO COAST TOWNS BUT IS A PLAN BY WHICH VESSELS WILL INSURE COAST FROM BANDITS IN ORDER TO RELEASE GUARDIA AND THUS FURNISH AMERICANS IN THE INTERIOR WITH BETTER PROTECTION FROM POSSIBLE ATTACKS PERIOD IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THIS IS NOT IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTENT EXPRESSED SECRETARY OF STATE'S RADIO BROADCAST OF MAY NINE AMPLIFYING HIS DESPATCH OF APRIL SEVENTEEN AND FURTHERMORE IT LIES CONSIDERABLY WITHOUT ANY INSTRUCTIONS WHICH I HAVE FROM THE NAVY DEPARTMENT PERIOD I DESIRE TO BE AS HELPFUL TO AMERICANS AS MY INSTRUCTIONS AND SOUND POLICY PERMITS PERIOD HOWEVER THE CONSTANT PRESENCE OF NAVAL VESSELS AT CENTRAL AMERICAN PORTS IS NOT IN ACCORDANCE WITH PAST PRACTICE AND WOULD BE IMPOSSIBLE TO CONTINUE AS A GENERAL POLICY IN OTHER PORTS OR OTHER COUNTRIES PARAGRAPH YOU ARE AWARE THAT WHILE THE SENDING OF A VESSEL IS SIMPLE THE REMOVAL IS LIKELY TO BE A VERY DIFFICULT AND I THEREFORE HESITATE TO PLACE OURSELVES IN THAT POSITION UNLESS IT IS NECESSARY PERIOD AS YOU KNOW VESSELS ARE NOW WITHIN TWO DAYS STEAMING OF PUERTO CABEZAS PERIOD IS THIS IN YOUR OPINION SUFFICIENT SAFEGUARD PERIOD YOUR FURTHER COMMENT AND RECOMMENDATION IS REQUESTED UNQUOTE 1200  ¶  TO AMERICAN MINISTER  ¶  0001 AFTER A CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF YOUR MESSAGE OF NOVEMBER FIRST I FIND MYSELF NOT IN ENTIRE ACCORD WITH CERTAIN FEATURES OF YOUR ANALYSIS PERIOD REFERENCE MY RADIO OF SEPTEMBER TWELFTH YOU WILL RECALL THAT VESSEL WAS WITHDRAWN BY THE NAVY DEPARTMENT TO ASSIST AT BELIZE RATHER THAN BY MYSELF PERIOD I WAS OF THE OPINION THAT HER WITHDRAWAL AT THAT TIME WAS ADVISABLE HOWEVER YOUR ATTENTION IS INVITED TO MY LETTER OF AUGUST SIXTH WHICH CLEARLY STATES THIS POSITION PARAGRAPH IN MY OPINION THE POLICY OF MAINTAINING A VESSEL AT A PORT IS NOT ADVISABLE PERIOD HOWEVER I AM PROCEEDING TO THE EAST COAST IN THE ROCHESTER FOR A FURTHER SURVEY OF THE SITUATION PERIOD UPON COMPLETION OF THIS SURVEY WILL REPORT SITUATION TO NAVY DEPARTMENT AND IF NECESSARY REQUEST FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS PERIOD WILL KEEP YOU INFORMED OF ANY DEVELOPMENTS 2000 ¶ COMSPERON"

1 November 1931.
Radiogram from Major Leech to Gen. Matthews.   
"COPY OF RADIO RECEIVED FROM BLUEFIELDS  ¶  LOUISIANA COMMISSARY LOOTED BY BANDITS AT TWO THIRTY THIS MORNING GAITAN IN PURSUIT LEVONSKI AND PATROL NOW AT MOSS 0929 LEECH  ¶  COPY OF RADIO FROM BLUEFIELDS  ¶  FOLLOWING FROM INMAN QUOTE MADE PICKUP NEPTUNE NO BANDITS SINCE FOURTEENTH RADIO INTACT NO GUARDIA CASUALTIES IN CONTACT UNQUOTE 14328 LEECH"

1.     5 November 1931.
Report of Defensive Engagements with Bandits at Neptune Mine, Lt. Juan B. Rodriguez GN via Col. L. L. Leech to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.   
"... 1. On October 11, 1931, Lieutenant Juan B. RODRIGUEZ, G.N., arrived at NEPTUNE MINE with his detachment of ten (10) enlisted, and took command of that post.  The arrival of this detachment brought the strength of this post to a total of twenty-five (25) enlisted.  On October 12th, a repair party was dispatched to EL SALTO to repair the power line in that vicinity.  Near the power station, BIG FALLS, (EL SALTO), the repair party and civico guards were ambushed, with the loss of civico Carlos URBINA, killed.  ¶  2. On October 12th, at 11:00 AM, about 300 bandits under jefes CARACAS, RIVERA, CHAVARRIA and JULIO CASTRO, attacked NEPTUNE MINE.  The action took place at a distance of about 500 yards, and lasted about 15 minutes.  The bandits employed one Lewis machine gun and fifty Krag rifles, shotguns and pistols.  The bandits were defeated by Lieutenant RODRIGUEZ and the 25 Guardia and 30 civicos under his command.  Bandit losses in this contact were 3 known dead and 3 estimated wounded.  Guardia casualties none.  ¶  3.  At 6:00 PM, same date, October 12th, the same bandit force again attacked NEPTUNE MINE, commencing the fire fight at a distance of about 1000 yards.  The action lasted about 10 minutes, after which the bandits rapidly retreated under the combined guardia-civico fire and three machine guns.  In both attacks the Guardia employed one Heavy Browning, one Browning Automatic Rifle, and one Lewis Machine Gun.  There were no known casualties of bandits or Guardia in this, second, attack on NEPTUNE MINE. ..."

2.     5 November 1931.
Report of Defensive Engagements with Bandits at Neptune Mine, Lt. Juan B. Rodriguez GN via Col. L. L. Leech to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
"... 1. On October 13, 1931, Second Lieutenant Juan B. RODRIGUEZ, G.N., and the following enlisted men cleared NEPTUNE MINE on combat patrol, for EL SALTO and BILTIGNE: [list of 10 Guardia & 15 Civicos] ...  ¶  2. At about 5:00 PM, a few miles WEST of EL SALTO (BIG FALLS) the patrol encountered a group of about 50 bandits, a detachment from the CARACAS, RIVERA, CHAVARRIA, JULIO CASTRO force, that had been twice defeated on the day previous, in their attacks on NEPTUNE MINE.  The bandits were equipped with one Lewis machine gun and assorted rifles and pistols.  The Guardia patrol was equipped with one Browning Automatic Rifle, and service rifles.  The action took place at 100 yards.  ¶  3. The bandits opened fire on the Guardia patrol from a hill.  Lieutenant RODRIGUEZ immediately deployed his command and charged up the rather steep hill, forced the bandits from their position and pursued them down the hill.  After entirely dispersing the bandits from the scene of action, the Guardia patrol returned to the top of the hill and buried the 3 bandit dead, there.  It is estimated that the total casualties to the bandit group in this contact were 4 killed and 3 wounded.  There were no Guardia or civico casualties.  ¶  4. Lieutenant RODRIGUEZ' patrol returned to NEPTUNE MINE, the same date, October 13, 1931."

3.     5 November 1931.
Report of Defensive Engagements with Bandits at Neptune Mine, Lt. Juan B. Rodriguez GN via Col. L. L. Leech to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.

5 November 1931.
Report of Activities of Special Service Guardia, District Commander Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"GUARDIA NACIONAL ¶ DISTRICT OF RIO GRANDE, EL GALLO NIC. ¶ 5 NOV. 1931 ¶ From: The District Commander ¶ To: The Area Commander, G.N., Eastern Area. ¶ Subject: Activities of special service guardia; report of. ¶ Reference: Letter Area Commander dated Oct. 20; second endorsement, same subject, dated 2 Nov. ¶ 1. In compliance with orders contained in reference, the following report is herewith submitted. Marinao P. Lopez reported to Mr. T. P. Fitzgerald, local manager of the Cukra Development Company, on or about the 3rd. Sept. He was given employment as a stevedore and assigned to work on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Tumarin and Palpunta, small towns about two hours run west of El Gallo. On or about the 27th. Sept, he was assigned to work in the ‘Centro’. (‘Centro’ is local designation for territory south of El Gallo and La Cruz.) Lopez quit the Company about the 6th. Oct. and went to La Cruz where he secured work in a cobblers shop and is still in La Cruz at the present date. ¶ 2. Lopez apparently has learned nothing of any value during his tour of duty in this District. He makes no reports of his activities to Mr. Fitzgerald except when called, and recently failed to appear and give an account of his doings when called. It is believed that there is very little to be learned in regards to uprising or banditry as the general state of this territory is quiet, but if his duties include the apprehending of contraband guaro, then it would appear that he is negligent. ¶ 3. It is recommended that Lopez be left on his present assignment until later recommendation is submitted. Some difficulty may arise if an attempt is made to plant a new man at the present time. ¶ [signed] W. J. Stone [...]"

5 November 1931.
Report of Activities of Special Service Guardia, District Commander Lt. W. J. Stone, El Gallo, District of Rio Grande, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.   
"[...] First Endorsement. ¶ HEADQUARTERS EASTERN AREA GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua 12 November 1931 ¶ From: Area Commander, Eastern Area. ¶ To: The Jefe Director, Headquarters Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, Managua. Subject: Activities of special service guardia, report of, Lieutenant Stone, El Gallo. ¶ 1. Forwarded. ¶ 2. A further report on the effectiveness of special service of Marianao P. LOPEZ, operating in the vicinity of El Gallo, will be forwarded to the jefe Director, as soon as it is received from Lieutenant Stone. ¶ 3. The negative results reported herein seem to compare in like manner with results already reported on, from operatives in the vicinity of Puerto Cabezas. ¶ (signed) L. L. LEECH"

6 November 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General de EDSNN, to Sr. Teniente Ezequiel Zamoran Zeledón, El Guanacaste.  
 "Cuartel General del Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional de Nicaragua, Noviembre 6 de 1931.  ¶  Señor Teniente  ¶  Ezequiel Zamoran Zeledón  ¶   El Guanacaste  ¶   Mi querido hermano:  ¶  Tengo el gusto de manifestarle que hé llegado sin ninguna novedad de regreso á ese Cuartel General, despues de haber hecho la organizacion de grandes expediciones militares que imbadirán oportunamente La Costa Atlantica y otros lugares de nuestro Republica.  ¶  Hoy sale para esos campamentos el hermano Teniente Claudio Blandón llevando correspondencias para los escalones hasta el Limon de Telpaneca.  ¶  Seguramente el Teniente Blandón, regresará en breve á permanecer aqui conmigo, y deseo que Usted continue siendo el Jefe en ese Campamento, mientras dispongo el regreso definitivo del Teniente Claudio Blandón.  ¶  Con la llegada del mencionado hermano a ese Campamento, deverán Ustedes tomar nuevos acuerdos para que todas las cosas marchen bien en ese lugar y espero que Usted sabrá atenderme con todo cariño á la Familia del Teniente Claudio Blandón, á quien como Usted sabe yo estimo por ser un viejo servidor de nuestro Ejercito.  ¶  Cuando regrese el General Diaz, les enviaremos suficiente parque para sus armas.  ¶  El General Salgado, saldrá oportunamente á acampamentarse el el Ojoche para dar proteccion á todos nuestros campesinos en esa region.  ¶  Sinceramente Vuestro hermano,  ¶  Patria y Libertad  /s/  A. C. Sandino"    (Source:  NA127/E38/Box 30, original document)

1.     7 November 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, October 1931.  Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 1.  
  "... 3. Contacts :-  ¶  ... NEPTUNE MINE, Lt. Rodriguez, Oct 12, Bandits 3 killed, 3 wounded.  ¶  EL SALTO, Lt. Rodriguez, Oct. 13, Bandits 4 killed, 3 wounded.  ¶  CUYUTIGNE, Lt. Gaitan, Oct. 27, Bandits 2 estimated killed & 3 wounded. Guardia 1 killed.  ¶  LAIMUS, Lt. Suprenant, Oct. 24, ------  ¶  SAULALA, Lt. Stephenson, Oct. 27, Bandits 4 estimated killed. ...  ¶  D.  POLICE OPERATIONS.  ¶  ... 2. General Police Conditions.  The general police conditions of the Eastern Area are normally quiet, with the one exception of the Bragman Bluff Lumber Company railroad line.  Late reports reveal the fact that under pressure of the drastic cuts in labor personnel of that Company, many of the laborers, both employed and recently discharged men, were unquestionably involved in the looting of LOUISIANA FARM commissary on October 27th.  ¶  E.  INTELLIGENCE.  ¶  1. The general state of the territory occupied is fairly normal, with exeption of the region bordering along the COCO RIVER.  At the close of the period Lieutenant LEVONSKI, with two officers and thirty men, estimated, are making an attempt to overtake and make contact with a large part of the group of bandits operating from the COCO RIVER.  ¶  2.  Military situation.  The estimated strength of the enemy groups is about 150.  This groups, according to best reports have divided in equal groups, one moving up the COCO RIVER beyond WASPOOK and SANG SANG towards BOCAY, and the other half heading into HONDURAS in vicinity of CARATASCA. ... "

2.     7 November 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, October 1931.  Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 2.   
".... It is considered probable that an attack will be made on CABO GRACIAS in the near future, and also that another attempt will be made from BOCAY or the PIS PIS region to raid commissaries along the railroad line extending inland from PUERTO CABEZAS.  ¶  3. Economic conditions:  Shipments of bananas by independent planters continue from the ESCONDIDO RIVER, and a small increase in UNITED FRUIT shipments of this fruit is noted.  Business in general, however, is very slow all over the Area.  A reduction in the weekly labor wage for handling the loading of bananas by the UNITED FRUIT has been made.  Commodity prices in merchandise stores are lower than usual. ...  ¶  4. Friction between Guardia and civil population has not been reported in the entire Area during the period.  The civil and press attitude toward the Guardia Nacional continues to be friendly.  ¶  5. Political situation.  The SPRINGER-HODGSON Liberal ticket was victorious in the local Bluefields alcalde election.  There was no disorder attending the political contest. ..."

3.     7 November 1931.
Record of Events, Eastern Area, October 1931.  Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, to Jefe Director GN, Managua, p. 3.

8 November 1931.
Patrol Report & Statement of Lt. Lewis G. Cipollini concerning location of remains & ascertain the death of Raso Francisco Diaz, #2561 GN, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ¶ GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA ¶ 8 November 1931. ¶ PATROL REPORT AND STATEMENT OF LIEUT. LEWIS G.CIPOLLINI, (MC) G.N. , CONCERNING LOCATION OF REMAINS AND ASCERTAIN THE DEATH OF RASO FRANCISCO DIAZ, #2561, GUARDIA NACIONAL DE NICARAGUA. ¶ On November 7th., 1931, a Guardia patrol consisting of myself, six Guardias and a civilian cleared Puerto Cabezas for the Indian village of Cuyutigne, scene of Lieutenant Francisco Gaitan’s contact with the bandits on 27 October 1931. The mission of the patrol was to locate the remains and ascertain the death of Raso Francisco Diaz, #2561, G.N., who was reported wounded during said contact. ¶ We followed the regular Indian trail in the savannas south of Logtown. Fresh mule tracks were seen all along the trail but nothing of importance was encountered. Upon arriving at Cuyutigne we noted that the village had been deserted. Several large spots of blood and bloody clothing were seen around the village. After three hours of exhaustive search through thick underbrush and along streams, a Miskito woman hiking from Lacus informed us that a human skeleton was laying about a kilometer from Cuyutigne on the Lacus trail. ¶ The skeleton was laying in an open field about one kilometer from the place where he was reported wounded on the Lacus trail about fifteen yards to the right of the trail and about twenty yards from the stream, (map attached). The skeleton consisted of the spinal column, less the first and second cervical vertebrae, nine ribs and the pelvis. The skull was found about ten feet away showing the second vertebrae smoothly cut apparently with a machete. Mandible was missing. Other bones upper and lower extremities were scattered within a fifty yard area. Three gold teeth were extracted, others broken. The occipital bone was machetted out, missing, and two large penetrating cuts on top of skull, one reaching down to the left temple. About ten yards away lay the sun toughened tissue of his abdomen and chest showing a gunshot wound three inches above and one inch to the right of the umbilicus. ¶ The skeleton was interred where found, his trousers and shirt were brought back to Moss outstation and Puerto Cabezas for further identification. ¶ Our mission completed, we investigated as to the kind of ammunition and bandits position during the contact. On top of the knoll, behind two pine trees we found about seventy-five machine gun shells and several caliber 38 special behind stumps and trees along the slopes of the knoll. ¶ Raso Francisco Diaz was wounded during Guardias’ retreat but facing the enemy about a kilometer from where the skeleton was found and it is my firm opinion that the bandits carried him off that distance with intention of further torturing him in order to gain information. ¶ Lieut. Lewis G. Cipolloni, (MC) G.N. [...]"

8 November 1931.
Patrol Report & Statement of Lt. Lewis G. Cipollini concerning location of remains & ascertain the death of Raso Francisco Diaz, #2561 GN, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields (Sketch) p. 2.

9 November 1931.
Letter from Gen. Augusto C. Sandino, Cuartel General del EDSNN, to Srs. Col. Perfecto Chavarria y Capitan Francisco Ellis, Costa Atlántica.    
"Cuartel General, Noviembre 9 de 1931.  ¶   Señores Coronel  ¶  Perfecto Chavarria y  ¶  Capitan Francisco Ellis  ¶  Costa Atlantica  ¶   Mis queridos hermanos:  ¶  Me permito enviarles la presente, para saludarles en union de los hermanos que les rodean.  ¶  Con este mismo correo les escribo á los hermanos Generales, Pedro Antonio Irias, Simon Gonzales y Coronel Abraham Rivera, quienes seguramente, les comunicarán á Ustedes de las otras noticias que se les informa á ellos.  ¶  Tásitamente, tenemos controlado los Departamentos de Leon, Chinandega, Estelí, Ocotal, Jinotega, Matagalpa, y Chontales, y suponemos que con la presencia de Ustedes en ese Litoral, tambien habrá algun control de nuestra parte.  ¶  El General Altamirano, tambien vá bajando por picada sobre la Costa Atlántica, con un Ejercito mayor de 200 hombres.  Esto último, supongo que yá se los habrán informado los hermanos General Irias y Coronel Rivera.  ¶  Ruegole dar en mi nombre un abrazo fraternal á todos los hermanos que les rodean en ese lugar, asi como á los vecinos por donde Ustedes transitan.  ¶  Patria y Libertad  /s/  A. C. Sandino"   (Source:  NA127/E38/Box 30, original document captured by Lt. Grey, Biltigne River, 3 Feb. 1932)

10 November 1931.
Letter from Elizabeth Bregenzer, Winston-Salem NC, to Dr. S. H. Gapp, Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA.  
"Dear Br. Gapp: From Br. Danneberger you were to have received an account of Br. Bregenzer’s death, given him by an eye witness. When I read that account I could not but write a comment on it and a copy of this I am enclosing you herewith, thinking it would be of interest to you. With kind greetings, I am, ¶ Sincerely yours, ¶ [signed] Elizabeth Bregenzer ¶ As regards the statement made by a Sumu Indian, eye witness of what took place in Musawas on March 31, 1931, I would like to make the following comment: In the list of names supplied me showing which Indians had moved over to Tuburus, there were only two who could have been eye witnesses. As far as I know none of the others were in the village at that time. Those two were Samuel and Tomas. Samuel was a prisoner for the first part of the bandits’ stay although he might easily have been released by that time. It was he who revealed to them where our things were hidden in the bush when they, after two days’ search, were unable to find them. He had helped to build that hidden shelter? The church books were hidden here also and did not get burned. There was no trace of them to be found. ¶ The other man Tomas, was the one who wanted to show the bandits where we were hidden. Neither man was a Christian and while their statement may be true in part there are some discrepancies. I have my information from Christian Indians who were also eye witnesses, although because of the distressing facts I was not able to get many details fixed in my mind, but the main points are clear. Abraham Rivera arrived the same day and he certainly did not come to deal gently with us—he was out to rid the people of that tyrant such as he had heard Br. Bregenzer to be. ¶ The question about whether the disagreement of some of the Indians with their missionary contributed toward his death was not answered because whether the man giving the statement was Samuel or Tomas he was among those who were in disagreement. If it is true that Br. Bregenzer was killed because of his giving information to the mine manager then it is almost certain that the unfriendly Indians were the informants for they all knew what we were doing. At the mine however the manager kept quiet about where his information came from. Moreover we know positively that some of the unfriendly Indians had intercourse with the bandits. It is in our Lord’s hand!"

12 November 1931.
Letter from Sr. J. S. Dixon, Secretario de la Liga de Criollos e Indios de Bilway, Puerto Cabezas, to "A Quien Pueda Interesar." 
 "La siguiente carta ha sido recibida en la Guardia Nacional procedente del Señor J. S.Dixon, Secretario de la Liga de Criollos é Indios de Bilway, Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua: ¶ PUERTO CABEZAS, NICARAGUA, ¶ ¶ 12 de Noviembre de 1931. ¶ A QUIEN PUEDA INTERESAR. ¶ El 18 de octubre de 1931 apareció un artículo en el periódico “El Independiente” de Managua, Nicaragua, con el siguiente título: “ Cómo fue la muerte del Honorable Diputado Sr. Adolfo Cockburn” . Este artículo fue publicado con la firma de J. L. Dixon, Secretario de la Liga de Criollos é Indios de Bilway, Puerto Cabezas. Yo, el que firma esta carta , soy el único Dixon que está en conexión con la Liga antes mencionada, pues soy el Secretario, y mis iniciales son: J. S. Dixon. La persona que llevaba el nombre de J. L. Dixon era mi hermano que murió en Bluefields, Nicaragua, hace tres meses. ¶ El artículo a que me refiero no fue publicado de mi consentimiento, ni dictado por mí ni con mi firma. La primera noticia que tuve acerca del contenido de ese artículo fue cuando el periódico citado me fue mostrado. El origen de este artículo es un misterio para mí, pero deseo manifestar que en mi opinión las observaciones viciosas que contiene son demasiado exageradas y falsas. Hasta donde yo sé todos los asuntos que la Liga ó sus miembros han tenido que tratar con los Oficiales de la Guardia Nacional han sido tratados y resueltos en una justa y correcta manera por los Oficiales de esa Institución. ¶ En relación con la falta de protección para la señorita Victoria Cockburn, hija del difunto don Adolfo Cockburn, tengo el gusto de decir que he sido informado personalmente y por carta de la señorita Cockburn de que la Guardia Nacional le ha dado toda protección, no solamente a ella en lo personal, sino también a las propiedades que dejó su padre, y que esa protección se le ofrece de una manera eficiente y con toda cortesía. ¶ (f ) J. S. DIXON, Secretario ¶ de la Liga de Criollos e Indios de Bilway, ¶ Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. ¶ Rindió juramento ante mí ¶ hoy 12 de Noviembre de 1931 en Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, ¶ /a/ Tomás J. Tejada, ¶ Juez Local y de Policía. ¶ (Aquí un Sello)"

1.  15 November 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 1.

2.  15 November 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 2.

3.  15 November 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 3.

4.  15 November 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 4.

5.  15 November 1931.
Patrol Report, 1st Lt. Charles J. Levonski, Puerto Cabezas, to Col. L. L. Leech, Bluefields, p. 5.

   
PREVIOUS      NEXT
   

A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8